Search Results

Author: Dunifon, Rachel
Resulting in 23 citations.
1. Amorim, Mariana
Dunifon, Rachel
Pilkauskas, Natasha
The Magnitude and Timing of Grandparental Coresidence during Childhood in the United States
Demographic Research 37, Article 52 (5 December 2017): 1695-1706.
Also: https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol37/52/default.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Keyword(s): Childhood Residence; Coresidence; Family Structure; Grandparents; Household Composition; Household Structure

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: We calculate the cumulative and age-specific probabilities of coresidence with grandparents during childhood. We stratify our analyses by types of grandparent-grandchild living arrangements (grandfamilies and three-generation households) and by race and ethnicity.

Methods: We use two data sets -- the pooled 2010-2015 American Community Surveys (ACS) and the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-97) -- and produce estimates using life tables techniques.

Results: Results indicate that nearly 30% of US children ever coreside with grandparents. Both three-generation and grandfamily living arrangements are more prevalent among racial and ethnic minority groups, with three-generation coresidence particularly common among Asian children. Black children are nearly two times as likely to ever live in a grandfamily as compared to Hispanic and white children, respectively. Children are much more likely to experience grandparental coresidence during their first year of life than in any other year.

Bibliography Citation
Amorim, Mariana, Rachel Dunifon and Natasha Pilkauskas. "The Magnitude and Timing of Grandparental Coresidence during Childhood in the United States." Demographic Research 37, Article 52 (5 December 2017): 1695-1706.
2. Amorim, Mariana
Dunifon, Rachel
Pilkauskas, Natasha
The Prevalence and Instability of Grandparental Coresidence During Childhood
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; Childhood; Coresidence; Grandparents; Household Structure; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cross-sectional estimates show that the share of children living with grandparents has risen over the last two decades, yet little is understood about a child's likelihood of ever living with a grandparent. In this paper, we calculate the cumulative and age-specific probabilities of coresidence with grandparents during childhood. We used the American Community Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to create multi-decrement period life tables to study the prevalence and instability of grandparent coresidence. We examine differences between three-generation and grandfamily arrangements and explore patterns by race and ethnicity. Our results indicate that up to 31.5% of children ever co-reside with grandparents in either arrangement. We also find striking racial disparities in the probability of co-residing with grandparents that vary by type of grandparent household. Grandparental coresidence most commonly starts during the child's first year of life. Three-generation arrangements are highly unstable and short-lived.
Bibliography Citation
Amorim, Mariana, Rachel Dunifon and Natasha Pilkauskas. "The Prevalence and Instability of Grandparental Coresidence During Childhood." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
3. Dunifon, Rachel
Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
Also: http://paa2002.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.asp?submissionId=60038
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the current policy environment, understanding the factors that may hinder or facilitate the employment of low-income women is important. These factors may include the health and behavioral characteristics of children. Thus, this paper asks: 1) How do the behavioral and health characteristics of children affect maternal employment outcomes? 2) What are the roles of poverty and single parenthood in moderating this relationship? 3) In estimating this relationship, how can we control for the ways in which maternal characteristics affect those of the children? Data from the Child Supplement of the NLSY are used. Initial results suggest that children's health limitations are negatively associated with a woman's employment status. Additionally, this relationship is more pronounced for poor women. Detailing instances in which low-income or single-parent women are hindered from economic self-sufficiency due to concerns within their families will allow policy-makers to better understand and predict families' responses to welfare reform.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel. "Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
4. Dunifon, Rachel
Understanding Family Change: Past, Present, and Future Effects of Family Events on Children
IRP Working Paper 98-29, Institute for Policy Research at Northwestern University, 1998.
Also: http://ideas.repec.org/p/wop/nwuipr/98-29.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Policy Research - Northwestern University - (formerly Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Divorce; Family Structure; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the links between family events and changes in mother-reported behavior problems for children in middle childhood, using data from the merged mother-child supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The family events considered here are divorce/separation, maternal unemployment, the onset of welfare receipt, and the birth of a sibling. In order to address problems of heterogeneity, I use within-child fixed-effects models in analyses relating these events to changes in reported behavior problem scores. Additionally, recognizing that family events occur as parts of complex processes, I estimate whether each event has a more significant impact on children before, during, or after its occurrence. My results suggest that the effect of an impending divorce on changes in children's behavior problem scores is greater than its concurrent effect. I also identify a complex relationship between mother-reported behavior problems and the birth of a sibling; a decrease in reported problems in the period prior to the birth is followed by an increase in the period concurrent with the birth. My results also point to a marginally-significant increase in reported behavior problems concurrent with and before the onset of unemployment. These results shed light on the complexities of family interactions and, using new methodological techniques, advance the literature on the development of children in middle childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel. "Understanding Family Change: Past, Present, and Future Effects of Family Events on Children." IRP Working Paper 98-29, Institute for Policy Research at Northwestern University, 1998.
5. Dunifon, Rachel
Harris, David R.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Understanding Race Differences in the Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Coresidence; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Grandparents; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Risk-Taking; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our previous work (Dunifon and Kowaleski-Jones, 2007) examined whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, finding benefits for white, but not black, children. The goal of this study is to "unpack" these race differences by examining whether they are due to differences in grandparent characteristics such as education, health or age. Using data from the 1979 to 2004 waves of the NLSY mother-child file, we first examine a wide set of child outcomes (test scores, behavior, delinquency, and attitudes) to document where there are race differences in the influence of grandparent co-residence on children. We then seek to explain these race differences, using an extensive set of grandparent characteristics that could themselves differ by race. The goal is to better understand the role grandparents play in single-mother families and how and why this dynamic may differ by race.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel, David R. Harris and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Understanding Race Differences in the Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
6. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Connections
Working Paper, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, October 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Income; Family Structure; Family, Extended; Grandparents; Household Composition; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Social Contacts/Social Network; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the role of parental social connections in accounting for subgroup differences in the influence of family structure on children. Our previous work found that white, but not black, children were negatively influenced by living in a singleparent family (Dunifon and Kowaleski-Jones, 2002). This paper examines whether parental social connections account for such differences in the influence of family structure on child well-being.

Using data from the 1988 to 2000 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimate fixed effect models that suggest a key role for living with a grandparent in accounting for the race difference in the influence of single-parenthood on children. In contrast, visiting friends and relatives did not explain differences in the relationship between single-parenthood and child delinquency within sub-groups.

Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Connections." Working Paper, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, October 2003.
7. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Networks
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s):

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using longitudinal data from the NLSY79, this paper examines whether parental social support helps to reduce the negative impact of single-parenthood on children. Two measures of social support are used: how often a family spends time with friends or relatives, and whether a child's grandparent is living in the household. Our analyses focus on two important sub-groups of children: African-Americans and families receiving public assistance. African-Americans are an important sub-group because of the higher prevalence of single-parenthood in African-American families, and because our previous work found significant race differences in the influence of single-parenthood on children. Families receiving public assistance are examined because they are the target of public policies aimed at increasing marriage. Results suggest that the presence of grandparents in the home helps buffer the negative associations between single-parenthood and child delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Networks." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
8. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Role of Parental Social Connections
In: Fragile Families and the Marriage Agenda. L. Kowaleski-Jones and N. Wolfinger, eds., New York: Springer, 2006: 107-125
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Income; Family Structure; Family, Extended; Grandparents; Household Composition; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Social Contacts/Social Network; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 5: Our previous work found that single-parenthood was associated with reduced wellbeing for white, but not black, children (Dunifon and Kowaleski-Jones 2002). The current paper examines whether parental social connections account for differences in the effects of family structure on child well-being. Using data from the 1979 to 2000 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, our results show a key role for living with a grandparent in accounting for race differences in the influence of single-parenthood on children. In contrast, visiting friends and relatives did not explain differences in the relationship between single-parenthood and child delinquency among African American and families receiving public assistance sub-groups.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Role of Parental Social Connections" In: Fragile Families and the Marriage Agenda. L. Kowaleski-Jones and N. Wolfinger, eds., New York: Springer, 2006: 107-125
9. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,2 (May 2007): 465-481.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4622450
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Black Family; Cognitive Ability; Family Structure; Grandchildren; Grandparents; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

This article examines whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, using data from the 1979 to 2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file (N = 6,501). Results indicate that for White children, living with a single mother and a grandparent is associated with increased cognitive stimulation and higher reading recognition scores, compared to living with a single mother alone. For Black children, grandparent coresidence is associated with less cognitive stimulation. Thus, in some instances, living with a grandparent can benefit children, but the pattern of results differs by race. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Marriage & Family is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,2 (May 2007): 465-481.
10. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
The Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
Also: http://paa2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=50727
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Studies; Grandparents; Modeling, Random Effects; Parents, Single; Racial Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper asks two research questions: first, does living with a grandparent reduce the potential detrimental influences of single-parenthood on children? Second, does this relationship vary by race or ethnicity? We employ a random effects model using data from the NLSY79 mother-child files. Results from preliminary analyzes suggest that, for black children, grandparent co-residence is not associated with delinquency. For white children, living with a grandparent is associated with reduced delinquency, but not particularly for children living with a single mother. Future work will expand the set of outcomes examined, as well as the age group of children we study.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "The Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
11. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Who's in the House? Effects of Family Structure on Children's Home Environments and Cognitive Outcomes
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Fathers, Biological; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Three main theories guide our analyses of the potential effects of family structure on children's home environment and achievement outcomes: social support, the biological imperative, and the marital imperative. Our results do not provide uniform evidence clearly supporting only one of these hypotheses. Instead, our findings lend support to a more complex set of conclusions that differ substantially by race. Taken together, we find evidence for the social support theory among whites, and some evidence of the biological imperative among white and black girls. For white girls, living with a spouse who is the biological father is especially beneficial, while for black girls living with a partner who is the biological father is most helpful. For both whites and blacks, we do not find support for the marital imperative theory, and for black boys our results suggest that cohabiting relationships may have great importance for their developmental outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Who's in the House? Effects of Family Structure on Children's Home Environments and Cognitive Outcomes." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
12. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Who's In the House? Race Differences in Cohabitation, Single Parenthood and Child Development
Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1249-1264.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.00470/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Development; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Cohabitation; Control; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Household Composition; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parental Marital Status; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Racial Differences

This study examined four questions: (1) How does family structure (specifically, single parenthood, married parent, and cohabitating parent) affect children's delinquency and math test scores? (2) Do these effects differ by race? (3) Do parenting practices mediate the links between family structure and children's outcomes? and (4) Does this mediation differ by race? Unlike some previous work in this area, the present study distinguished between the effects of single parenthood and cohabitation. Using fixed effects techniques to control for unobserved heterogeneity between children in the various family structures, single parenthood was found to be associated with reduced well-being among European American children, but not African American children. Cohabitation was associated with greater delinquency among African American children, and lower math scores among European American children. No evidence was found to indicate that parenting mediated the links between family structure and children's outcomes. Finally, it was found that for African American children, measures of maternal warmth and to provision of rules had direct effects on children's delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Who's In the House? Race Differences in Cohabitation, Single Parenthood and Child Development." Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1249-1264.
13. Dunifon, Rachel
Taylor, Catherine J.
Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?
Working Paper, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University, September 2002.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Child Health; Fathers, Absence; Health Factors; Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Poverty; Welfare; Work Experience; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers the effect on maternal work behavior of children's health and behavior problems. While a great deal of research has examined the influence of maternal employment on children, less research examines the influence of children's characteristics on maternal employment. However, it is likely that the presence of a child with a health or behavior problem may hinder women's work. We examine two measures of maternal employment: weekly hours worked and current employment status, and relate the presence of children's health or behavior problems at a point in time to changes in these outcomes over the subsequent two year period.

Results indicate that, for the sample as a whole, the presence of a child with a problem is not associated with changes in maternal employment status or work hours. However, for subgroups of the population, significant associations do exist. For single mothers, a child's behavior problem is associated with an increase in the likelihood of moving from employment to unemployment. For poor women, both health and behavior problems of children are negatively associated with changes in women's work

Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Catherine J. Taylor. "Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?" Working Paper, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University, September 2002.
14. Joyner, Kara
Carmalt, Julie H.
Dunifon, Rachel
Parenting in Vain? Stepfather Influences on Early Transitions to Parenthood
Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=91119
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Presence; Gender Differences; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, we examine the influence of resident fathers' parenting style on early transitions to parenthood. Results differ by gender and for those living with biological vs. stepfathers. We find, overall, fewer family-based predictors of early parenthood for boys, compared to girls, and for those living with a stepfather, compared to those living with a biological father. For girls, having an uninvolved mother or an authoritarian father is associated with an increased risk of early parenthood, but only for those living with a biological father. For boys, there were no effects of maternal parenting style on early parenthood. However, having an uninvolved biological father was associated with an increased risk in early fertility, while the opposite effect was observed for stepfathers, such that having an uninvolved stepfather was associated with a reduced risk of early birth.
Bibliography Citation
Joyner, Kara, Julie H. Carmalt and Rachel Dunifon. "Parenting in Vain? Stepfather Influences on Early Transitions to Parenthood." Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
15. Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Dunifon, Rachel
The Family Structure Experiences of Children in Single Mother Families
Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=91085
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Structure; Home Environment; Household Composition; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using merged mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine the family structure experiences of children born to single (unmarried and not cohabiting) mothers up to age 10. Specifically, we examine the probability that such children remain with a single mother vs. entering one or more cohabiting or marital unions. For those children whose mothers do enter unions, we examine whether the union was marital vs. cohabiting, as well as distinguish between unions with children's biological fathers vs. those with step-fathers. Finally, we consider the duration of such unions. We perform all analyses separately by race and ethnicity. In doing so, we take a child-based perspective, over a long period of time, to examine stability and change among children born to single mothers in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Kamp Dush, Claire M. and Rachel Dunifon. "The Family Structure Experiences of Children in Single Mother Families." Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
16. Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Dunifon, Rachel
Unexamined Stable Family: An Examination of Child Well-Being in Stable-Single Parent Families
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71406
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Formation; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We find in an analysis of a merged mother-child NLSY79-C dataset that after controlling for characteristics of the child, mother, and family, children of married parents reported higher quality home environments and higher math and reading scores than children living with stable-single (never married or cohabited) mothers. Further, children born to cohabiting parents who either remain cohabiting or eventually marry were in homes with better environments than children living with stable-single mothers, but these unions did not appear to benefit children in terms of behavior or academic outcomes. We also find that unions, regardless of type, appear to benefit children who were born to single mothers in terms of their home environment and math scores. Even after these unions dissolve, children living with their newly single mother who has previously experienced a union still have higher math and reading scores than children still living with their stable-single mother.
Bibliography Citation
Kamp Dush, Claire M. and Rachel Dunifon. "Unexamined Stable Family: An Examination of Child Well-Being in Stable-Single Parent Families." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
17. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Dunifon, Rachel
Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes
Working Paper, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, Salt Lake City and Poverty Research and Training Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, September 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Earlier version presented: Albuquerque, New Mexico, Biannual Meeting.

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured mother- and child-specific characteristics, and measure responses to these family changes before, during and after the events. We find that the effect of a new sibling on changes in the emotional support provided to children varies depending on when the event occurs, with births in the future associated with increased emotional support, and births in the present associated with decreased support. Additionally, we find that, after controlling for unmeasured variables, divorce does not have an adverse effect on the home environments of boys and girls; in fact, a divorce occurring in a previous time period is associated with greater emotional support provided to girls.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Rachel Dunifon. "Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes." Working Paper, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, Salt Lake City and Poverty Research and Training Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, September 2000.
18. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Dunifon, Rachel
Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes
Journal of Family Issues 25,1 (January 2004): 3-28.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/25/1/3.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Child Development; Divorce; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured mother- and child-specific characteristics and measure responses to these family changes before, during, and after the events. We find that an impending birth is associated with increased emotional support provided to children, whereas concurrent births are associated with decreased support. Additionally, we find that, after controlling for unmeasured variables, divorce does not have an adverse effect on the home environments of boys and girls; in fact, a divorce occurring in a previous time period is associated with a modest increase in emotional support provided to girls. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Rachel Dunifon. "Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes." Journal of Family Issues 25,1 (January 2004): 3-28.
19. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Dunifon, Rachel
Family Structure and Community Context: Evaluating Influences on Adolescent Outcomes
Youth and Society 38,1 (September 2006): 110-130.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/1/110
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Cohabitation; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Divorce; Family Structure; Marital Status; Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Single; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file, this article examines the relationship between living in four different family structures on key measures of youth well-being, studied separately by race. The authors also examine whether contextual factors mediate these associations. For Black youth, we find no effects of family structure on youth well-being; however, community context measures are associated with youth outcomes. For White youth, single parenthood and cohabitation are associated with poorer youth outcomes; however, in some cases, these associations are mediated with the inclusion of the community context measures. [Specifically, we used data on mothers and their 14 to 19-year-old teens from the 1994, 1996, and 1998 youth supplements. All years of information for a given teen were pooled in a stacked, person–year dataset.][ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Rachel Dunifon. "Family Structure and Community Context: Evaluating Influences on Adolescent Outcomes." Youth and Society 38,1 (September 2006): 110-130.
20. Su, Jessica Houston
Dunifon, Rachel
Sassler, Sharon
Better for Baby? The Retreat From Mid-Pregnancy Marriage and Implications for Parenting and Child Well-being
Demography, 52, 4 (August 2015): 1167-1194.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-015-0410-5
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Children, Well-Being; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marriage; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent decades have seen a significant decline in mid-pregnancy ("shotgun") marriage, particularly among disadvantaged groups, which has contributed to increasing nonmarital birth rates. Despite public and political concern about this shift, the implications for parenting and child well-being are not known. Drawing on a sample of U.S. black and white mothers with nonmarital conceptions from the NLSY79, our study fills this gap. Using propensity score techniques to address concerns about selection bias, we found that mid-pregnancy marriages were associated with slightly better parenting quality relative to remaining single, although effect sizes were small and limited to marriages that remained intact at the time of child assessment. Mid-pregnancy marriages were not associated with improved children's behavior or cognitive ability. These findings suggest that the retreat from mid-pregnancy marriage may contribute to increasing inequality in parenting resources for children.
Bibliography Citation
Su, Jessica Houston, Rachel Dunifon and Sharon Sassler. "Better for Baby? The Retreat From Mid-Pregnancy Marriage and Implications for Parenting and Child Well-being ." Demography, 52, 4 (August 2015): 1167-1194.
21. Taylor, Catherine J.
Dunifon, Rachel
Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?
Presented: Dallas, TX, 24th Annual APPAM Research Conference, November 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Fathers, Absence; Health Factors; Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Poverty; Welfare; Work Experience; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers the effect on maternal work behavior of children's health and behavior problems. While a great deal of research has examined the influence of maternal employment on children, less research examines the influence of children's characteristics on maternal employment. However, it is likely that the presence of a child with a health or behavior problem may hinder women's work. We examine two measures of maternal employment: weekly hours worked and current employment status, and relate the presence of children's health or behavior problems at a point in time to changes in these outcomes over the subsequent two year period.

Results indicate that, for the sample as a whole, the presence of a child with a problem is not associated with changes in maternal employment status or work hours. However, for subgroups of the population, significant associations do exist. For single mothers, a child's behavior problem is associated with an increase in the likelihood of moving from employment to unemployment. For poor women, both health and behavior problems of children are negatively associated with changes in women's work

Bibliography Citation
Taylor, Catherine J. and Rachel Dunifon. "Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?" Presented: Dallas, TX, 24th Annual APPAM Research Conference, November 2002.
22. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Dunifon, Rachel
Kalil, Ariel
Parental Employment and Children's Body Weight: Mothers, Others, and Mechanisms
Social Science and Medicine 95 (October 2013): 52-59.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953612006673
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Employment; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Parental Influences; Television Viewing; Weight; Work Hours

A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother–child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M., Rachel Dunifon and Ariel Kalil. "Parental Employment and Children's Body Weight: Mothers, Others, and Mechanisms." Social Science and Medicine 95 (October 2013): 52-59.
23. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Dunifon, Rachel
Morrissey, Taryn
Kalil, Ariel
Maternal Employment and Children's Body Mass Index: Examining Developmental Timing and Explanatory Mechanisms
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Care; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Sleep; Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD); Television Viewing; Weight; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates whether mothers’ employment patterns across a child’s lifetime are associated with their children’s body mass index (BMI) and overweight at adolescence. We also examine potential mechanisms that may explain these relationships, and whether relationships vary by maternal education. We use two comprehensive, longitudinal datasets: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Children of the NLSY (N = 4,087) and the NICHD’s Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). Using multiple imputation, we conduct multivariate regression analyses predicting children’s BMI z-scores (a standardized measure of BMI by age and gender), overweight (BMI>=85th percentile for height and weight by age and gender), and obesity (BMI>=95th percentile) at adolescence from their mothers’ work hours at different developmental periods: prenatal, the first year of life, the second year, preschool (ages 3-5), middle childhood (ages 6-10), and adolescence (ages 11-13/14 or 15). A wealth of child and family characteristics are controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M., Rachel Dunifon, Taryn Morrissey and Ariel Kalil. "Maternal Employment and Children's Body Mass Index: Examining Developmental Timing and Explanatory Mechanisms." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.