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Author: Van Winkle, Zachary
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Poylio, Heta
Van Winkle, Zachary
Do Parental Resources Moderate the Relationship Between Women's Income and First Birth?
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Family Income; Finland, Finnish; First Birth; Income; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research suggests that women's delayed entry into parenthood is attributable to higher educational attainment and labor market status. We examine the extent that parental resources moderate the relationship between women's income and the timing of first birth in a liberal and social democratic welfare state. Results from Cox regressions using the 1979 US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Finnish Census Panel data show that parental resources and women's income are associated with delayed entry into parenthood. Further, in both countries parental resources are associated with delayed parenthood among low-income women, but with earlier parenthood among high-income women. However, the parental resource that moderates this relationship differs by the level of public family support. In the US, material resources, i.e. parental income, are associated with delayed first birth among low-income women. In contrast, immaterial resources, i.e. parental education, are associated with postponed parenthood among low-income women in Finland.
Bibliography Citation
Poylio, Heta and Zachary Van Winkle. "Do Parental Resources Moderate the Relationship Between Women's Income and First Birth?" Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
2. Poylio, Heta
Van Winkle, Zachary
Do Parental Resources Moderate the Relationship Between Women's Income and Timing of Parenthood?
Advances in Life Course Research 39 (March 2019): 1-12.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260818301047
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Cross-national Analysis; Finland, Finnish; Income; Motherhood; Parental Influences; Parenthood

Previous research has concentrated on the associations between higher incomes and delayed entry into parenthood, disadvantaged family background and early childbirth, and the availability of public childcare and fertility. This paper examines the extent to which parental resources moderate the relationship between women's income and entry into parenthood, comparing two countries with very different levels of public family support: Finland and the United States. We use Cox regressions with data from the 1979 US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Finnish Census Panel data to demonstrate both striking similarities and differences between the two countries. First, high-income women from disadvantaged backgrounds postpone entry into parenthood in both countries. Second, high parental resources are associated with postponed entry into parenthood among low-income women. However, we find differences between the two countries regarding which parental resource is most influential. While parental income is important in the US, parental education matters most in Finland.
Bibliography Citation
Poylio, Heta and Zachary Van Winkle. "Do Parental Resources Moderate the Relationship Between Women's Income and Timing of Parenthood?" Advances in Life Course Research 39 (March 2019): 1-12.
3. Van Winkle, Zachary
Struffolino, Emanuela
When Working Isn't Enough: Family Demographic Processes and In-Work Poverty Across the Life Course in the United States
Demographic Research 39 (2018): 365-380.
Also: https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol39/12/default.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Keyword(s): Family Process Measures; Life Course; Marriage; Parenthood; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: We estimate the risk of in-work poverty in the United States over the life course as a function of family demographic processes, namely leaving the parental home, union formation and dissolution, and the transition to parenthood.

Methods: We use data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and fixed effects regression models with interactions between age and each family demographic process to estimate age-specific associations between these processes and the probability of in-work poverty.

Results: In-work poverty is a common phenomenon across the life courses of our study cohort: 20% of individuals are at risk of in-work poverty at every age. However, the risk generally decreases for men and increases for women across the life course. Leaving the parental home, entering parenthood, and separation increase, while marriage decreases the risk of in-work poverty. While the associations between marital statuses and in-work poverty are stable over the life course, the associations between parental home leaving and fertility with in-work poverty vary by age.

Bibliography Citation
Van Winkle, Zachary and Emanuela Struffolino. "When Working Isn't Enough: Family Demographic Processes and In-Work Poverty Across the Life Course in the United States." Demographic Research 39 (2018): 365-380.