Search Results

Source: Journal of Marriage and Family
Resulting in 153 citations.
1. Addo, Fenaba
Sassler, Sharon
Williams, Kristi
Reexamining the Association of Maternal Age and Marital Status at First Birth With Youth Educational Attainment
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1252-1268.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12360/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; High School Completion/Graduates; Mothers, Adolescent; Parental Marital Status

We reexamined the association of maternal age and marital status at birth with youth high school completion using data from the Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and giving attention to multiple age categories and race and ethnic variations. Youth born to older teen mothers were no more likely to graduate from high school than those born to the youngest teen mothers. Although delaying childbirth to young adulthood was associated with greater odds of children's high school completion when compared with the earliest teen births, those born to young adult mothers were disadvantaged when compared with those born to mothers aged 25 years or older. Being born to an unmarried mother was associated with lower odds of high school completion. We found no evidence that maternal age at birth more strongly predicted high school graduation for White compared with Latino and Black youth.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Sharon Sassler and Kristi Williams. "Reexamining the Association of Maternal Age and Marital Status at First Birth With Youth Educational Attainment." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1252-1268.
2. Arocho, Rachel
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Anticipating the "Ball and Chain"? Reciprocal Associations Between Marital Expectations and Delinquency
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1371-1381.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12328/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Expectations/Intentions; Marriage; Modeling, Structural Equation

Marriage has been identified as a mechanism that may explain decreased delinquency among young adults, but whereas marriage is increasingly delayed, crime continues to decrease across the transition to adulthood. Most adolescents and young adults expect to marry one day, and these expectations may suppress delinquency. Conversely, increased delinquency may also predict decreased marital expectations. Longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (N = 7,057), a sample of youth who were aged 12 to 17 years in 1997, were used to examine the reciprocal association between an expressed expectation to marry soon and participation in delinquent behavior. Results from an autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation model suggested that greater expectations to marry were significantly associated with less delinquent activity 1 year later. Greater delinquent activity was not significantly associated with subsequent marital expectations. Youth with the greatest expectations to marry may temper their behavior even before vows are taken.
Bibliography Citation
Arocho, Rachel and Claire M. Kamp Dush. "Anticipating the "Ball and Chain"? Reciprocal Associations Between Marital Expectations and Delinquency." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1371-1381.
3. Artis, Julie E.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Explaining The Decline In Women's Household Labor: Individual Change and Cohort Differences
Journal of Marriage and Family 65,3 (August 2003): 746-762.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00746.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings, Wives; Housework/Housewives; Life Course; Marital Status; Women

Women's hours of housework have declined, but does this change represent shifts in the behavior of individuals or differences across cohorts? Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, individual and cohort change in housework are examined over a 13-year period. Responsibility for household tasks declined 10% from 1974-75 to 1987-88. For individual women, changes in housework are associated with life course shifts in time availability as well as with changes in gender attitudes and marital status, but are not related to changes in relative earnings. Cohort differences exist in responsibility for housework in the mid-1970s and they persist over the 13-year period. Overall, these findings suggest that aggregate changes in women's household labor reflect both individual change and cohort differences. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Artis, Julie E. and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Explaining The Decline In Women's Household Labor: Individual Change and Cohort Differences." Journal of Marriage and Family 65,3 (August 2003): 746-762.
4. Avellar, Sarah A.
Smock, Pamela Jane
Has the Price of Motherhood Declined Over Time? A Cross-Cohort Comparison of the Motherhood Wage Penalty
Journal of Marriage and Family 65,3 (August 2003):597-607.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00597.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Fertility; Heterogeneity; Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Several recent studies have shown a negative association between motherhood and wages. However, an analysis of change over time in the motherhood penalty has not been conducted. Using two cohorts of young women drawn from the 1975-1985 National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women and the 1986-1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we explicitly test the relationship between motherhood and wages across two cohorts and examine whether that relationship has changed. Even after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and human capital variables, each additional child is associated with a negative effect on women-s wages. Moreover, our findings suggest that the penalty has not diminished over time.
Bibliography Citation
Avellar, Sarah A. and Pamela Jane Smock. "Has the Price of Motherhood Declined Over Time? A Cross-Cohort Comparison of the Motherhood Wage Penalty." Journal of Marriage and Family 65,3 (August 2003):597-607.
5. Avellar, Sarah A.
Smock, Pamela Jane
The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions
Journal of Marriage and Family 67,2 (May 2005): 315-328.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2005.00118.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Divorce; Economic Well-Being; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Marital Dissolution; Poverty; Racial Differences

Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, we use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N= 2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of divorced respondents. After dissolution, formerly cohabiting men's economic standing declines moderately, whereas formerly cohabiting women's declines much more precipitously, leaving a substantial proportion of women in poverty. This effect is particularly pronounced for African American and Hispanic women. Though the end of the relationship does reinforce gender stratification, it is also an "equalizer" between married and cohabiting women, leaving them in strikingly similar economic positions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Avellar, Sarah A. and Pamela Jane Smock. "The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions." Journal of Marriage and Family 67,2 (May 2005): 315-328.
6. Bacak, Valerio
Kennedy, Edward H.
Marginal Structural Models: An Application to Incarceration and Marriage During Young Adulthood
Journal of Marriage and Family 77,1 (February 2015): 112-125.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12159/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail; Marriage; Modeling

Advanced methods for panel data analysis are commonly used in research on family life and relationships, but the fundamental issue of simultaneous time-dependent confounding and mediation has received little attention. In this article the authors introduce inverse-probability-weighted estimation of marginal structural models, an approach to causal analysis that (unlike conventional regression modeling) appropriately adjusts for confounding variables on the causal pathway linking the treatment with the outcome. They discuss the need for marginal structural models in social science research and describe their estimation in detail. Substantively, the authors contribute to the ongoing debate on the effects of incarceration on marriage by applying a marginal structural model approach to panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,781). In line with the increasing evidence on the collateral consequences of contact with the criminal justice system, the authors find that incarceration is associated with reduced chances of entering marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Bacak, Valerio and Edward H. Kennedy. "Marginal Structural Models: An Application to Incarceration and Marriage During Young Adulthood." Journal of Marriage and Family 77,1 (February 2015): 112-125.
7. Bahr, Stephen J.
The Effects of Welfare on Marital Stability and Remarriage
Journal of Marriage and Family 41,3 (August 1979): 553-560.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351625
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Divorce; Marital Dissolution; Marital Stability; Remarriage; Welfare

This paper estimates welfare effects on marital dissolution and remarriage. The findings indicate that white women, receiving welfare, experience marriage dissolution more frequently than low-income women not receiving public assistance. This finding did not hold for black women. As the duration of marriage increases, the relationship between welfare and marital dissolution decreases. Among both black and white women with low incomes, non-AFDC recipients are three times more likely to remarry than AFDC recipients. However, the relationship between AFDC and remarriage decreases as age increases.
Bibliography Citation
Bahr, Stephen J. "The Effects of Welfare on Marital Stability and Remarriage." Journal of Marriage and Family 41,3 (August 1979): 553-560.
8. Bahr, Stephen J.
Welfare and Marital Dissolution: A Reply
Journal of Marriage and Family 43,2 (May 1981): 300-301.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351381?seq=9
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Research Methodology

This article responds to T.W. Draper's (see PA, Vol 67:03436) reanalysis of the NLS survey data that the present author (1979) used in his study. It is suggested that Draper's conclusions are questionable due to methodological limitations, and these limitations are identified and discussed. [(c)APA]
Bibliography Citation
Bahr, Stephen J. "Welfare and Marital Dissolution: A Reply." Journal of Marriage and Family 43,2 (May 1981): 300-301.
9. Bahr, Stephen J.
Leigh, Geoffrey K.
Family Size, Intelligence, and Expected Education
Journal of Marriage and Family 40,2 (May 1978): 331-335.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/350763
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Family Income; Family Size; Intelligence; Parental Influences

In this paper the relationships between family size, intelligence, and expected education were examined. After other relevant variables were controlled, family size had a negligible association with intelligence and expected education. Existing research which shows that children from large families are less intelligent than children from small families may have resulted from inadequate controls for other relevant variables. The strongest and most consistent predictor of intelligence was educational encouragement, while the best predictors of expected education were educational encouragement and intelligence.
Bibliography Citation
Bahr, Stephen J. and Geoffrey K. Leigh. "Family Size, Intelligence, and Expected Education." Journal of Marriage and Family 40,2 (May 1978): 331-335.
10. Baydar, Nazli
Greek, April A.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of the Birth of a Sibling During the First 6 Years of Life
Journal of Marriage and Family 59,4 (November 1997): 939-956.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353794
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Birth Order; Cognitive Development; Family Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income Dynamics/Shocks; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty; Preschool Children; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Siblings; Skills; Social Emotional Development

We investigate links among the birth of a new infant, changes in the family environment, changes in the relationship between the mother and an older child, and changes in an older child's cognitive and socioemotional development. We hypothesize that the effects of sibling birth are mediated in the associated changes in the family environment and changes in the interaction patterns of the family members. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used on a cohort of nonminority children between 6 and 23 months old. The birth of a sibling results in significant chances in the family environment. At the same rune, positive interactions with the older child diminish, especially if the birth interval is short, and the mother increasingly adopts controlling parenting styles. These changes result in lower levels of verbal development. About 2.5 years after the sibling birth, negative effects are detected on achievement and on socioemotional adjustment. Some positive effects of sibling birth also are done on verbal ability and peer relations.
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli, April A. Greek and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of the Birth of a Sibling During the First 6 Years of Life." Journal of Marriage and Family 59,4 (November 1997): 939-956.
11. Baydar, Nazli
Hyle , Patricia
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of the Birth of a Sibling During Preschool and Early Grade School Years
Journal of Marriage and Family 59,4 (November 1997): 957-965.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353795
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Birth Order; Family Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Preschool Children; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Siblings

This study investigates the changes in socio-emotional development, achievement, and self-concept after the birth of a sibling in a cohort of preschool-aged children over a 2-year period and a 4-year period. We test whether the birth of a sibling is associated with changes in the family environment and in children's developmental trajectories. We use data from nonminority children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The birth of a sibling is associated with a significant increase in the behavior problems of the children, but these increases are temporary. The birth of a sibling also is associated with lower reading recognition scores among economically disadvantaged children. The impact of the birth of a sibling on self-perception is large and negative, and this effect is stronger among the children of economically disadvantaged families.
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli, Patricia Hyle and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of the Birth of a Sibling During Preschool and Early Grade School Years." Journal of Marriage and Family 59,4 (November 1997): 957-965.
12. Beck, Scott Herman
Beck, Rubye W.
The Formation of Extended Households During Middle Age
Journal of Marriage and Family 46,2 (May 1984): 277-287.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352459
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Family Formation; Family Structure; Family, Extended; Household Structure; Racial Differences

Data from the 1966 through 1976 National Longitudinal Surveys of middle-aged and older men were used to estimate the proportion of middle-aged couples forming extended households. Results of the combined longitudinal record over 10 years were compared with cross-sectional estimates of extended households based on the 1966 survey. For both blacks and whites, about 7 percent had one or more parents (or parents-in-law) in the household in 1966, compared with about 11 percent over the 10-year period. The proportion of blacks living in three-generation households or with grandchildren or other non-nuclear kin was substantially higher than the proportion of whites. In almost all cases, estimates of extended households made using the longitudinal data were about double those based on cross-sectional data. It is estimated that for the 20-year period of middle age about 25 percent of white couples and over 50 percent of black couples would have formed extended households; these extended households underline the continued existence of strong family networks in modern society. Implications of the findings for research are discussed. [AgeLine]
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman and Rubye W. Beck. "The Formation of Extended Households During Middle Age." Journal of Marriage and Family 46,2 (May 1984): 277-287.
13. Belsky, Jay
Eggebeen, David J.
Early and Extensive Maternal Employment and Young Children's Socioemotional Development: Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1083-1098.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Birthweight; Child Care; Child Development; Children, Behavioral Development; General Assessment; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Temperament

Using information pertaining to maternal employment, child care and the socioemotional development of four-to-six-year-old children whose mothers were studied as part of the NLSY, the effects of early and extensive maternal employment/child care were assessed. Families and children were compared as a function of mother's employment across the child's first three years of life. After controlling for differences which existed between families at the time of children's births, it was found that children whose mothers were employed full- time beginning in their first or second year of life (and extensively thereafter) scored more poorly on a composite measure of adjustment (behavior problems + insecurity-compliance) than children whose mothers were not (or only minimally) employed during their first three years. Follow-up analyses revealed that this effect was restricted to the compliance component of the composite adjustment measure, and that children with early and extensive maternal employment/child care experience were significantly more noncompliant than age mates without such early experience. These results are discussed in terms of the current infant day care/early maternal employment controversy.
Bibliography Citation
Belsky, Jay and David J. Eggebeen. "Early and Extensive Maternal Employment and Young Children's Socioemotional Development: Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1083-1098.
14. Belsky, Jay
Eggebeen, David J.
Scientific Criticism and the Study of Early and Extensive Maternal Employment
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1107-1110.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Care; General Assessment; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Methods/Methodology; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Temperament; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

An exchange on Maternal Employment and Young Children's Adjustment. Belsky and Eggebeen begin their rejoinder to the commentaries on the Belsky and Eggebeen report in this issue with a thought experiment--in fact three thought experiments. They implore the critics to "imagine first that the Belsky and Eggebeen report was not an investigation of the association between early and extensive maternal employment and young children's adjustment, controlling for background factors, but rather a study of the effects of teenage parenthood, child abuse, maternal depression, or poverty--and the results were exactly the same: that children of teenage, depressed, or impoverished parents scored lower on adjustment and were less compliant. Or imagine instead that our investigation was carried out exactly as described, but the results were just the opposite; that is, early and extensive employment was related to higher adjustment and greater cooperation with adults. Or, as a final consideration, imagine that the analyses carried out had been exactly the same as reported, only an index of quality of child care had been available for inclusion in the study; when it was added to the regression model, the statistical effect of early and extensive maternal employment was significantly attenuated, and children who experienced higher-quality care scored higher on adjustment and lower on compliance than those who experienced lower-quality care." After imaging these three scenarios, they pose this simple question: "Would the commentaries to these studies have been different from those concerning the current Belsky and Eggebeen report?"
Bibliography Citation
Belsky, Jay and David J. Eggebeen. "Scientific Criticism and the Study of Early and Extensive Maternal Employment." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1107-1110.
15. Bernardi, Fabrizio
Boertien, Diederik
Geven, Koen
Childhood Family Structure and the Accumulation of Wealth Across the Life Course
Journal of Marriage and Family published online (03 August 2018): DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12523.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12523
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Childhood; Family Structure; Life Course; Wealth

Objective: The aim of this article is to document how childhood family structure is related to the accumulation of wealth.

Background: Childhood family structure is a commonly studied determinant of child and adult outcomes, but little is known about its effects on wealth accumulation. Wealth is affected by a wide variety of factors, including human capital formation, family dynamics, and intergenerational transfers. Studying wealth therewith sheds light on how childhood family structure relates to the accumulation of advantages across life.

Method: Data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 7,066) are employed to document wealth differences at ages 47 to 55. Growth curve models are estimated to understand at what ages these differences emerge.

Results: A median wealth penalty of at least $61,600 at ages 47 to 55 is observed for individuals who did not live continuously with both parents from birth to age 18, depending on the alternative childhood family trajectory considered. A subsequent mediation analysis of the "wealth penalty" related to the permanent departure of a parent from the household during childhood points at human capital formation and own family dynamics as the primary channels through which wealth differences are produced; intergenerational transfers matter rather less.

Bibliography Citation
Bernardi, Fabrizio, Diederik Boertien and Koen Geven. "Childhood Family Structure and the Accumulation of Wealth Across the Life Course." Journal of Marriage and Family published online (03 August 2018): DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12523.
16. Blee, Kathleen M.
Tickamyer, Ann R.
Racial Differences in Men's Attitudes About Women's Gender Roles
Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 21-30.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353813
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Men
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Life Course; Racial Differences; Women's Roles

This article investigates three aspects of male gender role development, using linked mother-son files from the young men and mature women cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys from the mid-1960s to 1981. The three aspects are: (a) race differences between African American and White men's attitudes about women's gender roles, (b) changes in gender role attitudes across time, and (c) maternal and life course influences on gender role attitudes. Our findings indicate that African American and White men differ in their attitudes about women's gender roles, that men's beliefs change across time, and that individual status and life course processes influence these attitudes of men. However, we do not find maternal influence on adult sons' attitudes.
Bibliography Citation
Blee, Kathleen M. and Ann R. Tickamyer. "Racial Differences in Men's Attitudes About Women's Gender Roles." Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 21-30.
17. Bould, Sally
Female-Headed Families: Personal Fate Control and the Provider Role
Journal of Marriage and Family 39,2 (May 1977): 339-349.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351129
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Support; Children; Control; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Mothers; Welfare

This study examines black and white female heads of families, ages 30-44. The results show that single mothers experienced significant difficulty in providing for their families. The source as well as the amount of income received affected their sense of personal fate control. In addition, poor women who relied upon AFDC, child support and other unstable sources of income, perceived themselves as less able to plan for their lives.
Bibliography Citation
Bould, Sally. "Female-Headed Families: Personal Fate Control and the Provider Role." Journal of Marriage and Family 39,2 (May 1977): 339-349.
18. Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta
Scott, Mindy E.
Lilja, Emily
Single Custodial Fathers’ Involvement and Parenting: Implications for Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood
Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1107-1127.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00753.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Disconnected Youth; Fathers, Involvement; High School Completion/Graduates; Parents, Single; Transition, Adulthood

Using a sample of 3,977 youths from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this study examines the unique characteristics of single-custodial-father families with adolescents and the effects of single fathers' involvement and parenting on outcomes in emerging adulthood. Findings suggest that single-custodial-father families are distinct from single-mother and 2-biological-parent families in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, parenting styles, and involvement. Parenting styles and involvement mediate the differences between single-father families and 2-parent families in terms of high school completion and disconnectedness and partially mediate differences for single-custodial-father families with a partner. Family and sociodemographic characteristics are also associated with being disconnected for adolescents residing with a cohabiting custodial father.
Bibliography Citation
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta, Mindy E. Scott and Emily Lilja. "Single Custodial Fathers’ Involvement and Parenting: Implications for Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood." Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1107-1127.
19. Budig, Michelle Jean
Lim, Misun
Cohort Differences and the Marriage Premium: Emergence of Gender-Neutral Household Specialization Effects
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1352-1370.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12326/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Differences; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Differentials

Using fixed-effects models and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 data, we compared cohort, gender, and household specialization differences in the marriage premium. Do these premiums (a) persist among millennials, (b) reflect changing selection into marriage across cohorts, and (c) differ by the gender division of spousal work hours? Despite declining gender-traditional household specialization, the millennial cohort garnered larger marriage premiums for women and men. Positive selection explained millenial women's marriage premiums, but less of men's. Household specialization mattered only among millennials, where it is gender neutral: Male and female breadwinners earned significantly larger marriage premiums, whereas husbands and wives specializing in nonmarket work earned no premium, or even penalties, when employed. Results show increasing disadvantage among breadwinner households, with dual earners most advantaged among millennials.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean and Misun Lim. "Cohort Differences and the Marriage Premium: Emergence of Gender-Neutral Household Specialization Effects." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1352-1370.
20. Call, Vaughn R. A.
Otto, Luther B.
On "The Effects of Early Marriage on the Educational Attainments of Young Men": Comment on Kerckhoff and Parrow
Journal of Marriage and Family 41,2 (May 1979): 217-223.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351690
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Educational Attainment; Marriage; School Quality

While K. Kerchoff and A. Parrow's study is stated to be similar to an earlier one by V.R.A. Call and L.B. Otto, they find, not that early marriage has no significant effect on educational attainment, but that it has a negative effect. The authors suggest that this difference is due to their inclusion of a control on education prior to marriage. There are difficulties, however, in their use of the 1970 NLS Young Men's panel, rather than data from Lenawee County followed up after fifteen years, as a basis for conclusions. Both the theoretical and estimation models used also differ. A reanalysis of the Lenawee County data from the Call and Otto study confirms the original conclusions. In reply to Call and Otto, Alan C. Kerckhoff and Alan A. Parrow state that the reanalysis of the Lenawee County data does add to the understanding of the issues, confirming that the inclusion of a measure of academic performance is crucial. However, the paper criticized was not an attempt at replication, but a separate study. The two studies produce similar results when the same model is used; but when academic achievement is included in the model, results differ. Further investigation is needed to produce definitive conclusions.
Bibliography Citation
Call, Vaughn R. A. and Luther B. Otto. "On "The Effects of Early Marriage on the Educational Attainments of Young Men": Comment on Kerckhoff and Parrow." Journal of Marriage and Family 41,2 (May 1979): 217-223.
21. Caputo, Jennifer
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Hardy, Melissa A.
The Long-Term Effects of Caregiving on Women's Health and Mortality
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1382-1398.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12332/abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Caregivers, Adult Children; Depression (see also CESD); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Mortality

Caregivers experience numerous mental and physical health effects from the stress of providing care, but we know little about whether these problems persist in the long term and whether long-term effects differ across caregiving contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examined the relationship between caregiving and long-term patterns of depressive symptoms, functional limitations, and mortality. We also explored the health effects of caregiving in-home versus out-of-home and by caregiver/care-recipient relationship. Analyses show that in-home spousal and parental caregiving predict increased depressive symptoms and functional limitations in the long term but are unassociated with mortality, whereas caregiving outside the home is unassociated with later depression and functional limitations but predicts a lower risk of mortality. This study highlights the usefulness of approaching stressful experiences such as caregiving from the life course perspective, viewing them as processes that unfold over time within specific contexts that may carry delayed or cumulative consequences.
Bibliography Citation
Caputo, Jennifer, Eliza K. Pavalko and Melissa A. Hardy. "The Long-Term Effects of Caregiving on Women's Health and Mortality." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1382-1398.
22. Carlson, Daniel L.
Deviations From Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences Across Marital Status
Journal of Marriage and Family 74,4 (August 2012): 743-758.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00995.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Age at First Marriage; CESD (Depression Scale); Expectations/Intentions; Health, Mental; Marital Status; Marriage

Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor—deviation from desired age at marriage—has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested whether deviation from desired age at marriage shapes the mental health of married and never-married adults as well as mental health differences between them. The results showed that most respondents failed to meet their initial preference for age at marriage. Marrying both earlier and later than desired (compared to on time) resulted in poorer mental health and fewer benefits compared to never marrying. For the never-married, mental health was best, and differences compared to the married were nonsignificant, for those nearest their desired age at marriage. As timing deviations increased, however, a mental health deficit among the never-married emerged.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Daniel L. "Deviations From Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences Across Marital Status." Journal of Marriage and Family 74,4 (August 2012): 743-758.
23. Carlson, Elwood
Family Background, School and Early Marriage
Journal of Marriage and Family 41,2 (May 1979): 341-353.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351701
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Family Influences; High School; Marriage; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers; Work Experience

The effects of family background and school attendance on the timing of early marriage are investigated, and findings show that marriage is indirectly influenced by families, through impact on school as an alternative to marriage. Black girls more often come from families with attributes leading to early marriage; however, they are half as likely to form early marriages as white girls from similar educational and family backgrounds. For whites, rural and low suburban rates of early marriages are consequences of differing family socioeconomic patterns by size and place.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Elwood. "Family Background, School and Early Marriage." Journal of Marriage and Family 41,2 (May 1979): 341-353.
24. Carlson, Marcia Jeanne
Family Structure, Father Involvement, and Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes
Journal of Marriage and Family 68,1 (February 2006): 137-154.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3600362
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Divorce; Family Structure; Fathers; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Presence; Marriage; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Research has shown that living away from one's biological father is associated with a greater risk of adverse child and adolescent outcomes; yet, the role of the father-child relationship in understanding this association has not been directly investigated. This study uses data on biological fathers' relationships with their children from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,733) to assess whether father involvement mediates the relationship between family structure (i.e., father absence) and four measures of adolescent behavior. Differences in father involvement are shown to account for a sizeable fraction of the variance in outcomes by family structure. Father involvement does not affect boys and girls differently but is more beneficial when the father lives with the adolescent.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Marcia Jeanne. "Family Structure, Father Involvement, and Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes." Journal of Marriage and Family 68,1 (February 2006): 137-154.
25. Carlson, Marcia Jeanne
Corcoran, Mary E.
Family Structure and Children's Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes
Journal of Marriage and Family 63,3 (August 2001): 779-792.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00779.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Behavioral Development; Family Income; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine the effect of various family structures on behavioral and cognitive outcomes for children ages 7 to 10. We extend previous research by using a longitudinal definition of family structure and by exploring multiple mechanisms through which family structure may affect children in two outcome domains. We find that family income, mother's psychological functioning, and the quality of the home environment are particularly important for children's behavior, while family income and mother's aptitude have notable effects on children's cognitive test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Marcia Jeanne and Mary E. Corcoran. "Family Structure and Children's Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes." Journal of Marriage and Family 63,3 (August 2001): 779-792.
26. Cherlin, Andrew J.
Postponing Marriage: The Influence of Young Women's Work Expectations
Journal of Marriage and Family 42,2 (May 1980): 355-365.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351233
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Job Aspirations; Marriage; Schooling; Sex Roles

This paper investigates the determinants of one component of the recent changes in family life: the postponement of marriage among women in their early twenties. Single women in a national longitudinal study who planned to be housewives at age 35 - as opposed to those who planned to be working outside the home - were more likely to marry in the near future. But, between 1969 and 1975, the proportion of single women who planned to be housewives decreased sharply. Evidence is presented which suggests that the change in future work plans may have reduced the chances that a woman in her early twenties would marry in the next few years. The implications of these and other findings for the study of the transition to marriage are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Cherlin, Andrew J. "Postponing Marriage: The Influence of Young Women's Work Expectations." Journal of Marriage and Family 42,2 (May 1980): 355-365.
27. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Consequences of Young Mothers' Marital Histories for Children's Cognitive Development
Journal of Marriage and Family 59,2 (May 1997): 245-261.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353468
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Cognitive Development; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Adolescent; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Studies; Self-Esteem

The research attention paid to adolescent parents and their children stems, in part, from a concern over potentially missed opportunities and hence curtailed achievement for young parents and a worry that this will increase the odds of poor developmental outcomes for children Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this article focuses on marital histories of young mothers and whether the family structure into which children of young mothers arc born and the stability of that arrangement during the child's life affect his or her academic abilities during early school years Is the marital bond important for children? Do changes in a mother's marital status influence child development? And most importantly, if so, what is the process through which marital history affects child cognitive development? Results suggest children of young mothers are affected by marital histories although children born and raised within continuously married families do not always s how significantly better academic outcomes. Nonmarital childbearing is negatively associated with cognitive performance but affects children primarily through human economic and social resources.
Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C. "Consequences of Young Mothers' Marital Histories for Children's Cognitive Development." Journal of Marriage and Family 59,2 (May 1997): 245-261.
28. Cubbins, Lisa A.
Klepinger, Daniel H.
Childhood Family, Ethnicity, and Drug Use Over the Life Course
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,3 (August 2007): 810-830.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4622482
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Childhood; Childhood Education, Early; Drug Use; Ethnic Differences; Family Characteristics; Family Influences; Life Course; Religion; Religious Influences

Using multiply imputed data from 5 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8,294), we investigated whether childhood family characteristics and childhood religious affiliation explain ethnic differences in marijuana and cocaine use in the last year. None of the childhood factors explained ethnic differences in drug use, though ethnicity and several childhood factors had age-specific effects. Over the life course from young adulthood to middle age, ethnic differences in drug use changed and the effect of childhood religious affiliation declined. Having a more intellectually rich family in childhood increased the risk of drug use at younger ages but reduced it at older ages. The study demonstrates the significance of childhood family experiences for understanding adult drug use. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Marriage & Family is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Cubbins, Lisa A. and Daniel H. Klepinger. "Childhood Family, Ethnicity, and Drug Use Over the Life Course." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,3 (August 2007): 810-830.
29. Day, Randal D.
The Transition to First Intercourse Among Racially and Culturally Diverse Youth
Journal of Marriage and Family 54,4 (November 1992): 749-762.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353158
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sexual Activity; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

This study explored the transition to first sexual intercourse among Chicano, Latino, black, and white teens. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the effect of distal and proximate variables on that transition. It was hypothesized that as a teen ages she or he would move from being more influenced by proximate factors to being more influenced by the distal world of peers and community. This hypothesis was partially confirmed, but there were significant differences between males and females, and ethnic/cultural groups. It was also suggested that age of f intercourse is not a simple process but rather there is a compelling need to perform separate analysis by race and gender. In particular, factors influencing the transition to intercourse for Chicano and Latino subgroups of males and females were quite unique.
Bibliography Citation
Day, Randal D. "The Transition to First Intercourse Among Racially and Culturally Diverse Youth." Journal of Marriage and Family 54,4 (November 1992): 749-762.
30. Doren, Catherine
Is Two Too Many? Parity and Mothers' Labor Force Exit
Journal of Marriage and Family published online (1 October 2018): DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12533.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jomf.12533
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Exits; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Objective: How do women's chances of labor force exit vary by the number of children they have?

Background: Conventional wisdom suggests that there may be a tipping point at the second child when women are particularly likely to leave. Women who only have one child, by contrast, are thought to be uniquely unlikely to exit.

Method: Using data from the nationally representative 1979 to 2012 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 ( https://www.nlsinfo.org/content/cohorts/nlsy79), event history methods estimate the likelihood of labor force exit as women progress across parity transitions.

Results: The results show no evidence for a tipping point around the birth of second children. Women are instead most likely to leave the labor force when they are pregnant with their first child, and each subsequent child is associated with a smaller increase in the probability of exit. In addition, women who only ever have one child are less likely to leave the labor force than those who have more children, and these differences arise as early as their pregnancies with their first children. College‐educated women who only have one child are especially unlikely to exit.

Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Is Two Too Many? Parity and Mothers' Labor Force Exit." Journal of Marriage and Family published online (1 October 2018): DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12533.
31. Draper, Thomas W.
On the Relationship Between Welfare and Marital Stability: A Research Note
Journal of Marriage and Family 43,2 (May 1981): 293-299.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351381
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Marital Stability; Welfare

Five waves of data from the NLS of Mature Women consisting of 3,690 30-44 year old females were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel correlation. In many cases, the results of the analysis are consistent with the view that marital instability increases the need for welfare, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, and food stamps. There was little evidence to support the previously reported effect of public assistance on marital instability. [(c)APA]
Bibliography Citation
Draper, Thomas W. "On the Relationship Between Welfare and Marital Stability: A Research Note." Journal of Marriage and Family 43,2 (May 1981): 293-299.
32. Dubow, Eric F.
Luster, Thomas
Adjustment of Children Born to Teenage Mothers: The Contribution of Risk and Protective Factors
Journal of Marriage and Family 52,2 (May 1990): 393-404.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353034
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Educational Attainment; Geographical Variation; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Urbanization/Urban Living

This study was undertaken to examine the contribution of risk and protective factors in the adjustment of children born to teenage mothers. Using NLSY child data, information was obtained on a subset of 721 children ages 8-15 and their mothers. Results showed that several risk factors (e.g., poverty status, urban residence, mother's self-esteem) were modestly related to children's academic and behavioral adjustment. Exposure to increasing numbers of risk factors was associated with greater vulnerability to adjustment problems. Several protective factors (e.g., intelligence, self-esteem, quality of the home environment) were also modestly related to children's adjustment, and enhanced the prediction of adjustment above and beyond the contribution of the risk factors. For children exposed to risk, the presence of the protective factors reduced their vulnerability to academic and behavioral difficulties.
Bibliography Citation
Dubow, Eric F. and Thomas Luster. "Adjustment of Children Born to Teenage Mothers: The Contribution of Risk and Protective Factors." Journal of Marriage and Family 52,2 (May 1990): 393-404.
33. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,2 (May 2007): 465-481.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4622450
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Black Family; Cognitive Ability; Family Structure; Grandchildren; Grandparents; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

This article examines whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, using data from the 1979 to 2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file (N = 6,501). Results indicate that for White children, living with a single mother and a grandparent is associated with increased cognitive stimulation and higher reading recognition scores, compared to living with a single mother alone. For Black children, grandparent coresidence is associated with less cognitive stimulation. Thus, in some instances, living with a grandparent can benefit children, but the pattern of results differs by race. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Marriage & Family is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,2 (May 2007): 465-481.
34. Florian, Sandra M.
Motherhood and Employment Among Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks: A Life Course Approach
Journal of Marriage and Family 80,1 (February 2018): 134-149.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12448/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Ethnic Differences; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Random Effects; Motherhood; Racial Differences

Research has shown that having children reduces women's employment; yet how this effect differs for racial minorities has received less attention. Using random effects models and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,526), this study investigates the association between motherhood and employment among Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks over women's entire reproductive span. Results indicate that having children reduces labor force participation primarily by deterring full-time employment. This effect is stronger and lasts longer among Whites, smaller and shorter among Hispanics, and brief among Blacks. Motherhood reduces part-time employment for young mothers, but temporarily increases it for older mothers. Early childbearing partly explains Black and Hispanic women's low employment rates at young ages; interestingly, the evidence indicates that their employment prospects would benefit the most from delaying childbearing. This study highlights the relevance of intersectionality and the life course perspective for investigating inequality in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Florian, Sandra M. "Motherhood and Employment Among Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks: A Life Course Approach." Journal of Marriage and Family 80,1 (February 2018): 134-149.
35. Forrest, Walter
Cohabitation, Relationship Quality, and Desistance From Crime
Journal of Marriage and Family 76,3 (June 2014): 539-556.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12105/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Crime; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Status; Marriage

Although the empirical links between marriage and desistance are well established, very little is known about the degree to which cohabitation is associated with changes in criminal behavior. This is a significant oversight given that, among some segments of the population, cohabitation has become more common than marriage. In this article, the author investigated the links between cohabitation and desistance from crime. In doing so, particular attention was paid to the possibility that similarities between the apparent effects of marriage and cohabitation are obscured by variations in relationship quality and the increasing tendency for cohabitation to precede marriage. Analyses based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 3,232) indicate that cohabitation is associated with reductions in the rate of property and drug offending, but not the termination of violent, property, or drug offending. By contrast, marriage is consistently associated with large reductions in the rate of offending across the 3 crime categories as well as the abandonment of those crimes. These results provide greater insight into the links between adult family relationships, such as cohabitation and marriage, and desistance from crime.
Bibliography Citation
Forrest, Walter. "Cohabitation, Relationship Quality, and Desistance From Crime." Journal of Marriage and Family 76,3 (June 2014): 539-556.
36. Frisco, Michelle
Weden, Margaret M.
Early Adult Obesity and U.S. Women's Lifetime Childbearing Experiences
Journal of Marriage and Family 75,4 (August 2013): 920-932.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12049/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Childbearing; Fertility; Obesity; Weight

Literature from multiple disciplines suggests that women who are obese during early adulthood may accumulate social and physiological impediments to childbearing across their reproductive lives. This led the authors to investigate whether obese young women have different lifetime childbearing experiences than leaner peers by analyzing data from 1,658 female participants in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Study sample members were nulliparous women ages 20–25 in 1982. The authors examined their childbearing experiences between 1982 and 2006 and found that young women who were obese at baseline had higher odds of remaining childless and increased odds of underachieving fertility intentions than young women who were normal weight at baseline. These results suggest that obesity has long-term ramifications for women's childbearing experiences with respect to whether and how many children women have in general and relative to the number of children they want.
Bibliography Citation
Frisco, Michelle and Margaret M. Weden. "Early Adult Obesity and U.S. Women's Lifetime Childbearing Experiences." Journal of Marriage and Family 75,4 (August 2013): 920-932.
37. Galligan, Richard J.
Bahr, Stephen J.
Economic Well-Being and Marital Stability: Implications for Income Maintenance Programs
Journal of Marriage and Family 40,2 (May 1978): 283-290.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/350759
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Assets; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Husbands, Income; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Welfare; Well-Being

The authors examine the effects of economic well-being on marital stability. The results show that income by itself has only a negligible effect on marital dissolution; however, the level of assets has a significant effect even after relevant variables are controlled. The dissolution rate of blacks is significantly higher than for whites as is the rate for less educated women. The results suggest that direct income supplements may have little effect on marital dissolution unless they increase the level of family assets.
Bibliography Citation
Galligan, Richard J. and Stephen J. Bahr. "Economic Well-Being and Marital Stability: Implications for Income Maintenance Programs." Journal of Marriage and Family 40,2 (May 1978): 283-290.
38. Garrett, Patricia
Ferron, John
Ng'Andu, Nicholas
Bryant, Donna
A Structural Model for the Development Status of Young Children
Journal of Marriage and Family 56,1 (February 1994): 147-163.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rlh&an=9411174354
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Income; Modeling; Mothers, Education; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Occupational Attainment; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study uses structural equation modeling to explore the determinants of the developmental status of young children. Data pertain to 1,742 children under the age of 48 months in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The literature reviewed suggests that characteristics of mother, household, and child collectively influence the quality of the home environment, which mediates the influence of demographic and socioeconomic variables on child outcomes. The study assesses this model on an experimental and a reserve sample for all children and for specific subgroups. Fit indices were satisfactory, and anticipated subgroup differences were not found.
Bibliography Citation
Garrett, Patricia, John Ferron, Nicholas Ng'Andu and Donna Bryant. "A Structural Model for the Development Status of Young Children." Journal of Marriage and Family 56,1 (February 1994): 147-163.
39. Glauber, Rebecca
Marriage and the Motherhood Wage Penalty Among African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,4 (November 2007): 951-961.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4622500
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Racial Studies; Wage Differentials; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 5,929) to analyze the moderating effects of race and marriage on the motherhood wage penalty. Fixed-effects models reveal that for Hispanic women, motherhood is not associated with a wage penalty. For African Americans, only married mothers with more than 2 children pay a wage penalty. For Whites, all married mothers pay a wage penalty, as do all never-married mothers and divorced mothers with 1 or 2 children. These findings imply that racial differences in the motherhood wage penalty persist even for women with similar marital statuses, and they suggest that patterns of racial stratification shape women's family experiences and labor market outcomes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Marriage & Family is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Glauber, Rebecca. "Marriage and the Motherhood Wage Penalty Among African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites ." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,4 (November 2007): 951-961.
40. Glauber, Rebecca
Gozjolko, Kristi L.
Do Traditional Fathers Always Work More? Gender Ideology, Race, and Parenthood
Journal of Marriage and Family 73,5 (October 2011): 1133-1148.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Fatherhood; Fathers; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Racial Differences; Work Hours

Research has shown that men who express traditional gender ideologies spend more time in paid work when they become fathers, whereas men who express egalitarian ideologies spend less time in paid work. This study extends previous research by examining racial differences among men. We drew on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 23,261) and found that fatherhood was associated with an increase in married White men's time spent in paid work. The increase was more than twice as strong for traditional White men than for egalitarian White men. In contrast, both egalitarian and traditional African American men did not work more when they became fathers. These findings suggest that African American men may express gender traditionalism but adopt more egalitarian work–family arrangements. This study also presents evidence of an interaction among race, class, and gender ideology that shapes fathers' time spent in paid work.
Bibliography Citation
Glauber, Rebecca and Kristi L. Gozjolko. "Do Traditional Fathers Always Work More? Gender Ideology, Race, and Parenthood." Journal of Marriage and Family 73,5 (October 2011): 1133-1148.
41. Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin
Waite, Linda J.
Nestleaving Patterns and the Transition to Marriage for Young Men and Women
Journal of Marriage and Family 49,3 (August 1987): 507-516.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352196
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Family Influences; Gender Differences; Life Cycle Research; Marriage; Nestleaving

Young adults have been leaving the parental home at increasingly early ages over recent decades. They have also been delaying marriage. This article argues that the increase in independent living during young adulthood may have caused some of the delay in marriage and examines this question on the basis of data from the NLS of Young Men and Young Women. It tests the hypotheses that: (1) living independently during young adulthood delays marriage; (2) the effects of nonfamily living are smaller for those in group quarters than for others; (3) living away has larger effects if it occurs relatively early in adulthood; and (4) the effects are stronger for women than for men. The results provide some support for these hypotheses, especially among women.
Bibliography Citation
Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin and Linda J. Waite. "Nestleaving Patterns and the Transition to Marriage for Young Men and Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 49,3 (August 1987): 507-516.
42. Gordon, Rachel A.
Measuring Constructs in Family Science: How Can Item Response Theory Improve Precision and Validity?
Journal of Marriage and Family 77,1 (February 2015): 147-176.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12157/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Scale Construction; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This article provides family scientists with an understanding of contemporary measurement perspectives and the ways in which item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop measures with desired evidence of precision and validity for research uses. The article offers a nontechnical introduction to some key features of IRT, including its orientation toward locating items along an underlying dimension and toward estimating precision of measurement for persons with different levels of that same construct. It also offers a didactic example of how the approach can be used to refine conceptualization and operationalization of constructs in the family sciences, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 2,732). Three basic models are considered: (a) the Rasch and (b) two-parameter logistic models for dichotomous items and (c) the Rating Scale Model for multicategory items. Throughout, the author highlights the potential for researchers to elevate measurement to a level on par with theorizing and testing about relationships among constructs.
Bibliography Citation
Gordon, Rachel A. "Measuring Constructs in Family Science: How Can Item Response Theory Improve Precision and Validity?" Journal of Marriage and Family 77,1 (February 2015): 147-176.
43. Gorman, Elizabeth H.
Bringing Home the Bacon: Marital Allocation of Income-Earning Responsibility, Job Shifts, and Men's Wages
Journal of Marriage and Family 61,1 (February 1999): 110-122.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353887
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Family Environment; Husbands, Income; Marital Status; Marriage; Sexual Division of Labor; Time Use

Studies show that married men earn more than single men, even when human capital is controlled there has been little effort to integrate the study of the marriage effect on men's wages with the literature on the division of labor in the household or to understand behavioral processes that link marital status to men's wages. This study: addresses both oversights. Three dominant perspectives on the allocation of household responsibilities suggest that married couples are likely to assign more income-earning responsibility to the husband These perspectives can be extended to predict that married men set higher earnings goals than single men. Married men are likely to be more attentive to opportunities to increase their earnings and to risks that could reduce their earnings, Using data from fire National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study focuses on men's job-shift processes. Findings indicate that married men are more likely, than single men to pursue job-shift patterns that result in greater wage gains and to avoid those that result in lower wage gains and that a portion of the marriage differential in men's wages is attributable to job-shift processes.
Bibliography Citation
Gorman, Elizabeth H. "Bringing Home the Bacon: Marital Allocation of Income-Earning Responsibility, Job Shifts, and Men's Wages." Journal of Marriage and Family 61,1 (February 1999): 110-122.
44. Greenstein, Theodore N.
Gender Ideology, Marital Disruption, and the Employment of Married Women
Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 31-42.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353814
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Employment, Part-Time; Household Income; Household Models; Household Structure; Marital Disruption; Marital Stability; Sex Roles; Sexual Division of Labor; Wage Rates; Wages, Women; Women's Roles

The present research studies the process through which gender ideology moderates the effects of wives' employment on marital stability. A mode, proposed here suggests that gender ideology functions as a lens through which inequalities in the division of household labor are viewed. Nontraditional women are hypothesized to view these inequalities as unjust because they view marriage as an egalitarian partnership, while traditional women do not perceive these inequalities as inherently unfair. Marital stability is presumed to be linked to perceptions of the fairness of the marital relationship. The model is confirmed by results from piecewise-constant exponential models of marital disruption for the 3,284 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth who experienced a first marriage between 1979 and 1990. Number of hours of paid employment per week is negatively related to marital stability for women holding nontraditional gender ideologies, but not for women with traditional views.
Bibliography Citation
Greenstein, Theodore N. "Gender Ideology, Marital Disruption, and the Employment of Married Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 31-42.
45. Greenstein, Theodore N.
Marital Disruption and the Employment of Married Women
Journal of Marriage and Family 52,3 (August 1990): 657-676.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352932
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Earnings, Wives; Employment; Income; Marital Disruption; Wives; Wives, Income; Wives, Work; Work Experience

This paper examines the widely-held belief that the recent increase in women's labor force participation is responsible for the increase in marital disruption. Using data from the NLS of Young Women on a sample of women whose first marriage took place after 1968 and who had not been widowed before 1983, the author found that the rate and timing of marital disruption was negatively related to wife's income and positively related to the number of hours worked and to the amount of premarital work experience. Implications of these findings for current and future marriage cohorts are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Greenstein, Theodore N. "Marital Disruption and the Employment of Married Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 52,3 (August 1990): 657-676.
46. Greenstein, Theodore N.
Social-Psychological Factors in Perinatal Labor-Force Participation
Journal of Marriage and Family 48,3 (August 1986): 565-571.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352042
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Attitudes; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Marriage; Work Reentry

Using data from the NLS of Young Women, this study analyzes eight years of panel data from 895 white married women, with husband present, who had a first birth prior to the 1978 interview. The purpose of this research was to investigate social-psychological factors that may affect exit from the labor force prior to the birth event and reentry following the birth event. Covariance analyses suggest: (1) that there is a large and statistically significant effect of attitude toward married women in the work force on labor-force participation throughout the perinatal period (women with more favorable attitudes were more likely to be in the labor force); and (2) that the effect of attitude toward married women in the work force on perinatal labor-force participation is stronger than that of proximity to the birth event, age, age at first marriage, husband's income, or education.
Bibliography Citation
Greenstein, Theodore N. "Social-Psychological Factors in Perinatal Labor-Force Participation." Journal of Marriage and Family 48,3 (August 1986): 565-571.
47. Greenwell, Lisa
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Welfare Background, Attitudes, and Employment Among New Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 60,1 (February 1998): 175-193.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353450
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Attitudes; First Birth; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Logit; Self-Esteem; Sex Roles; Welfare

This article investigates whether new mothers' chances of being employed appear to be influenced by an intergenerationally transmitted welfare culture. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are analyzed using logit and ordinary least squares regression. The findings show that, as adolescents, new mothers with welfare backgrounds were more willing than others to use welfare but were no less likely to have positive attitudes toward work. Adolescents' work attitudes influence their chances of being employed when they are new mothers, but adolescents' welfare attitudes do not. These results suggest that new mothers' chances of being employed be not influenced by an intergenerationally transmitted welfare culture.

Also available as a RAND reprint, RP-738, http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/e-getabbydoc.pl?RP-738

Bibliography Citation
Greenwell, Lisa, Arleen A. Leibowitz and Jacob Alex Klerman. "Welfare Background, Attitudes, and Employment Among New Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 60,1 (February 1998): 175-193.
48. Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
A Research Note on the Stability of Coresidential Unions Formed Postconception
Journal of Marriage and Family 80,4 (August 2018): 841-852.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9568-5
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Coresidence; Fathers; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Stability; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Unions

There is a large literature examining the stability of mid‐pregnancy unions, and parallel work on unions formed after a nonmarital birth, but research has yet to compare pre‐ and postbirth unions and simultaneously consider whether the union is with the father or a new partner. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort, the author compares the stability of coresidential unions (cohabitations and marriages) among three groups of mothers with nonunion first conceptions: those with a mid‐pregnancy union with the father (n = 203), those with a postbirth union with the father (n = 333), and those with a union with a new partner (n = 342). Compared to mid‐pregnancy unions with the father, postbirth father unions are 35% more likely to dissolve. New‐partner unions are more likely to dissolve than both types of father unions. These associations persist when accounting for union type and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin. "A Research Note on the Stability of Coresidential Unions Formed Postconception." Journal of Marriage and Family 80,4 (August 2018): 841-852.
49. Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
Do Young Mothers and Fathers Differ in the Likelihood of Returning Home?
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1332-1351.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12347/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): First Birth; Gender Differences; Marital Stability; Parenthood; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving

Building on research examining "boomerang" adult children, the author examines multigenerational living among young parents. Returning home likely differs between young mothers and fathers given variation in socioeconomic characteristics, health and risk taking, their own children's coresidence, and union stability. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), the author finds that more than 40% of young parents (n = 2,721) live with their own parents at their first child's birth or subsequently. Mothers are generally less likely to move home than fathers but only when not controlling for child coresidence and union stability. Individuals who live with all their children are less likely to return home, and controlling for child coresidence reverses gender differences, though this association disappears in the full model. Young parents who are stably single and those who experience dissolution are highly likely to return home compared to the stably partnered, with the association significantly stronger for fathers than mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin. "Do Young Mothers and Fathers Differ in the Likelihood of Returning Home?" Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1332-1351.
50. Han, Wen-Jui
Fox, Liana E.
Parental Work Schedules and Children's Cognitive Trajectories
Journal of Marriage and Family 73,5 (October 2011): 962-980.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2011.00862.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Multilevel; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Shift Workers; Welfare; Work Hours

Previous work has shown an association between mothers' nonstandard work schedules and children's well-being. We built on this research by examining the relationship between parental shift work and children's reading and math trajectories from age 5–6 to 13–14. Using data (N = 7,105) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and growth-curve modeling, we found that children's math and reading trajectories were related to parents' nonstandard shifts (i.e., evening, night, or variable). We found that having a mother who worked more years at a night shift was associated with lower reading scores, having a mother work more years at evening or night shifts was associated with reduced math trajectories, and having a father work more years at an evening shift was associated with reduced math scores. Mediation tests suggest that eating meals together, parental knowledge about children's whereabouts, and certain after-school activities might help explain these results.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui and Liana E. Fox. "Parental Work Schedules and Children's Cognitive Trajectories." Journal of Marriage and Family 73,5 (October 2011): 962-980.
51. Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Later Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes
Journal of Marriage and Family 63,2 (May 2001): 336-354.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3654596
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Welfare

This article investigates the long-term impact of early maternal employment on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Non-Hispanic White and African American children aged 3 to 4 in the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were followed longitudinally to see whether the effects that prior studies found at age 3 to 4 persist into the school-age years (ages 7 to 8) or whether those effects attenuate over time. The empirical results indicate that maternal employment in the 1st year of a child's life has significant negative effects on White children's cognitive outcomes. These effects persist to ages 7 or 8 for some children but not for others. We also found some negative effects of maternal employment in the 1st year on behavioral problems assessed at age 7 or 8, but again these effects are found only for white children.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui, Jane Waldfogel and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Later Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes ." Journal of Marriage and Family 63,2 (May 2001): 336-354.
52. Hardie, Jessica H.
Lucas, Amy
Economic Factors and Relationship Quality Among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage
Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1141-1154.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00755.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Economic Well-Being; Marital Conflict; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97, N = 2,841) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, N = 1,702). We found that economic factors are an important predictor of conflict for both married and cohabiting couples. Affection was particularly responsive to human capital rather than short-term economic indicators. Economic hardship was associated with more conflict among married and cohabiting couples.
Bibliography Citation
Hardie, Jessica H. and Amy Lucas. "Economic Factors and Relationship Quality Among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage." Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1141-1154.
53. Haurin, R. Jean
Patterns of Childhood Residence and the Relationship to Young Adult Outcomes
Journal of Marriage and Family 54,4 (November 1992): 846-880.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353166
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Childhood Residence; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Structure; Parental Influences; Racial Differences

This study describes the childhood residence patterns of a national cohort of youth and analyses the effects of expanded measures of family structure on a variety of young adult outcomes. Results reveal major variability in residence patterns by race and ethnicity across a wide array of living arrangements and from birth through age eighteen. Family stress and socialization perspectives are used to examine the effect of summary measures of family structure across childhood on the likelihood of high school completion, teen parenting, delinquency, drug and alcohol use and later marital disruption. Results of logistic regressions indicate that white youth benefit significantly from the presence of two parents. Controlling for a variety of social and economic background factors, duration in mother-only families shows no significant consequences for these outcomes while residence with a step-parent has negative consequences for several outcomes across subgroups.
Bibliography Citation
Haurin, R. Jean. "Patterns of Childhood Residence and the Relationship to Young Adult Outcomes." Journal of Marriage and Family 54,4 (November 1992): 846-880.
54. Hawkins, Alan J.
Eggebeen, David J.
Are Fathers Fungible? Patterns of Co-Resident Adult Men in Maritally Disrupted Families and Children's Well-Being
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 958-972.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childhood Residence; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Influence; General Assessment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Temperament; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

This study addresses the relationship of biological and social fathers to young children's well-being. The authors outline three general positions in this debate: biological fathers are important to their young children's well-being and are hard to replace; fathers are important, but social fathers can effectively replace biological fathers; and fathers are peripheral to young children's lives and do not significantly impact children's well-being. To address this question, children who had differing experiences with co-resident adult men are compared using a sample of 865 four-to-six-year-old children from the Children of the NLSY. Children in five longitudinal patterns of experiences with co-resident adult men in maritally disrupted families were identified (No Male, Grandfather, Stepfather, Reunited Father, and Chaotic) and compared to children in intact families. Thirty-one percent of the disrupted children were in the No Male pattern, but more than two-thirds were in one of the other disrupted patterns. Hierarchical regression models found no differences in verbal-intellectual functioning between children in intact families and children in any of the disrupted patterns. For the measure of psychosocial dysfunctioning, only children in the Grandfather pattern were significantly different from children in the Intact pattern. Further analyses revealed that it was white children in this three-generation living arrangement who experienced problems. This study lends some support to the position that fathers, both biological and social, are peripheral to young children's intellectual and psychosocial functioning.
Bibliography Citation
Hawkins, Alan J. and David J. Eggebeen. "Are Fathers Fungible? Patterns of Co-Resident Adult Men in Maritally Disrupted Families and Children's Well-Being." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 958-972.
55. Heidemann, Bridget
Suhomlinova, Olga
O'Rand, Angela M.
Economic Independence, Economic Status, and Empty Nest in Midlife Marital Disruption
Journal of Marriage and Family 60,1 (February 1998): 219-231.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353453
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Divorce; Economic Independence; Economic Well-Being; Economics of Gender; Family Formation; Life Course; Marital Disruption; Marital Dissolution; Marital Status; Nestleaving

We examine the risk of separation or divorce later in the marital career from a family development perspective. With data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we use a hazards framework to estimate the effects of women's economic independence, couples' economic status, and family life course factors on the risk of middle-age separation or divorce. Several dimensions of economic independence and economic status influence the risk of midlife marital disruption. Moreover, the transition to empty nest influences the risk of marital disruption, but the effect of empty nest depends on the duration of the marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Heidemann, Bridget, Olga Suhomlinova and Angela M. O'Rand. "Economic Independence, Economic Status, and Empty Nest in Midlife Marital Disruption." Journal of Marriage and Family 60,1 (February 1998): 219-231.
56. Hernandez, Daphne C.
Pressler, Emily
Dorius, Cassandra J.
The Role of Boomerang Fathers in Adolescent Female Depression
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1285-1299.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12336/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Depression (see also CESD); Fathers and Children; Fathers, Leaving; Fathers, Presence; Health, Mental

Data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were employed to explore the association between boomerang fathering from birth to age 18 on adolescent depressive symptomatology (N = 3,731). We examined the effects of experiencing a biological father exiting and entering the home because of breaking up and repartnering with an adolescent's mother (i.e., "boomerang fathering") when compared with other father residential patterns on adolescent depression. Findings suggest that boomerang fathering is more beneficial than harmful. Adolescent females exposed to boomerang fathering, as well as those exposed to fathers who resided with them from birth to age 18, reported significantly lower depressive symptoms when compared with females exposed to fathers who exited the household and never returned. Boomerang fathering was not significantly associated with male adolescent depressive symptomatology. Providing greater family support during times of instability may assist in unifying families and be an indirect source of mental health prevention.
Bibliography Citation
Hernandez, Daphne C., Emily Pressler and Cassandra J. Dorius. "The Role of Boomerang Fathers in Adolescent Female Depression." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1285-1299.
57. Hernandez, Daphne C.
Pressler, Emily
Dorius, Cassandra J.
Mitchell, Katherine Stamps
Does Family Instability Make Girls Fat? Gender Differences Between Instability and Weight
Journal of Marriage and Family 76,1 (February 2014): 175-190.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12080/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Body Mass Index (BMI); Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Life Course; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Instability; Menarche; Obesity; Parents, Single; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem; Weight

Data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Young Adult file were used to explore the relationship between the number of family structure transitions experienced from birth to age 18 and weight status in young adulthood. This was done by testing both linear risk and threshold effect models by gender (N = 3,447). The findings suggest that a linear risk approach best describes the relationship between family instability during childhood and weight status in young adulthood. Specifically, the cumulative family structure transitions children experienced from birth to age 18 place females, but not males, at greater risk for being overweight/obese in young adulthood. Sensitivity analyses indicated that cumulative family structure instability—and not formations or dissolutions separately—drove the main results. Birth order did not affect the findings. Increasing children's support systems during times of instability may reduce female children's risk of being overweight/obese as young adults.
Bibliography Citation
Hernandez, Daphne C., Emily Pressler, Cassandra J. Dorius and Katherine Stamps Mitchell. "Does Family Instability Make Girls Fat? Gender Differences Between Instability and Weight." Journal of Marriage and Family 76,1 (February 2014): 175-190.
58. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Secondary Data Analysis in Family Research
Journal of Marriage and Family 67,4 (November 2005): 891–907.
Also: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00182.x
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Family Studies

This article first provides an overview of the part that secondary data analysis plays in the field of family studies in the early 21st century. It addresses changes over time in the use of existing omnibus data sets and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The second part of the article focuses on the elements that make a study a "family" study. It describes sources of existing data and the process of selecting a data set. The third part presents special issues and concerns in using existing data, and the fourth part addresses the future of secondary data analysis in the field of family research.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L. "Secondary Data Analysis in Family Research." Journal of Marriage and Family 67,4 (November 2005): 891–907. A.
59. Huang, Chien-Chung
Han, Wen-Jui
Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,3 (August 2007): 69-72.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4622479
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Child Support; Contraception; Ethnic Differences; Fathers and Sons; Sexual Behavior

Strong child support enforcement requires fathers to take financial responsibility for their children and may also encourage more responsible sexual behavior. Using the 1997 – 2001 waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,272), this article examines the association between child support enforcement and the sexual activity of male adolescents. Stronger child support enforcement was associated with fewer sexual partners, less frequent sexual intercourse, and a higher likelihood of using contraceptive methods among adolescents who had had sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding data collection. The effects of child support enforcement were particularly strong for non-White adolescents and those living in high-poverty areas. These findings suggest that strengthening child support enforcement may be associated with reductions in some aspects of male adolescents' sexual activity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Huang, Chien-Chung and Wen-Jui Han. "Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,3 (August 2007): 69-72.
60. Hynes, Kathryn
Clarkberg, Marin
Women's Employment Patterns During Early Parenthood: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis
Journal of Marriage and Family 67,1 (February 2005): 222-240.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3600148
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Educational Attainment; Employment, History; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Parenthood

Research on women's employment and parenthood frequently focuses on the correlates and consequences of decisions at a particular time, such as a birth. This article applies a group-based trajectory method to examine women's employment trajectories across the period of early parenthood using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N= 2,093). We find that throughout early parenthood, women exhibit significant movement into and out of the labor force. Factors that typically predict women's employment status, such as age at first birth and education, are also good predictors of women's employment patterns. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research, particularly on the use of a static measure of women's or couples' employment status. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Hynes, Kathryn and Marin Clarkberg. "Women's Employment Patterns During Early Parenthood: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis." Journal of Marriage and Family 67,1 (February 2005): 222-240.
61. Kahn, Joan R.
Garcia-Manglano, Javier
Bianchi, Suzanne M.
The Motherhood Penalty at Midlife: Long-Term Effects of Children on Women's Careers
Journal of Marriage and Family 76,1 (February 2014): 56-72.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12086/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Life Course; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Occupational Status; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

The authors build on prior research on the motherhood wage penalty to examine whether the career penalties faced by mothers change over the life course. They broaden the focus beyond wages to also consider labor force participation and occupational status and use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women to model the changing impact of motherhood as women age from their 20s to their 50s (n = 4,730). They found that motherhood is “costly” to women's careers, but the effects on all 3 labor force outcomes attenuate at older ages. Children reduce women's labor force participation, but this effect is strongest when women are younger and is eliminated by the 40s and 50s. Mothers also seem able to regain ground in terms of occupational status. The wage penalty for having children varies by parity, persisting across the life course only for women who have 3 or more children.
Bibliography Citation
Kahn, Joan R., Javier Garcia-Manglano and Suzanne M. Bianchi. "The Motherhood Penalty at Midlife: Long-Term Effects of Children on Women's Careers." Journal of Marriage and Family 76,1 (February 2014): 56-72.
62. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Epstein, Jodie Levin
Nonstandard Work and Marital Instability: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1289-1300.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00765.x/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Characteristics; Marital Stability; Maternal Employment; Shift Workers; Unemployment; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

This article replicated and extended Harriet Presser's (2000) investigation of the linkages between nonstandard work and marital instability. We reexplored this question using data from a sample of 2,893 newlywed couples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and using different analytic techniques. In contrast to Presser, we found that the key dimension of husbands' and wives' employment was nonemployment. Similar to Presser, we found that wives' working of fixed night shifts increased the risk of divorce, driven by the experience in marriages over 5 years in duration. However, we did not replicate Presser's finding that the effect is significant only among households with children; rather, wives' fixed night shifts were associated with divorce only among those without children.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest and Jodie Levin Epstein. "Nonstandard Work and Marital Instability: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1289-1300.
63. Kandel, Denise B.
Rosenbaum, Emily
Chen, Kevin
Impact of Maternal Drug Use and Life Experiences on Preadolescent Children Born to Teenage Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 56,2 (May 1994): 325-340.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353103
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Development; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Drug Use; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Structure; Marital Disruption; Mothers, Adolescent; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Education; Parenthood; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC)

The influence of maternal drug use and unconventional behavior on children's behavioral problems, cognitive functioning, and self-esteem is examined for children aged 8 and older born to adolescent mothers. Analyses are based on 581 unique mother-child dyads from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Causal model indicate that maternal attitudes and experiences as an adolescent or young adult (having been raised in a nonintact home, self-esteem, and delinquency) and current family structure have different consequences for the home environments provided for girls and boys. These same maternal characteristics also directly influence children's externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors, and feelings of self-worth. The effect of maternal drug use on children is indirect and operates through increasing the risk of marital disruption.
Bibliography Citation
Kandel, Denise B., Emily Rosenbaum and Kevin Chen. "Impact of Maternal Drug Use and Life Experiences on Preadolescent Children Born to Teenage Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 56,2 (May 1994): 325-340.
64. Kerckhoff, Alan C.
Parrow, Alan A.
The Effect of Early Marriage on the Educational Attainment of Young Men
Journal of Marriage and Family 41,1 (February 1979): 97-107.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351735
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; High School; I.Q.; Marriage; Teenagers

In this study, the effects of early marriage are assessed within a multivariate model of educational attainment. Seven separate subsamples of young males are analyzed with respect to race and age, who were unmarried and in school in 1966. By 1970, those in the younger age cohorts of both races who had married in the interim had significantly less education, even after the effects of a powerful set of other predictive variables are considered. Prior educational attainment as well as age at marriage are important variables; age at marriage appears to have a depressing effect for those in high school at age 17 but not for those in college at the same age.
Bibliography Citation
Kerckhoff, Alan C. and Alan A. Parrow. "The Effect of Early Marriage on the Educational Attainment of Young Men." Journal of Marriage and Family 41,1 (February 1979): 97-107.
65. King, Valarie
Variation in the Consequences of Nonresident Father Involvement for Children's Well-Being
Journal of Marriage and Family 56,4 (November 1994): 963-972.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353606
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Support; Children; Children, Well-Being; Family Environment; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Hispanics; Marital Status; Modeling; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC)

Using data from subsets ranging in size from 777 to 1,501 children from the child supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a series of multivariate regression models were tested to determine whether the effects of nonresident father involvement on child well-being vary by race, mother's education, or whether the child was born within or outside of marriage. The results show few interactive effects, and no identifiable set of conditions emerged that increased or reduced the importance of father involvement for child well-being.
Bibliography Citation
King, Valarie. "Variation in the Consequences of Nonresident Father Involvement for Children's Well-Being." Journal of Marriage and Family 56,4 (November 1994): 963-972.
66. Kobrin, Frances E.
Waite, Linda J.
Effects of Childhood Family Structure on the Transition to Marriage
Journal of Marriage and Family 46,4 (1984): 807-816.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352528
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Children; Divorce; Family Influences; Family Structure; Marriage; Racial Differences; Teenagers

Increasing rates of divorce mean that many more children than in the past spend part of their childhood in single- parent families. Using data from two national longitudinal surveys of young people, this study explored the effects of family structure during the teenage years on the likelihood of eventual marriage for both males and females. Results suggested that the family patterns children experience when they are growing up continue to have an impact on their own patterns of family formation. However, this effect appeared to affect sons and daughters and blacks and whites somewhat differently. For example, a history of family instability affected black males more fundamentally than black females in that it reduced the overall chances of marriage. The social consequences of nonmarriage are discussed, as are the limitations of the study. Finally, emphasis is placed on the need to examine more broadly the impact of childhood experiences on other aspects of adjustment in adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Kobrin, Frances E. and Linda J. Waite. "Effects of Childhood Family Structure on the Transition to Marriage." Journal of Marriage and Family 46,4 (1984): 807-816.
67. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Staying Out of Trouble: Community Resources and Problem Behavior Among High-Risk Adolescents
Journal of Marriage and Family 62,2 (May 2000): 449-464.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00449.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Behavioral Problems; Census of Population; Children, Behavioral Development; Deviance; Family Environment; Family Income; Family Resources; Family Structure; Mobility; Neighborhood Effects; Residence; Risk-Taking; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

This research considers how community resources affect adolescent risk-taking attitudes and problem behavior. Data from the 1990 United States Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Merged Mother-Child files are merged to form a sample of 860 adolescents (aged 14-18 yrs) in 1994. Among these high-risk adolescents, selected community resources have significant associations with adolescent outcomes. Residential stability decreases both adolescent risk-taking attitudes and aggressive behavior, regardless of the level of disadvantage present within the community. Higher quality schools, as perceived by mothers, are environments in which adolescents are less likely to get into trouble, even controlling for attributes of the adolescent's family situation. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. "Staying Out of Trouble: Community Resources and Problem Behavior Among High-Risk Adolescents." Journal of Marriage and Family 62,2 (May 2000): 449-464.
68. Kramer, Karen
Kramer, Amit
At-Home Father Families in the United States: Gender Ideology, Human Capital, and Unemployment
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1315-1331.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12327/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Care; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Fathers; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Human Capital; Unemployment

The rising population of stay-at-home fathers is driven by economic conditions, human capital, and changing gender ideology. When unemployment rates increase, women become breadwinners in these families. The growing gender education gap is a crucial factor in spousal work and caregiving arrangements. The authors test these propositions by tracking individuals using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth and the Current Population Survey. They find that unemployment rates are associated with having both caregiving and unable-to-work stay-at-home father families and that the probability that households choose stay-at-home father arrangements is greater when mothers have more education than fathers. Finally, individual differences in gender ideology have strong effects on the probability that families choose a caregiving stay-at-home father family structure.
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Karen and Amit Kramer. "At-Home Father Families in the United States: Gender Ideology, Human Capital, and Unemployment." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1315-1331.
69. Levine, Judith A.
Emery, Clifton R.
Pollack, Harold
The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,1 (February 2007): 105-122.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00348.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Age at First Intercourse; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Behavioral Development; Drug Use; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Progress; Substance Use

Children born to early child bearers are more likely than other children to display problem behaviors or poor academic performance, but it is unclear whether early childbearing plays a causal role in these outcomes. Using multiple techniques to control for background factors, we analyze 2,908 young children and 1,736 adolescents and young adults in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults (CNLSY79) data sets to examine whether early childbearing causes children's outcomes. We find evidence that teen childbearing plays no causal role in children's test scores and in some behavioral outcomes of adolescents. For other behavioral outcomes, we find that different methodologies produce differing results. We thus suggest caution in drawing conclusions about early parenthood's overarching effect.
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Judith A., Clifton R. Emery and Harold Pollack. "The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,1 (February 2007): 105-122.
70. Levine, Judith A.
Pollack, Harold
Comfort, Maureen E.
Academic and Behavioral Outcomes Among the Children of Young Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 63,2 (May 2001): 355-369.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00355.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Childbearing; Children, Well-Being; Family Background; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Truancy

In this article, we use newly available data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate the effects of early motherhood on academic and behavioral outcomes for children born to early childbearers. We find that early motherhood's strong negative correlation with children's test scores and positive correlation with children's grade repetition is almost entirely explained by pre-birth individual and family background factors of teen mothers themselves. However, early childbearing is associated indirectly with reduced children's test scores through its linkage to family size (and thus to child birth order). We find a different pattern in predicting fighting, truancy, early sexual activity, and other problem behaviors among adolescent and young adult off-spring. For these behaviors, maternal age-at-first-birth remains an important risk-factor even after controlling for a wide range of background factors and maternal characteristics. These results highlight the diverse pathways through which teen parenting might influence subsequent child well-being and social performance.
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Judith A., Harold Pollack and Maureen E. Comfort. "Academic and Behavioral Outcomes Among the Children of Young Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 63,2 (May 2001): 355-369.
71. Lichter, Daniel T.
Qian, Zhenchao
Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course
Journal of Marriage and Family 70,4 (November 2008): 861-878.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00532.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Divorce; Life Course; Marriage

Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper tracks the experiences of serial cohabitors . Results indicate that only a minority of cohabiting women (about 15% - 20%) were involved in multiple cohabitations. Serial cohabitations were overrepresented among economically disadvantaged groups, especially those with low income and education. They also were less likely than single-instance cohabiting unions to end in marriage rather than dissolve. If serial cohabitors married, divorce rates were very high -- more than twice as high as for women who cohabited only with their eventual husbands. The results suggest the need to balance the government's current preoccupation with marriage promotion with greater support of "at risk" unions that marriage promotion initiatives have helped create. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Marriage & Family is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Lichter, Daniel T. and Zhenchao Qian. "Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course." Journal of Marriage and Family 70,4 (November 2008): 861-878.
72. Lin, I-Fen
Mother and Daughter Reports About Upward Transfers
Journal of Marriage and Family 70,3 (August 2008): 815-827.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00524.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Caregivers, Adult Children; Mothers and Daughters; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Using 619 mother-daughter dyads interviewed in the 1997 National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women, this study examines the assistance that adult daughters provide to their mothers and its covariates. Mothers and daughters have low levels of agreement on transfers. Using mothers' reports identifies different covariates of transfers than using daughters' reports. After discrepancies between mother and daughter reports are controlled for, only 3 out of 17 covariates examined are related to transfers, including mothers' widowhood status, the number of mothers' difficulties with activities of daily living, and the distance between mother and daughter residences. These findings suggest that without controlling for discrepancies between mother and daughter reports, the covariates of upward transfers may be inaccurately identified. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Marriage & Family is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Lin, I-Fen. "Mother and Daughter Reports About Upward Transfers." Journal of Marriage and Family 70,3 (August 2008): 815-827.
73. Lloyd, Kim Marie
Latinas' Transition to First Marriage: An Examination of Four Theoretical Perspectives
Journal of Marriage and Family 68,4 (November 2006): 993-1014.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00309.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Ethnic Differences; Event History; Hispanic Studies; Human Capital; Marriage

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and census data are used to examine the effect of both individual- and contextual-level determinants on Latinas' transition to first marriage (n = 745). Hypotheses derived from 4 leading theories of marriage timing are evaluated. Discrete-time event-history models that control for clustering within Labor Market Areas suggest that foreign-born Latina and Anglo women have virtually identical marriage trajectories. Analyses further demonstrate that Latinas' individual human capital, and residence in areas characterized by a relatively large supply of single foreign-born Latino men, are associated with higher probabilities of marriage, whereas women's aggregate economic opportunities are correlated with the predicted postponement of first marriage. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Lloyd, Kim Marie. "Latinas' Transition to First Marriage: An Examination of Four Theoretical Perspectives." Journal of Marriage and Family 68,4 (November 2006): 993-1014.
74. Looze, Jessica
Young Women's Job Mobility: The Influence of Motherhood Status and Education
Journal of Marriage and Family 76,4 (August 2014): 693-709.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12122/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Maternal Employment; Mobility, Job; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages

Previous research has found that women who become mothers in their 20s face larger wage penalties compared to women who delay childbearing until their 30s. Explanations for this have focused on the consequences of employment breaks early in one's career and reduced opportunities in the workplace following the birth of a child. In this article, the author uses panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 4,566) to examine another possible explanation: differences in patterns of and wage returns to job mobility. She found that young mothers, relative to childless women, make fewer wage-enhancing voluntary job separations and often receive lower wage returns for these separations. Educational attainment exacerbates these patterns, largely to the disadvantage of women with less education.
Bibliography Citation
Looze, Jessica. "Young Women's Job Mobility: The Influence of Motherhood Status and Education." Journal of Marriage and Family 76,4 (August 2014): 693-709.
75. Lopoo, Leonard M.
Western, Bruce
Incarceration and the Formation and Stability of Marital Unions
Journal of Marriage and Family 67,3 (August 2005): 721-734.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00165.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Event History; Incarceration/Jail; Marriage; Racial Differences; Racial Studies

Rising imprisonment rates and declining marriage rates among low-education African Americans motivate an analysis of the effects of incarceration on marriage. An event history analysis of 2,041 unmarried men from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 suggests that men are unlikely to marry in the years they serve in prison. A separate analysis of 2,762 married men shows that incarceration during marriage significantly increases the risk of divorce or separation. We simulate aggregate marriage rates using estimates from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and find that the prevalence of marriage would change little if incarceration rates were reduced.
Bibliography Citation
Lopoo, Leonard M. and Bruce Western. "Incarceration and the Formation and Stability of Marital Unions." Journal of Marriage and Family 67,3 (August 2005): 721-734.
76. Lundquist, Jennifer Michelle Hickes
Smith, Herbert L.
Family Formation Among Women in the U.S. Military: Evidence from the NLSY
Journal of Marriage and Family 67,1 (February 2005): 1-13.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2005.00001.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Formation; Fertility; Marriage; Military Personnel; Military Service; Propensity Scores

Although female employment is associated with lower levels of completed fertility in the civilian world, we find family formation rates among U.S. military women to be comparatively high. We compare enlisted women with civilian women using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N= 3,547), the only data set to measure simultaneously the nuptiality and fertility of both populations. Using propensity score matching, we show that the fertility effect derives primarily from early marriage in the military, a surprisingly 'family-friendly' institution. This shows that specific organizational and economic incentives in a working environment may offset the more widespread contemporary social and economic factors that otherwise depress marriage and fertility. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Lundquist, Jennifer Michelle Hickes and Herbert L. Smith. "Family Formation Among Women in the U.S. Military: Evidence from the NLSY." Journal of Marriage and Family 67,1 (February 2005): 1-13.
77. Luster, Thomas
Boger, Robert
Hannan, Kristi
Infant Affect and Home Environment
Journal of Marriage and Family 55,3 (August 1993): 651-661.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353346
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Educational Attainment; Family Environment; General Assessment; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Infants; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem; Temperament

This paper concerns the relation between infant affect and quality of the home environment. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to test the hypothesis that infant irritability is most likely to be negatively correlated with the quality of the home environment in families which would be considered to be "at risk" based on characteristics of the mother (e.g., low self-esteem or low maternal intelligence) or contextual characteristics (e.g., living in poverty or having several other children to care for). Our second hypothesis is that positive affect on the part of the infant is more strongly related to the quality of care the infant receives in high-risk environments than in low-risk environments. In other words, a cheerful disposition may be a protective factor in high-risk environments. Little support was found for the first hypothesis. Infant irritability was negatively correlated with the quality of the home environment in both high-risk and low-risk families. Support was found for the second hypothesis among infants who were greater than 12 months of age.
Bibliography Citation
Luster, Thomas, Robert Boger and Kristi Hannan. "Infant Affect and Home Environment." Journal of Marriage and Family 55,3 (August 1993): 651-661.
78. Luster, Thomas
Oh, Su Min
Correlates of Male Adolescents Carrying Handguns Among Their Peers
Journal of Marriage and Family 63,3 (August 2001): 714-726.
Also: http://ncfr.allenpress.com/ncfronline/?request=get-abstract&issn=0022-2445&volume=063&issue=03&page=0714
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Family Studies; Handguns, carrying or using; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 were used to examine factors associated with carrying a handgun among adolescent males. We expected that carrying a handgun would be associated with characteristics of the individual and with aspects of the contexts that are important for adolescents, such as the family, the peer group, the school setting, and the neighborhood. Consistent with these expectations, we found that adolescent males were more likely than their peers to carry handguns if they engaged in other problematic behaviors, had witnessed someone else being shot or shot at, and were involved in gangs. Boys under the age of 15 were less likely to carry a handgun if they were closely monitored by their mothers and respected their mothers, and they were more likely to carry a handgun if they frequently heard gunshots in their neighborhood or had a relative or friend who was a gang member. Males who were 15 and older were more likely to carry a handgun if they associated with peers who engaged in problematic behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Luster, Thomas and Su Min Oh. "Correlates of Male Adolescents Carrying Handguns Among Their Peers." Journal of Marriage and Family 63,3 (August 2001): 714-726.
79. Macmillan, Ross
Copher, Ronda
Families in the Life Course: Interdependency of Roles, Role Configurations, and Pathways
Journal of Marriage and Family 67,4 (November 2005): 858-879.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00180.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Family Studies; Life Course; Modeling; Parenthood

Families are central in the unfolding life course. They have both internal and external dynamics that reflect and characterize the modern life span, and a life course perspective has particular utility for understanding the role and implications of families for individuals and society. The purpose of this paper is 3-fold. First, we offer a family life course perspective that delineates core concepts of roles, role configurations, and pathways, specifies the links between them, and highlights the importance of linked lives and structural context. Second, we elaborate a latent class approach for modeling the multilayered dynamic interdependencies that characterize modern family life. Third, we provide an empirical example by considering the timing of childbearing, teen parenthood, and its place in the transition to adulthood using women's data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 2,191). We conclude by discussing further avenues of family research that are enhanced with a life course approach and complementary latent structure methodology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Macmillan, Ross and Ronda Copher. "Families in the Life Course: Interdependency of Roles, Role Configurations, and Pathways." Journal of Marriage and Family 67,4 (November 2005): 858-879.
80. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Family Structure States and Transitions: Associations with Children's Well-Being During Middle Childhood.
Journal of Marriage and Family 71,3 (August 2009): 575-591.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00620.x/pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Family Structure; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Using longitudinal data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth ( N = 3,862) and Hierarchical Linear Models, we estimated associations of family structure states and transitions with children's achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. Results suggest that residing in a single-mother family was associated with small increases in behavior problems and decreases in achievement and that residing in a social-father family was associated with small increases in behavior problems. Family structure transitions, in general, were associated with increases in behavior problems and marginally associated with decreases in achievement. Transitioning to a single-mother family was associated with increases in behavior problems, whereas transitioning to a social-father family was associated with decreases in reading achievement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Family Structure States and Transitions: Associations with Children's Well-Being During Middle Childhood." Journal of Marriage and Family 71,3 (August 2009): 575-591.
81. Mandara, Jelani
Rogers, Sheba Y.
Zinbarg, Richard E.
The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use
Journal of Marriage and Family 73,3 (June 2011): 557–569.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2011.00832.x/full
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Poverty; Drug Use; Family Structure; Neighborhood Effects; Risk-Taking; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found, family structure was not related to female adolescents' marijuana use. For young men, being raised with both biological parents was associated with less marijuana use throughout adolescence compared to those whose mothers never married, divorced early and never remarried, or divorced and remarried. Some support for the model was also found. We concluded that being raised without the presence of a biological father is a risk factor for marijuana use among young men, but African American young women from single-parent households have unique resources that protect them from marijuana use. Understanding those resources may offer insight into prevention programs for other youth.
Bibliography Citation
Mandara, Jelani, Sheba Y. Rogers and Richard E. Zinbarg. "The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use." Journal of Marriage and Family 73,3 (June 2011): 557–569. A.
82. Maret, Elizabeth G.
Finlay, Barbara
The Distribution of Household Labor Among Women in Dual-Earner Families
Journal of Marriage and Family 46,2 (May 1984): 357-364.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352467
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Dual-Career Families; Earnings, Wives; Family Influences; Husbands, Income

This paper reports an empirical investigation of the hypothesis that women in dual earner families maintain full responsibility for domestic tasks involving care of the home and children. Three specific questions are addressed: (1) is there variability in the extent of home responsibilities among women in dual earner families? (2) has there been significant change in these responsibilities in recent years? and (3) what are the correlates of the observed variability? Based on data from the NLS of Mature Women, the findings indicate substantial variability as well as some decrease in the extent of home responsibilities among women in dual earner families. The major correlates of the observed variability are race, place of residence, and earned income of self and of husband. These variables account for 13 percent of individual level variation in domestic responsibilities among employed married respondents with dependent children.
Bibliography Citation
Maret, Elizabeth G. and Barbara Finlay. "The Distribution of Household Labor Among Women in Dual-Earner Families." Journal of Marriage and Family 46,2 (May 1984): 357-364.
83. Markowitz, Anna J.
Ryan, Rebecca M.
Father Absence and Adolescent Depression and Delinquency: A Comparison of Siblings Approach
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1300-1314.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12343/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; CESD (Depression Scale); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Fathers, Absence; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Siblings

Although associations between having a nonresident father and increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors in adolescence have been well documented, research has yet to establish the plausible causality of these links or identify underlying mechanisms. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 - Young Adult survey, this study addresses these questions by comparing the depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior of siblings discordant for age at father departure. Findings indicate that father departure later in childhood is associated with increased adolescent delinquency but not depressive symptoms, whereas early childhood father departure was not associated with adolescent outcomes. Both findings suggests that parental monitoring—rather than socialization or emotional distress—may account for links between father departure and adolescent delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Markowitz, Anna J. and Rebecca M. Ryan. "Father Absence and Adolescent Depression and Delinquency: A Comparison of Siblings Approach." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1300-1314.
84. Maroto, Michelle Lee
When the Kids Live at Home: Coresidence, Parental Assets, and Economic Insecurity
Journal of Marriage and Family 79,4 (August 2017): 1041-1059.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12407/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Assets; Coresidence; Economic Changes/Recession; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Savings

This study uses National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort data from 1994 through 2012 (N = 16,108 person-years, 4,671 individuals) to investigate how coresidence with adult children influences asset levels among parents. It applies hybrid mixed effects regression models that partition between- and within-person variation to estimate parental savings and financial assets over time and across different households. The results suggest that coresidence with adult children led to decreases in parental assets and savings. In the years in which their children lived at home, parents held 24% less in financial assets and 23% less in savings when compared with the years when adult children were not present. By expanding previous research that shows a relationship between increasing economic insecurity, limited wealth, and the rise in coresidence among young adults, this study also offers broader implications for the interconnectivity of financial hardship across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "When the Kids Live at Home: Coresidence, Parental Assets, and Economic Insecurity." Journal of Marriage and Family 79,4 (August 2017): 1041-1059.
85. Marsiglio, William
Mott, Frank L.
Does Wanting to Become Pregnant with a First Child Affect Subsequent Maternal Behaviors and Infant Birth Weight?
Journal of Marriage and Family 50,4 (November 1988): 1023-1036.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352112
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Childbearing; Deviance; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Race; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Urbanization/Urban Living; Wantedness

Using data from the NLSY, the authors examined the relationship between whether or not women wanted to become pregnant with their first child, and their subsequent maternal behaviors and infant\'s birth weight. Fifty-five percent of the sample wanted to become pregnant when they did. Being a black or younger mother was associated with below average levels of pregnancy wantedness, while living in an urban area was positively associated with wantedness. In addition, it was found that while wantedness was related to most of the maternal behaviors in a bivariate context, age at childbearing and race tended to be responsible for these relationships. In a multivariate context, women who wanted their pregnancy were more likely to initiate prenatal care early in their pregnancy and more likely to gain 50 or more pounds during pregnancy. However, wantedness was not a significant predictor of: alcohol or smoking behavior, low weight gain by the mother during pregnancy, her infant\'s birth weight, whether she ever breastfed, or whether she took her infant for wellcare soon after birth.
Bibliography Citation
Marsiglio, William and Frank L. Mott. "Does Wanting to Become Pregnant with a First Child Affect Subsequent Maternal Behaviors and Infant Birth Weight?" Journal of Marriage and Family 50,4 (November 1988): 1023-1036.
86. McCartney, Kathleen
Rosenthal, Saul
Maternal Employment Should Be Studied Within Social Ecologies
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1103-1107.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Child Care; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Shyness; Temperament

An exchange on Maternal Employment and Young Children's Adjustment. The infant day care controversy began with a provocative paper by Belsky (1986), in which he expressed concerns about the developmental risks associated with extensive nonmaternal care. Critics responded to Belsky's claims (e.g., ClarkeStewart, 1988, 1989; Phillips, McCartney, Scarr, and Howes, 1987; Richters and Zahn-Waxler, 1988) and expressed two methodological criticisms. First, the studies upon which Belsky's claims rested were mostly nonexperimental; potential third variables related to extensive nonmaternal care seemed likely. Second, in virtually none of the studies did researchers consider the role of quality of child care (for an exception, see McCartney, Scarr, Phillips, Grajek, and Schwarz, 1982).
Bibliography Citation
McCartney, Kathleen and Saul Rosenthal. "Maternal Employment Should Be Studied Within Social Ecologies." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1103-1107.
87. McClendon, David
Crossing Boundaries: "Some College," Schools, and Educational Assortative Mating
Journal of Marriage and Family 80,4 (August 2018): 812-825.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jomf.12482
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Enrollment; Marriage; Post-Secondary Transcripts; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

As more Americans delay marriage and meet partners online, schools may be less important for educational assortative mating. At the same time, social ties formed during college may continue to shape partner choice later in adulthood. This study focuses on young adults with "some college, no degree" to see what, if any, marriage‐market benefit is gained from exposure to highly educated social networks in college. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, including newly collected postsecondary transcripts, the author finds young adults with "some college" are more likely than their less‐educated peers to marry a college graduate, especially if they attended a 4‐year school, but young adults with bachelor's degrees still hold an advantage, even after controlling for duration of schooling. The results support the role of schools in shaping opportunities to meet partners but highlight the value of college degrees on the marriage market.
Bibliography Citation
McClendon, David. "Crossing Boundaries: "Some College," Schools, and Educational Assortative Mating." Journal of Marriage and Family 80,4 (August 2018): 812-825.
88. McClendon, David
Religion, Marriage Markets, and Assortative Mating in the United States
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1399-1421.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12353/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Event History; Geocoded Data; Marriage; Religion

As interfaith marriage has become more common, religion is thought to be less important for sorting partners. Nevertheless, prior studies on religious assortative mating use samples of prevailing marriages, which miss how local marriage markets shape both partner selection and marriage timing. Drawing on search theory and data from 8,699 young adults (ages 18-31 years) in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, the author examined the association between the concentration of coreligionists in local marriage markets and marriage timing and partner selection using event history methods. Religious concentration is associated with higher odds of transitioning to marriage and religious homogamy (conditional on marriage) for women and men at older ages (24-31 years) but not at younger ages (18-23 years). The association was also stronger for non-Hispanic Whites when compared with other racial and ethnic groups. The findings indicate that religion remains relevant in sorting partners for many young adults in today's marriage market.
Bibliography Citation
McClendon, David. "Religion, Marriage Markets, and Assortative Mating in the United States." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1399-1421.
89. McLaughlin, Diane K.
Lichter, Daniel T.
Poverty and the Marital Behavior of Young Women
Journal of Marriage and Family 59,3 (August 1997): 582-594.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353947
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Employment; Marriage; Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare; Women

Marriage provides one route out of poverty and long-term reliance on welfare, yet little is known about the factors that encourage or impede marriage among poor, young women. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine first marriage transitions for poor young women and young women who are not poor. We find that the latter are more likely to marry than poor women, but poor women who have jobs are more likely to marry than those who do not have jobs. Poor Black women have the same probability of marriage as poor White women, after controlling for differences in economic independence, mate availability, and family culture and living arrangements. The receipt of welfare was not associated with marriage propensity for either poor women or women who are not poor. Lower mate availability and higher average welfare payments in a local area depressed the probability of marriage among poor women but had no influence on the probability of marriage among women who are not poor.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Diane K. and Daniel T. Lichter. "Poverty and the Marital Behavior of Young Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 59,3 (August 1997): 582-594.
90. McLaughlin, Diane K.
Lichter, Daniel T.
Johnston, Gail M.
Some Women Marry Young: Transitions to First Marriage in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas
Journal of Marriage and Family 55,4 (November 1993): 827-838.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352765
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Demography; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Rural/Urban Differences

We examine the extent to which the timing of first marriage differs for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan young women. Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are matched to local marriage market conditions to estimate discrete time hazard models of transitions to first marriage. Young nonmetropolitan women marry at a younger age than metropolitan women, a difference only partially explained by variations in the attributes of the young women, their families, and the local marriage market. The effects of receipt of public assistance and local mate availability on the transition to first marriage differ for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan young women.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Diane K., Daniel T. Lichter and Gail M. Johnston. "Some Women Marry Young: Transitions to First Marriage in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas." Journal of Marriage and Family 55,4 (November 1993): 827-838.
91. McLaughlin, Steven D.
Differential Patterns of Female Labor-force Participation Surrounding the First Birth
Journal of Marriage and Family 44,2 (May 1982): 407-420.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351549
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Fertility; First Birth; Well-Being; Work Experience; Work History

Five years of panel data from a national sample of Young Women age 14 to 24 are used to examine patterns of female labor-force participation surrounding the birth of the first child. It is argued that declines in labor-force participation prior to the first birth and increases in participation following the birth will vary by education, economic well-being, and prebirth work experience. In each case the differential patterns of participation surrounding the first birth conform to the hypotheses. A case is then made for the importance of recognizing the conditional nature of this dynamic relationship.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Steven D. "Differential Patterns of Female Labor-force Participation Surrounding the First Birth." Journal of Marriage and Family 44,2 (May 1982): 407-420.
92. McLaughlin, Steven D.
Micklin, Michael
The Timing of the First Birth and Changes in Personal Efficacy
Journal of Marriage and Family 45,1 (February 1983): 47-55.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351294
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): First Birth; Life Course; Psychological Effects; Teenagers

The authors examine the psychological consequences of first birth from a life-course perspective. The first birth is seen as a major life event, subject to normative constraints regarding its timing. It is hypothesized that too early a first birth has negative psychological consequences for the mother in the form of a lowered sense of personal efficacy. Data are drawn from the NLS Young Women Cohort. Results indicate that having a first birth before age 19 reduces personal efficacy, regardless of original differences in efficacy, age, education, or parental socioeconomic status.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Steven D. and Michael Micklin. "The Timing of the First Birth and Changes in Personal Efficacy." Journal of Marriage and Family 45,1 (February 1983): 47-55.
93. McLoyd, Vonnie C.
Smith, Julia
Physical Discipline and Behavior Problems in African American, European American, and Hispanic Children: Emotional Support as a Moderator
Journal of Marriage and Family 64,1 (February 2002): 40-53.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00040.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Punishment, Corporal; Racial Differences

Using data collected over a 6-year period on a sample of 1,039 European American children, 550 African American children, and 401 Hispanic children from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study assessed whether maternal emotional support of the child moderates the relation between spanking and behavior problems. Children were 4-5 years of age in the first of 4 waves of data used (1988, 1990, 1992, 1994). At each wave, mothers reported their use of spanking and rated their children's behavior problems. Maternal emotional support of the child was based on interviewer observations conducted as part of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. For each of the 3 racial-ethnic groups, spanking predicted an increase in the level of problem behavior over time, controlling for income-needs ratio and maternal emotional support. Maternal emotional support moderated the link between spanking and problem behavior. Spanking was associated with an increase in behavior problems over time in the context of low levels of emotional support, but not in the context of high levels of emotional support. This pattern held for all 3 racial-ethnic groups.
Bibliography Citation
McLoyd, Vonnie C. and Julia Smith. "Physical Discipline and Behavior Problems in African American, European American, and Hispanic Children: Emotional Support as a Moderator." Journal of Marriage and Family 64,1 (February 2002): 40-53.
94. McNamee, Catherine
Amato, Paul R.
King, Valarie
Nonresident Father Involvement with Children and Divorced Women's Likelihood of Remarriage
Journal of Marriage and Family 76,4 (August 2014): 862-874.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12118/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Support; Divorce; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Mothers; Remarriage

Although remarriage is a relatively common transition, little is known about how nonresident fathers affect divorced mothers' entry into remarriage. Using the 1979–2010 rounds of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979, the authors examined the likelihood of remarriage for divorced mothers (N = 882) by nonresident father contact with children and payment of child support. The findings suggest that maternal remarriage is positively associated with nonresident father contact but not related to receiving child support.
Bibliography Citation
McNamee, Catherine, Paul R. Amato and Valarie King. "Nonresident Father Involvement with Children and Divorced Women's Likelihood of Remarriage." Journal of Marriage and Family 76,4 (August 2014): 862-874.
95. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,2 (May 1991): 417-431.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352909
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children; Children, Home Environment; Family Influences; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Mothers; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

This paper examines determinants of the home environments that employed mothers provide for their young children and investigates the impact of current employment experiences, current family conditions, and maternal and child characteristics in shaping children's home environments. Using data from the NLSY 1986 Mother-Child Supplement, the authors study 795 employed mothers with a child aged three through six years old. As work socialization theories suggest, it was found that the occupational complexity of mother's work positively affects the home environments mothers provide for their children. In addition, larger family size produces less optimal child environments. The personal resources that mothers bring to their child-rearing--self esteem, locus of control, educational attainment, and age--also have significant effects on children's home environments. Given the importance of home environment for child cognitive and socioemotional outcomes, these findings suggest pathways by which maternal resources and current occupational and family environments have intergenerational repercussions.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,2 (May 1991): 417-431.
96. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Social Sources of Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions
Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 69-84.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353817
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Children, Home Environment; Family Background; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Job Status; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Dissolution; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Race; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Attainment; Parental Influences; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

This study investigates change in children's home environments as a function of change in parental occupational and family conditions. It uses data from the 1986 and 1988 mother-child supplements to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) on 1,403 mothers with children aged 3 through 6 in 1986 to estimate multivariate regression equations predicting changes in home environments as a function of intervening occupational and family changes. All analyses control for parents' background and education, maternal ethnicity, child gender, and child health. The birth of additional children, marital termination, and mother remaining unmarried have generally negative effects on children's home environments. The effect of mothers' beginning employment varies depending on the occupational complexity of her employment: Beginning a job that is low in complexity is associated with worsening home environments. The generally negative effect of remaining unmarried also varies depending on mothers' employment status and the quality of employment, being more positive for mothers employed at higher wages and more negative for mothers who remain without employment.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Social Sources of Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions." Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 69-84.
97. Meyer, Daniel R.
Cancian, Maria
Economic Well-Being Following an Exit from Aid to Families with Dependent Children
Journal of Marriage and Family 60,2 (May 1998): 479-492.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353863
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Economic Well-Being; Employment; Marital Status; Poverty; Welfare; Well-Being; Women

Much previous research has focused on how long families receive Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) before leaving the program and whether and when they return to the program following an exit. Few quantitative studies have looked at broader indicators of the economic well-being of those who have exited AFDC. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to trace poverty status and welfare use in the 5 years following an exit from AFDC. We find substantial diversity in economic well-being. Women who were working when they exited from AFDC do better, and, to a lesser extent, so do those who were married or had a partner when they exited. Higher levels of success are achieved by women with higher earning potential, including those with higher education and those with fewer children or older children. Although same women achieve modest levels of economic success, 41% remain poor even 5 years after an exit from AFDC. Our results highlight the distinction between leaving welfare and leaving poverty and suggest that welfare reforms targeted at reducing caseloads may do relatively little to enhance broader measures of economic success.
Bibliography Citation
Meyer, Daniel R. and Maria Cancian. "Economic Well-Being Following an Exit from Aid to Families with Dependent Children." Journal of Marriage and Family 60,2 (May 1998): 479-492.
98. Miller, Jane E.
Davis, Diane
Poverty History, Marital History, and Quality of Children's Home Environments
Journal of Marriage and Family 59,4 (November 1997): 996-1007.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353798
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Marital Stability; Maternal Employment; Poverty

Analyses of the consequences of poverty often treat poor children as a single, homogeneous group. We study relations among depth or timing of poverty, mother's marital history, and quality of the home environment for children aged 6-9, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. HOME scores increased markedly with income up to three times the poverty line, particularly for cognitive stimulation. The benefits of having a married mother were larger among children who were not poor than among poor children, particularly for emotional support. Recent poverty was associated with deficits nearly as largely as long-term poverty. However, poverty early in life had no effect on HOME scores at assessment.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Jane E. and Diane Davis. "Poverty History, Marital History, and Quality of Children's Home Environments." Journal of Marriage and Family 59,4 (November 1997): 996-1007.
99. Morgan, Leslie A.
Economic Change at Mid-Life Widowhood: A Longitudinal Analysis
Journal of Marriage and Family 43,4 (November 1981): 899-907.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351346
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Family Resources; Marital Disruption; Poverty; Social Security; Well-Being; Widows

Widowhood has been found to have a negative association with the financial well-being of women in cross-sectional studies. In this study cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses are compared in a national sample of mature women widowed in mid-life. Results of the cross-sectional analysis replicate previous findings, but longitudinal comparisons fail to demonstrate a significant decline in income or financial well-being upon the death of spouses. The data also show the anticipated shift toward major reliance on earnings of the widow and Social Security benefits. Longitudinal findings suggest that many sample members were already poor prior to widowhood; consequently, widowhood is not the major cause of poverty in this group.
Bibliography Citation
Morgan, Leslie A. "Economic Change at Mid-Life Widowhood: A Longitudinal Analysis." Journal of Marriage and Family 43,4 (November 1981): 899-907.
100. Morgan, Leslie A.
Outcomes of Marital Separation: A Longitudinal Test of Predictors
Journal of Marriage and Family 50,2 (May 1988): 493-498.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352014
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Divorce; Education; Marital Stability; Marital Status; NLS Description

Studies of marital separation have often combined it with divorce or assumed that separation represents only a stepping stone to other marital statuses. This analysis examines three types of separation: those leading to divorce, those leading to reconciliation, and long-term unresolved separations. Demographic variables are used to predict which women, out of those reporting any period of separation during a 15-year longitudinal panel, move toward each outcome. Data from the NLS cohort of Mature Women from 1967-1982, analyzed with logit techniques, show important differences among these groups of separating women in education, income, and race.
Bibliography Citation
Morgan, Leslie A. "Outcomes of Marital Separation: A Longitudinal Test of Predictors." Journal of Marriage and Family 50,2 (May 1988): 493-498.
101. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Cherlin, Andrew J.
The Divorce Process and Young Children's Well-Being: A Prospective Analysis
Journal of Marriage and Family 57,3 (August 1995): 800-812.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353933
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Home Environment; Children, Preschool; Children, Well-Being; Divorce; Family Environment; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Disruption; Marital Dissolution; Marital Stability; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

A study was conducted to investigate the consequences of marital disruption for children's behavior problems and academic achievement. Data were drawn from the 1986 and 1988 waves of the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The findings reveal that, even before predisruption characteristics are introduced into the analysis, there is little effect of marital dissolution on girls. The negative impact of family disruption on boys' behavior problems can be partially attributed to downward mobility after the disruption.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Andrew J. Cherlin. "The Divorce Process and Young Children's Well-Being: A Prospective Analysis." Journal of Marriage and Family 57,3 (August 1995): 800-812.
102. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Coiro, Mary Jo
Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?
Journal of Marriage and Family 61,3 (August 1999): 626-637.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353565
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Home Environment; Children, Well-Being; Divorce; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Conflict; Marital Disruption; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage

A million children experience divorce each year and some policymakers argue for policies that would make it more difficult for parents to divorce. However being exposed to a high degree of marital conflict has been shown to place children at risk for a variety of problems. Using mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and a prospective design, this research explores two questions: Do the effects of marital disruption on child well-being vary for children whose parents leave high-conflict marriages versus low-conflict marriages? How do children fare when their high-conflict parents remain together? We find that separation and divorce are associated with increases in behavior problems in children, regardless of the level of conflict between parents. However in marriages that do not break up, high levels of marital conflict are associated with even greater increases in children's behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Mary Jo Coiro. "Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?" Journal of Marriage and Family 61,3 (August 1999): 626-637.
103. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Lichter, Daniel T.
Family Migration and Female Employment: The Problem of Underemployment among Migrant Married Women
Journal of Marriage and Family 50,1 (February 1988): 161-172.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352436
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Marital Status; Migration; Mobility; Part-Time Work; Underemployment; Unemployment

This article examines the effects of geographic mobility on changes in underemployment among married and single women. Data for the analysis are from the NLS of Young Women. Changes in various forms of underemployment for the 1968-73 and 1973-78 periods are measured with the Labor Utilization Framework of Clogg and Sullivan (1983). In general, the results reinforce findings from previous studies by showing that migration contributes to labor force nonparticipation and unemployment among married women. Migration also is linked to other forms of labor force hardship, including involuntary part-time employment and low pay. Contrary to expectations, migration also negatively affects employment adequacy among single women. The implications of these results for family decision- making models of migration are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Daniel T. Lichter. "Family Migration and Female Employment: The Problem of Underemployment among Migrant Married Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 50,1 (February 1988): 161-172.
104. Mott, Frank L.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does a Child's Gender Make a Difference?
Journal of Marriage and Family 59,1 (February 1997): 103-118.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353665
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Parental Influences; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem

A study was conducted to examine the shorter and longer implications of a father's absence from the home for the behavior of a national sample of 482 white children aged 9-11 years in 1990, focusing in particular on gender differences in these longer and shorter term effects. Findings indicate that more modest effects of a father's absence are found for girls than are for boys, although the gender variations typically are not statistically significant. In addition, contrary to expectations, this modest behavioral gender difference appears for both externalization and internalization subscores. Furthermore, boys and girls seem to react similarly and negatively to the presence of a new man in the home.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does a Child's Gender Make a Difference?" Journal of Marriage and Family 59,1 (February 1997): 103-118.
105. Mott, Frank L.
Moore, Sylvia F.
The Causes of Marital Disruption Among Young American Women: An Interdisciplinary Perspective
Journal of Marriage and Family 41,2 (May 1979): 355-365.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351702
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior; Children; Divorce; Family Influences; Husbands, Influence; Marital Disruption; Marriage; Welfare; Work Experience

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of young women aged 14 to 24 in 1968 who were interviewed annually over a five-year period, a study was conducted to examine the relative importance of economic and noneconomic factors in determining the likelihood of marital disruption for young black and white women. A literature review showed that previous research lacked an interdisciplinary approach. The major economic factors examined consisted of the husband's earnings, improvements in financial position, debt accumulation, welfare accessibility, the woman's income, and number of hours worked per week. The demographic and social variables considered were the woman's education, age, duration of marriage, childbearing, growing up in a broken home, and urban/rural residence. Also the ease with which one can obtain a divorce in the state of residence was analyzed. It was found that (1) direct economic factors are less important as determinants of marital breakdown than socioeconomic background and demographic factors; (2) educational attainment, coming from a broken home, age, and duration of marriage are the most influential determinants; (3) racial differences are not significant. Topics for future research on this subject are suggested. (ELG)
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and Sylvia F. Moore. "The Causes of Marital Disruption Among Young American Women: An Interdisciplinary Perspective." Journal of Marriage and Family 41,2 (May 1979): 355-365.
106. Mott, Frank L.
Moore, Sylvia F.
The Tempo of Remarriage Among Young American Women
Journal of Marriage and Family 45,2 (May 1983): 427-436.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351521
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Marital Dissolution; Remarriage; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work History

This study uses data from the NLS of Young Women to examine the socioeconomic determinants of the timing of remarriage during the first five years following divorce for young white women who divorced for the first time between l968 and l973. The study concludes that, while socioeconomic and demographic variables are only moderately useful predictors of remarriage, not taking into account the effects that background factors have on the pace of remarriage can lead to significant misstatements of the importance of various factors for interpreting the likelihood of remarriage.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and Sylvia F. Moore. "The Tempo of Remarriage Among Young American Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 45,2 (May 1983): 427-436.
107. Mueller, Charles W.
Campbell, Blair
Female Occupational Achievement and Marital Status: A Research Note
Journal of Marriage and Family 39,3 (August 1977): 587-593.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/350912
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Occupational Status; Occupations, Female; Work History

The influence of early occupational achievement of single never-married women on subsequent marital status is examined for a national sample of U.S. females, aged 30-44 in 1967. For white females, a positive relationship is observed between occupational achievement and the likelihood to remain single; for black females, the relationship is much weaker.
Bibliography Citation
Mueller, Charles W. and Blair Campbell. "Female Occupational Achievement and Marital Status: A Research Note." Journal of Marriage and Family 39,3 (August 1977): 587-593.
108. Nievar, M. Angela
Luster, Thomas
Developmental Processes in African American Families: An Application of McLoyd's Theoretical Model
Journal of Marriage and Family 68,2 (May 2006): 320-331.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00255.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Cognitive Development; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Conflict; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Racial Differences

In accordance with McLoyd's model of African American children's development, we examined the linkages among family income, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, parenting, and children's outcomes in early and middle childhood, using a sample of 591 African American children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Income during early childhood had a direct effect on behavior problems and reading recognition in middle childhood. Income also had an indirect effect on the child outcomes via maternal psychological distress and parenting. In a comparison of African American and White families, marital conflict predicted children behavior problems only in White families. Findings suggest that family psychological and material resources influence parenting as well as behavioral and cognitive outcomes for African American children. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Nievar, M. Angela and Thomas Luster. "Developmental Processes in African American Families: An Application of McLoyd's Theoretical Model." Journal of Marriage and Family 68,2 (May 2006): 320-331.
109. Nomaguchi, Kei M.
Gender, Family Structure, and Adolescents' Primary Confidants
Journal of Marriage and Family 70,5 (December 2008): 1213-1227.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40056338
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Family Characteristics; Family Formation; Family Structure; Family Studies; Gender; Mothers; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking; Self-Reporting

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,190), this study examined adolescents' reports of primary confidants. Results showed that nearly 30[percent] of adolescents aged 16 - 18 nominated mothers as primary confidants, 25[percent] nominated romantic partners, and 20[percent] nominated friends. Nominating romantic partners or friends was related to increased risk-taking behaviors, supporting the attachment notion that shifting primary confidants to peers in adolescence may reflect premature autonomy from parents. Tendencies to prefer romantic partners over parents varied by gender and family structure, which were greater for those from single-father families and girls from mother-stepfather families, but less for those from single-mother families and boys from mother-stepfather families, compared with their counterparts from two-biological-parent families. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Bibliography Citation
Nomaguchi, Kei M. "Gender, Family Structure, and Adolescents' Primary Confidants." Journal of Marriage and Family 70,5 (December 2008): 1213-1227.
110. Oropesa, R. S.
Lichter, Daniel T.
Anderson, Robert N.
Marriage Markets and the Paradox of Mexican Nuptiality
Journal of Marriage and Family 56,4 (November 1994): 889-907.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353601
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Disadvantaged, Economically; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Ethnic Studies; Heterogeneity; Hispanics; Marriage; Minorities; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Current research on the retreat from marriage emphasizes the economic underpinnings of family formation, especially among disadvantaged minorities. The paradox of Mexican nuptiality is that first marriage rates among Americans are similar to those among Anglos, despite circumstances that closely approximate those of African Americans. Using event histories constructed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study extends previous analyses by investigating the roles of structural (e.g., pool of marriageable men) and cultural (e.g., familism) factors in the marriage transitions of 3,853 Mexican American, African American, and Anglo women. The results support three main conclusions. First, similarities are outweighed by differences in the marriage process these groups. Second, cultural indicators do not group differences. Third, the unique aspects of the marriage process among Mexican Americans cannot be fully understood without taking their generational heterogeneity into account.
Bibliography Citation
Oropesa, R. S., Daniel T. Lichter and Robert N. Anderson. "Marriage Markets and the Paradox of Mexican Nuptiality." Journal of Marriage and Family 56,4 (November 1994): 889-907.
111. Parcel, Toby L.
Dufur, Mikaela J.
Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Child Social Adjustment
Journal of Marriage and Family 63,1 (February 2001): 32-47.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3599957
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child School Survey 1994-1995; Children, Behavioral Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

We argue for analyzing school and family social capital, human capital, and financial capital as parallel concepts and investigate their effects on child social adjustment. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) merged Child-Mother Data, to which we add indicators of capital in the children's schools. Findings suggest that although school capital effects are present, family social capital and maternal and child human capital effects are more prevalent. Interaction between family and school capital refine these findings. We derive inferences regarding how investment at home and at school can work together to promote child social adjustment.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Mikaela J. Dufur. "Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Child Social Adjustment." Journal of Marriage and Family 63,1 (February 2001): 32-47.
112. Parish, William L.
Hao, Lingxin
Hogan, Dennis P.
Family Support Networks, Welfare, and Work Among Young Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,1 (February 1991): 203-215.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353144
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Child Care; Coresidence; Divorce; Family Studies; Financial Assistance; Household Composition; Labor Force Participation; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Adolescent; Racial Differences; Welfare

Examines the impact of assistance offered by kin networks on young mothers, their labor market participation, & income support in the form of welfare, drawing on National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Behavior, Youth Survey data from 1,787 black & white mothers ages 19-26 with at least one coresident child in 1984. It is found that kin networks extending beyond the nuclear family improve the quality of life for some young mothers by offering child care & financial assistance. Black mothers receive more child care, but less income, assistance from kin than do white mothers. For both blacks & whites, income & child care support from kin diminishes as mothers enter their early 20s & establish households separate from their parents. Findings also suggest that nearby working kin, but not kin-provided child care, increase mother's labor market work. 4 Tables, 2 Figures, 47 References. S. Davies-Netzley (Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Parish, William L., Lingxin Hao and Dennis P. Hogan. "Family Support Networks, Welfare, and Work Among Young Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,1 (February 1991): 203-215.
113. Pearce, Lisa D.
Davis, Shannon N.
How Early Life Religious Exposure Relates to the Timing of First Birth
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1422-1438.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12364/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Cohabitation; Family Size; First Birth; Religious Influences

This article examines intermediary processes explaining how religious socialization and involvement early in life are related to the timing of first births for women in the United States. The theory of conjunctural action forms the basis for hypotheses for how religious schemas and materials operate to influence birth timing. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data and event history methods, the study finds evidence for expected family size, work-family gender ideology, educational attainment and enrollment, cohabitation, and age at marriage as mediators of associations between early life religious exposure (affiliation and attendance) and the timing of nonmaritally and maritally conceived first births. These findings corroborate other research identifying the long reach of religious socialization and involvement in youth, elucidate some of the pathways for these connections, and motivate further work to understand linkages between religion and family behaviors in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Pearce, Lisa D. and Shannon N. Davis. "How Early Life Religious Exposure Relates to the Timing of First Birth." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1422-1438.
114. Philliber, William W.
Hiller, Dana V.
Relative Occupational Attainments of Spouses and Later Changes in Marriage and Wife's Work Experience
Journal of Marriage and Family 45,1 (February 1983): 161-170.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351304
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Divorce; Marital Disruption; Marriage; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status; Quits; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Wives, Work

Data from the NLS of Mature Women are used to analyze whether the relative attainments of spouse at one point in time are associated with divorce, leaving the labor force, moving to a lower status job and/or moving to a traditional job--one sex-typed female--at a later time. Independent variables included wife's occupational status, husband's occupational status, the interaction between the two (relative occupational status), and whether the wife is employed in a traditional or nontraditional job. The strongest finding is the importance of wife's employment in a nontraditional job (sex-typed male) as a predictor of change. Women in nontraditional jobs were more likely to become divorced, to leave the labor force, or to move to a lower status position than were women in traditional positions. In addition, many women in nontraditional jobs shifted to traditional jobs. The relative attainment of spouses further contributes to the probability of these changes, but the effects are not large.
Bibliography Citation
Philliber, William W. and Dana V. Hiller. "Relative Occupational Attainments of Spouses and Later Changes in Marriage and Wife's Work Experience." Journal of Marriage and Family 45,1 (February 1983): 161-170.
115. Plotnick, Robert D.
Welfare and Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing: Evidence from the 1980s
Journal of Marriage and Family 52,3 (August 1990): 735-746.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352938
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Background; Fathers, Absence; Government Regulation; Hispanics; Household Composition; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Teenagers; Welfare

This paper used data from the NLSY to examine the relationship between welfare and teenage out-of-wedlock childbearing in the 1979-84 period. The results indicated a relationship between welfare policy and out-of- wedlock childbearing for white and black, but not for Hispanic adolescents, although the evidence was not strong enough to make this conclusion fully compelling. [ERIC EJ419730]
Bibliography Citation
Plotnick, Robert D. "Welfare and Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing: Evidence from the 1980s." Journal of Marriage and Family 52,3 (August 1990): 735-746.
116. Presser, Harriet B.
Shift Work and Child Care Among Young Dual-Earner American Parents
Journal of Marriage and Family 50,1 (February 1988): 133-148.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352434
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Child Care; Gender Differences; Part-Time Work

This study uncovers a high rate of non-day employment among young dual-earner American parents and examines the relationship between shift status (fixed day, fixed nonday, and rotating) and child care. Special attention is given to parental child care when the spouse is employed. The study is based on the 1984 wave of the NLSY, a cohort of 19 to 26 year olds in 1984. A subset of married parents with employed spouses and with children under five years old was selected for analysis. Reliance on spouses for child care when dual-earner couples are employed is much higher when respondents work non-days rather than days. This is particularly evident when both primary and secondary child care arrangements are considered and when the extent of non-overlapping hours is taken into account. Although mothers participate more in child care when fathers are employed than vice versa, father care is substantial. Gender differences in the determinants of parental care and the issue of whether shift work is a solution to the child care problem are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Presser, Harriet B. "Shift Work and Child Care Among Young Dual-Earner American Parents." Journal of Marriage and Family 50,1 (February 1988): 133-148.
117. Presser, Harriet B.
Some Economic Complexities of Child Care Provided by Grandmothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 51,3 (August 1989): 581-591.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352158
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Child Care; Employment; Grandparents; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Mothers

This study focuses on grandmothers as providers of child care, exploring some of the economic complexities involved. The sample is comprised of employed mothers age 19 to 26 with children under age 5, drawn from the 1984 NLSY. It was found that the care of these young children when their mothers are employed is mostly by relatives, and that grandmothers are the primary relative; this is most evident for children of unmarried mothers. Analysis of the grandmothers who provide child care reveals that about one-third are otherwise employed. The work schedules of these grandmothers are compared to the hours of child care they provide and the mother's work schedule; this comparison suggests a more complex negotiation of work and family roles between grandmothers and mothers (as well as between mothers and fathers) than is generally acknowledged. Moreover, it was found that one- third of grandmothers are paid in cash for the care of their grandchild, and that whether cash payment is made varies significantly by the number of hours grandmother care is provided as well as by the mother's hourly wage. Payment in cash or services (combined) is affected by the grandmother's employment status; when otherwise employed, such payment is less likely. It is noted that the demand for infant and toddler care is increasing while the availability of grandmother care seems to be on the decline. Further research is needed that will more fully document the adaptations made and their consequences for both children and parents.
Bibliography Citation
Presser, Harriet B. "Some Economic Complexities of Child Care Provided by Grandmothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 51,3 (August 1989): 581-591.
118. Qian, Yue
Educational Assortative Mating and Income Dynamics in Couples: A Longitudinal Dyadic Perspective
Journal of Marriage and Family 80,3 (June 2018): 607-621.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jomf.12470
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Husbands, Income; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Wives, Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The question of how educational assortative mating may transform couples' lives and within-family gender inequality has gained increasing attention. Using 25 waves (1979–2012) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and longitudinal multilevel dyad models, this study investigated how educational assortative mating shapes income dynamics in couples during the marital life course. Couples were grouped into three categories--educational hypergamy (wives less educated than their husbands), homogamy, and hypogamy (wives more educated than their husbands). Results show that change in husbands' income with marital duration is similar across couples, whereas change in wives' income varies by educational assortative mating, with wives in educational hypogamy exhibiting more positive change in income during the marital life course. The finding that husbands' long-term economic advancement is less affected than that of wives by educational assortative mating underscores the gender-asymmetric nature of spousal influence in heterosexual marriages.
Bibliography Citation
Qian, Yue. "Educational Assortative Mating and Income Dynamics in Couples: A Longitudinal Dyadic Perspective." Journal of Marriage and Family 80,3 (June 2018): 607-621.
119. Rackin, Heather M.
Sereny Brasher, Melanie
Is Baby a Blessing? Wantedness, Age at First Birth, and Later-Life Depression
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1269-1284.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12357/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Birth Preferences/Birth Expectations; Depression (see also CESD); Motherhood

Research has found that both unintended and nonnormatively timed births have negative consequences, yet little is known about how birth timing and intention jointly influence mothers' mental health. This study explored how the interaction between intention and age at first birth influenced depression 5 to 13 years later by analyzing the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,573). We found that mistimed births, when compared with wanted births, were associated with depression, but only for normatively timed transitions to motherhood. Surprisingly, teen mothers who had unwanted births had better later-life mental health than teens who had wanted or mistimed births. Among women with wanted or mistimed first births, increasing age at birth was associated with lower probabilities of depression. Most, but not all, of these effects were explained by selection factors and life circumstances. Results show the importance of examining joint effects of first birth wantedness and timing.
Bibliography Citation
Rackin, Heather M. and Melanie Sereny Brasher. "Is Baby a Blessing? Wantedness, Age at First Birth, and Later-Life Depression." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1269-1284.
120. Rackin, Heather
Gibson-Davis, Christina
The Role of Pre- and Postconception Relationships for First-Time Parents
Journal of Marriage and Family 74,3 (June 2012): 526-539.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00974.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Cohabitation; Marital Status

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a nationally representative cohort of young adults, the authors analyzed relationship type at the time of a first birth (N = 4,044). More than 10% of births were to a postconception cohabiting household (cohabitations that were initiated between conception and birth), a higher proportion of births than those born to postconception married households. Individuals in postconception and preconception cohabiting relationships (cohabitations that existed prior to conception) were demographically similar; both groups were associated with lower levels of socioeconomic advantage relative to those in preconception and postconception marriage. Postconception and preconception cohabiting relationships were associated with similar levels of dissolution, as 40% dissolved within 3 years of a child's birth. Having a marital union, rather than whether relationship was established pre- or postconception, was more strongly associated with who selected into the relationship and how long the relationship lasted.
Bibliography Citation
Rackin, Heather and Christina Gibson-Davis. "The Role of Pre- and Postconception Relationships for First-Time Parents." Journal of Marriage and Family 74,3 (June 2012): 526-539.
121. Raley, R. Kelly
Kim, Yujin
Daniels, Kimberly
Young Adults' Fertility Expectations and Events: Associations With College Enrollment and Persistence
Journal of Marriage and Family 74,4 (August 2012): 866-879.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00990.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; College Enrollment; Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Parenthood; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

The analyses described in this article investigated the association between adolescent fertility expectations and college enrollment (N = 7,838). They also explored the potential impact of fertility expectations and events on college persistence among 4-year (n = 2,605) and 2-year (n = 1,962) college students. The analysis, which used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort, showed a significant association between expectations for early parenthood and the likelihood of going to a 4-year college or 2-year college for both men and women. In addition, the authors found that pregnancies were associated with an increased risk of college dropout for women; however, if all of the estimated effect of pregnancies on the risk of dropout were causal, they would still not be a major factor contributing to educational attainment because fertile pregnancies among college women are so rare.
Bibliography Citation
Raley, R. Kelly, Yujin Kim and Kimberly Daniels. "Young Adults' Fertility Expectations and Events: Associations With College Enrollment and Persistence." Journal of Marriage and Family 74,4 (August 2012): 866-879.
122. Rexroat, Cynthia
Women's Work Expectations and Labor Market Experience in Early and Middle Family Life-Cycle Stages
Journal of Marriage and Family 47,1 (February 1985): 131-142.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352075
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Occupational Aspirations; Work Attachment

Two issues are addressed in this research: the effect of women's work expectations for age 35 on labor market attachment during child rearing years and the extent to which widespread sociodemographic change over the 1970's conditioned the effect of work expectations on the extent of employment. Data from the NLS Young Women's cohort are used in estimating the employment experience of women in the sample. Findings indicate that employment expectations significantly increase the length of women's employment and that some of the effects of sociodemographic change did condition the effect of work life plans.
Bibliography Citation
Rexroat, Cynthia. "Women's Work Expectations and Labor Market Experience in Early and Middle Family Life-Cycle Stages." Journal of Marriage and Family 47,1 (February 1985): 131-142.
123. Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Rowe, David C.
Harris, David F.
Sibling Differences in Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Inferring Process Models from Family Composition Patterns
Journal of Marriage and Family 54,1 (February 1992): 142-152.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353282
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Hispanics; Household Composition; Sexual Activity; Siblings

To account for previous research findings that younger siblings are sexually active at an earlier age than older siblings, the hypothesis is tested that older siblings influence younger siblings to be sexually active. Opportunity & modeling influence processes are examined, using national survey data collected in 1979 from 3,336 families with siblings, but are not demonstrated to be strong predictors. An alternate maturation hypothesis is supported by findings that younger siblings physically mature earlier, but it is argued that this biological explanation does not account for variations in Hispanic populations. Other psychosocial explanations are discussed. 2 Tables, 34 References. C. McSherry (Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Rodgers, Joseph Lee, David C. Rowe and David F. Harris. "Sibling Differences in Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Inferring Process Models from Family Composition Patterns." Journal of Marriage and Family 54,1 (February 1992): 142-152.
124. Rogers, Stacy J.
Mothers' Work Hours and Marital Quality: Variations by Family Structure and Family Size
Journal of Marriage and Family 58,3 (August 1996): 606-617.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353721
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Size; Family Structure; Marital Conflict; Marital Instability; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Parenthood; Work Hours

This research uses data from the 1988 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Merged Child-Mother to investigate the association between married mothers' employment and their reports of marital conflict and marital happiness in continuously married families with children and in mother-stepfather families. For continuously married families with children, the findings indicate a nonsignificant trend that is consistent with role strain perspectives. For mother-stepfather families, there is a significant trend in which mothers' full-time employment is associated with higher marital quality when there are more children in the household. These findings are interpreted in light of the distributive justice perspective's emphasis on the meanings of roles and the importance of spouses' perceptions of equity for marital quality.
Bibliography Citation
Rogers, Stacy J. "Mothers' Work Hours and Marital Quality: Variations by Family Structure and Family Size." Journal of Marriage and Family 58,3 (August 1996): 606-617.
125. Rosenbaum, Emily
Kandel, Denise B.
Early Onset of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Drug Involvement
Journal of Marriage and Family 52,3 (August 1990): 783-798.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352942
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Alcohol Use; Behavior; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Deviance; Drug Use; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

This paper investigated the relationship between drug use and sexual activity prior to age sixteen using data from two youngest birth cohorts (N=2,711) from the NLSY. When other important risk factors were controlled, reported prior use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs greatly increased the risk of early sexual activity for adolescent males and females. [ERIC EJ419734]
Bibliography Citation
Rosenbaum, Emily and Denise B. Kandel. "Early Onset of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Drug Involvement." Journal of Marriage and Family 52,3 (August 1990): 783-798.
126. Sandberg-Thoma, Sara
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Jang, Bohyun
Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids
Journal of Marriage and Family 77,3 (June 2015): 806-818.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12183/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Economic Independence; Exits; Health, Mental; Life Course; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Transition, Adulthood

Young adults commonly exit from and return to the parental home, yet few studies have examined the motivation behind these exits and returns using a life course framework. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the authors examined associations between mental health problems and economic characteristics and exits from (n = 8,162) and returns to (n = 6,530) the parental home during the transition to adulthood. The average age of the respondents was 24 years. The authors found evidence that mental health and economic characteristics were related to home leaving and returning. Emotional distress was associated with earlier exits from and returns to the parental home; alcohol problems were associated with earlier returns to the parental home. The findings regarding economic resources were unexpectedly mixed. Greater economic resources were linked to delayed exits from and earlier returns to the parental home. The implications of these findings for young adults are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Sandberg-Thoma, Sara, Anastasia R. Snyder and Bohyun Jang. "Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids." Journal of Marriage and Family 77,3 (June 2015): 806-818.
127. Scanzoni, John
Work and Fertility Control Sequences Among Younger Married Women
Journal of Marriage and Family 41,4 (November 1979): 739-748.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351474
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Children; Control; Earnings; Fertility; Wives; Work History

Using panel data, an attempt is made to unravel connections between women's employment and fertility control. The point is made that these are both ongoing processes which over time intersect in various ways, and which also mutually reinforce each other. In particular, the correlation between work/nonwork and family size is seen to be less illuminating and significant than links between work-consistency and fertility control patterns which enhance that consistency. An attempt is made to place these substantive matters in a more general and cross-disciplinary theoretical perspective.
Bibliography Citation
Scanzoni, John. "Work and Fertility Control Sequences Among Younger Married Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 41,4 (November 1979): 739-748.
128. Scarr, Sandra
On Comparing Apples and Oranges and Making Inferences About Bananas
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1099-1100.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Attrition; Child Care; General Assessment; Maternal Employment

An exchange on Maternal Employment and Young Children's Adjustment. The article by Belsky and Eggebeen reports analyses from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set on the effects of early maternal employment on children's adjustment at ages four to six. The paper is written as though the results can be generalized broadly, when the samples, the measures, and the attrition imposed by the authors create severe limitation on the generality of this research. The lack of comparability of employed and unemployed mothers is truly an apples-and-oranges problem. and one does not use comparisons of apples and oranges to make inferences about bananas. Although hardly mentioned in the text, this research is based on a large sample of young mothers (30%< 19 years), who are largely uneducated (37% < high school graduation), unmarried (33% not living with a spouse), and poor (71% < $20,000 per year family income). They are atypical U.S. parents, because they represent only the first wave of births to the young age cohort in the NLSY sample. As one would expect, these mothers are the youngest and most disadvantaged members of their cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Scarr, Sandra. "On Comparing Apples and Oranges and Making Inferences About Bananas." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1099-1100.
129. Schmitz, Mark F.
Influences of Race and Family Environment on Child Hyperactivity and Antisocial Behavior
Journal of Marriage and Family 65,4 (November 2003): 835-849.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3599894
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Children, Poverty; Discipline; Ethnic Differences; Family Influences; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Racial Differences

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, latent growth curve modeling was used to examine relationships between trajectories of child hyperactivity and antisocial behavior symptoms for African Americans (n = 680), European Americans (n = 1195), and Hispanics (n = 432). A systematic examination of predictors of, and interrelationships between, these trajectories was tested based on two distinct models of family influences in the development of child behavior problems. Overall, child hyperactivity mediated the effects of family environment on child antisocial behavior, but with key racial differences. The results indicate the importance of conceptualizing patterns of family interaction as adaptive responses to the environment, rather than individual developmental interactions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Schmitz, Mark F. "Influences of Race and Family Environment on Child Hyperactivity and Antisocial Behavior." Journal of Marriage and Family 65,4 (November 2003): 835-849.
130. Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons
Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit
Journal of Marriage and Family 73,1 (February 2011): 250-264.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00802.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Event History; Exits; Labor Force Participation; Wage Differentials; Wage Levels; Wage Rates; Wives, Income

Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are their own or their husbands' absolute wages. In addition, I show that women married to men who work more than 45 hours per week are more likely to exit the labor force than are wives whose husbands' work approximately 40 hours per week. My findings highlight the need to examine how women's partners affect women's labor-force participation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons. "Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit." Journal of Marriage and Family 73,1 (February 2011): 250-264.
131. Shafer, Kevin M.
James, Spencer
Gender and Socioeconomic Status Differences in First and Second Marriage Formation
Journal of Marriage and Family 75,3 (June 2013): 544-564.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12024/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Divorce; Gender Differences; Life Course; Marital Status; Marriage; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

In this article, we address how first and second marriages are formed by asking whether SES has similar effects on first and second marriage entry. Like many studies of first marriage, we focus on gender, socioeconomic characteristics (education, income, and employment status), and gender differences in the effect of SES. To examine this question, we use the NLSY79 (n = 12,231 never-married and 3,695 divorced persons), discrete-time logistic regression, and heterogeneous choice models to test for statistically significant differences by gender and between first and second marriages. Our models show gender differences in first and second marriage entry, that the effect of SES on marriage entry differs between first and second marriage, and that the interaction between gender and SES has a unique association with marital entry for never- and previously married individuals. Our results have implications for understanding marriage formation, stratification across the life course, and the well-being of divorced persons who remarry.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. and Spencer James. "Gender and Socioeconomic Status Differences in First and Second Marriage Formation." Journal of Marriage and Family 75,3 (June 2013): 544-564.
132. Smith, Chelsea
Strohschein, Lisa
Crosnoe, Robert
Family Histories and Teen Pregnancy in the United States and Canada
Journal of Marriage and Family 80,5 (October 2018): 1244-1258.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12512
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Cross-national Analysis; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Poverty; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Objective: This study took a long view of childhood experiences that can contribute to the risk of teen pregnancy in the United States and Canada, two countries with different norms and policies surrounding family life and inequality.

Background: Teenage pregnancy is a major life experience arising from life course trajectories unfolding during a young woman's childhood. Cross‐national comparisons can elucidate family‐based pathways while embedding youth within broader national contexts of the United States and Canada, which are similar in some respects yet different in others.

Method: Longitudinal data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Young Adult Survey (n = 3,122) and the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (n = 2,517) connected childhood histories to teenage pregnancy. Competing risk models estimated the risk of teenage pregnancy with family structure changes and episodes in poverty during childhood.

Results: Teenage pregnancy, family change, and poverty were more common in the United States. In the United States, only multiple experiences of instability and poverty were associated with greater risk of teenage pregnancy, but, in Canada, any experience of childhood disadvantage was associated with elevated risk.

Bibliography Citation
Smith, Chelsea, Lisa Strohschein and Robert Crosnoe. "Family Histories and Teen Pregnancy in the United States and Canada." Journal of Marriage and Family 80,5 (October 2018): 1244-1258.
133. Smith, Judith R.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Lee, Kyunghee
Welfare and Work: Complementary Strategies for Low-Income Women?
Journal of Marriage and Family 62,3 (August 2000): 808-821.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1566798
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Children; Cognitive Development; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Welfare; Women

We examine the effects of mothers' strategies of combining employment and welfare receipt during the first 3 years of their child's life on the child's cognitive development, behavior problems, and home learning environment at ages 5 to 6. We compare the child outcomes of those mothers who were continuously employed and received no welfare with (a) those who worked some or all of the 3 years and also received public assistance and (b) those who were totally dependent on public assistance. We studied children in single-parent families (N=1271) living below 200% of the poverty threshold using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement. No negative association was found on most child outcomes with a mother's employment whether or not it was combined with public assistance. However, mothers' not working at all and receiving financial support solely from AFDC was associated with negative child outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the possible effects of the new welfare laws on families and young children.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Judith R., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Pamela Kato Klebanov and Kyunghee Lee. "Welfare and Work: Complementary Strategies for Low-Income Women?" Journal of Marriage and Family 62,3 (August 2000): 808-821.
134. Spitze, Glenna D.
Black Family Migration and Wives' Employment
Journal of Marriage and Family 46,4 (November 1984): 781-790.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352526
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Black Family; Job Search; Migration; Minority Groups; Racial Differences

Using data from the NLS of Young and Mature Women, this paper isolates determinants of black family migration in the U.S., incorporates variables reflecting the wife's employment experience into that model, and sorts out patterns of racial differences in the migration decision-making process. It also presents data, by race, on reasons for long-distance migration and whether wives line up jobs before a move. Stated reasons for moves and migration determinants are similar by race, leading to a residual minority group-status explanation for overall differences in rates. Implication of the findings for black women's employment are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Black Family Migration and Wives' Employment." Journal of Marriage and Family 46,4 (November 1984): 781-790.
135. Spitze, Glenna D.
Role Experiences of Young Women: A Longitudinal Test of the Role Hiatus Hypothesis
Journal of Marriage and Family 40,3 (August 1978): 471-479.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/350928
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): College Education; Employment; High School; Job Training; Marriage; Sex Roles; Siblings; Training, Occupational; Work Experience

Using data from the NLS of Young Women, a test was made of the effect of three specific types of "role hiatus experiences" on young women's taste for paid employment and on their sex role beliefs. With controls for background variables and for beliefs and tastes measured while the young women were still in high school, it was found that the experiences of paid employment, occupational training, and college attendance before the onset of marriage and motherhood all altered tastes for paid employment but failed to affect sex role attitudes. While college and occupational training increased taste for paid employment, holding a job at this point in these young women's lives caused a decrease in this taste.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Role Experiences of Young Women: A Longitudinal Test of the Role Hiatus Hypothesis." Journal of Marriage and Family 40,3 (August 1978): 471-479.
136. Spitze, Glenna D.
Waite, Linda J.
Wives' Employment: The Roles of Husbands' Perceived Attitudes
Journal of Marriage and Family 43,1 (February 1981): 117-124.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351422
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Husbands, Attitudes; Husbands, Influence; Marriage; Schooling; Sex Roles; Wives; Wives, Attitudes; Work Attitudes

Using data from the NLS of Young Women, the relations between husbands' perceived attitudes toward their wives' working and the early employment attitudes and behavior of wives are examined. Revisions in husbands' perceived attitudes during the early years of marriage, to conform with wives' employment attitudes and behavior, are found. In turn, wives' employment behavior is influenced by husbands' perceived preferences, but only among black respondents are wives' attitudes influenced by perceived attitudes of husbands. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. and Linda J. Waite. "Wives' Employment: The Roles of Husbands' Perceived Attitudes." Journal of Marriage and Family 43,1 (February 1981): 117-124.
137. Sweeney, Megan Mcdonnell
Cancian, Maria
The Changing Importance of White Women's Economic Prospects for Assortative Mating
Journal of Marriage and Family 66,4 (November 2004): 1015-1029.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00073.x/pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Labor Force Participation; Marriage; Socioeconomic Factors; Wages, Women

Given recent changes in the labor force participation and economic standing of women, we ask whether a woman's position in the labor market has become a more important determinant of her position in the marriage market. Unlike much prior research on trends over time in assortative mating, we take an individual-level approach to the analysis and rely on improved measures of labor market position, such as measuring wives' wages before marriage and considering multiple indicators of husbands' longer term economic standing. Our analysis relies on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (N= 759) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N= 767). Our results are consistent with growth over time in the importance of women's earnings potential in determining their marriage prospects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Sweeney, Megan Mcdonnell and Maria Cancian. "The Changing Importance of White Women's Economic Prospects for Assortative Mating." Journal of Marriage and Family 66,4 (November 2004): 1015-1029.
138. Tach, Laura
Halpern-Meekin, Sarah
How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?
Journal of Marriage and Family 71,2 (May 2009): 298-317.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.2009.71.issue-2/issuetoc
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Ethnic Differences; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Racial Differences

We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by cohabitors with nonmarital births. Premarital cohabitors without nonmarital births report the same marital quality as women who did not cohabit before marriage. Nonmarital childbearing is more strongly associated with lower subsequent marital quality for White women than for Black or Hispanic women. Marital quality declines at similar rates for all couples regardless of cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. These findings are robust to numerous alternative model specifications.
Bibliography Citation
Tach, Laura and Sarah Halpern-Meekin. "How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality? ." Journal of Marriage and Family 71,2 (May 2009): 298-317.
139. Taniguchi, Hiromi
The Timing of Childbearing and Women's Wages
Journal of Marriage and Family 61,4 (November 1999): 1008-1019.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/354020
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Education; Heterogeneity; Life Course; Wages, Women; Wages, Young Women; Work Reentry

Early child bearers are more vulnerable to the adverse impact of children on wages than are those who delay childbearing. Early child bearers are likely to experience a higher wage penalty because their career interruptions occur during the critical period of career building. Education reduces the magnitude of the penalty. With the use of data from the young women cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey, I investigated the wage losses associated with the presence of children, net of work experience, while addressing unobserved heterogeneity. Consistent with life course theory, the timing of childbearing significantly influences the extent to which this event shapes women's life chances.
Bibliography Citation
Taniguchi, Hiromi. "The Timing of Childbearing and Women's Wages." Journal of Marriage and Family 61,4 (November 1999): 1008-1019.
140. Teachman, Jay D.
Work-Related Health Limitations, Education, and the Risk of Marital Disruption
Journal of Marriage and Family 72,4 (August 2010): 919-932.
Also: http://www.wwu.edu/soc/bios/documents/Teachman2010JMFv72.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Divorce; Educational Attainment; Health Factors; Marital Dissolution; Racial Differences; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Despite progress in identifying the covariates of divorce, there remain substantial gaps in the knowledge. One of these gaps is the relationship between health and risk of marital dissolution. I extend prior research by examining the linkages between work-related health limitations and divorce using 25 years of data (N = 7919) taken from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY-79). I found that work-related health limitations among husbands, but not wives, were linked to an increased risk of divorce. In addition, I found that this relationship was moderated by education in a fashion that varies according to race. For White men, education exacerbated the effect of health limitations, but for Black men, education attenuated the effects of work-related health limitations.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D. "Work-Related Health Limitations, Education, and the Risk of Marital Disruption." Journal of Marriage and Family 72,4 (August 2010): 919-932.
141. Teachman, Jay D.
Day, Randal D.
Paasch, Kathleen M.
Carver, Karen P.
Call, Vaughn R. A.
Sibling Resemblance in Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes: The Role of Father Presence
Journal of Marriage and Family 60,4 (November 1998): 835-848.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/view/00222445/ap020142/02a00040/0
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Differences; Cognitive Development; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Presence; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings

Using longitudinal data on sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, we investigate the influence of father presence on behavioral and cognitive outcomes for children. Our results indicate that children who live in one-parent families exhibit more behavioral problems and have lower mathematics and reading ability than children in two-parent families. The differences across time between children in two-parent and one-parent families are very stable for behavioral problems and mathematics ability. For reading ability, however, the difference between children in two-parent and one-parent families increases over time.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D., Randal D. Day, Kathleen M. Paasch, Karen P. Carver and Vaughn R. A. Call. "Sibling Resemblance in Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes: The Role of Father Presence." Journal of Marriage and Family 60,4 (November 1998): 835-848.
142. Teachman, Jay D.
Tedrow, Lucky M.
Divorce, Race, and Military Service: More Than Equal Pay and Equal Opportunity
Journal of Marriage and Family 70,4 (November 2008): 1030-1044.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00544.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Divorce; Military Enlistment; Military Service; Racial Differences

Several researchers have suggested that the persistently higher rate of divorce among Blacks may be due to hard-to-measure concepts such as culture or norms. To attack this problem, we use data from the NLSY-79 to examine the risk of divorce among enlisted active-duty military servicemen where economic differences and the negative effects of discrimination are minimized. Our results indicate that military service reduces the likelihood of marital dissolution among Blacks serving in the Army and that this finding is not likely the result of unobserved selectivity. We attribute the latter finding to the fact that the Army has a well-defined career ladder for Blacks that fully integrates them into leadership positions providing role models and positive work environments that reduce stress associated with discrimination and promote stable marriages.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D. and Lucky M. Tedrow. "Divorce, Race, and Military Service: More Than Equal Pay and Equal Opportunity." Journal of Marriage and Family 70,4 (November 2008): 1030-1044.
143. Toney, Michael B.
Golesorkhi, Banu
Stinner, William F.
Residence Exposure and Fertility Expectations of Young Mormon and Non-Mormon Women in Utah
Journal of Marriage and Family 47,2 (May 1985): 459-465.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352144
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Family Size; Fertility; Religious Influences; Residence; Women; Women's Roles; Women's Studies

Utah's fertility rate is about double the nation's, and it increased during the 1970s as the nation's fertility declined. The fertility expectations of young non-Mormon females living in this setting (2.4 children) resemble those of young females in the nation as a whole, rather than the expectations of the young Mormon females in Utah (4.4 children). Significant differences between Utah's young Mormon and non-Mormon females remain after adjusting for other variables. These findings suggest: (1) that residence in a high fertility area per se does not affect fertility; and (2) that Mormon/non-Mormon fertility differences are likely to persist into the foreseeable future. The principal data for this study comes from a Utah survey. Secondary data from the 1979 NLSY are added for comparative reasons.
Bibliography Citation
Toney, Michael B., Banu Golesorkhi and William F. Stinner. "Residence Exposure and Fertility Expectations of Young Mormon and Non-Mormon Women in Utah." Journal of Marriage and Family 47,2 (May 1985): 459-465.
144. Tumin, Dmitry
Han, Siqi
Qian, Zhenchao
Estimates and Meanings of Marital Separation
Journal of Marriage and Family 77,1 (February 2015): 312-322.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12149/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Research Methodology

Marital separation is an informal transition that may precede or substitute for divorce. Various surveys collect data on marital separation, but the data have produced mixed estimates. The authors used data from the 1995 and 2006 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (N=2,216) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (NLSY79; N=1,990) to examine separations among women born between 1961 and 1965. In the National Survey of Family Growth, separations were typically short and followed by divorce. In the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort, separations were longer and less likely to end in divorce. The authors relate these discrepancies to differences in study design, question universe, and question wording between the 2 surveys and show that different measures of separation lead to different conclusions about educational and racial/ethnic inequalities in the trajectories of marital disruption.
Bibliography Citation
Tumin, Dmitry, Siqi Han and Zhenchao Qian. "Estimates and Meanings of Marital Separation." Journal of Marriage and Family 77,1 (February 2015): 312-322.
145. Tumin, Dmitry
Zheng, Hui
Do the Health Benefits of Marriage Depend on the Likelihood of Marriage?
Journal of Marriage and Family 80,3 (June 2018): 622-636.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jomf.12471
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Marriage

Marriage promotion initiatives presume substantial health benefits of marriage. Current literature, however, has provided inconsistent results on whether these benefits would be shared by people unlikely to marry. We investigate whether the physical and mental health benefits of marriage depend on the likelihood of marriage. Whereas prior studies have compared health benefits of marriage across a single predictor of marriage chances, we define the likelihood of marriage as a composite of demographic, economic, and health characteristics. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we find that married adults are only modestly healthier than unmarried adults in both physical and mental dimensions. People with a higher likelihood of marriage generally do not reap greater health benefits from marriage than their counterparts. The only exception is that continuous marriage is more strongly associated with improved mental health among men who are more likely to be married.
Bibliography Citation
Tumin, Dmitry and Hui Zheng. "Do the Health Benefits of Marriage Depend on the Likelihood of Marriage?" Journal of Marriage and Family 80,3 (June 2018): 622-636.
146. van Velsor, Ellen
O'Rand, Angela M.
Family Life Cycle, Work Career Patterns, and Women's Wages at Midlife
Journal of Marriage and Family 46,2 (May 1984): 365-373.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352468
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Family Influences; Life Cycle Research; Mothers; Wages, Women; Wives; Work Histories; Work Hours

The present study identifies midlife wage differentials across four employment timing patterns and finds that the wage attainment process itself varies by employment and timing patterns. Wives whose careers were interrupted for childbearing earn less, on the average, than wives employed during every life cycle stage, but more than wives with delayed work careers. Sectorial location is the most important determinant of wage for wives employed during every stage and among those whose work lives were interrupted by childbearing. The full-time or part time status of current employment is the most important determinant of wage among wives whose work lives began during the childbearing stage, while education is most important for wives who enter the work force after childbearing. The wage effects of birth cohort, education, employment continuity, female percentage of occupation in last job, and the full-time or part time status of that employment differ significantly across patterns, as well.
Bibliography Citation
van Velsor, Ellen and Angela M. O'Rand. "Family Life Cycle, Work Career Patterns, and Women's Wages at Midlife." Journal of Marriage and Family 46,2 (May 1984): 365-373.
147. Vandell, Deborah Lowe
Belsky and Eggebeen's Analysis of the NLSY: Meaningful Results or Statistical Illusions?
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1100-1103.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children, Behavioral Development; Maternal Employment

An exchange on "Maternal Employment and Young Children's Adjustment".
BELSKY, JAY and EGGEBEEN, DAVID J. (1991). "Early and Extensive Maternal Employment and Young Children's Socioemotional Development: Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth" Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1083-1098. Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353011

In their article in this issue of JMF, Belsky and Eggebeen examine the effects of early and extensive maternal employment on four-to-six-year-old children, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data set. They conclude that extensive employment during the first two years is associated with increased behavioral maladjustment in children, with problems particularly manifested in terms of children's extreme noncompliance. Belsky and Eggebeen further argue that this effect is general and pervasive--that is, it is not moderated by children's gender, race, or social class. These are strong arguments, and it is the purpose of this critique to address the accuracy and adequacy of these conclusions.

Before beginning what [the author sees] as significant flaws in analyses and interpretations, the article's strengths [are] highlighted...

Bibliography Citation
Vandell, Deborah Lowe. "Belsky and Eggebeen's Analysis of the NLSY: Meaningful Results or Statistical Illusions?" Journal of Marriage and Family 53,4 (November 1991): 1100-1103.
148. Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Learning Environments
Journal of Marriage and Family 65,2 (May 2003): 341-356.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3600081
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children, Home Environment; Cognitive Development; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; School Entry/Readiness

Early home learning environments are the result of interactions between the developing children and the opportunity structures provided by their families. Income is one of several resources that affect the cognitive stimulation that children experience. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,174) this study examines the influence of household income on cognitive stimulation during the transition to school (aged 3-4 years to 7-8 years). Cross-sectional and longitudinal fixed effects regressions are estimated to examine income's effect. Household income was positively related to the level of cognitive stimulation in children's home environments across both sets of analyses. Home environments of children in low-income households were particularly sensitive to income changes over time. The implications of these results for programs and policies that reduce disparities in school readiness are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth. "Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Learning Environments." Journal of Marriage and Family 65,2 (May 2003): 341-356.
149. Weden, Margaret M.
Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert
Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Timing of First Marriage and Smoking Cessation
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,3 (August 2007): 878-887.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00411.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Demography; Ethnic Differences; Family Formation; Health Factors; Hispanics; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 4,050), we consider the relationship between the timing of family formation and positive changes in health behavior. Theories that predict both positive and negative associations are tested. The findings suggest that both mechanisms operate and that the direction of the association depends on the respondent's race or ethnicity. Whites who marry early are less likely to quit smoking, whereas Whites who marry on time and Blacks and Hispanics who marry at all ages are more likely to quit. The analysis refines the understanding of how family formation shapes changes in health behaviors differentially across the life course, and it underscores the difference in this process for individuals from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Weden, Margaret M. and Rachel Tolbert Kimbro. "Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Timing of First Marriage and Smoking Cessation." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,3 (August 2007): 878-887.
150. Winslow-Bowe, Sarah E.
The Persistence of Wives' Income Advantage
Journal of Marriage and Family 68,4 (November 2006): 824-842.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00298.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Demography; Earnings, Wives; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Marriage; Wives, Income

Recent reports using cross-sectional data indicate an increase in the percentage of wives who outearn their husbands, yet we know little about the persistence of wives' income advantage. The present analyses utilize the 1990 – 1994 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 3,481) to examine wives' long-term earnings advantage. Although a significant minority of women outearn their husbands in 1 year, considerably fewer do so for 5 consecutive years. The presence and persistence of wives' income advantage vary by demographic characteristics, economic and human capital measures, and over the individual and marital life course. The findings suggest caution in interpreting women's relative economic gains as signaling absolute progress toward eliminating gender inequality within marriages. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Winslow-Bowe, Sarah E. "The Persistence of Wives' Income Advantage." Journal of Marriage and Family 68,4 (November 2006): 824-842.
151. Wu, Lawrence L.
Thomson, Elizabeth
Race Differences in Family Experience and Early Sexual Initiation: Dynamic Models of Family Structure and Family Change
Journal of Marriage and Family 63,3 (August 2001): 682-696.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00682.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Attitudes; Children; Divorce; Family Structure; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Presence; Neighborhood Effects; Parental Influences; Parents, Single; Racial Differences; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity; Sexual Experiences/Virginity; Turbulence

We examine the effects of family structure on age at first sexual intercourse before marriage for a recent cohort of women. Previous research on the linkage between family structure and sexual initiation has employed relatively crude measures of family structure-typically a snapshot of the respondent's family structure at age 14. We use retrospective parent histories from the 1979-1987 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to construct dynamic measures of family structure, using information on the number and types of parents in the respondent's household between birth and age 18. We use these measures in proportional hazard models to test the effects of prolonged exposure to a single-mother-family, prolonged absence of a biological father, parental presence during adolescence, and family turbulence. For White women, age-specific rates of first sexual intercourse are significantly and positively associated with the number of family transitions; for Black women, age-specific rates are significantly and positively associated with having resided in a mother-only or father-only family during adolescence. Net of other effects of family structure, we find no significant effects for White or Black women of being born out of wedlock, prolonged exposure to a single-mother family, or prolonged absence of a biological father. Our results for White women are consistent with a turbulence hypothesis, whereas for Black women our results suggest the importance of family structure during adolescence. For neither White nor Black women are our results consistent with hypotheses positing earlier initiation of sexual activity for women with prolonged exposure to a single-mother or father-absent family.
Bibliography Citation
Wu, Lawrence L. and Elizabeth Thomson. "Race Differences in Family Experience and Early Sexual Initiation: Dynamic Models of Family Structure and Family Change." Journal of Marriage and Family 63,3 (August 2001): 682-696.
152. Yoon, Young-Hee
Waite, Linda J.
Converging Employment Patterns of Black, White and Hispanic Women: Return to Work after First Birth
Journal of Marriage and Family 56,1 (February 1994): 209-217.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352715
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Demography; Education; Ethnic Differences; Family Income; Fertility; First Birth; Hispanics; Human Capital; Income; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences; Work Experience

An earlier version of this article was presented at the 1991 annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Cincinnati, August 23-27. This study examines the determinants of women's return to work following the birth of their first child among white, black and Mexican-origin women to test the general hypothesis that previous racial differentials--observed during the later 1960s and early 1970s--in employment of new mothers have disappeared with changes in overall employment patterns of women. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show the expected pattern. Several important measures of a woman's human capital, such as value of time, job experience, and work role attitudes have similar effects in predicting postnatal labor force participation for the three groups. However, other human capital and demographic factors, especially education, family income other than the woman's earnings, and residence in an urban area affect return to work differently for black and white mothers. The results are tied to changes in job characteristics, the economy, and the family.
Bibliography Citation
Yoon, Young-Hee and Linda J. Waite. "Converging Employment Patterns of Black, White and Hispanic Women: Return to Work after First Birth." Journal of Marriage and Family 56,1 (February 1994): 209-217.
153. Zavodny, Madeline
Do Men's Characteristics Affect Whether a Nonmarital Pregnancy Results in Marriage?
Journal of Marriage and Family 61,3 (August 1999): 764-773.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353576
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Abortion; Childbearing; Contraception; Fertility; Marriage; Parents, Single; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences

A decline in the likelihood that a nonmarital pregnancy will result in marriage has contributed to the dramatic rise in the US nonmarital birth ratio since the 1960s. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to examine the effect of men's characteristics on whether they marry in the event of a nonmarital pregnancy & whether changes in average characteristics of men & in their effect have contributed to the declining probability of legitimation. Results indicate that the characteristics associated with the probability of marriage differ for whites & blacks. Changes over time in men's behavior & average characteristics appear to have lowered the probability of legitimation among white men, but only changes in behavior appear to have contributed to the decline in legitimation among black men. 2 Tables, 28 References. Adapted from the source document.
Bibliography Citation
Zavodny, Madeline. "Do Men's Characteristics Affect Whether a Nonmarital Pregnancy Results in Marriage?" Journal of Marriage and Family 61,3 (August 1999): 764-773.