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Author: Doren, Catherine
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Doren, Catherine
Diverging Trajectories or Parallel Paths? The Gender Earnings Gap by Education in Life Course Perspective
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Life Course; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

When men and women enter their working years, the gender earnings gap is small, but it opens considerably as they age and pass through key phases of the life course. Although the literature has established that men and women's earnings diverge with age, many studies looking at earnings trajectories focus on college graduates. Corresponding explanations posed for men's greater success may also disproportionately apply to college graduates. Given vast differences in fertility timing, marriage rates, employment opportunities, and potential marriage partners between college graduates and those with less education, age trajectories in the gender earnings gap may vary markedly by education. In this paper, I explore variations in gender differences in earnings trajectories across education levels. I find that college graduates see a strong divergence in spite of beginning with nearly equal earnings. Those with less education see a considerably larger gap early on, but less change thereafter.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Diverging Trajectories or Parallel Paths? The Gender Earnings Gap by Education in Life Course Perspective." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
2. Doren, Catherine
Do Some Mothers Pay a Higher Price? Variation in Motherhood Wage Penalties by Education, Parity, and Fertility Timing
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fertility timing and the number of children women have vary by education, but research examining education variation in motherhood effects has given relatively little attention to how timing and parity shape motherhood wage penalties. Using fixed-effects models and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I estimate heterogeneous effects of motherhood by age at the transition to motherhood, by parity, and by ages at later births, considering how these effects differ by whether women have a college degree. I find that the transition to motherhood, regardless of its timing, has substantial wage penalty for less educated mothers, while college-educated mothers see a premium. Analyses of timing show that this premium is only realized if they delay childbearing until their late twenties and grows with further delays. All women see wage penalties for later births, although these penalties do not vary by education and are largely unshaped by delays.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Do Some Mothers Pay a Higher Price? Variation in Motherhood Wage Penalties by Education, Parity, and Fertility Timing." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
3. Doren, Catherine
Is Two Too Many? Parity and Mothers Labor Force Exit
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Exits; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many mothers leave the labor force during their childbearing years. Conventional wisdom and qualitative research suggest there may be a tipping point at the second child when women are particularly likely to leave. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I find no evidence for a tipping point around the birth of second children. Women are instead most likely to leave the labor force when they are pregnant with their first child. Each subsequent child is associated with a smaller increase in the probability of exit. In addition, women who only ever have one child are less likely to leave the labor force than those who have more children. College-educated women who only have one child are especially unlikely to exit. I conclude with a discussion of why the tipping point hypothesis is so prevalent despite strong evidence against it.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Is Two Too Many? Parity and Mothers Labor Force Exit." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
4. Doren, Catherine
Is Two Too Many? Parity and Mothers' Labor Force Exit
Journal of Marriage and Family 81,2 (April 2019): 327-344.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jomf.12533
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Exits; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Objective: How do women's chances of labor force exit vary by the number of children they have?

Background: Conventional wisdom suggests that there may be a tipping point at the second child when women are particularly likely to leave. Women who only have one child, by contrast, are thought to be uniquely unlikely to exit.

Method: Using data from the nationally representative 1979 to 2012 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 ( https://www.nlsinfo.org/content/cohorts/nlsy79), event history methods estimate the likelihood of labor force exit as women progress across parity transitions.

Results: The results show no evidence for a tipping point around the birth of second children. Women are instead most likely to leave the labor force when they are pregnant with their first child, and each subsequent child is associated with a smaller increase in the probability of exit. In addition, women who only ever have one child are less likely to leave the labor force than those who have more children, and these differences arise as early as their pregnancies with their first children. College‐educated women who only have one child are especially unlikely to exit.

Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Is Two Too Many? Parity and Mothers' Labor Force Exit." Journal of Marriage and Family 81,2 (April 2019): 327-344.
5. Doren, Catherine
Parity and Women's Labor Force Participation
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Event History; Exits; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Motherhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many mothers leave the labor force during their childbearing years, although not all those who leave do so after their first birth. Ethnographic accounts often describe mothers who continue working after their first child only to leave upon having a second or third, yet the demographic literature has largely focused on labor force exit at the initial transition to motherhood. This may obscure differences in the likelihood that mothers work by parity. In this paper, I aim to understand when in their fertility trajectories women are most likely to exit the labor force. With data from the NLSY79 cohort, I use event history methods to predict probabilities of labor force exit across women's childbearing years, giving attention to the association between parity and labor force participation. I also consider parity-specific variation in exits across mothers who have had different numbers of children by the end of their childbearing years.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Parity and Women's Labor Force Participation." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
6. Doren, Catherine
Three Essays on the Effects of Gender and Motherhood on Labor Force Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Motherhood; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this dissertation, I explore how gender inequality-generating processes unfold across the life course and how these processes vary across women. In three stand-alone empirical chapters exploring related themes, I pay specific attention to variation in the effects of gender and motherhood by women's educational attainment. I show that gender and motherhood have heterogeneous effects by education and by other demographic characteristics including race, parity, and fertility timing. I also consider how and why labor force outcomes vary by race, fertility timing, and parity within education groups. By highlighting and identifying variation in processes and effects across groups and across the life course, my findings add nuance to the conversation on women's labor market trajectories.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. Three Essays on the Effects of Gender and Motherhood on Labor Force Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2018.
7. Doren, Catherine
Grodsky, Eric
What Skills Can Buy: Transmission of Advantage through Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Degree; College Enrollment; Family Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although never far from social scientists' attention, interest in the intergenerational flow of advantage and disadvantage has recently gained prominence in both academic and popular venues. Income inequality is rising (Western et al. 2012) and with it inequality in direct investments in children (Kornrich and Furstenberg 2013) and academic achievement tied to parental income (Reardon 2011). While income and wealth as resources undoubtedly contribute to the intergenerational transmission of social status, we argue that they are at least partly endogenous to parents' cognitive and noncognitive skills and advantages bestowed by these skills rather than material resources themselves are driving much of the observed relationship between capital and children's educational attainment. We analyze the NLSY 1979 cohort and their children to disentangle the effects of parent skills from those of resources. Preliminary findings suggest that more than half of the association of resources and educational attainment is traceable to parent skills.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine and Eric Grodsky. "What Skills Can Buy: Transmission of Advantage through Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
8. Doren, Catherine
Grodsky, Eric
What Skills Can Buy: Transmission of Advantage through Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills
Sociology of Education 89,4 (October 2016): 321-342.
Also: http://soe.sagepub.com/content/89/4/321.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; College Characteristics; College Degree; College Enrollment; Family Income; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Noncognitive Skills; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parental income and wealth contribute to children's success but are at least partly endogenous to parents' cognitive and noncognitive skills. We estimate the degree to which mothers' skills measured in early adulthood confound the relationship between their economic resources and their children's postsecondary education outcomes. Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 suggest that maternal cognitive and noncognitive skills attenuate half of parental income's association with child baccalaureate college attendance, a fifth of its association with elite college attendance, and a quarter of its association with bachelor's degree completion. Maternal skills likewise attenuate a third of parental wealth's association with children's baccalaureate college attendance, half of its association with elite college attendance, and a fifth of its association with bachelor's degree completion. Observational studies of the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's postsecondary attainments that fail to account for parental skills risk seriously overstating the benefits of parental income and wealth.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine and Eric Grodsky. "What Skills Can Buy: Transmission of Advantage through Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills." Sociology of Education 89,4 (October 2016): 321-342.
9. Doren, Catherine
Lin, Katherine
The Gender Earnings Gap Across the Life Course: Variation by Race, Educational Attainment, and Family Status
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Racial Differences; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Not only do women, on average, earn less than men do, but this gender gap in earnings increases as men and women age. While many have called for an intersectional approach to gender inequality in the labor market, few have empirically examined the extent to which men's and women's earnings diverge across the life course, and whether these patterns differ by race and educational status. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and estimate growth curve models of annual earnings, paying attention to differences by race and educational attainment in the levels and slopes of earnings for men and women from ages 22 to 47. Our findings provide empirical support for intersectionality by race, gender, and education in the labor market, as well as mixed evidence for processes of cumulative (dis)advantage in earnings inequality over the life course.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine and Katherine Lin. "The Gender Earnings Gap Across the Life Course: Variation by Race, Educational Attainment, and Family Status." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.