Search Results

Author: Klerman, Jacob Alex
Resulting in 18 citations.
1. Arkes, Jeremy
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Understanding the Fertility-Economy Link for Teenagers
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Contraception; Economics of Minorities; Endogeneity; Ethnic Studies; Racial Studies; Sexual Activity; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During the 1990s, the economy strengthened and teenage fertility and the rate of sexual activity and the lack of contraception decreased sharply. Black female teenagers, who generally experienced greater relative economic gains than white female teenagers, had even greater declines in fertility, the rate of sexual activity, and the lack of contraception. These patterns suggest a potential link between the economy and fertility-related outcomes. This project uses the NLSY-1997 to estimate how changes in the economy affect fertility and its proximate determinants-the rate of sexual activity, contraception use, pregnancies, and abortions-for all teenagers and across race/ethnicity. Relative to previous analyzes, the contributions of our analysis include: (1) using alternative aggregate economic indicators that aren't particular to teenagers (which could be endogenous); (2) using a more recent cohort of teenagers; and (3) performing simulations to calculate how much the economy contributed to changes in teenage fertility-related outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy and Jacob Alex Klerman. "Understanding the Fertility-Economy Link for Teenagers." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
2. Arkes, Jeremy
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Understanding the Link Between the Economy and Teenage Sexual Behavior and Fertility Outcomes
Journal of Population Economics 22,3 (July 2009): 517-536.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0717263807272372/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Contraception; Economics of Minorities; Endogeneity; Ethnic Studies; Gender Differences; Racial Studies; Sexual Activity; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use individual-level data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and state unemployment rates to examine how the economy affects fertility and its proximate determinants for several groups based on gender, age (15-17 and 18-20 groups), and race/ethnicity. We find that, for 15- to 17-year-old females, several behaviors leading to pregnancies and pregnancies themselves are higher when the unemployment rate is higher, which is consistent with the counter-cyclical fertility patterns for this group. For 18- to 20-year-old males, the results suggested counter-cyclical patterns of fertility behaviors/outcomes for whites, but pro-cyclical patterns for blacks. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy and Jacob Alex Klerman. "Understanding the Link Between the Economy and Teenage Sexual Behavior and Fertility Outcomes." Journal of Population Economics 22,3 (July 2009): 517-536.
3. Asch, Beth J.
Buck, Christopher
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Kleykamp, Meredith
Loughran, David S.
Military Enlistment of Hispanic Youth: Obstacles and Opportunities
RAND Report MG-773-OSD, RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2009.
Also: www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG773.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Fertility; Health Factors; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Diploma; Language Problems; Military Enlistment; Military Recruitment; Military Service; Obesity; Substance Use; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Also available in HTML format: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG773.html

An implicit goal of Congress, the Department of Defense, and the armed services is that diversity in the armed services should approximate diversity in the general population. A key aspect of that diversity is the representation of Hispanics. Although polls of Hispanic youth show a strong propensity to serve in the military, Hispanics are nevertheless underrepresented among military recruits. The authors discuss the major characteristics that disproportionately disqualify Hispanic youth and explore the following questions: If recruiting standards were relaxed, what would be the effect on military performance? What actions could be taken to increase Hispanic enlistments? Finally, they examine several approaches to increasing enlistments -- increasing the number of Hispanic youth who are eligible and would meet the military's entry standards, increasing interest and recruiting more intensively among the qualified Hispanic population, and targeting recruiting toward less-qualified Hispanics.

Hispanics are a growing segment of the youth population, yet they have historically been underrepresented among military recruits. A widely cited reason is Hispanics’ below-average rate of graduation from high school, combined with the services’ preference for recruits with high school diplomas. But other, less studied, factors may also contribute. Such factors might include lack of language proficiency as reflected in aptitude test scores; fertility choices; health factors, such as obesity; and involvement in risky activities, such as the use of illegal drugs. These factors, to the extent they are present in the Hispanic population, could adversely affect the services’ ability to meet their enlistment standards.

Our project, “Hispanic Youth in the U.S. and the Factors Affecting Their Enlistment,” analyzed the factors that lead to the underrepresentation of Hispanic youth among military enlistments. To help policymakers evaluate the feasibility of improving Hispanic enlistments by recruiting more intensively from among the population that is qualified for service and the implications of recruiting Hispanics who are less qualified, we also analyzed both the nonmilitary opportunities available to qualified Hispanic youth and the consequences of recruiting less-qualified Hispanic youth.

Bibliography Citation
Asch, Beth J., Christopher Buck, Jacob Alex Klerman, Meredith Kleykamp and David S. Loughran. "Military Enlistment of Hispanic Youth: Obstacles and Opportunities." RAND Report MG-773-OSD, RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2009.
4. Greenwell, Lisa
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Do Women's Early Work Commitment and Welfare Attitudes Predict Employment After Childbirth?
Working Paper DRU-427-1-NICHD, Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 1994.
Also: http://www.rand.org/labor/dru_archive.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Employment; Family Background; Fertility; First Birth; Maternal Employment; Self-Esteem; Welfare; Work Attitudes

In this study, the authors investigate women's work commitment and welfare attitudes in adolescence, and how these relate to women's employment status a year after their first childbirth. The authors find that willingness to combine family and work, rather than simply a desire to work, predicts employment a year after first childbirth, net of background and social psychological characteristics. Though women with welfare backgrounds are less likely to be subsequently employed, women's welfare attitudes are unrelated to their subsequent employment. These findings suggest that women's willingness to use welfare is compatible with work commitment, and with employment while an infant is present.
Bibliography Citation
Greenwell, Lisa, Arleen A. Leibowitz and Jacob Alex Klerman. "Do Women's Early Work Commitment and Welfare Attitudes Predict Employment After Childbirth?" Working Paper DRU-427-1-NICHD, Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 1994.
5. Greenwell, Lisa
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Welfare Background, Attitudes, and Employment Among New Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 60,1 (February 1998): 175-193.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353450
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Attitudes; First Birth; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Logit; Self-Esteem; Sex Roles; Welfare

This article investigates whether new mothers' chances of being employed appear to be influenced by an intergenerationally transmitted welfare culture. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are analyzed using logit and ordinary least squares regression. The findings show that, as adolescents, new mothers with welfare backgrounds were more willing than others to use welfare but were no less likely to have positive attitudes toward work. Adolescents' work attitudes influence their chances of being employed when they are new mothers, but adolescents' welfare attitudes do not. These results suggest that new mothers' chances of being employed be not influenced by an intergenerationally transmitted welfare culture.

Also available as a RAND reprint, RP-738, http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/e-getabbydoc.pl?RP-738

Bibliography Citation
Greenwell, Lisa, Arleen A. Leibowitz and Jacob Alex Klerman. "Welfare Background, Attitudes, and Employment Among New Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 60,1 (February 1998): 175-193.
6. Kilburn, M. Rebecca
Hanser, Lawrence M.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Estimating AFQT Scores for National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) Respondents
Rand Monograph, MR-818-OSD/A. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1998.
Also: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2009/MR818.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Military Enlistment; Military Recruitment; National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This is the first report of a two-part project that estimates the determinants of individual enlistment decisions using the 1992 and 1994 waves of the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS). The authors impute AFQT scores for NELS respondents using test scores reported in the 1992 NELS, test score trends from the 1978-1992 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and the sample in the 1980 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that was used to norm the AFQT. Percentile scores on the NELS tests are equated to percentile scores on the AFQT in the NLSY with an adjustment to reflect test score trends observed in the NAEP over the period between 1980 and 1992. In addition to imputing AFQT scores for NELS respondents, the authors examine test score trends between 1980 and 1992 to draw implications for recruiting policy. There appears to be no justification for any concerns that a rising share of minorities in the youth population will result in a decline in the pot ential supply of youth. Even though minorities in the early 1990s continued to score lower than average on the AFQT, the growth in their population share was outweighed by their greater-than-average test score growth during the 1980s and early 1990s. The net result of these countervailing trends was that a larger fraction of minorities was estimated to be high-quality potential recruits and that the share of the entire senior population scoring in that range was largely unchanged.
Bibliography Citation
Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Lawrence M. Hanser and Jacob Alex Klerman. Estimating AFQT Scores for National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) Respondents. Rand Monograph, MR-818-OSD/A. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1998..
7. Kilburn, M. Rebecca
Hanser, Lawrence M.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Estimating AFQT Scores for National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) Respondents
Peace Research Abstracts Journal 37,4 (1 August 2000)
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Peace Research Institute - Dundas (Canada)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Economics of Minorities; Military Recruitment; National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This is the first report of a two-part project that estimates the determinants of individual enlistment decisions using the 1992 and 1994 waves of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS). The authors estimate Air Force Qualification Test (AFQT) scores for NELS respondents using test scores reported in the 1992 NELS, test score trends from the 1978 to 1992 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and the sample in the 1980 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that was used to norm the AFQT. Percentile scores on the NELS tests are equated to percentile scores on the AFQT in the NLSY with an adjustment to reflect test score trends observed in the NAEP over the period 1980 to 1992. In addition to estimating AFQT scores for NELS respondents, the authors examine test score trends between 1980 and 1992 to draw implications for recruiting policy. The evidence suggests that concerns that a rising share of minorities in the youth population will result in a decline in the potential supply of high-quality youth are unwarranted. Even though minorities in the early 1990s continued to score lower than average on the AFQT, the growth in their population share was outweighed by their greater-than-average test score growth during the 1980s and early 1990s. The net result of these countervailing trends was that a larger fraction of minorities were estimated to be high-quality potential recruits and that the share of the entire high school senior population scoring in that range was largely unchanged.
Bibliography Citation
Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Lawrence M. Hanser and Jacob Alex Klerman. "Estimating AFQT Scores for National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) Respondents." Peace Research Abstracts Journal 37,4 (1 August 2000).
8. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Characterizing Leave for Maternity: Modeling the NLSY Data
NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-21, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 1993.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl930010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment, Part-Time; Exits; Firm Size; Job Status; Job Tenure; Job Training; Labor Force Participation; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Modeling, Probit; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Quits

Major changes in women's labor force behavior over the last two decades imply that while time away from the work force after the birth of a child was once measured in years, it is now measured in weeks or even days. Concentrating on the weeks immediately following childbirth, this paper characterizes the labor force behavior of women immediately before and after the birth of a child. The timing of labor market exits (during pregnancy) and entrances (after childbirth) are estimated to the day, and reported to the week. Quits, exits to unpaid leave, and exist to paid leave are separately identified. The estimates reveal the most women who work before the birth of a child return to work relatively quickly after the birth of a child. The modal time to return occurs only about six weeks after childbirth. Those who work long into pregnancy return to work more quickly after childbirth. The empirical work uses the National Longitudinal Survey-Youth. The estimates are generating using a system of probit and hazard models. The system includes unobserved heterogeneity to capture the correlation between decisions. The econometric model is specified to correct for the focus of the NLSY protocol (in some years) on employment, so that it is not possible to distinguish paid from unpaid leave.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex. "Characterizing Leave for Maternity: Modeling the NLSY Data." NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-21, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 1993.
9. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Data for DoD Manpower Policy Analysis
Technical Report, RAND, Santa Monica CA, 2009. Also: Also: http://www.rand.org.proxy.lib.ohio-state.edu/pubs/technical_reports/2009/RAND_TR486.pdf
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Manpower Research; Military Personnel; Military Service

To allow analyses of its personnel practices, the Department of Defense maintains historical administrative data files and administers surveys of military personnel. Military manpower analyses also make use of civilian cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Klerman provides an overview of these data sources and discusses how they can be analyzed with currently underutilized data-matching strategies. These data-matching strategies involve matching DoD administrative data files to (1) civilian administrative data (such as Social Security Administration earnings data); (2) DoD survey data; and (3) civilian survey data. These strategies have the potential for large payoffs in terms of better analysis-and therefore better policy-for DoD. Klerman also discusses the degree to which DoD should help fund a future National Longitudinal Study of Youth, and whether DoD should initiate a new military panel survey. Data for DoD Manpower Policy Analysis maintains that the research questions that these proposed surveys would help answer can instead be explored through data matching. Moreover, streamlining procedures for data matching-that is, making it easier for researchers to analyze the data DoD already has-is likely to be much less expensive than engaging in major new data-collection efforts.

Quote from the report:

    "DoD has now been approached about partnering in the follow-on NLS-Y2010. That survey is projected to select a sample of 8,000 to 12,000 individuals age 12 to 17. They would then be followed and reinterviewed annually.

    Unless the NLS-Y2010 is much larger than currently projected (which seems unlikely) or military enlistment increases sharply (which seems even less likely), the projected number of participating enlistees for the NLS-Y2010 is likely to be about 500. As was just noted, this is simply too small to do serious analysis of the enlistment decision. Thus, concerns about sample size for enlistment analyses are likely to remain."

Contents: Introduction -- Military Administrative Data -- Current Military Cross-Sectional Survey Programs -- Matching DoD Administrative Data to DoD Cross-Sectional Surveys -- Matching DoD Administrative Data to Civilian Administrative Data -- Matching DoD Administrative Data to Civilian Cross-Sectional Surveys -- Civilian Panel Surveys and Choice-Based Sampling -- An Alternative Model for Military Cross-Sectional Surveys -- A Military Panel Survey -- Discussion -- Appendix A: Formal Discussion of Some Technical Issues -- Appendix B: U.S. Census Bureau Residence Rules -- Appendix C: Survey Veteran Questions.

Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex. "Data for DoD Manpower Policy Analysis." Technical Report, RAND, Santa Monica CA, 2009.
10. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Karoly, Lynn A.
The Transition to Stable Employment: The Experience of U.S. Youth in Their Early Labor Market Career
Report, National Center for Research in Vocational Education, University of California - Berkeley, and RAND, 1995.
Also: http://vufind.carli.illinois.edu/vf-uiu/Record/uiu_3773042
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Center for Research in Vocational Education, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Graduates; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; High School Diploma; High School Dropouts; Job Tenure; Labor Force Participation; School Completion; Schooling, Post-secondary; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed to identify patterns in the early labor market and employment experience of a sample of 12,781 U.S. youths who were first interviewed in 1979 (at ages 14 through 21) and last interviewed in 1990 (at ages 25 through 32 years). School-to-work transition patterns were classified by school-leaving group (SLG) (no high school diploma, high school diploma, some college, college diploma, or some postcollege education). SLGs were analyzed in terms of the following factors: percentage of sample members employed, percentage in school, number of jobs held, and age at entrance into first job. While the median high school graduate entered his "three-year job" while he was 22, the median high school dropout, who first entered the labor force several years earlier, did not enter that job until he was 23. In contrast, the median college graduate--who entered the labor force four years later than the high school graduate--entered his "three-year job" shortly after turning 23. Although racial/ethnic groups and women manifested different employment, school attendance, and job stability patterns, the patterns of school-to-work transition by male high school graduates were surprisingly similarly across the three racial/ethnic groups. By using the SLG classification and a different concept of job duration, the study found less support for the notion that high school graduates typically mill about in the labor market until well into their twenties. It was recommended that school-to-work transition initiatives be targeted toward high school noncompleters. Appended is information about sample distribution by SLG and effect of alternative SLG definitions and/or sample members' return to school. Contains 53 references and 67 tables/figures. (MN)
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex and Lynn A. Karoly. "The Transition to Stable Employment: The Experience of U.S. Youth in Their Early Labor Market Career." Report, National Center for Research in Vocational Education, University of California - Berkeley, and RAND, 1995.
11. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Karoly, Lynn A.
Young Men and the Transition to Stable Employment
Monthly Labor Review 117,8 (August 1994): 31-48,
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1994/08/art4abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Job Tenure; Labor Turnover; Part-Time Work; Transition, School to Work

The transition from school to work among male high school students is more heterogeneous and successful than is normally assumed. Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. A sample of young men from 1978-90 is used to estimate the distribution of their ages at entrance into jobs lasting various lengths of time, researchers found that by age 20 half of all graduates have jobs that will last more than two years and that by age 22 half have jobs that will last more than three years. This refutes the widely held belief that young males flounder from one short-term job to another until their mid-twenties. There is, however, a significant difference between and within the school-leaving groups examined. Although the foregoing characterization holds for the median male high school graduate, those in the 75th percentile did not reach a job with one, two, or three years of tenure until the ages of 20, 23, and 25, respectively.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex and Lynn A. Karoly. "Young Men and the Transition to Stable Employment." Monthly Labor Review 117,8 (August 1994): 31-48,.
12. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Child Care and Women's Return to Work After Childbirth
American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 284-288.
Also: http://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/resources/6782?author=Klerman%2C+Jacob+Alex
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Childbearing; First Birth; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Re-employment; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper focuses on the labor supply of women immediately following their first birth and explores the extent to which child care subsidies have promoted the recent growth in labor supply of women with young children. Using data from the NLSY, the authors estimate multinomial logit models of the determinants of returning to work by three and 24 months and the mode of child care utilized. Calculations of regional differences in child care costs are made. Results of the study indicate that: (1) the women studied returned to work rapidly after their first birth with one-third returning to work in the first three months following birth; (2) non-relative care accounted for one-third of the child care arrangements regardless of when the mother returned to work while child care centers and other non-home arrangements accounted for another 8-11% of the child care; (3) although the presence of a grandmother in the home increased the probability of a woman returning to work during the first three months, the presence of relatives did not appear to affect returns to work after three months; (4) the maximum value of the child care credit was found to be positively related to returns to work within three months of delivery while the marginal tax care credit had a negative effect on returning to work with market care but did not affect working with relative care; (5) neither child care tax variable significantly affected returns to work after the first three months; and (6) women with higher wages and more education return to work sooner.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex and Arleen A. Leibowitz. "Child Care and Women's Return to Work After Childbirth." American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 284-288.
13. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Employment Continuity Among New Mothers
NLS Discussion Paper 95-22, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 1994.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl940020.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment, Part-Time; Fertility; Firm Size; Job Status; Job Tenure; Job Training; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Recently both state and federal governments have enacted maternity leave legislation. The key provision of that legislation is that after a leave (of a limited duration), the recent mother is guaranteed the right to return to her pre-leave employer at the same or equivalent position. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper correlates work status after childbirth with work status before pregnancy. Almost all women (nearly 90 percent) who work full-time both before and after childbirth continue to work at the same employer. Thus maternity leave legislation is unlikely to have a major effect on employment continuity. However, compared to all demographically similar women, new mothers do have an excess probability of leaving their jobs. Finally, most maternity leave legislation limits its protections to full-time workers with sufficient job tenure sufficiently large firms. Using the NLSY, the paper estimates that the federal Family Leave Act covers only about a third of all working new mothers. The restriction to full-time workers is relatively unimportant because few part-time workers would satisfy the tenure and firm-size requirements.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex and Arleen A. Leibowitz. "Employment Continuity Among New Mothers." NLS Discussion Paper 95-22, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 1994.
14. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Job Continuity among New Mothers
Demography 36,2 (May 1999): 145-155.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/au407895178u3382/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Childbearing; Fertility; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Legislation; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the early 1990s, both state and federal governments enacted maternity-leave legislation. The key provision of that legislation is that after a leave of a limited duration, the recent mother is guaranteed the right to return to her preleave employer at the same or equivalent position. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we correlate work status after childbirth with work status before pregnancy to estimate the prevalence, before the legislation, of returns to the preleave employer. Among women working full-time before the pregnancy, return to the prepregnancy employer was quite common. Sixty percent of women who worked full-time before the birth of a child continued to work for the same employer after the child was born. Furthermore, the labor market behavior of most of the remaining 40% suggests that maternity-leave legislation is unlikely to have a major effect on job continuity. Compared with all demographically similar women, however, new mothers have an excess probability of leaving their jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex and Arleen A. Leibowitz. "Job Continuity among New Mothers." Demography 36,2 (May 1999): 145-155.
15. Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Waite, Linda J.
Employment of New Mothers and Child Care Choice: Differences by Children's Age
Journal of Human Resources 27,1 (Winter 1992): 112-133.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145914
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Child Care; Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Income; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Wages

This paper examines the impact of the cost and availability of child care on the employment of women during the first two years following the birth of their first child. Using data from the NLSY, the authors examine the initial choice of child care after childbirth and test the hypothesis that the impact of cost and availability of child care depends on the child's age. Results indicate that: (1) regardless of the point in time at which mothers returned to work, about half of the women studied used relatives to care for their children; (2) the likelihood of working during the two year period decreased as family income increased; (3) living close to one's mother increased somewhat the probability of returning to work in the early post-partum period; and (4) the size of the child care tax credit was strongly and positively related to the likelihood of returning to work.
Bibliography Citation
Leibowitz, Arleen A., Jacob Alex Klerman and Linda J. Waite. "Employment of New Mothers and Child Care Choice: Differences by Children's Age." Journal of Human Resources 27,1 (Winter 1992): 112-133.
16. Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Waite, Linda J.
Employment of New Mothers and Child Care Choice: Differences by Children's Age
Working Paper RAND Publication RP-119, The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica CA, February 1990.
Also: http://www.rand.org/pubs/reprints/RP119/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Child Care; Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Income; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Wages

This paper examines a woman's decisions about when to return to market work in the two years following childbirth and the type of child care she chooses. Own wages relate positively to an early return to work, while higher family income delays return to work. Wages and income did not significantly affect choice of market versus nonmarket child care. Greater child care tax credits increased early return to work (within three months) but had little effect on later labor supply. Contrary to expectations, tax credits did not affect child care choice, but predicted early market reentry.
Bibliography Citation
Leibowitz, Arleen A., Jacob Alex Klerman and Linda J. Waite. "Employment of New Mothers and Child Care Choice: Differences by Children's Age." Working Paper RAND Publication RP-119, The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica CA, February 1990.
17. Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Waite, Linda J.
Women's Employment During Pregnancy and Following Birth
Report No. NLS 92-11, Washington DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 1992.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl920010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Women; Work Histories

During the last three decades, the "working mother" has become the norm rather than a rarity. In 1960, fewer than one in five mothers with children under age six (18.6 percent) were in the labor force. By 1987, this percentage had tripled, reaching 57 percent. Current participation levels for mothers of younger children are even more striking. Fifty-three percent of married mothers with children 1 year old or under are in the labor force Previous research has consistently found that women with young children are less likely to participate in the labor force than those with only older children. Today labor force activity reaches high levels soon after the birth of a child, and many women interrupt work for only short periods of time. Although half the new mothers have returned to work within a year after giving birth, the factors that affect the timing within that year are not well understood. Similarly, the factors that influence how long women work during their pregnanc ies have not been fully explored. The analysis of women's increased work effort during pregnancy and rapid return to work after childbirth call for a research strategy using data that can distinguish among work patterns by month of return to work rather than by year. This paper uses panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLS-Y) to examine whether perinatal labor supply is positively related to women's real wages. We also expect to find a negative relation between mothers' work efforts and other household income.
Bibliography Citation
Leibowitz, Arleen A., Jacob Alex Klerman and Linda J. Waite. "Women's Employment During Pregnancy and Following Birth." Report No. NLS 92-11, Washington DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 1992.
18. Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Waite, Linda J.
Women's Employment During Pregnancy and Following Childbirth
Report N-3392-DOL/NICHD, The RAND Corporation, 1992.
Also: http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/e-getabbydoc.pl?N-3392
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Women; Work History

Labor supply by pregnant women and recent mothers has expanded rapidly in the last quarter century, and particularly in the last 10 years. The greatest increase in the workforce has been among mothers of the youngest children. This paper uses NLSY data and hazard models to examine how long women worked during their first pregnancy, when they returned to work, the determinants of each of these durations, and their correlation. The authors find strong own wage effects, weak income effects, and some evidence of a time trend.

This Note develops and tests a model of labor supply behavior near the birth of a first child. The model postulates that changes in labor supply are related to changes in a woman's reservation wage, since the market wage she is offered is assumed constant over the period. The reservation wage rises over the course of the pregnancy. After the delivery, the presence of an infant raises the value of the mother's time in the home. Thus, labor supply is hypothesized to relate to market wages as well as to factors that influence home productivity. The measures of home productivity include education, marital status, and family income other than the wife's earnings. The authors test this model on data for the 1980s, a time when major changes in labor force behavior occurred. The results support the hypothesis that women with higher wages are more likely to work both during pregnancy and after giving birth. Women with fewer sources of other family income are also more likely to work.

Bibliography Citation
Leibowitz, Arleen A., Jacob Alex Klerman and Linda J. Waite. "Women's Employment During Pregnancy and Following Childbirth." Report N-3392-DOL/NICHD, The RAND Corporation, 1992.