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Author: Magnuson, Katherine A.
Resulting in 19 citations.
1. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Magnuson, Katherine A.
Family Structure Transitions and Children's Wellbeing During Middle Childhood
Presented: Washington, DC, Meetings of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR): Research That Matters, January 17-20, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Household Composition; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: About half of all children under 18 will spend time in a single-parent family and approximately one third will spend time in a step-family. Adverse associations between these family structures and child wellbeing are well documented. However, pathways to non-traditional family structures are diverse and include both births into non-traditional families and transitions into (or between) these family types. Most prior research has focused on associations between family structure states and children's development and wellbeing. Yet, it is likely that family structure transitions, in and of themselves, may account for some portion of these associations given that such transitions may be disruptive and destabilizing, thereby necessitating considerable reorganization of family roles and creating multiple stresses. Children's responses to these stresses may, at least in part, depend upon the developmental stage at which they occur, as well as the quality of caregiving to which children have previously been exposed. A considerable number of studies have explored these associations for older children and adolescents; few have examined these relations for younger children. Furthermore, existing research provides little insight as to whether the quality of early caregiving experiences may moderate these associations in middle childhood.

Methods: We use longitudinal data on about 3,700 children age 5 to 12 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) to examine associations of family structure states and transitions with children's achievement (PIAT math and reading tests) and behavior (Behavior Problems Index) trajectories. We consider whether these associations vary by children's ages, as well as the quality of their home environments in early childhood. We also assess whether they are transitory or persist over time. An important methodological concern is that families that transition may be different from those who do not in multiple ways, and that these differences may, in part, explain differences children's achievement and behavior. Consequently, it is important to use analytic approaches which reduce the likelihood of selection bias. Because the HLM identifies the effects of family structure transitions on changes in achievement and behavior, this method reduces bias from unobserved persistent child and family characteristics.

Results: Results suggest that both residing in and transitioning to a single-mother family during middle childhood is associated with small increases in behavior problems. These associations are stronger for children who experienced higher quality home environments in early childhood. Transitions into as well as stable residence in step families are less consistently associated with child behavior, although we find some evidence that residence in a step family may be associated with small short-term increases in behavior problems. We find little consistent evidence linking any types of family structure transitions or states to children's achievement during middle childhood.

Implications: As a sizeable proportion of children experience family structure transitions, it is crucial to understand how these changes affect their achievement and behavior. Implications of this research for public policies regarding marriage and family formation, as well as for designing programs to promote child wellbeing in complex families, are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Katherine A. Magnuson. "Family Structure Transitions and Children's Wellbeing During Middle Childhood." Presented: Washington, DC, Meetings of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR): Research That Matters, January 17-20, 2008.
2. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Magnuson, Katherine A.
Waldfogel, Jane
Long-Run Economic Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Adult Earnings
Issue Paper #12, Partnership for America's Economic Success (PAES), Pew Charitable Trust, Washington, DC, February 2009.
Also: http://www.partnershipforsuccess.org/uploads/20090504_LongRunAdultEarningsReport.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Pew Charitable Trust
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Home Environment; Earnings; Economic Well-Being; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Labor Market Outcomes; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers and policymakers alike want to better understand the long-run effects of investments in children's well-being. Yet, only a few studies have examined how participants in early childhood interventions fare as adults. These studies suggest that early investments may have sizable payoffs for children's later success. In the absence of long-run data on children's outcomes, how can we determine the long-run monetary value of improvements in young children's well-being?

In this report we describe a way to link improvements in aspects of children's early health, achievement, and behavior to improved labor market outcomes when they become adults. We apply the same method to link improvements in the parenting children receive with their success in the labor market as adults. Our results suggest that investments in early childhood that improve these aspects of development will likely have important payoffs. However, the magnitude of these payoffs is strongly dependent on the extent to which early program effects are maintained over time.

We draw both substantive and methodological conclusions from this research. Both are important to understanding and quantifying the potential of early interventions to improve later outcomes. Our key substantive finding is that early improvements in child health, academic achievement, and behavior as well as improved parenting can yield sizable economic benefits for adult earnings. Our key methodological contribution is the application of a two-step method for linking improvements in early outcomes to long-run economic gains.

Bibliography Citation
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Katherine A. Magnuson and Jane Waldfogel. "Long-Run Economic Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Adult Earnings." Issue Paper #12, Partnership for America's Economic Success (PAES), Pew Charitable Trust, Washington, DC, February 2009.
3. Duncan, Greg J.
Dowsett, Chantelle J.
Claessens, Amy
Magnuson, Katherine A.
Huston, Aletha C.
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Pagani, Linda S.
Feinstein, Leon
Engel, Mimi
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Sexton, Holly
Duckworth, Kathryn
Japel, Crista
School Readiness and Later Achievement
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Society for Research in Child Development, Biennial Meetings, April 10, 2005.
Also: http://www.cpc.unc.edu/training/Duncan_SchoolReadiness_04253.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); British Cohort Study (BCS); Children, Academic Development; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Entry/Readiness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using six longitudinal data sets, we estimate links between three key elements of school readiness—school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills—and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to illuminate how naturally occurring changes in these early skills are associated with children's subsequent learning, most of our regression models control for cognitive, attention and socioemotional skills measured prior to school entry.

Across all six studies, the strongest predictors of later achievement are school-entry math, reading, and attention skills. A meta-analysis of the results shows that early math skills have the greatest predictive power, followed by reading skills and then attention. By contrast, measures of socioemotional behaviors, including internalizing and externalizing problems and social skills, were generally insignificant predictors of later academic performance, even among children with relatively high levels of problem behavior. Patterns of association were similar for boys and girls and for children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds.

Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Chantelle J. Dowsett, Amy Claessens, Katherine A. Magnuson, Aletha C. Huston, Pamela Kato Klebanov, Linda S. Pagani, Leon Feinstein, Mimi Engel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Holly Sexton, Kathryn Duckworth and Crista Japel. "School Readiness and Later Achievement." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Society for Research in Child Development, Biennial Meetings, April 10, 2005.
4. Duncan, Greg J.
Dowsett, Chantelle J.
Claessens, Amy
Magnuson, Katherine A.
Huston, Aletha C.
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Pagani, Linda S.
Feinstein, Leon
Engel, Mimi
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Sexton, Holly
Duckworth, Kathryn
Japel, Crista
School Readiness and Later Achievement
Developmental Psychology 43,6 (November 2007): 1428-1446.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/dev/43/6/1428/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); British Cohort Study (BCS); Children, Academic Development; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Entry/Readiness

Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness—school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills—and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for cognitive, attention, and socioemotional skills measured prior to school entry, as well as a host of family background measures. Across all 6 studies, the strongest predictors of later achievement are school-entry math, reading, and attention skills. A meta-analysis of the results shows that early math skills have the greatest predictive power, followed by reading and then attention skills. By contrast, measures of socioemotional behaviors, including internalizing and externalizing problems and social skills, were generally insignificant predictors of later academic performance, even among children with relatively high levels of problem behavior. Patterns of association were similar for boys and girls and for children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. (Copyright 2007 by the American Psychological Association)
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Chantelle J. Dowsett, Amy Claessens, Katherine A. Magnuson, Aletha C. Huston, Pamela Kato Klebanov, Linda S. Pagani, Leon Feinstein, Mimi Engel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Holly Sexton, Kathryn Duckworth and Crista Japel. "School Readiness and Later Achievement ." Developmental Psychology 43,6 (November 2007): 1428-1446.
5. Duncan, Greg J.
Magnuson, Katherine A.
Can Family Socioeconomic Resources Account for Racial and Ethnic Test Score Gaps?
The Future of Children 15,1 (Spring 2005): 35-54
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Family Background and Culture; Family Characteristics; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Entry/Readiness; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article considers whether the disparate socioeconomic circumstances of families in which white, black, and Hispanic children grow up account for the racial and ethnic gaps in school readiness among American preschoolers. It first reviews why family socioeconomic resources might matter for children's school readiness. The authors concentrate on four key components of parent socioeconomic status that are particularly relevant for children's well-being—income, education, family structure, and neighborhood conditions. They survey a range of relevant policies and programs that might help to close socioeconomic gaps, for example, by increasing family incomes or maternal educational attainment, strengthening families, and improving poor neighborhoods.

Their survey of links between socioeconomic resources and test score gaps indicates that resource differences account for about half of the standard deviation—about 8 points on a test with a standard deviation of 15—of the differences. Yet, the policy implications of this are far from clear. They note that although policies are designed to improve aspects of "socioeconomic status" (for example, income, education, family structure), no policy improves "socioeconomic status" directly. Second, they caution that good policy is based on an understanding of causal relationships between family background and children outcomes, as well as cost-effectiveness.

They conclude that boosting the family incomes of preschool children may be a promising intervention to reduce racial and ethnic school readiness gaps. However, given the lack of successful large-scale interventions, the authors suggest giving only a modest role to programs that address parents' socioeconomic resources. They suggest that policies that directly target children may be the most efficient way to narrow school readiness gaps.

Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J. and Katherine A. Magnuson. "Can Family Socioeconomic Resources Account for Racial and Ethnic Test Score Gaps? ." The Future of Children 15,1 (Spring 2005): 35-54.
6. Duncan, Greg J.
Magnuson, Katherine A.
The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention and Behavior Problems
RWJ Lecture Series, The Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars Program, March 11, 2011
Also: http://www.sph.umich.edu/rwjhssp/lectures/DuncanGary.mov
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Robert Wood Johnson Fondation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); High School Completion/Graduates; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Completion; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Slides only, available at: http://www.sph.umich.edu/rwjhssp/lectures/Duncan.ppt

Our chapter sheds light on the Perry and many other school entry puzzles by turning to theory as well as other empirical studies investigating links between young children's skills and behaviors and their later attainments. We begin with a conceptual framework for understanding the early skills. We argue that the skill categories of “cognitive” and “non-cognitive” used by many economists are both too simplistic and inaccurate. “Cognitive” skills mix together mental acuity (i.e., IQ) with concrete achievement skills such as knowing letters, beginning word sounds and numbers. “Noncognitive” skills encompass a wide variety of diverse capacities such as paying attention (an inherently cognitive task!), getting along with classmates and teachers, and good mental health. We propose and defend the early-skill trichotomy of: achievement, attention and problem behavior and mental health, while at the same time acknowledging that each of these broad categories are related, and can be broken down further into more narrowly defined component parts.

Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J. and Katherine A. Magnuson. "The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention and Behavior Problems." RWJ Lecture Series, The Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars Program, March 11, 2011.
7. Duncan, Greg J.
Magnuson, Katherine A.
The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention and Behavior Problems
Presented: Washington, DC, Brookings Institution Conference, "Rethinking the Role of Neighborhoods and Families on Schools and School Outcomes for American Children", November 19-20, 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Baltimore Beginning School Study (BSS); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); College Enrollment; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Dropouts; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; High School Completion/Graduates; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Completion; Temperament

Our chapter sheds light on the Perry and many other school entry puzzles by turning to theory as well as other empirical studies investigating links between young children's skills and behaviors and their later attainments. We begin with a conceptual framework for understanding the early skills. We argue that the skill categories of “cognitive” and “non-cognitive” used by many economists are both too simplistic and inaccurate. “Cognitive” skills mix together mental acuity (i.e., IQ) with concrete achievement skills such as knowing letters, beginning word sounds and numbers. “Noncognitive” skills encompass a wide variety of diverse capacities such as paying attention (an inherently cognitive task!), getting along with classmates and teachers, and good mental health. We propose and defend the early-skill trichotomy of: achievement, attention and problem behavior and mental health, while at the same time acknowledging that each of these broad categories are related, and can be broken down further into more narrowly defined component parts.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J. and Katherine A. Magnuson. "The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention and Behavior Problems." Presented: Washington, DC, Brookings Institution Conference, "Rethinking the Role of Neighborhoods and Families on Schools and School Outcomes for American Children", November 19-20, 2009.
8. Duncan, Greg J.
Magnuson, Katherine A.
The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention Skills, and Behavior Problems
In: Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. Richard J. Murnane and Greg J. Duncan, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011; pp.47-70.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Achievement; Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Family Background and Culture; Family Characteristics; High School Completion/Graduates; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Completion; Temperament

Duncan and Magnuson argue that the domains of achievement, attention, and behavior are useful for organizing the most important children’s skills and behaviors. Upon entering kindergarten, children from low-income families have weaker academic and attention skills, on average, and a higher probability of demonstrating antisocial behavior than children from higher-income families. None of these gaps shrinks over the course of elementary school.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J. and Katherine A. Magnuson. "The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention Skills, and Behavior Problems" In: Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. Richard J. Murnane and Greg J. Duncan, eds., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011; pp.47-70.
9. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Intergenerational Benefits of Maternal Education: The Effect of Increases in Mothers' Educational Attainment on Children's Academic Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, Human Development and Social Policy, 2002. DAI-B 63/11 (May 2003).
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Children, Well-Being; Educational Attainment; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Entry/Readiness; Schooling, Post-secondary; Welfare

A positive association between parental education and children's well-being, particularly academic achievement, is one of the most consistent findings from developmental studies. However, most prior research has been correlational and thus subject to the criticism that correlation does not prove causation. Topping the list of plausible alternative explanations for the maternal education-child wellbeing association are mothers' cognitive endowments, which are positively related both to mothers' educational attainment and children's academic achievement. Results from analyses in this dissertation provide more convincing evidence that the association between maternal education and children's academic outcomes is causal, not spurious. Using three rigorous research methods, and two different data sources, I establish that increasing mothers' education has a positive effect on their children's academic achievement. I used Instrumental Variables analyses with data from the random-assignment National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies Child Outcomes Study (NEWWS-COS) to estimate the effect of maternal education on young children's school readiness. Results from these analyses indicate that maternal education, particularly Adult Basic Education for low skilled mothers, improved children's school readiness and reduced children's academic problems two years after random assignment. I showed that these findings were robust by conducting two sets of analyses with nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Supplement (NLSY-CS). Using change models and piecewise hierarchical linear modeling I demonstrated that children's reading, but not math, achievement improved when their mothers returned to school on their own volition. I found that these benefits accrue to children consistently regardless of their mothers' prior level of education. The effect sizes of benefits from additional maternal schooling, particularly among welfare recipients, are compared to the effect sizes of other interventions for low income families. The findings suggest that although mandating education may not be an effective form of intervention, welfare policies that discourage economically disadvantaged mothers from attending school may be detrimental to young children's well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. Intergenerational Benefits of Maternal Education: The Effect of Increases in Mothers' Educational Attainment on Children's Academic Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, Human Development and Social Policy, 2002. DAI-B 63/11 (May 2003)..
10. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Maternal Education and Children's Academic Achievement During Middle Childhood
Developmental Psychology 43,6 (November 2007): 1497-1512.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/dev/43/6/1497/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Educational Attainment; Family Environment; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Tests and Testing

Despite much evidence that links mothers' educational attainment to children's academic outcomes, studies have not established whether increases in mothers' education will improve their children's academic achievement. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on children between the ages of 6 and 12, this study examined whether increases in mothers' educational attainment are associated with changes in children's academic achievement and the quality of their home environments. Results suggest that children of young mothers with low levels of education perform better on tests of academic skills and have higher quality home environments when their mothers complete additional schooling, whereas increased maternal education does not predict improvements in the achievement or home environments of children with older and more highly educated mothers. The estimated effects of additional maternal schooling for children of these younger mothers appear to be more pronounced for children's reading than math skills. ((c) 2007 APA.)
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. "Maternal Education and Children's Academic Achievement During Middle Childhood." Developmental Psychology 43,6 (November 2007): 1497-1512.
11. Magnuson, Katherine A.
The Effects of Increasing Mothers’ Educational Attainment on Children’s Academic Achievement: Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Davis CA, Child Well-being Conference, Institute of Governmental Affairs, University of California Davis, 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Governmental Affairs
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Children, Well-Being; Educational Attainment; Family Environment; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Entry/Readiness; Schooling, Post-secondary; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also presented at the 2004 biennial meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development, and invited presentation, Institute for Education, University College London, England, 2004.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. "The Effects of Increasing Mothers’ Educational Attainment on Children’s Academic Achievement: Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Davis CA, Child Well-being Conference, Institute of Governmental Affairs, University of California Davis, 2006.
12. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Associations of Family Structure States and Transitions During Middle Childhood
Working Paper No. 07-15, National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, June 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Poverty Center
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Household Composition; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Hierarchical Linear Models (i.e., multilevel models), we estimate associations of family structure states and transitions with children's achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. We consider whether these associations vary by children's ages, as well as the quality of their home environments in early childhood. Results suggest that both residing in and transitioning to a single-mother family during middle childhood is associated with small increases in behavior problems. These associations are stronger for children who experienced higher quality home environments in early childhood. Results for transitions to and residence in step families are less consistent, although we find some evidence that residence in a step family may be associated with small short-term increases in behavior problems. We find little consistent evidence linking any types of family structure states or transitions to children's achievement during middle childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Associations of Family Structure States and Transitions During Middle Childhood." Working Paper No. 07-15, National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, June 2007.
13. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Family Structure States and Transitions: Associations with Children's Well-Being During Middle Childhood.
Journal of Marriage and Family 71,3 (August 2009): 575-591.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00620.x/pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Family Structure; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Using longitudinal data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth ( N = 3,862) and Hierarchical Linear Models, we estimated associations of family structure states and transitions with children's achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. Results suggest that residing in a single-mother family was associated with small increases in behavior problems and decreases in achievement and that residing in a social-father family was associated with small increases in behavior problems. Family structure transitions, in general, were associated with increases in behavior problems and marginally associated with decreases in achievement. Transitioning to a single-mother family was associated with increases in behavior problems, whereas transitioning to a social-father family was associated with decreases in reading achievement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Family Structure States and Transitions: Associations with Children's Well-Being During Middle Childhood." Journal of Marriage and Family 71,3 (August 2009): 575-591.
14. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Transitions in Family Structure and Children's Wellbeing
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71620
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Household Composition; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Stepfamilies; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A considerable body of research explores associations between marital dissolution, single-parent family structure, and child wellbeing. Although about 30 percent of children will spend some time in stepfamilies, the effects of maternal re-partnering on children's wellbeing have received much less scrutiny. We use longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Hierarchical Linear Models (multilevel models) to estimate the effects of family structure transitions, with a specific focus on maternal re-partnering, on children's achievement and behavior trajectories. We consider whether these effects vary by children's ages and assess whether they are transitory or persist over time. Moreover, we focus on whether there are differences in these effects when maternal 're-partnerings' constitute cohabitations or marriages, as well as whether they differ by maternal education level. This research has implications for policies and programs regarding marriage and family formation and those that promote child wellbeing for children in complex families.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Transitions in Family Structure and Children's Wellbeing." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
15. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior
In: Developmental Contexts in Middle Childhood: Bridges to Adolescence and Adulthood. A. Huston and M. Ripke, eds., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006: 150-172.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Structure; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our chapter seeks to assess the extent to which the diverse contexts experienced during middle childhood matter for children's subsequent well-being. Given the established importance of genetic factors and pre-school family background conditions, the extent to which contexts during the middle childhood years play a role in shaping – the achievement and behavior trajectories established during the preschool years is far from clear.

We address three specific questions. First, how much variation in adolescents' academic achievement and problem behaviors are uniquely explained by the contexts they experience in middle childhood? Second, to the extent that middle childhood contexts matter, which contexts matter the most? And third, are the effects of contexts in middle childhood on early adolescents' outcomes different for boys and girls and for poor and middle class children?

Our answers to these questions are based on an analysis of data from a national sample of over 2,000 children followed from birth until adolescence. Family poverty, structure and home environments are measured throughout this time, enabling us to both describe the stability of contexts between early and middle childhood and assess the extent to which middle childhood contexts add to the explanation of adolescent achievement and behavior over and above early environments.

Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A., Greg J. Duncan and Ariel Kalil. "Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior" In: Developmental Contexts in Middle Childhood: Bridges to Adolescence and Adulthood. A. Huston and M. Ripke, eds., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006: 150-172.
16. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior
Working Paper, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, June 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Policy Research - Northwestern University - (formerly Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Structure; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We address three specific questions. First, how much variation in adolescents' academic achievement and problem behaviors are uniquely explained by the contexts they experience in middle childhood? Second, to the extent that middle childhood contexts matter, which contexts matter the most? And third, are the effects of contexts in middle childhood on early adolescents' outcomes different for boys and girls and for poor and middle class children?

Our answers to these questions are based on an analysis of data from a national sample of over 2,000 children followed from birth until adolescence. Family poverty, structure and home environments are measured throughout this time, enabling us to both describe the stability of contexts between early and middle childhood and assess the extent to which middle childhood contexts add to the explanation of adolescent achievement and behavior over and above early environments.

Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A., Greg J. Duncan and Ariel Kalil. "Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior." Working Paper, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, June 2003.
17. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Metzger, Molly
Early School Adjustment and Educational Attainment
American Educational Research Journal 53,4 (August 2016): 1198-1228.
Also: http://aer.sagepub.com/content/53/4/1198
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Children, Adjustment Problems; Educational Attainment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between middle-childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using a 20-year longitudinal data set, this study estimates the association between children's academic skills, antisocial behaviors, and attention problems--all averaged across middle childhood--and their long-term educational outcomes. After adjusting for family and individual background measures, we find that high average levels of math and reading achievement, and low average levels of antisocial behavior problems, are positively associated with later attainment. Associations between attention problems and attainment are small. Associations are attenuated somewhat when sibling differences in these skills and behaviors are related to sibling differences in attainment outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A., Greg J. Duncan, Kenneth T. H. Lee and Molly Metzger. "Early School Adjustment and Educational Attainment." American Educational Research Journal 53,4 (August 2016): 1198-1228.
18. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, You-Geon
Metzger, Molly
Early School Adjustment and High School Dropout
Working Paper, Foundation for Child Development, December 2011.
Also: http://fcd-us.org/resources/early-school-adjustment-and-high-school-dropout?destination=resources%2Fsearch
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Foundation for Child Development
Keyword(s): Baltimore Beginning School Study (BSS); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); College Enrollment; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between early childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using two large longitudinal datasets, this study describes the relative contribution of children’s problem behaviors and academic skills to their long-term educational outcomes. After adjusting for family and individual background measures, we find that age 7 or 8 skills and behaviors are modestly and often inconsistently predictive of high school completion, attending college, and completed years of schooling. Neither reading nor math is consistently more predictive of high school completion than the other. Antisocial behavior predicts high school completion, but the associations are consistently significant only after about age 10. In contrast, attention problems do not predict adolescent and early-adult school attainment. We also investigate whether persistently high behavior problems or low achievement during the early elementary years matter for later attainment. We find that persistent reading, math, and antisocial behavior problems, but not attention problems, prior to age 10 predict at least some of our attainment outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A., Greg J. Duncan, You-Geon Lee and Molly Metzger. "Early School Adjustment and High School Dropout." Working Paper, Foundation for Child Development, December 2011.
19. Magnuson, Katherine A.
McGroder, Sharon M.
The Effect of Increasing Welfare Mothers’ Education on their Young Children’s Academic Problems and School Readiness
Working Paper, Northwestern University, [N.D.] .
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/magnuson_mcgroder.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Children, Well-Being; Educational Attainment; Family Environment; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does an increase in a mother’s education improve her young child’s academic performance? Positive correlations between mothers’ educational attainment and children’s well being, in particular children’s cognitive development and academic outcomes, are among the most replicated results from developmental studies. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the causal nature of this relationship. Because conventional regression (e.g., OLS) and analysis of variance (e.g., ANOVA) approaches to estimating the effect of maternal schooling on child outcomes may be biased by omitted variables, we use experimentally induced differences in mothers’ education to estimate Instrumental Variable (IV) models. Our data come from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies Child Outcomes Study—an evaluation of mandatory welfare-to-work programs in which welfare recipients with young children were randomly assigned to either an education or work focused program group or to a control group that received no additional assistance. We find that increases in maternal education are positively associated with children’s academic school readiness, and negatively associated with mothers’ reports of their children’s academic problems. Our estimated causal effects of maternal education on children’s academic school readiness and academic problems are large enough to be of considerable importance for policies that affect the work, welfare, and training of low-income mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. and Sharon M. McGroder. "The Effect of Increasing Welfare Mothers’ Education on their Young Children’s Academic Problems and School Readiness." Working Paper, Northwestern University, [N.D.] .