Search Results

Author: Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Resulting in 57 citations.
1. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Children's Behavior Problems: Effects of Current Conditions and Maternal Resources
Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C., Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Susan Marie Jekielek. "Children's Behavior Problems: Effects of Current Conditions and Maternal Resources." Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1996.
2. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Life-Course Effects of Work and Family Circumstances on Children
Social Forces 76,2 (December 1997): 637-665.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580727
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children; Children, Well-Being; Deviance; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Human Capital; Life Course; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do work and family circumstances shape young children's emotional well-being and behavior? To what extent can parental resources act as buffers against adverse effects? We investigate these questions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for a synthetic cohort of 2,342 six- and seven-year-old children born to a national cohort of young women between 1979 and 1984. As suggested by a life-course perspective, both maternal resources and current family and parental employment conditions directly impact children's behavior problems. Maternal resources also have indirect effects through current work and family circumstances. Our results suggest that improvements in current work and family circumstances can enhance children's wellbeing, even for children whose mothers have poorer emotional and cognitive resources.
Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C., Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Susan Marie Jekielek. "Life-Course Effects of Work and Family Circumstances on Children." Social Forces 76,2 (December 1997): 637-665.
3. Jekielek, Susan Marie
Mott, Frank L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Changes in Family, Contributions to Children's Home Environments, and Child Well-Being
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Children, Well-Being; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Studies; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Presence; Gender Differences; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective in this research is to examine the extent to which father presence/absence associations with child behavior problems reflect changes in children's home environments during the same period. I focus on children's propensity to exhibit "acting out" behaviors (Oppositional Action) over a four year interval from middle childhood (ages 6-7) to early adolescence (ages 10-11) for a national sample of 1,917 children drawn from the Child-Mother data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Previous findings from this research project suggest important differences by gender and race for the outcome of Oppositional Action. Briefly, recent absenting of a biological father appears very damaging for white boys but not for black boys. Girls exhibit generally similar patterns to those for white boys; however, black girls seem to be little affected by whether or not a father is present. In the current paper I explore the extent to which such patterns might be explained by changes in the quality of children's home environments.
Bibliography Citation
Jekielek, Susan Marie, Frank L. Mott, Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Changes in Family, Contributions to Children's Home Environments, and Child Well-Being." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
4. Joshi, Heather
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Verropoulou, Georgia
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Tzavidis, Nikos
Children of Working Mothers: Does Mother's Employment Affect Children's Development?
Presented: Barcelona, Spain, European Population Conference, July 9-12, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: European Association for Population Studies (EAPS)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); British Cohort Study (BCS); Child Care; Child Health; Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study we investigate differences in the cognitive and behavioural development of pre-school aged children by maternal employment using information from the second generation of two cohort studies: the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) and the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth Child (NLSY79) from the US. This will update a similar study of children from the 1958 British cohort but will also expand these analyses by enabling a comparison of maternal employment effects in two industrialized countries where policies regarding maternal leave markedly differ. Both data sets contain several outcomes per child, in some cases several children per mother, and a hierarchical structure which we tackle using multivariate multi-level modelling. We are therefore able to model the relationships between the outcomes, i.e. maths and reading, or a cognitive score with aggressive behaviour, as well as contrast the effect of controlling for the characteristics of the child and family. The BCS70 provides data back to birth for the mothers we study, and the NLSY79 started collecting data from mothers in their early to mid teens thus supplying us with a good array of controls for confounding variables (such as maternal education and ability, plus family history) which may affect whether or not she is in the labour market during her child's first few years of life. Both data sets also include variables which may mediate or compensate for maternal employment, such as family income, child care, family structure, number of siblings, maternal health, child health. Based on results from previous research we expect maternal employment will impact child development but that effects will differ according to such factors as age of child, when the mother went back to work and, the nature of her employment.
Bibliography Citation
Joshi, Heather, Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Georgia Verropoulou, Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Nikos Tzavidis. "Children of Working Mothers: Does Mother's Employment Affect Children's Development?" Presented: Barcelona, Spain, European Population Conference, July 9-12, 2008.
5. Joshi, Heather
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Verropoulou, Georgia
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Tzavidis, Nikos
Combining Childrearing with Work: Do Maternal Employment Experiences Compromise Child Development
Presented: Marrakech, Morocco, XXVI International Population Conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Sep 27-Oct 2, 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); British Cohort Study (BCS); Child Care; Child Health; Family Structure; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using longitudinal panel study data from both Great Britain (BCS70) and the United States (NLSY79) we explore how various aspects of maternal employment during the first few years of a child's life might impact the cognitive and behavioral development of children as they move through early and middle childhood, and into early adolescence. Both the UK and the US have seen a substantial increase in the employment of mothers with young children in recent years although due to different maternity leave policies in the two countries, American mothers tend to return to employment after a shorter period than British mothers. We investigate both patterns of maternal employment and the nature of that employment, and utilize multi-level, multivariate modeling to examine how mother's labour force involvement during early childhood might be associated with various child outcomes that are complementary across the two countries.
Bibliography Citation
Joshi, Heather, Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Georgia Verropoulou, Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Nikos Tzavidis. "Combining Childrearing with Work: Do Maternal Employment Experiences Compromise Child Development." Presented: Marrakech, Morocco, XXVI International Population Conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Sep 27-Oct 2, 2009.
6. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Daily Grind: Work Stressors, Family Patterns, and Intergenerational Outcomes
In: Stress and Mental Health: Contemporary Issues and Future Prospects. W. Avison and I. Gotlib eds. New York, NY: Plenum, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Family Constraints; Family Size; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Stress; Well-Being; Working Conditions

Perhaps the most dramatic change in stress research in the last decade has been the enlarged understanding of what constitutes stressful circumstances. Much early stress research focused on discrete stressful events that had a clear onset. These events were sometimes clearly beyond the control of the individual and sometimes partially attributable to individual characteristics or actions. All of these events could be located in time; a researcher could compare well-being before and after their occurrence, and chart the duration of their effects. However, some of the most stressful conditions that humans face are not captured in this conceptualization. These are what have come to be referred to as chronic stressors, the demands and constraints that are an ineluctable part of social and economic arrangements. Primary are the relatively stable conditions associated with normatively expected adult occupational and family roles that individuals face in the boardroom, behind the word processor, or on the assembly line, and must consider their repercussions on everyday family interaction. Conversely, the search must include the recurring emotional and instrumental tasks that adults face as spouses and as parents, and must consider their effects on the individual well-being of all members of the family. Tracing the intergenerational repercussions of structured occupational arrangements is an important developing area of study.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Daily Grind: Work Stressors, Family Patterns, and Intergenerational Outcomes" In: Stress and Mental Health: Contemporary Issues and Future Prospects. W. Avison and I. Gotlib eds. New York, NY: Plenum, 1994
7. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Explaining Work and Family Linkages in Dual-Earner Families: Effects of Parents' Occupational Conditions on Children's Outcomes
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Dual-Career Families; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Influence; Parental Influences; Work Attachment; Work Hours; Working Conditions

Theoretical arguments and empirical findings regarding the impact of variations in occupational conditions on children's intellectual and emotional development are examined based on data from the NLSY 1979-1988 and from interviews conducted in 1986 and 1988 with the children (ages 3-6 in 1986) of 521 employed mothers with employed spouses. Among the findings are: (1) the more complex the mother's employment, the more nurturant and stimulating the child's home environment, even controlling for father's characteristics, though higher educational level of fathers also has significant effects; (2) mother's higher pay and more moderate working hours are associated with higher child verbal facility, though this can be negatively affected by father's longer working hours; and (3) greater maternal occupational involvement and occupational conditions demanding little physical activity predict higher child behavior problems, with the same true for fathers' low occupational physical activity. These findings support the argument that even with an employed mother present, fathers' occupational and educational experiences have significant direct effects on home environments and child outcomes. Conversely, maternal occupational experience has independent impacts, even with paternal occupational effects controlled. Ongoing analyses are investigating interactive effects of both parents' occupational experiences on family relations and child outcomes. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Explaining Work and Family Linkages in Dual-Earner Families: Effects of Parents' Occupational Conditions on Children's Outcomes." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991.
8. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Family Relationships as Sources of Stress and Support: Making the Connection Between Work and Family Experiences.
In: Socioeconomic Conditions, Stress and Mental Disorders: Toward a New Synthesis of Research and Public Policy. A. Maney and J. Ramos eds. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Office of Prevention, 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is little doubt that the quality of family relationships contributes to individual well being, and much research has investigated this linkage between relationship quality and individual outcomes. Studies of family influences on children repeatedly find that what parents do with and for their children-- the materials they provide, the attention and warmth they display, and the investments of time and energy they make in their children-- are reflected in better outcomes (see for example, Belsky, 1984; Bradley & Caldwell, 1977, 1979; Crouter, Perry-Jenkins, Huston, & Crawford, 1989; Moore & Snyder, 1991; Parcel & Menaghan, 1994a; Patterson & Bank, 1989; Patterson, DeBaryshe, & Ramsey, 1989). Similarly, it is clear that disappointing, distant, and conflict-ridden relationships between spouses exact a powerful emotional toll on both spouses and children (Menaghan, 1983; Seltzer, 1994). How do we account for the high frequency of troubled family relationships? Do family members' difficulties in sustaining positive interactions simply reflect the inherent difficulties of family life and individual personal shortcomings? Although these factors are important, I argue that it is important to look beyond the family itself and to pay attention to potential sources of problematic interaction between spouses and between parents and children that may reside in durable social and economic arrangements and cultural understandings that are embedded in larger social contexts. Over the last 7 years, I have been especially interested in understanding better how the larger social context-- particularly parental experiences in occupational life--. shapes family life and children's outcomes. Key findings are reviewed, and their implications for prevention and intervention strategies on behalf of individual and family well being are explored.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Family Relationships as Sources of Stress and Support: Making the Connection Between Work and Family Experiences." In: Socioeconomic Conditions, Stress and Mental Disorders: Toward a New Synthesis of Research and Public Policy. A. Maney and J. Ramos eds. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Office of Prevention, 2002
9. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Intergenerational Consequences of Social Stressors: Effects of Occupational and Family Conditions on Young Mothers and Their Children
In: Stress and Adversity Over the Life Course: Trajectories and Turning Points. I. H. Gotlib and B. Wheaton, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

EXCERPT: Here, I focus on how variation in much more ordinary but persistent social variables - particularly parental occupational circumstances - are likely to have effects on both parents' and children's life chances. Barring major societal dislocations or reorganizations, individuals' occupational and economic locations within a society tend to be relatively stable. Changes in one's occupation tend to be relatively circumscribed: I may move from being a waitress to a cashier, or from being an elementary to a high-school teacher, but it is not likely that I will move from one to the other of these two groups unless I suspend employment and seek additional education or training. Thus, the cumulating consequences of unremarkable variations in occupational conditions can be powerful forces for continuity in individual lives...
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Intergenerational Consequences of Social Stressors: Effects of Occupational and Family Conditions on Young Mothers and Their Children" In: Stress and Adversity Over the Life Course: Trajectories and Turning Points. I. H. Gotlib and B. Wheaton, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1997
10. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Jobs, Marriage, and Children: How His and Her Jobs Affect Child Well-Being
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s):

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although employment of both parents in married-couple families is now common in the U.S., men and women continue to face gender-differentiated work and family expectations. This study focuses on similarities and differences in how mothers' and fathers' work conditions affect family and child outcomes. Using the Child-Mother data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I examine a synthetic cohort of 2,865 families with two employed parents and an early school-age child. I focus on work complexity, hourly earnings, and usual work hours, and hypothesize that each parent's greater work complexity and higher earnings will be associated with higher marital quality, better home environments, and better child-well-being, with father effects stronger. Full-time work schedules are expected to be more positive than both very low hours and extensive overtime. Consistent with gendered expectations regarding optimal work-family balancing, however, mothers' extensive overtime, but fathers' less-than-full-time hours, will be especially problematic.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Jobs, Marriage, and Children: How His and Her Jobs Affect Child Well-Being." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
11. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Long Reach of the Job: Effects of Parents' Occupational Conditions on Family Patterns and Children's Well-Being
Working Paper, Columbus OH: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Environment; Fathers, Influence; Occupational Investment; Occupational Prestige; Occupational Status; Simultaneity; Wives, Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An examination of the impact of workplace stressors-particularly the extent of self-direction and control, wages, and job hours on workers' intimate marital relationships, parenting activities, and their children's emotional well-being. Data are from women in the National Longitudinal Survey's Youth Cohort born 1958-1965, who were interviewed each year 1979-1988, and information collected in 1988 about their children. Estimated are additive and nonadditive multivariate models predicting outcomes as a function of occupational and family circumstances, both parents' background and educational statuses, and initial maternal resources. Occupational effects vary depending on the resources parents bring to the situation, the total employment configuration of the family, and the overall family environment. Mothers' employment and wages appear to compensate for husbands' occupational difficulties and shortfalls, but have less positive effects when husbands are heavily involved in and relatively successful at their own occupational efforts. Conversely, fathers' extensive time investments in complex occupations have more positive effects when their wives are not employed. These findings suggest that both parents' occupational conditions need to be considered simultaneously to achieve an adequate understanding of their effects. (Copyright 1993, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Long Reach of the Job: Effects of Parents' Occupational Conditions on Family Patterns and Children's Well-Being." Working Paper, Columbus OH: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1995.
12. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Social Stressors in Childhood and Adolescence
In: A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health: Social Contexts, Theories, and Systems. A.V. Horwitz and T.L. Scheid, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Mehaghan argues that the major mental health concerns in children and adolescents are linked to behavioral problems and various high-risk behaviors. She defines and examines two dimensions of such problems: externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Social stressors linked to family composition, occupation, and various economic factors are realted to the development of behavior problems. Large family size, unstable family composition, difficult working conditions, and inadequate incomes have negative impacts on parenting abilities and also exacerbate developmental problems in children. Individual characteristics of parents and children also shape the development and course of behavior problems, the socialization experience of children and the quality of interaction between parents and children. Further research is needed to determine the causal linkages between social stressors, parent and child characteristics, and the quality of child-parent interactions as well as to develop effective interventions for reducing the number of children with behavioral problems. What types of stressors seem most critical to the development of childhood mental health problems? What types of interventions (see Chapter 5) would have the most impact on children's mental health?
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Social Stressors in Childhood and Adolescence" In: A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health: Social Contexts, Theories, and Systems. A.V. Horwitz and T.L. Scheid, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1999
13. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
The Impact of Occupational and Economic Pressures on Young Mothers' Self-Esteem: Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Washington, DC, Annual Meetings of the Society for the Sociological Study of Social Problems, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sociological Abstracts
Keyword(s): Family Resources; Maternal Employment; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the role that early esteem plays in shaping current circumstances, and the extent to which social circumstances alter self-esteem over time. Data are from the NLSY 1979-1987 and the 1986 Child-Mother Supplement. Controlling for characteristics of the mothers' families of origin and their own early cognitive skills, six years later, mothers with initially low levels of self-esteem had completed fewer years of education, although they had not begun childbearing at a earlier age nor had more children to care for. Early self-esteem also shaped later marital and occupational circumstances: by 1986, women with lower self-esteem were employed in less complex, more poorly paid jobs. As a result, these mothers were experiencing economic insecurity and less satisfying occupational conditions. These conditions shaped later self-esteem: more poorly paid and less complex work, low spousal earnings, and larger family size all contributed to deterioration in self-esteem relative to initial levels. Stated positively, initial levels of esteem increased the likelihood that women would attain more advantaged social positions, and those positions in turn further bolstered mothers' self-confidence. While the personal resources that mothers bring to young adulthood help to propel them onto a trajectory that produces widening differences in young adulthood, such selection effects are relatively weak. The later occupational and family conditions young women experience play a significant role in bolstering or undermining prior levels of self-esteem.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "The Impact of Occupational and Economic Pressures on Young Mothers' Self-Esteem: Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Washington, DC, Annual Meetings of the Society for the Sociological Study of Social Problems, 1990.
14. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Work Experiences and Family Interaction Processes: The Long Reach of the Job?
Annual Review of Sociology 17 (August 1991): 419-444.
Also: http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.so.17.080191.002223
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Annual Reviews
Keyword(s): General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment

Until recently little theoretical or empirical attention has focused on the ways in which socially structured experiences in the workplace affect the interactions that occur within families. This review considers the many levels at which family interaction is currently being studied, presents arguments regarding expected relationships between aspects of workplace experiences and spousal and parent-child interaction, and summarizes the relatively small body of empirical research that links occupation and family interaction. It emphasizes the extent to which emotional consequences of work mediate the effect of workplace conditions on family interaction. The chapter reviews evidence suggesting that a variety of workplace conditions--restriction of opportunity to exercise self-direction, work overload, poor quality of interpersonal relations on the job, low opportunity for cooperative problem solving, job insecurities, job loss, and low earnings--have emotional repercussions that have negative implications for family interaction. It argues that future research can illuminate social influences on family interaction by more fully incorporating observational methods to investigate both workplace and family processes and by more systematically and explicitly bringing the larger occupational and economic context into the emerging analyses of the microstructure of family interaction.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Work Experiences and Family Interaction Processes: The Long Reach of the Job?" Annual Review of Sociology 17 (August 1991): 419-444.
15. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Mott, Frank L.
Nicotine Exposure before Birth and Children's Behavior Problems in Middle Childhood: Toward Understanding the Linkage
Working Paper, Department of Sociology and Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Deviance; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998

Using linked child-mother data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY) we examine the association between maternal smoking behavior during pregnancy and children's later levels of externalizing behavior problems at ages ten and eleven. We examine to what extent this association may reflect common correlates with associated maternal resources, skills, and characteristics, be a result of associated differences in the quality of current work and family circumstances, or reflect other indicators of poorer maternal attitudes and behaviors. We also evaluate whether part of this relationship is mediated through associated child physical health, especially respiratory, problems. We consider parallel arguments for effects of current maternal smoking, and also evaluate the potential mediational role of family home environments. Only a small part of this relationship appears to be mediated through associated child physical health problems, while there is some suggestion that smoking during pregnancy may reflect associated maternal life difficulties as well as more compromised family home environments.

Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Elizabeth C. Cooksey and Frank L. Mott. "Nicotine Exposure before Birth and Children's Behavior Problems in Middle Childhood: Toward Understanding the Linkage." Working Paper, Department of Sociology and Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1998.
16. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Mott, Frank L.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Work and Family Circumstances and Child Trajectories: When (and for What) Does AFDC Receipt Matter?
Presented: Chicago, IL, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Pre-Conference on Family Process and Child Development in Low Income Families, May 7-8, 1998.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/wp/WPprofile.cfm?ID=39.0
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Family Circumstances, Changes in; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Simultaneity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper focuses on children's progress through middle childhood over a four year period, beginning with a synthetic cohort of children aged 6-7 and following them to ages 10-11. We have been particularly concerned with changes over time, seeking to link changing parental work and family circumstances with changes in the quality of parent-child interaction and with children's increases or decreases in behavior problems. In this preliminary set of analyses, we can take advantage of the longitudinal NLSY child data, and control for the initial level of child outcomes at the beginning of the study period. Thus, our main focus is on how temporal patterns of AFDC receipt are linked to changes in the quality of children's home environments, their reading skills, and their behavior. We ask three major questions. First, for the large sample of children aged 10 to 11 whom we have been following from ages 6-7, what are the patterns of AFDC receipt from year 1 through year 5? We describe those patterns, and correlate variations in AFDC receipt with the measures of maternal resources, work and family patterns over the same period. Second, are these patterns linked to three indicators of child outcomes: the quality of home environments, the child's reading ability, and the child's propensity to oppositional action (a subset of behavior problems), under varying controls? Third, following Greg Duncan's lead, we develop typologies that simultaneously consider AFDC receipt, family composition, mother's education, and mother's employment history. What are the frequencies of those types, and what are the linkages between these groups and the three child outcomes under varying sets of controls?
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Susan Marie Jekielek, Frank L. Mott and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Work and Family Circumstances and Child Trajectories: When (and for What) Does AFDC Receipt Matter?" Presented: Chicago, IL, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Pre-Conference on Family Process and Child Development in Low Income Families, May 7-8, 1998.
17. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Impact of Social Stressors on Academic and Social Difficulties in Early Adolescence: Evidence from the NLSY Mothers and Children
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Frank L. Mott. "Impact of Social Stressors on Academic and Social Difficulties in Early Adolescence: Evidence from the NLSY Mothers and Children." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
18. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Parental Investment and Early Adolescent Behavior Problems: Evidence from NLSY Mothers and Children
Presented: Indianapolis, IN, Symposium on Social Capital and Child Development at the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meetings, April 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Cognitive Development; Family Structure; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In describing social capital as a critical element in the formation of human capital, James Coleman calls attention to features of relationships between actors that help these relationships to serve as resources for individuals and groups. While Coleman emphasizes social capital in neighborhoods and community patterns, family relations themselves may be more or less organized to support family members' goals and actions. Coleman (1988) argues that such family social capital-as embodied in relations that are stable and dependable, marked by high frequency of interaction, and characterized by homogeneity of values and norms--is a resource enabling individuals to accomplish goals. In particular, parental efforts to develop positive bonds with their children--via support for cognitive development, warm interaction, and joint participation in activities--and to foster shared norms--via explicit discussion of parental expectations and inclusion of the child in rulemaking--should d ecrease their children's vulnerability to behavior problems and deviance. But such family social capital is not equally distributed among families. Given the importance of parent-child relationships for children's outcomes, we argue that it is critical to understand the social determinants of family interaction patterns, as well as to investigate how variations in the quality and character of relations among parents and children help to shape the behavioral choices that adolescent children make.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Frank L. Mott. "Parental Investment and Early Adolescent Behavior Problems: Evidence from NLSY Mothers and Children." Presented: Indianapolis, IN, Symposium on Social Capital and Child Development at the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meetings, April 1995.
19. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
The Intergenerational Costs of Parental Social Stressors: Academic & Social Difficulties in Early Adolescence for Children of Young Mothers
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38,1 (March 1997): 72-86.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2955362
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Development; Family Environment; Family Influences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Adolescent; Occupational Prestige; Parental Influences; Social Environment; Social Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Social stressors embedded in parents' occupational and family roles have been shown to have effects on family interaction and the cognitive and emotional development of young children. Here we consider whether these patterns also hold for children in early adolescence. We study 1158 10-14-year-old children born to the early childbearers among the female respondents of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort. We find that both poor quality of parental employment and low quality of mothers' relationships with their partners have adverse effects on the cognitive stimulation and maternal warmth children receive; living in informal unions is also associated with poorer parent-child interaction. These family interaction patterns in turn both buffer the effects of stressful family conditions and shape academic and behavior outcomes directly. Some work and family conditions interact in their effects: in particular, single mothering has less adverse effects on cognitive stimulation and behavior problems when mothers are employed in occupations providing higher complexity.The effects of current conditions are diminished but seldom eliminated when we control for possible selection effects by utilizing data from earlier waves to control for earlier levels of child problems. These findings suggest that current parental social stressors continue to have consequences for both academic and behavioral outcomes during early adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Frank L. Mott. "The Intergenerational Costs of Parental Social Stressors: Academic & Social Difficulties in Early Adolescence for Children of Young Mothers." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38,1 (March 1997): 72-86.
20. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mott, Frank L.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Work, Family Patterns, and Child Well Being: Tracing Consequences over Time
Presented: Toronto, Canada, Annual Meetings of the American Sociological Association, August 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Bullying/Victimization; Children, Well-Being; Family Characteristics; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Influences; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Health, Mental; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Behavior; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our overall research objective is to describe and explain the development, maintenance, and change in children's behavior problems during middle childhood, and subsequently to examine the implications of these patterns for early adolescent behavior. We focus on two major categories of problems: a) externalizing behavior that is troubling to others, especially aggressive and antisocial behavior; and b) internalizing behavior marked by withdrawal from interaction and depressed mood. In the research we report today, we focus exclusively on the former dimension, and study what we term "oppositional action"-outward acts of behavior that often have an antisocial element to them and reflect under-control of aggressive impulses, for example, bullying others, having trouble getting along with peers and teachers, and being restless, impulsive, and short-tempered. We analyze levels of oppositional action at ages ten and eleven, and changes in levels since ages six and seven, linking both level and change to maternal and child characteristics, current work and family circumstances, and changes in those circumstances over time (see conceptural model?).
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Frank L. Mott and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Work, Family Patterns, and Child Well Being: Tracing Consequences over Time." Presented: Toronto, Canada, Annual Meetings of the American Sociological Association, August 1997.
21. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mott, Frank L.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Long Reach of the Job: Effects of Mothers' Work Experiences on Oppositional Action in Early Adolescence
Working Paper, Department of Sociology and Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Employment; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Fathers, Absence; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998

While research has examined how maternal work and family patterns affect pre-school and younger children, we are less well informed about effects in early adolescence, and in particular, how changes in parents' work and family circumstances over time may alter their children's risks for behavior problems. in this analysis, we focus on one aspect of behavior problems, propensities to oppositional action, and study its trajectory from middle childhood (ages 6-7) to early adolescence (ages 10-11), linking this trajectory to maternal employment patterns over the same time period. We study these trajectories for a national sample of 1,917 children aged 10-11 drawn from the Child-Mother data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This is a synthetic cohort constructed by pooling children aged 10-11 in 1990, 1992, and 1994. We focus on three features of maternal employment: the extensiveness of employment, as tapped by the proportion of weeks worked over the last four years; the st ability of employment, as tapped by the number of starts and stops in employment over that period; and the quality of employment, as tapped by the substantive complexity and opportunities for self-direction of the mother's occupation. We include statistical controls for maternal and child characteristics, as well as for family compositional patterns and spouse employment characteristics. We find that the key contrasts are between mothers with no employment at any point, those with intermittent employment, and those with continuous employment. Children of those never employed are most prone to oppositional behavior problems, while those whose mothers were continuously employed are least prone, even after stringent controls for associated human and social capital, family compositional patterns, and quality of employment. Our data also suggest that low to no maternal employment has more negative effects on children not living stably with their fathers over the past four years. The quality of employment is associated with more stable employment patterns, and we find no independent effect of employment quality on early adolescent outcomes once we take stability and extensiveness into account. Earlier levels of oppositional action (at ages 6-7) are strongly correlated with levels four years later (bivariate r += . 60); multivariate beta = +.52), but earlier levels are not consistently or significantly associated with employment patterns over the four year period, and controlling for those earlier levels does not substantially alter effects of maternal employment patterns previously observed. Thus, these negative impacts of stable non-employment and very low levels of employment persist even when earlier levels of behavior problems are controlled, suggesting that they represent increases over time, not simply persistence of higher levels established at earlier time points.

Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Frank L. Mott, Elizabeth C. Cooksey and Susan Marie Jekielek. "Long Reach of the Job: Effects of Mothers' Work Experiences on Oppositional Action in Early Adolescence." Working Paper, Department of Sociology and Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1998.
22. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mott, Frank L.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Work and Family Patterns: Effects Across Generations
Presented: East Lansing, MI, Social Capital Conference, April 1998.
Also: http://www.ssc.msu.edu/~internat/soccap/Abstracts.htm#menaghan
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Family Structure; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent research suggests that childhood and adolescent rates of behavior problems have been rising in the US over the past two decades. At the same time, family composition and parental, especially maternal, employment patterns have also been shifting. While research has focused on how maternal work and family patterns affect pre-school and younger children, we are less well informed about effects in early adolescence, and in particular, how stability and change in parents' work and family circumstances over time may alter their children's risks for behavior problems. In this analysis, we focus on one aspect of behavior problems, propensities to oppositional action, and study its trajectory from middle childhood (ages 6-7) to early adolescence (ages 10-11), linking this trajectory to maternal employment and family composition patterns over the same time period. We study these trajectories for a national sample of 1,917 children aged 10-11 drawn from the Child-Mother data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This is a synthetic cohort constructed by pooling children aged 10-11 in 1990, 1992, and 1994. All multivariate models include controls for cohort membership to capture effects of unmeasured secular changes which may affect the cohorts differently.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Frank L. Mott, Elizabeth C. Cooksey and Susan Marie Jekielek. "Work and Family Patterns: Effects Across Generations." Presented: East Lansing, MI, Social Capital Conference, April 1998.
23. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mott, Frank L.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Work and Family Patterns: Effects Across Generations
Journal of Socio-Economics 29,6 (2000): 587-590.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535700001013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Size; Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Parenting Skills/Styles

Recent research suggests that childhood and adolescent rates of behavior problems have been rising in the US over the past two decades. At the same time, family composition and parental, especially maternal, employment patterns have also been shifting. While research has focused on how maternal work and family patterns affect pre-school and younger children, there is less information about effect in early adolescence, and in particular, how stability and change in parents' work and family circumstances over time may alter their children's risks for behavior problems. In this analysis, one aspect of behavior problems and propensities to oppositional action are focused on, and the trajectories for a national sample of 1,917 children aged 10-11 drawn from the Child-Mother data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is studied.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Frank L. Mott, Elizabeth C. Cooksey and Susan Marie Jekielek. "Work and Family Patterns: Effects Across Generations." Journal of Socio-Economics 29,6 (2000): 587-590.
24. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mott, Frank L.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Children's Behavior Problems: Effects of Current Conditions and Maternal Resources
Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Fathers, Presence; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Explores how work & family circumstances shape young children's emotional well-being & behavior, & the extent to which parental resources buffer against adverse effects, using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth for a synthetic cohort of 2,343 children ages 6-7, who were born 1979 & 1986. Results suggest 3 aspects of current work & family circumstances are associated with lower levels of children's behavior problems: (1) the presence of the child's father in the family, (2) the mother being employed, & (3) among employed mothers, the mother working in an occupation that offers greater complexity. Maternal resources also matter: mothers with higher self-esteem, lower levels of youthful deviance, & who had avoided smoking during pregnancy had children with lower levels of behavior problems. These resources had directed effects on behavior problems when current work & family circumstances were controlled, & indirect effects through their impact s on curr ent work & family circumstances. Mothers' cognitive resources had no direct effects, but higher education helped to buffer the effects of presence/absence of the child's father. Higher cognitive resources were also associated with better current work & family circumstances. It is concluded that mothers' resources & their current work & family circumstances affect children's well-being; these effects persist despite stringent controls & are predominantly additive in form. From a policy perspective, these results suggest that improvements in current work & family circumstances can enhance children's well-being, even for children whose mothers have poorer emotional & cognitive resources. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Frank L. Mott, Susan Marie Jekielek and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Children's Behavior Problems: Effects of Current Conditions and Maternal Resources." Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996.
25. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions
Working Paper, Columbus: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Self-Esteem

Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions." Working Paper, Columbus: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 1991.
26. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,2 (May 1991): 417-431.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352909
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children; Children, Home Environment; Family Influences; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Mothers; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

This paper examines determinants of the home environments that employed mothers provide for their young children and investigates the impact of current employment experiences, current family conditions, and maternal and child characteristics in shaping children's home environments. Using data from the NLSY 1986 Mother-Child Supplement, the authors study 795 employed mothers with a child aged three through six years old. As work socialization theories suggest, it was found that the occupational complexity of mother's work positively affects the home environments mothers provide for their children. In addition, larger family size produces less optimal child environments. The personal resources that mothers bring to their child-rearing--self esteem, locus of control, educational attainment, and age--also have significant effects on children's home environments. Given the importance of home environment for child cognitive and socioemotional outcomes, these findings suggest pathways by which maternal resources and current occupational and family environments have intergenerational repercussions.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,2 (May 1991): 417-431.
27. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Measuring Temperament in a Large Cross Sectional Survey: Reliability and Validity for Children of the NLS Youth
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1988.
Also: http://www.nlsinfo.org/usersvc/Child-Young-Adult/MenaghanParcelTemperament1988.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Temperament; Data Quality/Consistency; General Assessment; Memory for Location; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Shyness; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the measurement properties of the set of items used to assess the construct of temperament for the children of NLSY mothers in 1986. After briefly describing the nature of the NLSY itself and origins of the survey of children, the authors describe the scaling procedures used to construct measures from the items, report these measures' reliabilities, and describe initial evidence suggesting validity. Three sets of age-specific measures are developed: activity and predictability for infants under a year; positive affect and fearfulness-fussiness for infants under age two; and compliance, shyness, and demanding dependence for children age two through six. As previous research of other maternal ratings of child temperament have shown, these scales are generally correlated as expected with other constructs, including interviewer ratings of the child's interaction; and they are also related to maternal characteristics. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the advantages of using these measures for study of certain research questions central to the field of child development, as well as limitations inherent in the resource.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Measuring Temperament in a Large Cross Sectional Survey: Reliability and Validity for Children of the NLS Youth." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1988.
28. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Social Sources of Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions
Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 69-84.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353817
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Children, Home Environment; Family Background and Culture; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Job Status; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Dissolution; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Race; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Attainment; Parental Influences; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

This study investigates change in children's home environments as a function of change in parental occupational and family conditions. It uses data from the 1986 and 1988 mother-child supplements to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) on 1,403 mothers with children aged 3 through 6 in 1986 to estimate multivariate regression equations predicting changes in home environments as a function of intervening occupational and family changes. All analyses control for parents' background and education, maternal ethnicity, child gender, and child health. The birth of additional children, marital termination, and mother remaining unmarried have generally negative effects on children's home environments. The effect of mothers' beginning employment varies depending on the occupational complexity of her employment: Beginning a job that is low in complexity is associated with worsening home environments. The generally negative effect of remaining unmarried also varies depending on mothers' employment status and the quality of employment, being more positive for mothers employed at higher wages and more negative for mothers who remain without employment.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Social Sources of Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions." Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 69-84.
29. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Social Sources of Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions
Presented: Santa Monica, CA, Economic and Demographic Aspects of Intergenerational Relations, The RAND Corporation, 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Child Health; Children; Children, Home Environment; Family Background and Culture; Family Influences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Parental Influences; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

This paper extends research on determinants of children's home environments by evaluating effects of the occupational conditions that mothers and fathers experience on the home environments they provide and examining stability and change in home environments as a function of stability and change in occupational and family conditions. It utilizes the 1986 and 1988 mother-child supplements to the NLSY, selects the 781 married mothers with children aged three-to-six in 1986, and estimates multivariate regression of 1986 and 1988 child home environments, and change over time, as a function of earlier occupational and family conditions, parents' background and education, initial maternal resources, and intervening occupational and family changes. The findings document strong effects of parental cognitive and psychological resources on children's home environments. They also underscore the importance of both parents' occupational experiences, and of occupational and family change s on parents' abilities to provide adequate home environments.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Social Sources of Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions." Presented: Santa Monica, CA, Economic and Demographic Aspects of Intergenerational Relations, The RAND Corporation, 1992.
30. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions
Presented: Seattle, WA, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined the effects of mothers' and fathers' occupational conditions on children's home environments, and of change in occupational and family conditions on change in home environments. The study used the 1986 and 1988 supplements to the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. Subjects were 781 married mothers with children aged 3 through 6 years in 1986. For mothers in dual-earner families, home environment was affected by mothers': (1) self-esteem and sense of mastery; (2) age (for older mothers); (3) work at a complex occupation; (4) marriage to a highly educated spouse; (5) having fewer children. Improvements over time in children's home environment were affected by spouse's occupational characteristics and age (for spouses who were younger). Declines in home environments occurred when additional children were born or the marriage ended. For mothers in male-earner families who were not employed in 1986, predictors of home environments were similar to those for mothers in families with two earners, with the exception that mothers' cognitive resources and spouses' wage level also had positive effects. Improvements in home environment in this group were also responsive to spouse's working conditions and changes in family circumstances. A list of references is included. ED337292
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions." Presented: Seattle, WA, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 1991.
31. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Transitions in Work and Family Arrangements: Mother's Employment Conditions, Children's Experiences, and Child Outcomes
In: Parent-Child Relations Across the Lifespan. K. Pillemer and K. McCartney, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children; Children, Home Environment; General Assessment; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Wage Levels; Well-Being; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Transitions in Work and Family Arrangements: Mother's Employment Conditions, Children's Experiences, and Child Outcomes" In: Parent-Child Relations Across the Lifespan. K. Pillemer and K. McCartney, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991
32. Mott, Frank L.
Fondell, Michelle M.
Hu, Paul N.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
The Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High-Risk Adolescent Population
Family Planning Perspectives 28,1 (January-February 1996): 13-18.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135957
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Demography; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Socioeconomic Factors; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study using data for mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children aged 14 or older indicates that, after accounting for a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic antecedents, children are significantly more likely to become sexually active before age 14 if their mother had sex at an early age and if she has worked extensively. In addition, early sexual debut is eight times as likely among black boys as among non-Hispanic white boys. Children who use controlled substances at an early age are more than twice as likely to have sex before age 14 as those who do not, although the type of substance having an effect is different for girls (cigarettes) and boys (alcohol). Church attendance is an important determinant of delayed sexual activity but only when a child's friends attend the same church. (Full text available online from EBSCO.)
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Michelle M. Fondell, Paul N. Hu, Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "The Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High-Risk Adolescent Population ." Family Planning Perspectives 28,1 (January-February 1996): 13-18.
33. Mott, Frank L.
Fondell, Michelle M.
Hu, Paul N.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High Risk Adolescent Population
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research and Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, April 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Age at Menarche; Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Behavior; Psychological Effects; Racial Differences; Religious Influences; Sexual Activity; Socioeconomic Factors; Substance Use

This research uses data for children age 13 and over from the 1988, 1990 and 1992 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth child data collection to clarify the importance of a wide range of family and child socio-economic, psychological and physiological priors as predictors of having had sex prior to age fourteen for a high risk national population. The results suggest that while many standard socio-economic and attitudinal priors are not significant predictors, several maternal and child antecedents are highly significant: extensive maternal employment over the child's life is independently associated with above average early sexual activity. Being black is a significant predictor--but only for boys. From an intergenerational perspective, having had a mother who was sexually active at an early age is a robust predictor of a child's early sex. Independent of all other attributes and behaviors. Surprisingly, no cross-generational links between maternal age at menarche and either daughters age at puberty or first sex or within-generational connections between daughter's puberty and age at first sex were found.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Michelle M. Fondell, Paul N. Hu and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High Risk Adolescent Population." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research and Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, April 1995.
34. Mott, Frank L.
Fondell, Michelle M.
Hu, Paul N.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
The Determinants of Delayed Sexual Activity in a High Risk Adolescent Population
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research and Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, March 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Behavior; Sexual Activity; Socioeconomic Factors

In this paper we use some unique longitudinal data for a national sample of high risk young adolescents to temporally examine how various dimensions of a child's background may be linked with subsequent early sexual activity. In particular, we consider the extent to which family and maternal attributes, and child personal behaviors and attitudes may be predictive of subsequent sexual activity. We additionally explore the extent to which early sexual intercourse by a youth may be associated with similar early behavior by his or her mother a generation earlier. For daughters, we are able to clarify whether this intergenerational transmission appears to be independent of any propensities by the mother or daughter to have reached menarche at an early age. We essentially incorporate a variety of social and psychological perspectives into our research design.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Michelle M. Fondell, Paul N. Hu and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "The Determinants of Delayed Sexual Activity in a High Risk Adolescent Population." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research and Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, March 1995.
35. Mott, Frank L.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Gender Variations in the Associations Between Father's Absence from the Home and Children's Behavior: Sensitivity to Life Cycle Stage
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Life Cycle Research; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Poverty; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research uses the 1979 through 1990 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and its complementary child assessment data to explore the shorter and longer term implications of a father's absence for the behavior of national sample of white children who are nine to eleven years of age in 1990. A particular focus of the research is to explore gender variations in the effects of father's absence on the behavior of this sample of about 500 children. The results suggest that (1) there is systematic evidence of strong associations between a fathers absence and a child's behavior in the shorter and longer run, with particular strong effects in the years immediately following the fathers departure. (2) More modest effects are found for girls than for boys. In this regard, there is no evidence of behavioral deterioration among girls compared to boys in the later childhood period -- either for children whose father has been absent for a lengthy time period or for children whose father left in the later childhood period.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Gender Variations in the Associations Between Father's Absence from the Home and Children's Behavior: Sensitivity to Life Cycle Stage." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
36. Mott, Frank L.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does a Child's Gender Make a Difference?
Journal of Marriage and Family 59,1 (February 1997): 103-118.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353665
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Parental Influences; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem

A study was conducted to examine the shorter and longer implications of a father's absence from the home for the behavior of a national sample of 482 white children aged 9-11 years in 1990, focusing in particular on gender differences in these longer and shorter term effects. Findings indicate that more modest effects of a father's absence are found for girls than are for boys, although the gender variations typically are not statistically significant. In addition, contrary to expectations, this modest behavioral gender difference appears for both externalization and internalization subscores. Furthermore, boys and girls seem to react similarly and negatively to the presence of a new man in the home.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does a Child's Gender Make a Difference?" Journal of Marriage and Family 59,1 (February 1997): 103-118.
37. Mott, Frank L.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does Child Gender Make a Difference?
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem

This research uses data from the 1979 through 1990 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and its complementary child assessment data to explore the shorter and longer implications of a father's absence from the home.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does Child Gender Make a Difference?" Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1996.
38. Mott, Frank L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Adolescents At Risk: Family Predictors Of Problem Behaviors
Final Report for Grant Apr 000961, Office of Population Affairs, Department of Health & Human Services, September 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Development; Family History; Family Influences; Family Studies; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Gender Differences; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Sexual Activity; Siblings

This report synthesizes our work on grant APR 000961, entitled "Adolescents at Risk--Family Predictors of Problem Behaviors". This grant used a life course perspective to explore the family origins of child and adolescent problem behaviors. The availability of a longitudinal data file, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, enabled us to follow national samples of youth who are disproportionately from high risk backgrounds, from mid-childhood well into adolescence, examining the family antecedents and concomitants of troublesome behaviors. This report summarizes our findings from the full body of research which has been completed under this grant. In this final report, our approach is to systematically clarify how a variety of early family behaviors and attributes may or may not contribute to a developmental process whereby some youths succeed emotionally and intellectually, whereas others follow a more erratic developmental path. All of the findings we report in this summary represent independent effects, after a wide range of family and maternal priors have been taken into account. Major findings are summarized in 8 components.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Adolescents At Risk: Family Predictors Of Problem Behaviors." Final Report for Grant Apr 000961, Office of Population Affairs, Department of Health & Human Services, September 1996.
39. Mott, Frank L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Linkages Between Early Childhood Family Structure, Socio-Economic Well-Being and Middle-Childhood Socio-Emotional Development
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Children, Well-Being; Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Household Composition; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research uses family and child outcome data from the 1979 through 1990 rounds of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to explore associations between infant and early childhood family structure, socio-economic well-being and parent-child interaction patterns and evidence of subsequent behavior problems by the same children in the immediate pre-adolescent years. The children we follow in this research all have been born between the 1979 and 1982 survey rounds and thus will be between the ages of 8 and 11 as of the 1990 survey point. This sample of approximately 1300 children includes an over-representation of black youth. The separate black and white samples are sufficiently large to permit sample stratification as necessary. The outcome variables we focus on are a well-established nationally-normed behavior problems scale and six behavior problems subscales which measure anxiousness-depression, peer conflict, hyperactivity, headstrong behavior, dependency, and anti-social behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Linkages Between Early Childhood Family Structure, Socio-Economic Well-Being and Middle-Childhood Socio-Emotional Development." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
40. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Child Home Environment as a Mediating Construct Between SES and Child Outcomes
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1989.
Also: http://www.nlsinfo.org/usersvc/Child-Young-Adult/ParcelMenaghanHOME1989.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Children, Home Environment; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As part of a larger project predicting child outcomes as a function of mothers' working conditions and child care arrangements, the authors develop measures of children's home environments and investigate their relations with other key variables. Children's home environment is viewed as a critical intervening variable between maternal working conditions and household economic status, on the one hand, and children's social and cognitive child outcomes. Using the NLSY begun in 1979, and its 1986 survey of female respondents' children, measures are developed from subsets of items from Bradley and Caldwell's HOME measures. The authors derive a set of scales that reflect the three major concepts underlying the original measures -- cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and physical environment. Factor-based scales are constructed for two age groups, three to five years (N = 1,391), and 6 years and older (N = 1,218); the three components are also combined to yield an overall measure of the quality of the child's home environment. As expected, higher parental education, better occupational conditions, and more adequate economic resources are associated with better home environments. In turn, better child environments are related to stronger cognitive performance and fewer behavior problems. As with the complete HOME scales, relationships with SES indicators are statistically significant but only moderate in size. The derived measures of home environment provide information that is not captured by structural indicators; the authors view them as important tools for multivariate investigation of the ways in which place in the social structure comes to exert its influence on the development of subsequent generations.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Child Home Environment as a Mediating Construct Between SES and Child Outcomes." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1989.
41. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Early Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes
American Journal of Sociology 99, 4 (January 1994): 972-1009.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2781737
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Care; Child Development; Child Health; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Self-Esteem; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Wages

Uses data from the 1986 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to evaluate the impact of parental working conditions on both a cognitive & a social child outcome among a national sample of employed mothers with children ages 3-6. Results indicate that current maternal working conditions affect children's verbal facility, but paternal work hours in the early years have significant effects on children's behavior problems. Mothers' current occupational complexity interacts with her resources & employment characteristics to influence both cognitive & social outcomes. It is concluded that adequate parental resources contribute to the forms of family social capital useful in facilitating positive child outcomes, but that findings of negative effects of maternal work in the child's first year have been overgeneralized. 5 Tables, 1 Figure, 1 Appendix, 70 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1994, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Early Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes." American Journal of Sociology 99, 4 (January 1994): 972-1009.
42. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Effects of Low-Wage Employment on Family Well-Being
The Future of Children Welfare to Work 7,1 (Spring 1997).
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=72223
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Wage Levels; Wages, Women; Welfare; Well-Being; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Assumptions about the processes that link a mother's employment to the development of her child must underlie expectations about how children may fare when their mothers move from welfare dependence into employment. This article explores the idea, mentioned in the research overview by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue, that the working conditions such as ages, work hours, and task complexity that mothers experience on the job can influence their behavior as parents and shape the home environments they provide for their children. This article discusses the significance of home environments for children's intellectual and emotional development and considers how home surroundings change when mothers begin jobs that are more rewarding or less rewarding. The authors conclude that, while maternal employment is not necessarily harmful, if welfare recipients find only low-wage, stressful jobs, working may prose costly for both family and child well being. The authors recommend that welfare-to-work programs devote attention to (1) assisting mothers to obtain more complex work at good wages, (2) helping mothers understand the role home environments play in shaping children's development, and (3) encouraging parents to make their children's home surroundings as positive as possible. Copyright 1997 by Center for the Future of Children. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. All rights reserved. Also available in .pdf format: http://www.futureofchildren.org/usr_doc/vol7no1ART11.pdf
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Effects of Low-Wage Employment on Family Well-Being." The Future of Children Welfare to Work 7,1 (Spring 1997).
43. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Effects of Maternal Working Conditions in the First Year of Life on PPVT Among 3-6 Year Old Children: Estimates from Longitudinal Models
Presented: Prague, Czech Republic, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Current arguments suggest that the child's first year is critical, since both maternal employment outside the home/maternal working conditions and non-maternal child care may be detrimental. The authors analyze the effects of maternal/working conditions in the child's first year, the nature of child care arrangements in the first year, and family configuration as they impact PPVT-R for 3-6 year olds of mothers, who have worked at any point in the child's life (N-1107) using data from the NLSY and Child Supplements for 1986 Analyses using LISREL suggest the extent to which such variables in the child's first year impact analogous constructs at the time of assessment, and whether both have independent effects on PPVT-R.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Effects of Maternal Working Conditions in the First Year of Life on PPVT Among 3-6 Year Old Children: Estimates from Longitudinal Models." Presented: Prague, Czech Republic, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), 1991.
44. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Effects of Maternal Working Conditions in the First Year of Life on PPVT-R Among 3-6 Year Olds: Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Seattle, WA, International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28) Biennial Meetings, April 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Current arguments suggest that the child's first year is critical, since both maternal employment outside the home/maternal working conditions and non-maternal child care may be detrimental. The authors analyze the effects of maternal/working conditions in the child's first year, the nature of child care arrangements in the first year, and family configuration as they impact PPVT-R for 3-6 year olds of mothers ,who have worked at any point in the child's life (N-1107) using data from the NLSY and Child Supplements for 1986 Analyses using LISREL suggest the extent to which such variables in the child's first year impact analogous constructs at the time of assessment, and whether both have independent effects on PPVT-R.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Effects of Maternal Working Conditions in the First Year of Life on PPVT-R Among 3-6 Year Olds: Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Seattle, WA, International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28) Biennial Meetings, April 1991.
45. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Familial Social Capital and Children's Behavior Problems: Differences Between Dual Earner and Male Earner Families
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Family Structure; General Assessment; Household Composition; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Siblings; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We argue that social capital that inheres in the relationships between parents and children should be associated with internalization of social nomms in children. Changes in parental working conditions and family circumstances should affect children's social adjustment because such factors affect the fommation and use of social capital in families. We study variations in children's behavior problems in a sample of 524 6-8 year old children in married couple families in 1988 derived from the National Longitudinal Survey's Youth Cohort Child Mother data 1986 and 1988. We find that higher levels of maternal mastery, and more positive home environments protect children against behavior problems. Analyses of change in behavior problems also suggest that 1986 levels of paternal complexity have protective effects, while the birth of additional siblings and the lowest levels of matemal paid work hours place children at risk. We interpret these findings to suggest specific mechanisms through which family social capital promotes norm transmission across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Familial Social Capital and Children's Behavior Problems: Differences Between Dual Earner and Male Earner Families." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1991.
46. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Family Social Capital and Children's Behavior Problems
Social Psychology Quarterly 56,2 (June 1993):120-135.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2787001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Family Structure; General Assessment; Household Composition; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We argue that social capital that inheres in the relationships between parents and children should be associated with internalization of social norms in children. Changes in parental working conditions and family circumstances should affect children's social adjustment because such factors affect the formation and use of social capital in families. We study variations in children's behavior problems in a sample of 524 6-8 year old children in married couple families in 1988 derived from the National Longitudinal Survey's Youth Cohort Child Mother data 1986 and 1988. We find that higher levels of maternal mastery, and more positive home environments protect children against behavior problems. Analyses of change in behavior problems also suggest that 1986 levels of paternal complexity have protective effects, while the birth of additional siblings and the lowest levels of maternal paid work hours place children at risk. We interpret these findings to suggest specific mechanisms through which family social capital promotes norm transmission across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Family Social Capital and Children's Behavior Problems." Social Psychology Quarterly 56,2 (June 1993):120-135.
47. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Gender Differences in Developmental Patterns of Child Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the NLS Youth
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1988
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Gender Differences; General Assessment; Marital Disruption

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines age by gender interactions in patterns of behavioral problems for 4-15 year old children of the NLSY mothers. The authors derive reliable and valid measures of behavioral problems at three levels of generality: narrow band groupings, wide band groupings, and an overall measure. Looking at the stressor of divorce, it was found that differences in behavior problems by mothers' marital status are greatest among preschool boys and diminish with age, while among girls, differences by maternal marital status are small during the preschool years but increase at later ages. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using data from large surveys to test hypotheses relevant to child development.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Gender Differences in Developmental Patterns of Child Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the NLS Youth." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1988.
48. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Maternal Working Conditions and Child Verbal Facility: Studying the Transmission of Intergenerational Inequality from Mothers to Young Children [Revised Version]
Presented: Utrecht, The Netherlands, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), April 1989
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Child Care; Child Development; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Temperament; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Maternal Working Conditions and Child Verbal Facility: Studying the Transmission of Intergenerational Inequality from Mothers to Young Children [Revised Version]." Presented: Utrecht, The Netherlands, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), April 1989.
49. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Maternal Working Conditions and Children's Verbal Facility: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality from Mothers to Young Children
Social Psychology Quarterly 53,2 (June 1990): 132-147.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2786675
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; Family Background and Culture; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Tests and Testing; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the intergenerational transmission of inequality from mothers to young children by investigating the effects of maternal working conditions on children's verbal facility. The authors argue that the better paying the mother's job and the more substantively complex the work activities in her occupation, the higher the child's measured verbal facility. The researchers also expect a nonlinear relationship between maternal work hours and verbal facility. They argue that children's experiences at home and in non-maternal care arrangements mediate the effects of working conditions on the dependent variable. A sample of 697 3-6 year old children matched to currently employed mothers in the 1986 NLSY are studied. Verbal facility is measured with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), a measure of receptive vocabulary. The hypotheses are generally supported, even when family characteristics and mother's and child's background are controlled, although non-maternal care arrangements do not impact PPVT. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research including extensions to additional child outcomes, incorporation of paternal working conditions into similar models, and investigation of these processes with more elaborate longitudinal models.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Maternal Working Conditions and Children's Verbal Facility: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality from Mothers to Young Children." Social Psychology Quarterly 53,2 (June 1990): 132-147.
50. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Measuring Behavioral Problems in a Large Cross Sectional Survey: Reliability and Validity for Children of the NLS Youth
Working Paper, Columbus OH: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, September 1988.
Also: http://www.nlsinfo.org/usersvc/Child-Young-Adult/ParcelMenaghanBPI1988.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Data Quality/Consistency; General Assessment; Methods/Methodology; Scale Construction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many developmental psychologists have studied the patterning of child behavior with samples of fewer than 200 children. Studies reporting findings from samples of 30 to 60 are not uncommon. Although replication of findings contributes some evidence for external validity, these investigations cannot entirely overcome limitations inherent in small samples. Until recently large data sets were rarely available. By the autumn of 1987 new resource with which to study child development became available. This resource is a survey of the 5,876 children of mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey's Youth Cohort, where the survey of the children contains a number of age appropriate measures of cognitive and social development. While some child outcome measures were included in the survey, time restrictions in a cross-sectional survey format precluded that possibility for other measures. It cannot be assumed that subsets of scales have identical measurement properties to those of the original measures. This study reports the first investigation of the measurement properties of one of these measures, a subset of items from the Child Behavior Checklist developed by Thomas Achenbach (1978). After describing the nature of the Youth Cohort itself and origins of the survey of children, the study describes the scaling procedures used to construct measures from the items, reports these measures' reliabilities, and describes initial evidence suggesting validity. The conclusion discusses the advantages of using these measures for study of certain research questions central to the field of child development, as well as limitations inherent in the resource.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Measuring Behavioral Problems in a Large Cross Sectional Survey: Reliability and Validity for Children of the NLS Youth." Working Paper, Columbus OH: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, September 1988.
51. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mothers' Careers and Child Development: Evidence from the NLS Youth
Presented: Madrid, Spain, 12th World Congress of Sociology, July 1990
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; Exits; General Assessment; Hispanics; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Race; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

What are the effects of maternal working conditions and child care arrangements on child outcomes? Current arguments suggest that the first year of the child's life is a particularly critical time for development, a time when both maternal absence due to employment outside the home and alternative care arrangements may be detrimental. This paper analyzes the effects of maternal working conditions the mother experienced in the first year of the child's life, the nature of child care arrangements the child experienced then, and family configuration during that time as they impact PPVT for 3-6 year olds of mothers who have worked at any point in the child's life (N=1107). The authors find that work hours is non-linearly related to PPVT, such that intermediate working hours has more negative effects than higher or lower total number of hours; additional analysis suggests that repeated entrances and exits from employment in the child's first year may be detrimental. Child care arrangement characteristics have no effects. It was also found that home environment positively affects PPVT, while numbers of older siblings negatively affect PPVT. When maternal race and measured mental ability (AFQT) are controlled, the authors find that PPVT is strongly associated with race, with children of black, Mexican, and non-Mexican Hispanic mothers having lower PPVT scores than children of white mothers. Maternal AFQT positively affects PPVT. The authors conclude that more analysis is required to specify the mechanism through which the timing and duration of maternal employment in the first year may be affecting child PPVT.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Mothers' Careers and Child Development: Evidence from the NLS Youth." Presented: Madrid, Spain, 12th World Congress of Sociology, July 1990.
52. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes
Presented: Prague, Czech Republic, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children; Children, Academic Development; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Current arguments suggest that the child's first year is critical, since both maternal employment outside the home, maternal working conditions and non-maternal child care may be detrimental. The authors analyze the effects of maternal and paternal working conditions in the child's first year, the nature of child care arrangements, and family configuration--in the first year of life and at the time of assessment--on PPVT-R for 3-6-year-olds of mothers who worked at the time of assessment (N=795) using data from the NLSY and the Child Supplement for 1986. It was found that maternal wages in 1986 and paternal wages in the first year positively impact PPVT-R, and that both maternal and paternal work hours in 1986 have a curvilinear relationship with PPVT-R: overtime hours are detrimental while fathers' full-time work and mothers' high part-time hours are advantageous. The child's home environment and several maternal and child background characteristics also impact PPVT-R.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes." Presented: Prague, Czech Republic, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), 1991.
53. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parents' Jobs and Children's Lives
ISBN: 0-202-30483-3. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Aldine de Gruyter
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Care; Child Development; Child Health; Children; Children, Adjustment Problems; Education; Family Studies; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Occupational Prestige; Occupations, Female; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Regions; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Socioeconomic Background; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Published as part of the Sociology and Economics Controversy and Integration series (Paula S. England, George Farkas, and Kevin Lang, series editors), this book examines the effects of parents' occupational and economic conditions on the social development of their young children, using the 1986 and 1988 National Longitudinal Survey's Child-Mother data set. Discussion includes how parents' jobs directly affect the home environments they create for their children and influence child cognition and social adjustment. The impact of parents' social background and resources on child outcomes is also discussed. Drawing on sociology, economics, and developmental psychology, the book concludes with theoretical and policy implications of the research. The 8 Chapters are preceded by a Foreword by Paula England and followed by an Appendix: Supplemental Child Care Arrangements: Determinants and Consequences. (1) How Do Parents' Jobs Affect Children's Lives? (2) Data, Samples, and Variables. (3) Parents' Jobs and Children's Home Environments. (4) Parents' Jobs and Children's Cognition. (5) Parents' Jobs and Children's Behavior Problems. (6) Early Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes. (7) The Cumulative Effects of Work and Family Conditions on Cognitive and Social Outcomes: Early, Recent, and Current Effects Reconsidered. (8) Conclusions: Work, Family, and Young Children's Lives. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. Parents' Jobs and Children's Lives. ISBN: 0-202-30483-3. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994.
54. Parnes, Herbert S.
Chirikos, Thomas N.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mott, Frank L.
The NLS Older Male Sample Revisited: A Unique Data Base for Gerontological Research. A Description of the Data Base and Illustrative Tables
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1992
Cohort(s): NLS General, Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; Mortality; NLS Description; Support Networks; Well-Being; Widows

This volume, consisting of 56 tables and descriptive text, introduces the reader to the 1990 re-survey of the NLS Older Men's Cohort, in which interviews were obtained with 2,092 members of the original sample and with 2,206 widows or other next-of-kin of decedents. It is designed to: (1) describe and illustrate the categories of data that were collected; (2) record the sizes of various subsets of the sample (e.g., the number of men who were employed in the year preceding the survey); (3) present some simple relationships that invite more sophisticated analysis; and (4) provide some evidence on the reliability and validity of several of the psychological scales used in the survey. Although the tabulations presented within this volume are based on preliminary data, researchers should find the results useful in deciding whether the data base will meet their needs and, if so, in developing research plans before obtaining the data files. Included is an introduction, which describes the purpose and content of the 1990 survey, and seven additional sections dealing with "Mortality", "Physical Well-Being", "Emotional Well-Being", "Family and Friendship Support Systems", "Economic Well-Being", "Current and Prospective Labor Market Activity", and "Status of the Widows."
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Thomas N. Chirikos, Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Frank L. Mott. "The NLS Older Male Sample Revisited: A Unique Data Base for Gerontological Research. A Description of the Data Base and Illustrative Tables." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1992.
55. Rogers, Stacy J.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Family Effects on Children's Social and Emotional Outcomes: The Impact of Marital Quality and Mother-Child Interaction Patterns
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, August 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Society for the Study of Social Problems
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children; Children, Behavioral Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Instability; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper assesses the impact of marital quality and mother-child interaction patterns on children's self-esteem and maternal reports of child behavior problems. Persistent marital conflict, however low level, may affect the interaction patterns of mothers and their children, which in turn influences children's behavioral and emotional development. Also, the extent to which children's self-esteem may mediate the effects of marital conflict and mother- child interaction on children's behavior problems is investigated. The potential differences for stepfather families compared to intact families are also assessed. A sample of 688 8 to 11 year old children and their mothers and fathers or stepfathers from the NLSY in 1988 were used to investigate these questions. It was found that supportive marital relationships have positive, direct affects on the quality of the mother/child interaction. Emotionally positive and supportive interactions between mothers and their children ar e significantly related to increased child self-esteem and reports of fewer behavior problems in children. Children's self-esteem and behavior problems are also directly affected by the level of conflict in the parents' marital relationship. High marital conflict is significantly related to lower child self-esteem and reports of more child behavior problems. Children's self-esteem is significantly, negatively related to their reported level of behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Rogers, Stacy J. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Family Effects on Children's Social and Emotional Outcomes: The Impact of Marital Quality and Mother-Child Interaction Patterns." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, August 1991.
56. Rogers, Stacy J.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Effects of Maternal Working Conditions and Mastery on Child Behavior Problems: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Control
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1990
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children; Children, Behavioral Development; Control; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Mothers; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Rogers, Stacy J., Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Toby L. Parcel. "Effects of Maternal Working Conditions and Mastery on Child Behavior Problems: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Control." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1990.
57. Rogers, Stacy J.
Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
The Effects of Maternal Working Conditions and Mastery on Child Behavior Problems: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Control
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 32,2 (June 1991): 145-164.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2137149
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children; Children, Behavioral Development; Control; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Mothers; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper assesses the impact of maternal sense of mastery and maternal working conditions on maternal perceptions of children's behavior problems as a means to study the transmission of social control across generations. Data from a sample of 521 employed mothers and their four-to-six-year-old children from the NLSY in 1986 are utilized. Regarding working conditions, the authors consider mother's hourly wage, work hours, and job content including involvement with things (vs. people), the requisite level of physical activity, and occupational complexity. Also considered are maternal and child background and current family characteristics, including marital status, family size, and home environment. Maternal mastery was related to fewer reported behavior problems among children. Lower involvement with people and higher involvement with things, as well as low physical activity, were related significantly to higher levels of perceived problems. In addition, recent changes in maternal marital status, including maternal marriage or remarriage, increased reports of problems; stronger home environments had the opposite effect. The authors interpret these findings as suggesting how maternal experiences of control in the workplace and personal resources of control can influence the internalization of control in children.
Bibliography Citation
Rogers, Stacy J., Toby L. Parcel and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "The Effects of Maternal Working Conditions and Mastery on Child Behavior Problems: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Control." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 32,2 (June 1991): 145-164.