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Author: Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Coley, Rebekah Levine
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Schindler, Holly S.
Fathers' and Mothers' Parenting Predicting and Responding to Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors
Child Development 80,3 (May/June 2009): 808-827.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01299.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Family Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior

Transactional models of problem behavior argue that less effective parenting and adolescent problem behaviors coevolve, exerting bidirectional influences. This article extends such models by analyzing growth trajectories of sexual risk behaviors and parenting processes among 3,206 adolescents (aged 13-18) and their residential parents. Within individuals, increases in regular family activities prospectively predicted declines in adolescents' risky sexual activities. In contrast, increases in risky sexual activities predicted heightened father knowledge. Between-individual comparisons revealed bidirectional links between more involved parenting, particularly family activities and father knowledge, and lower adolescent risky sexual activity. Results highlight the importance of family activities as a protective force for adolescents and suggest that fathers may react differently than mothers in the face of youth problem behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Coley, Rebekah Levine, Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal and Holly S. Schindler. "Fathers' and Mothers' Parenting Predicting and Responding to Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors." Child Development 80,3 (May/June 2009): 808-827.
2. Coley, Rebekah Levine
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Schindler, Holly S.
Trajectories of Parenting Processes and Adolescent Substance Use: Reciprocal Effects
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36,4 (August 2008): 613-625.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18288605
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Child Development; Families, Two-Parent; Family Environment; Family Studies; Fathers, Involvement; Modeling; Substance Use

Drawing on transactional theories of child development, we assessed bidirectional links between trajectories of adolescent substance use and parenting processes from early through mid adolescence. Hierarchical generalized models estimated trajectories for 3,317 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, exploring both between- and within-individual effects. Between individuals, adolescents reporting more regular family activities and greater father and mother knowledge of friends and teachers experienced lower levels of substance use through mid adolescence. Similarly, adolescents with more frequent substance use reported lower family activities, father knowledge, and mother knowledge, though these differences dissipated over time. Momre conservative within-individual differences indicated a prospective protective effect of family activities, with increases in adolescent participation in family activities predicting later declines in substance use. Results support the central importance of engagement in regular family activities, and suggest the need for further exploration of transactional processes between parents and children in the development of risk behaviors. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Coley, Rebekah Levine, Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal and Holly S. Schindler. "Trajectories of Parenting Processes and Adolescent Substance Use: Reciprocal Effects." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36,4 (August 2008): 613-625.
3. Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?
Developmental Psychology 42,6 (November 2006): 1154-1167.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/dev/42/6/1154/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and behavior problems during middle childhood. Early childhood income had enduring effects on children's behavior problems and academic skills in middle childhood. Middle childhood income did not influence academic skills but did affect the development of behavior problems during middle childhood. Children from low-income households were particularly sensitive to the effects of family income. The quality of home environment during early and middle childhood explained a portion of the effects of income on academic skills and behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth. "Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?" Developmental Psychology 42,6 (November 2006): 1154-1167.
4. Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Children's Home Environments during the Preschool and Early Elementary School Years
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Family Resources; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although prior research has shown that family economic resources are strong predictors of the level of cognitive stimulation provided by children's home environments, methodological concerns suggest that omitted variables may bias these estimates. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=2174) this study examined the influence of household income on cognitive stimulation in children's home environments during the transition to school. Cross-sectional regressions and longitudinal fixed effects models are estimated to examine the robustness of income's effect on children's home environments. Household income was positively related to the level of cognitive stimulation in children's home environments across both sets of analyses. The home environments of children in low-income households are particularly sensitive to income changes over time. The implications of this study for researchers and policy makers are discussed. This study focuses on five birth cohorts of children captured in the NLSY-CS at age 3-4 (time 1) and then again at age 7-8 (time 2), to maximize the focus on school readiness. (Uses the cognitive subscale of the HOME as an outcome.)
Bibliography Citation
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth. "Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Children's Home Environments during the Preschool and Early Elementary School Years." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
5. Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Environments
M.A. Thesis, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University - Evanston, 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Achievement; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Poverty; School Entry/Readiness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Early home learning environments are the result of interactions between the developing child and the opportunity structures provided by the family. Income is one of several resources that affect the cognitive stimulation that children experience. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examines the influence of household income on cognitive stimulation during the transition to school (age 3-4 years to 7-8 years). Cross-sectional and longitudinal fixed effects regressions are estimated to examine income's effect. Household income positively related to the level of cognitive stimulation in children's home environments across both sets of analyses. Home environments of children in low-income households were particularly sensitive to income changes over time. The implications of these results for programs and policies that reduce disparities in school readiness are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth. Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Environments. M.A. Thesis, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University - Evanston, 2003.
6. Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Learning Environments
Working Paper No. 312, Joint Center for Poverty Research, October 2002.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/wpfiles/Votruba-Drzal.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Preschool Children; School Entry/Readiness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Please do not copy or cite without author's permission. Early home learning environments are the result of interactions between the developing child and the opportunity structures provided by the family. Income is one of several resources that affect the cognitive stimulation that children experience. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=2174) this study examines the influence of household income on cognitive stimulation during the transition to school (3-4 years old to 7-8 years old). Cross-sectional and longitudinal fixed effects regressions are estimated to examine income's effect. Household income was positively related to the level of cognitive stimulation in children's home environments across both sets of analyses. Home environments of children in low-income households were particularly sensitive to income changes over time. The implications of these results for programs and policies that reduce disparities in school readiness are discussed. This study focuses on five birth cohorts of children captured in the NLSY-CS at age 3-4 (time 1) and then again at age 7-8 (time 2), to maximize the focus on school readiness. (Uses the cognitive subscale of the HOME as an outcome measure.)
Bibliography Citation
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth. "Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Learning Environments." Working Paper No. 312, Joint Center for Poverty Research, October 2002.
7. Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Learning Environments
Journal of Marriage and Family 65,2 (May 2003): 341-356.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3600081
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children, Home Environment; Cognitive Development; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; School Entry/Readiness

Early home learning environments are the result of interactions between the developing children and the opportunity structures provided by their families. Income is one of several resources that affect the cognitive stimulation that children experience. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,174) this study examines the influence of household income on cognitive stimulation during the transition to school (aged 3-4 years to 7-8 years). Cross-sectional and longitudinal fixed effects regressions are estimated to examine income's effect. Household income was positively related to the level of cognitive stimulation in children's home environments across both sets of analyses. Home environments of children in low-income households were particularly sensitive to income changes over time. The implications of these results for programs and policies that reduce disparities in school readiness are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth. "Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Learning Environments." Journal of Marriage and Family 65,2 (May 2003): 341-356.
8. Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Starting School on Unequal Ground: Environmental Origins of Economic Disparities in School Readiness and Early Academic Achievement
Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University, 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Achievement; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Poverty; School Entry/Readiness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

When children enter first-grade they are not equally ready to learn. Some have developed better cognitive and socioemotional skills that are important for early school success. Children from low-income families are particularly at risk, as they tend to have lower scores on measures of school readiness than their more economically advantaged counterparts. Developmental differences when children start school are concerning since these disparities often persist and are even exacerbated beyond the early years of school. The goal of this dissertation is to advance our understanding of the environmental origins of economic disparities in school readiness and early academic achievement with implications for policy and practice. It examines the influence of three key environments- home, child care, and kindergarten - on children's development during the transition to school and into the early school years in three integrated studies. By synthesizing across three studies, it provides the means to consider the relative effectiveness of different strategies for promoting academic success among at-risk children.
Bibliography Citation
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth. Starting School on Unequal Ground: Environmental Origins of Economic Disparities in School Readiness and Early Academic Achievement. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University, 2004.