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Author: Beck, Scott Herman
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. Beck, Rubye W.
Beck, Scott Herman
The Incidence of Extended Households among Middle-Aged Black and White Women: Estimates from a 15-Year Panel Study
Journal of Family Issues 10,2 (June 1989): 147-168.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/10/2/147.abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Family, Extended; Household Structure; Marital Status; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this descriptive analysis, data from the NLS of Mature Women are used to compare cross-section and fifteen-year estimates of the incidence of various types of extended households. Data on black and white women are analyzed separately and the estimates for proportion of middle-aged women living in extended households are presented by marital status. Results show large differences between single-year and fifteen-year estimates of the incidence of extension. Overall, between one-fourth and one-third of white middle-aged women lived in extended households for some time over the fifteen year period and approximately two-thirds of black women experienced this household form for at least part of their middle years. The authors conclude that, contrary to popular and academic perceptions, extended families are a relatively common form of living arrangements for adults in this country, if only for short periods of time. This may be one indicator of the prevalence of the modified-extended family as a family form in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Rubye W. and Scott Herman Beck. "The Incidence of Extended Households among Middle-Aged Black and White Women: Estimates from a 15-Year Panel Study." Journal of Family Issues 10,2 (June 1989): 147-168.
2. Beck, Scott Herman
Adjustment to and Satisfaction with Retirement
Journal of Gerontology 37,5 (September 1982): 616-624.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/5/616.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Family Resources; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marital Status; Occupations; Retirement; Widows

Research over the past 30 years concerning the effect of retirement on personal adjustment has resulted in conflicting findings. Some studies reported a negative effect for retirement; others showed no effect at all. This study tested the net effect of retirement on happiness with life and analyzed an evaluation of retirement item in order to discern specific factors that cause lower satisfaction with retirement. Logistic multiple regression and ordinary least squares regression were used in the analysis. The main findings are as follows: (1) although a negative bivariate relationship exists between retirement and happiness with life, retirement has no significant net effect; (2) health factors, recent widowhood, and income have the greatest impact on happiness with life; and (3) poor health, lower income, and earlier-than-expected retirement are the main determinants of negative evaluations of retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "Adjustment to and Satisfaction with Retirement." Journal of Gerontology 37,5 (September 1982): 616-624.
3. Beck, Scott Herman
Determinants of Labor Force Activity Among Retired Men
Research on Aging 7,2 (June 1985): 251-280.
Also: http://roa.sagepub.com/content/7/2/251.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Labor Force Participation; Retirement; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the NLS of Older Men for 1966 to 1981 were used to identify factors affecting labor force participation after retirement. Factors included in the analysis were social and demographic characteristics and mediating variables such as retirement benefits, attitudes toward work and retirement, and health status. Three retirement patterns were identified: complete retirement, partial retirement, and rejection of retirement. Over two-thirds of the sample were fully retired; about 20 percent were partially retired; and about 10 percent returned to full- time work. The models used in the logistic multiple regression analysis predicted rejection of retirement fairly successfully but were not as useful in predicting partial retirement. Retirement income and health were the most important factors influencing work after retirement. Disabilities or poor health forced a substantial minority of men to remain completely retired, while very low retirement benefits forced some retired to work full-time or part-time. The propensity to work after retirement varied somewhat by occupational groups, but these differences were not large and generally were explained by other factors related to occupation, such as the institutional arrangements of work and the unemployment rate in the local labor market. Attitudes toward work were reasonably important determinants of labor force participation but were less significant than the constraints of poor health and low retirement income. [AgeLine]
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "Determinants of Labor Force Activity Among Retired Men." Research on Aging 7,2 (June 1985): 251-280.
4. Beck, Scott Herman
Differences in Expected and Actual Retirement Age Among Older Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, 1981. DAI-A 43/01, p. 268, July 1982
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Behavior; Health Factors; Retirement

This thesis is a study of retirement that analyzes the discrepancy between the expected age and the actual age of retirement. The conceptual model used combines Atchley's (1979) general model of the retirement process with the approach of attitude-behavior theory. Three general factors are hypothesized to determine both the expected age and actual age. The factors are (1) constraint factors, (2) job-related factors, and (3) social and psychological factors. A secondary hypothesis concerns adjustment to retirement. It is hypothesized that discrepancies between the actual and expected age of retirement, especially earlier-than-expected retirement, will lead to less successful adjustment to retirement. Panel data collected between 1966 and 1976 on men aged 45-59 in 1966, were used to investigate these relationships. Because of the truncated age range of the respondents, the average age of retirement was 61 years, while the average expected age was about 65 years. A low correlation was found between expected and actual age. An analysis of change in expected age over the ten years of the survey, using panel members who had not retired, showed a large degree of instability in expected age. In a regression analysis of the expected age among men who had retired, predictors in all three of the general factors significantly affected the expected age. Mandatory retirement policies and pension eligibility reduced the expected age while commitment to work increased the expected age. Older workers expected to retire later, but this finding may be an artifact of the data. In the regression analysis of actual age only work-related health limitations, which reduce the age of retirement, were significant. In considering the discrepancy between the actual and expected age, mandatory retirement policies, eligibility for a pension and higher assets reduced the negative difference between the actual and expected age, while the existence of a work-related health limitation and high commitment to work increased the negative discrepancy. With respect to retirement satisfaction, earlier-than-expected retirement led to lower satisfaction with retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. Differences in Expected and Actual Retirement Age Among Older Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, 1981. DAI-A 43/01, p. 268, July 1982.
5. Beck, Scott Herman
Mobility from Pre-Retirement to Post-Retirement Job
Sociological Quarterly 27,4 (December 1986): 515-531.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1986.tb00275.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Dual Economic Theory; Mobility; Mobility, Labor Market; Pensions; Retirees; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While the normative pattern of retirement is complete cessation of labor force activity, about one-third of men work during their retirement. This research focuses on such "working retirees" by investigating the prevalence and patterns of occupational mobility from pre- to post-retirement job, as well as the impact that institutional constraints on (re)employment in later life may have on the chances of occupational mobility. Using data from the NLS Older Men's cohort, a sample of working retirees was extracted from men who retired between 1967 and 1978. Results showed a substantial amount of occupational mobility among the working retired. The structure of mobility was found to be similar to younger labor force participants in that most mobility consists of moves to adjacent occupational categories. Unlike career mobility of non-retired workers, however, the large majority of moves constituted downward mobility. Using the economic segmentation perspective, log-linear and logistic regression analyses indicated that working retirees whose pre-retirement jobs were in the core sector were more likely to experience occupational mobility. As a more specific indicator of bureaucratic control of the labor force, industry-level pension coverage rates were used in the logistic regressions and higher rates of pension coverage were found to result in a greater likelihood of mobility. These results indicate that the considerable occupational mobility experienced by working-retirees is partially the result of structural constraints on the employment of older men.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "Mobility from Pre-Retirement to Post-Retirement Job." Sociological Quarterly 27,4 (December 1986): 515-531.
6. Beck, Scott Herman
Position in the Economic Structure and Unexpected Retirement
Research on Aging 5,2 (June 1983): 197-216.
Also: http://roa.sagepub.com/content/5/2/197.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Industrial Sector; Occupational Status; Pensions; Retirement; Retirement History Study; Self-Employed Workers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While some workers retire when and how they planned, others leave the labor force unexpectedly and unprepared for retirement. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether certain indicators of position in the economic structure affect the probability of leaving the labor force when planned. The results of the logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that all three indicators of economic position, occupational status, industrial sector and self-employment, had significant net effects on the dichotomous dependent variable, expected/unexpected retirement. These effects were mediated, to varying degrees, by pension coverage and health status, the former increasing the chances of retiring when planned, the latter decreasing the probability of retiring when planned.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "Position in the Economic Structure and Unexpected Retirement." Research on Aging 5,2 (June 1983): 197-216.
7. Beck, Scott Herman
Predictors of the Presence of Parents in Households of Middle-Aged Women
Presented: Acapulco, Mexico, 14th International Congress of Genrontology, 1989
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: International Congress of Gerontology
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Family Influences; Household Structure; Racial Differences; Residence; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Virtually all analyses of elderly parent-adult child coresidence have two commonalities: their population base is the elderly and the data are cross-sectional. In contrast, this investigation uses data from the NLS of Mature Woman to analyze the determinants of coresidence. Reports of household composition over four surveys during the years 1979-84 were used to create a binary dependent variable of adult child-parent (or parent-in-law) coresidence. Independent variables, usually based on information in the 1979 survey, included life status of parents and parents-in-law, number of brothers and sisters, marital status, presence of children (of middle-aged respondent), race, cohort, labor force participation of the female respondent, and income. Results of the logistic regression analyses indicate that family of origin and current family characteristics exert substantial effects on the likelihood of coresidence. Black middle-aged women are more likely to share a residence than whites. Surprisingly, neither labor force participation nor income exerted significant net effects. Substantive and methodological implications of the analysis are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "Predictors of the Presence of Parents in Households of Middle-Aged Women." Presented: Acapulco, Mexico, 14th International Congress of Genrontology, 1989.
8. Beck, Scott Herman
Retirement Preparation Programs: Differentials in Opportunity and Use
Journal of Gerontology 39,5 (September 1984): 596-602.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/39/5/596.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Retirement; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Two issues rarely addressed in the retirement planning field are: (1) the proportion of older workers who participate, or have the opportunity to participate, in retirement preparation programs; and (2) socioeconomic differentials in access to such programs. Data from the NLS of Older Men were used to investigate these two issues. The data indicate that fewer than 4 percent of this sample of men aged 60-74 in 1981 had participated in a retirement preparation program. Logistic multiple regression analysis indicated that occupational status, government employment and private pension coverage were positively related to the likelihood of participation as well as the likelihood of opportunity to participate. Conclusions from this analysis are: (1) very few older workers ever participate in retirement preparation programs; and (2) those who would seem to benefit most from preparation programs, low status and low income workers, are the least likely to have access to these programs.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "Retirement Preparation Programs: Differentials in Opportunity and Use." Journal of Gerontology 39,5 (September 1984): 596-602.
9. Beck, Scott Herman
The Role of Other Family Members in Intergenerational Occupational Mobility
Sociological Quarterly 24,2 (Spring 1983): 273-285.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1983.tb00702.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Family, Extended; Fathers, Influence; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Aspirations; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The concept of "occupational origin" has traditionally been measured by father's occupation only, especially in studies of occupational mobility. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the occupations of other family members are additional components of men's occupational origins. Using data from the NLS of Older Men, the traditional father-son mobility table was expanded to include paternal grandfathers' occupations and mothers' occupations. Log-linear analyses of these expanded mobility tables showed that paternal grandfathers' and mothers' occupations have significant associations with sons' occupations, controlling for level of fathers' occupations. The association between grandfathers' and sons' occupations is stronger than that between mothers' and sons' occupations. It was concluded that, while father's occupation is the main component, it does not fully capture the impact of occupational origin. Consequently, intergenerational mobility may be less frequent than is indicated in traditional father-son mobility analyses.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "The Role of Other Family Members in Intergenerational Occupational Mobility." Sociological Quarterly 24,2 (Spring 1983): 273-285.
10. Beck, Scott Herman
Beck, Rubye W.
The Formation of Extended Households During Middle Age
Journal of Marriage and Family 46,2 (May 1984): 277-287.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352459
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Family Formation; Family Structure; Family, Extended; Household Structure; Racial Differences

Data from the 1966 through 1976 National Longitudinal Surveys of middle-aged and older men were used to estimate the proportion of middle-aged couples forming extended households. Results of the combined longitudinal record over 10 years were compared with cross-sectional estimates of extended households based on the 1966 survey. For both blacks and whites, about 7 percent had one or more parents (or parents-in-law) in the household in 1966, compared with about 11 percent over the 10-year period. The proportion of blacks living in three-generation households or with grandchildren or other non-nuclear kin was substantially higher than the proportion of whites. In almost all cases, estimates of extended households made using the longitudinal data were about double those based on cross-sectional data. It is estimated that for the 20-year period of middle age about 25 percent of white couples and over 50 percent of black couples would have formed extended households; these extended households underline the continued existence of strong family networks in modern society. Implications of the findings for research are discussed. [AgeLine]
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman and Rubye W. Beck. "The Formation of Extended Households During Middle Age." Journal of Marriage and Family 46,2 (May 1984): 277-287.
11. Beck, Scott Herman
Cole, Bettie S.
Hammond, Judith A.
Religious Heritage and Premarital Sex: Evidence from a National Sample of Young Adults
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 30,2 (June 1991): 173-180.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/1387211
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Society for the Scientific Study of Religion
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavior; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Religious Influences; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

Previous studies on attitudes or behavior regarding premarital sex of teenagers and young adults have generally found that while measures of religiosity are important, church affiliation has little, if any, impact. However, most of these studies used crude categorizations of affiliation. In this study, a more specific typology of religious organizations is created to assess the impact of religious heritage (parents' religious affiliation), as well as the affiliations of the young respondents, on premarital sexual intercourse. Data from the 1979 and 1983 interviews of the NLSY were used and four subsamples were created: white females, white males, black females and black males. Logistic regression was used to model the effects of religious affiliation contrasts along with control variables on two dichotomous dependent variables, premarital sex and teenage sex. For both white females and white males, a heritage of institutionalized sect membership produced the lowest likelihoods of premarital sex. In certain models for the female and male white samples, Fundamentalists and Baptists also displayed lower probabilities of premarital sex compared to the contrast group of Mainline Protestants. Affiliation differences in premarital sex behavior were muted in the black samples, and among black males there were no significant differences. In special subsamples of white female and male the institutionalized sect group exhibited the lowest probabilities of premarital sex, even when controlling for church attendance. It thus appears that religious heritage is a relevant factor not only in the formation of attitudes regarding sexuality but also in regard to sexual behavior of adolescents and young adults.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman, Bettie S. Cole and Judith A. Hammond. "Religious Heritage and Premarital Sex: Evidence from a National Sample of Young Adults." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 30,2 (June 1991): 173-180.
12. Beck, Scott Herman
Cole, Bettie S.
Hammond, Judith A.
Religious Heritage and Premarital Sex: Evidence from a National Sample of Young Adults
Presented: Washington, DC, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Religious Influences; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A typology of religious organizations is developed to assess the impact of religious heritage (parents' religious affiliation), as well as the affiliations of young respondents, on premarital sexual intercourse, using interview data from 1979 & 1983 national longitudinal surveys on four subsamples: white females & males, & black females & males. Logistic regression was used to model the effects of religious affiliation contrasts along with control variables on two dichotomous dependent variables, premarital sex & teenage sex. For both white females & males, a heritage of institutionalized sect membership (Pentecostals, Mormons, & Jehovah's Witnesses, primarily) produced the lowest likelihoods of premarital sex (adult or teenage). In certain models for the female & male white sample, Fundamentalists & Baptists also displayed lower probabilities of premarital sex compared to the contrast group of mainline Protestants. Affiliation differences in premarital sex behavior were muted in the black samples, & among black males there were no significant differences. In special subsamples of white female & male "teen virgins," the institutionalized sect group exhibited the lowest probabilities of premarital sex, even when controlling for church attendance. It thus appears that religious heritage is a relevant factor not only in the formation of attitudes regarding sexuality but also in regard to sexual behavior. (Copyright 1990, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman, Bettie S. Cole and Judith A. Hammond. "Religious Heritage and Premarital Sex: Evidence from a National Sample of Young Adults." Presented: Washington, DC, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, 1990.
13. Beck, Scott Herman
Page, Joe W.
Involvement in Activities and the Psychological Well-Being of Retired Men
Activities, Adaptation, and Aging 11,1 (1988): 31-47.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J016v11n01_04
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Attitudes; Retirement; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Well-Being

This research represents a partial test of the activity theory of aging. The data used are from the NLS of Older Men and the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale and its subscales of Positive and Negative Affect were employed as dependent variables while participation in ten types of activities were used as the primary independent variables. The central hypothesis that more involvement in activities results in higher levels of psychological well-being was supported in the cases of Positive Affect and Affect Balance. However, involvement in activities exerted trivial effects on Negative Affect and other hypotheses based on activity theory were not supported.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman and Joe W. Page. "Involvement in Activities and the Psychological Well-Being of Retired Men." Activities, Adaptation, and Aging 11,1 (1988): 31-47.
14. Hammond, Judith A.
Cole, Bettie S.
Beck, Scott Herman
Religious Heritage and Teenage Marriage
Review of Religious Research 35,2 (December 1993): 117-134
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Religious Research Association
Keyword(s): Marriage; Racial Differences; Religion; Religious Influences; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Hammond, Judith A., Bettie S. Cole and Scott Herman Beck. "Religious Heritage and Teenage Marriage." Review of Religious Research 35,2 (December 1993): 117-134.