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Author: Lee, Kyunghee
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Smith, Judith R.
Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, Kyunghee
The Black-White Test Score Gap in Young Children: Contributions of Test and Family Characteristics
Applied Developmental Science 7,4 (2003): 239-252.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S1532480XADS0704_3
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Ethnic Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); I.Q.; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This study examined Black-White test score gaps in young children. Scores from a receptive verbal test (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised [PPVT-R]) and 2 full-scale intelligence tests (Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence [WPPSI]) were examined in 2 samples: (a) the Infant Health and Development Program: 315 premature, low birth weight 3- and 5-year olds; and (b) the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-Child Supplement: 2,220 3- to 4-year-olds and 1,354 5- to 6-year-olds. Questions addressed by the study included the following: Would similar test score gaps be seen on both tests and at both ages? Would gaps be reduced by controlling for family conditions and home environment? Would similar gaps be seen for the different tests? Fifteen- to 25-point differences in Black-White test scores were seen at both ages. The addition of demographic conditions reduced the disparities to 9 to 17 points. Including home environment measures further reduced the disparities to 4 to 13 points. Test score gaps were 11/2 to 3 times larger for the PPVT-R than for the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the WPPSI. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Pamela Kato Klebanov, Judith R. Smith, Greg J. Duncan and Kyunghee Lee. "The Black-White Test Score Gap in Young Children: Contributions of Test and Family Characteristics." Applied Developmental Science 7,4 (2003): 239-252.
2. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Smith, Judith R.
Berlin, Lisa
Lee, Kyunghee
Implementations of Welfare Changes for Parents of Young Children [Revised June 1998]
Presented: Evanston, IL, Family Process and Child Development in Low Income Families, Joint Center for Poverty Research, May 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Children, Preschool; Children, Well-Being; Employment; Family Studies; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Adolescent; Mothers, Health; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Preschool Children; Teenagers; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This is a revised edition dated June 15, 1998. Four questions related to welfare and work in the context of the family are addressed: (i) The Newark Young Family Study data set from the TPD is used to ask, "Does participation in a mandatory welfare to work demonstration program that includes mandatory work, sanctioning of the welfare stipend for non-participation, and intensive case management affect teenage mothers and their preschool children?"; (ii) The second issue involves whether or not transitions off of welfare in the first few years of life have any impact upon parenting behavior, maternal emotional health, and child cognitive test scores. The IHDP data set is used, with the focus being on natural transitions (i.e., not those attached with a specific welfare to work program); (iii) The IHPD and the NLSY-CS data sets provide clues as to the benefits (or costs) of combining welfare and work strategies to make ends meet during the early childhood years, which is the third issue discussed; (iv) The final question has to do with the efficacy of family-focused early intervention programs, with a child care component, in influencing the work behavior of mothers. We also ask treatment effects upon children's wellbeing are being mediated by employment of the mother, using the IHDP data set.
Bibliography Citation
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Judith R. Smith, Lisa Berlin and Kyunghee Lee. "Implementations of Welfare Changes for Parents of Young Children [Revised June 1998]." Presented: Evanston, IL, Family Process and Child Development in Low Income Families, Joint Center for Poverty Research, May 1998.
3. Koch, David W.
Lee, Jaewon
Lee, Kyunghee
Coloring the War on Drugs: Arrest Disparities in Black, Brown, and White
Race and Social Problems 8,4 (December 2016): 313-325.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12552-016-9185-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Arrests; Drug Use; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data, this study examines racial disparities in arrests for drug offending. Of the total 8984 NLSY97 participants, the study sample was restricted to the 4868 respondents who had ever reported using drugs (black = 1191, Hispanic = 980, white = 2697). The study questions are as follows: (1) Are there racial disparities in arrests for drug use, after controlling for incidence of drug use as well as other socio-demographic variables? (2) Are there racial disparities in arrests for drug dealing, after controlling for incidence of drug dealing as well as other socio-demographic variables? Compared with whites, blacks were more likely to be arrested for drug offending, even after controlling for incidence and other socio-demographic variables. Several socio-demographic variables, particularly gender, were also associated with arrests for drug offending. Bans on racial profiling and other legislative and policy changes are considered as potential strategies to ameliorate drug enforcement disparities.
Bibliography Citation
Koch, David W., Jaewon Lee and Kyunghee Lee. "Coloring the War on Drugs: Arrest Disparities in Black, Brown, and White." Race and Social Problems 8,4 (December 2016): 313-325.
4. Lee, Kyunghee
Bidirectional Effects of Early Poverty on Children's Reading and Home Environment Scores: Associations and Ethnic Differences
Social Work Research 33,2 (June 2009): 79-94
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Keyword(s): Childhood Education, Early; Children, Home Environment; Children, Poverty; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the author reports secondary analyses that examine the bidirectional effects of the duration of early poverty on children's reading and home environment scores. The author focuses on three specific questions: (1 ) Does the duration of early childhood poverty affect children's reading scores from ages 5 and 6 to ages 11 and 12 after controlling for individual, family, and contextual characteristics? (2) Does the duration of early poverty affect the trajectories for reading and home environment scores from ages 5 and 6 to ages 11 and 12? (3) Are there any differences associated with ethnicity in the trajectories for reading and home scores, and do these differences depend on the duration of early poverty? Findings suggest that a longer duration of early poverty had significant adverse effects on children and these adverse effects became more pronounced as children grew. Early poverty also negatively affected home scores at ages 5 and 6, which, in turn, affected reading scores at ages 5 and 6 and continuously did so as the children grew older. However, these associations between home and reading scores were different across ethnicities with regard to the duration of poverty. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Kyunghee. "Bidirectional Effects of Early Poverty on Children's Reading and Home Environment Scores: Associations and Ethnic Differences." Social Work Research 33,2 (June 2009): 79-94.
5. Lee, Kyunghee
Developmental Trajectories of Head Start Children's Reading and Home Environment Scores: Across Ethnicities
Journal of Social Service Research 36,4 (July 2010):321–345.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01488376.2010.494083#preview
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childhood Education, Early; Children, Academic Development; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Head Start; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To investigate the relationship of ethnicity in the development of children in Head Start, this study examined the associations between ethnicities and reading trajectories and whether trajectories of home environment could over time explain their differential associations. Participants (N = 696) were selected from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data. Results indicated some similarities and differences in the results obtained. Study findings suggest including an environmentally sensitive family component in Head Start and suggest an early enrollment policy targeting at-risk populations to maintain long-term Head Start impacts across ethnicities. Future research and follow-up studies should investigate other family components that positively affect long-term development among Black, Hispanic, and White children participating in the Head Start program.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Kyunghee. "Developmental Trajectories of Head Start Children's Reading and Home Environment Scores: Across Ethnicities." Journal of Social Service Research 36,4 (July 2010):321–345. A.
6. Lee, Kyunghee
Do Early Academic Achievement and Behavior Problems Predict Long-Term Effects Among Head Start Children?
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Childhood Education, Early; Children, Academic Development; Head Start; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

PURPOSE: This study examines the effects of Head Start children's early achievement and behavioral scores on their long-term effects. The Head Start program was established in 1965 to provide a comprehensive educational program for children living in poverty. Despite the overall consensus that there are proximal Head Start program benefits, it has been debated whether or not these effects still exist after children exit the Head Start program. The purpose of the current study is to examine the persistence of Head Start's impact on children's learning. Additionally, the study examines whether maternal education moderates the effects of Head Start over time.

METHOD: The study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data. Out of 8,100 children born to NLSY women, a sample of 603 children who participated in Head Start from 1988 to 1994 and who had longitudinal measured outcomes from ages 5-6 to 11-12 were selected. Head Start children's reading, math, and behavioral scores, as measured at ages 5-6, were examined to determine whether these early scores affect outcomes measured at ages 11-12. The research questions addressed are (1) Do Head Start children's reading, math, and behavioral scores at ages 5-6 affect those scores measured at ages 11-12? (2) Do these associations differ depending on maternal education? I conducted regression and path analyses to examine how long-term achievement or behavioral outcomes are associated with the short-term outcomes, accounting for the effects of all short- and long-term outcomes in one model.

RESULTS: Not surprisingly, these findings indicate a strong relationship between children's early and later educational and behavioral scores. Maternal education moderated these associations on reading and behavioral outcomes. The associations between the short- and long-term achievement and behavioral outcomes were less significant for children whose mothers had less education. Children's reading, math, and behavioral outcomes at ages 5-6 were significantly inter-correlated, as were those measured at ages 11-12.

IMPLICATION: First, children's early achievement and behavioral outcomes affected outcomes later. Therefore, early intervention programs such as Head Start should continue to be provided to eligible populations to enhance early developmental skills. Second, children's early outcomes do not endure for children whose mothers have less than a high school education. If Head Start provides concurrent services for Head Start families, the positive impacts of Head Start on children's early outcomes can be sustained in their later lives. Third, Head Start should provide comprehensive curriculum that reflects the inter-correlations among all outcomes. In summary, this study suggests that the positive benefits of the Head Start program do not dissipate in the long term, and that maternal education matters for the long-term success of children in the program. Due to the significant impacts of early outcomes on later outcomes, Head Start should serve as a continuous early compensatory educational program for eligible populations

Bibliography Citation
Lee, Kyunghee. "Do Early Academic Achievement and Behavior Problems Predict Long-Term Effects Among Head Start Children?" Presented: New Orleans, LA, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2009.
7. Lee, Kyunghee
Do Early Academic Achievement and Behavior Problems Predict Long-Term Effects Among Head Start Children?
Children and Youth Services Review 32,12 (December 2010): 1690-1703.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740910002136
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Head Start; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

This study examines the effects of Head Start children's early achievement and behavioral scores on their long-term developmental outcomes. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data, a sample of 603 children was selected who had participated in Head Start from 1988 to 1994 and had longitudinal outcomes measured. Head Start children's reading, math, and behavioral scores, as measured at ages 5–6, were examined to determine whether these early scores affected outcomes measured at ages 11–12. Not surprisingly, there was a strong relationship between children's early and later educational and behavioral scores. Maternal education moderated these associations for reading and on behavioral outcomes. Associations between short-term and longer-term achievement and behavioral outcomes were less significant for children whose mothers had less education than for children whose mothers had more education. As expected, children's reading, math, and behavioral outcomes at ages 5–6 were inter-correlated, as were those measured at ages 11–12.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Kyunghee. "Do Early Academic Achievement and Behavior Problems Predict Long-Term Effects Among Head Start Children?" Children and Youth Services Review 32,12 (December 2010): 1690-1703.
8. Lee, Kyunghee
Impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform on Child and Family Well-being
Journal of Community Psychology 37,5 (July 2009): 602-617.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcop.20320/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Office of University Partnerships - OUP
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examined the impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using a sample of 1,681 single mothers living in poverty, this study compared the effects of economic well-being and home environment scores on their children during pre- and post-Welfare Reform years. Following the 1996 Welfare Reform, fewer mothers received cash payments, and those who did received lower payments, while more mothers worked at low-paying jobs. Negative impacts were more pronounced for less educated mothers. The effects of family income and home environment scores on children were different before and after the 1996 Welfare Reform. Maternal education moderated these associations. Instead of enforcing the current "work first" mandate, this research supports giving priority to maternal education to enhance child and family well-being in low-income families. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Kyunghee. "Impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform on Child and Family Well-being." Journal of Community Psychology 37,5 (July 2009): 602-617.
9. Lee, Kyunghee
Longitudinal Effect of an Early Entry Age into Head Start Program on Children's Developmental Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 17-20, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Behavior; Head Start; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

PURPOSE: Many children are attending early educational programs at an earlier age than ever before. This trend is reflected in the age composition of enrollees in the Head Start program. Despite these changes, evaluations of Head Start have not investigated the implications of children's entry ages until recently. The present study was designed on the basis of a theoretical foundation that presumes positive effects of an earlier intervention to understand better the ecological aspect of human development. The aim of the proposed study was to examine how entering the Head Start Program at an early age impacts children's short- and long-term developmental outcomes.

METHOD: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data, a sample of 603 children was selected from those who participated in Head Start in 1988, 1990, 1992, and 1994. The specific study questions addressed were: (1) Is there a relationship between the age of entering Head Start and children's academic and behavioral outcomes at ages 5-6?; (2) Is there a relationship between the age of entering Head Start and children's academic and behavioral outcomes at ages 11-12?; and (3) Is there an association between the short-term and long-term outcomes? Additionally, this study considered how each of these associations differed depending on maternal education, controlling for individual, family, and contextual characteristics. Regression and Path Analyses were used to answer these questions.

RESULTS: Findings indicated that entering Head Start at age 3 was positively associated with both short-and long-term outcomes; additionally, the short-term outcomes were significantly associated with the long-term. These positive effects were more pronounced for children whose mothers had higher levels of education. More specifically, when children entered into Head Start at an earlier age, they showed enhanced reading skills at ages 5-6. This association was not found for math and behavioral outcomes at ages 5-6. An early entry into Head Start significantly reduced children's behavioral problems at ages 11-12. Children who had better outcomes at ages 5-6 had significantly better outcomes at ages 11-12. The impacts of an early entry age on long-term outcomes and the association between short- and long-term outcomes were more prevalent for children whose mothers had longer years of education.

IMPLICATIONS: First, earlier entry into Head Start is more beneficial for children than enrolling later. Second, Head Start should provide concurrent services for Head Start families in order to amplify the positive impacts of an early entry into Head Start. Third, Head Start curriculums should be examined to include other components (math and behavioral interventions) to the same extent as the literacy-related component. Fourth, Head Start impacts should be evaluated in terms of long-term benefits because some benefits, particularly socio-emotional, do not exhibit linear outcomes and may take longer to have a measurable effect. Lastly, the evaluation study should consider various individual, family, and societal characteristics to determine the true effects of Head Start. Even among Head Start children, wide variances exist in a variety of pre-existing factors that affect Head Start entry age.

Bibliography Citation
Lee, Kyunghee. "Longitudinal Effect of an Early Entry Age into Head Start Program on Children's Developmental Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 17-20, 2008.
10. Lee, Kyunghee
The Effects of Children's Head Start Enrollment Age on Their Short- and Long-Term Developmental Outcomes
Social Service Review 82,4 (December 2008): 663-702.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/597018
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Head Start; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This study examines how the age at which children enter Head Start affects their academic and behavioral outcomes. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are incorporated to analyze the progress of 1,553 Head Start children. The research examines outcomes through assessments conducted at ages 5--6 and at ages 11--12. The results suggest that the measured outcomes vary with complicated interactions among age at Head Start entry, maternal education levels, and maternal verbal test scores. In many cases, early age of entry is estimated to improve outcomes for children whose mothers have low education and test scores. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Kyunghee. "The Effects of Children's Head Start Enrollment Age on Their Short- and Long-Term Developmental Outcomes." Social Service Review 82,4 (December 2008): 663-702.
11. Lee, Kyunghee
The Impacts of an Early Entry Age Into the Head Start Program on Children's Developmental Outcomes
Ph. D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2007. DAI-A 68/06, Dec 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childhood Education, Early; Head Start; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many children are attending early educational programs at an earlier age than ever before. This trend is reflected in the age composition of enrollees in the Head Start program. Despite these changes, evaluations of Head Start have not acknowledged children's entry ages until recently. The present study was designed based on a theoretical foundation that presumes the positive effects of an earlier intervention and the understanding of ecological human development. The aim of the proposed study is to examine how entering the Head Start Program at an early age impacts children's short- and long-term developmental outcomes. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data, a sample of 603 children was selected from those who participated in Head Start in 1988, 1990, 1992, and 1994. The specific study questions addressed were: (1) Is there a relationship between the age of entering Head Start and children's academic and behavioral outcomes at ages 5-6?; (2) Is there a relationship between the age of entering Head Start and children's academic and behavioral outcomes at ages 11-12?; and (3) Is there an association between the short-term and long-term outcomes? Additionally, this study will consider how each of these associations differs depending on maternal education, controlling for individual, family, and contextual characteristics. Findings indicated that entering Head Start at age 3 was positively associated with both short- and long-term outcomes; additionally, the short-term outcomes were significantly associated with the long-term. These positive effects were more pronounced for children whose mothers had higher levels of education. Policy implications suggest that children should be enrolled in Head Start by age 3 with concurrent family support systems in order to maximize their short- and long-term benefits. Additionally, future evaluation studies of Head Start should include both short- and long-term outcomes and consider various individual, fam ily, and societal characteristics to determine its true benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Kyunghee. The Impacts of an Early Entry Age Into the Head Start Program on Children's Developmental Outcomes. Ph. D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2007. DAI-A 68/06, Dec 2007.
12. Smith, Judith R.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Lee, Kyunghee
Welfare and Work: Complementary Strategies for Low-Income Women?
Journal of Marriage and Family 62,3 (August 2000): 808-821.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1566798
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Children; Cognitive Development; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Welfare; Women

We examine the effects of mothers' strategies of combining employment and welfare receipt during the first 3 years of their child's life on the child's cognitive development, behavior problems, and home learning environment at ages 5 to 6. We compare the child outcomes of those mothers who were continuously employed and received no welfare with (a) those who worked some or all of the 3 years and also received public assistance and (b) those who were totally dependent on public assistance. We studied children in single-parent families (N=1271) living below 200% of the poverty threshold using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement. No negative association was found on most child outcomes with a mother's employment whether or not it was combined with public assistance. However, mothers' not working at all and receiving financial support solely from AFDC was associated with negative child outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the possible effects of the new welfare laws on families and young children.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Judith R., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Pamela Kato Klebanov and Kyunghee Lee. "Welfare and Work: Complementary Strategies for Low-Income Women?" Journal of Marriage and Family 62,3 (August 2000): 808-821.
13. Zhang, Lyons
Lee, Kyunghee
The Effects of Poverty on Children's Developmental Outcomes: Absolute Versus Relative Poverty
Presented: Toronto, American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the NLSY data, this study examined the effects of poverty, absolute and relative, on children's math and reading scores from ages 5 to 12. 1) Are there any associations between poverty and math/reading scores measured by absolute and relative poverty? 2) Are the adverse poverty effects get larger as children get older? There was significant overall adverse impact of absolute poverty on children while no significant impact of relative poverty on math and reading scores. (ii) When children became older, the gap between the poor and the rich, defined absolutely, became bigger when children were older although children from rich family have much higher scores at the beginning (at ages 5-6), the gap between them, defined relatively, became undistinguishable.
Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Lyons and Kyunghee Lee. "The Effects of Poverty on Children's Developmental Outcomes: Absolute Versus Relative Poverty." Presented: Toronto, American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting, April 2019.