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Author: Berger, Lawrence Marc
Resulting in 29 citations.
1. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Children Living Out of Home: Effects of Family and Environmental Characteristics
Presented: Dallas, TX, 24th Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, November 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childhood Residence; Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Family Structure; Fertility; Modeling, Probit; Parents, Single; Poverty; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large and growing number of children in the U.S. spend some part of their childhood living in households or institutions that do not include their birth parents. These living arrangements may result from parental choice (i.e., voluntary placement of children outside of the home) or from involuntary child removal via government intervention due to parental maltreatment (i.e., abuse or neglect), and may be associated with a wide variety of issues, including: family crises, physical and mental health problems, substance abuse problems, criminal justice involvement, and child abuse and neglect. It is also possible that some children live apart from their birth parents because their parents do not have the resources to care for them at home. Current evidence suggests that the same types of families who are most likely to be involved in the welfare system - poor, single-parent, unemployed, and minority families - are also most likely to have children living out-of-home. Additionally, there is some evidence that welfare benefit levels affect the likelihood that children remain living with their parents. Yet, little economic research has addressed the ways in which family structures and economic resources have impacted whether children grow up in households that do not include at least one biological parent. In order to address this gap, this paper offers a theoretical framework for estimating the effects of income and poverty, family structure, and income support policies on the probabilities that children are living in out-of-home settings. This framework is grounded in economic theory of parental investments in children and intra-family distribution of resources. Its empirical implications are tested using data from the NLSY. The sample consists of 28,143 observations of families with children 18 years old or younger between 1986 and 1998. Probit models are used to estimate the probability that children from both single- and two-parent families are living in child welf are service settings, with relatives, and in any out-of-home care arrangement. Results suggest that lower-income families, as well as single-parent and mother-partner families, are more likely to have a child living out-of-home in a given year. Higher AFDC/TANF benefits are associated with decreases in the probability that a family has a child living in a child welfare service setting, but increases in the probability that a family has a child living with relatives. Additionally, higher foster care payments are associated with increases in children living out-of-home. Public policy implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Children Living Out of Home: Effects of Family and Environmental Characteristics." Presented: Dallas, TX, 24th Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, November 2002.
2. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Children Living Out-of-Home: Effects of Family and Environmental Characteristics
Presented: Washington, DC, Society for Social Work and Research Meetings, January 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childhood Residence; Children, Poverty; Family Resources; Family Structure; Modeling, Probit; Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large and growing number of children in the U.S. spend some part of their childhood living in households or institutions that do not include their birth parents. These living arrangements may result from parental choice or from involuntary child removal due to parental maltreatment. Some children may live apart from their birth parents because their parents do not have the resources to care for them at home. Current evidence suggests that the same types of families who are likely to be involved in the welfare system are also likely to have children living out-of-home. Additionally, there is some evidence that welfare benefit levels affect children's living arrangements.

Yet, little research has addressed the ways in which family structures and economic resources have impacted whether children grow up in households that do not include at least one biological parent. In order to address this gap, this paper offers a theoretical framework for estimating the effects of income and poverty, family structure, and income support policies on children's living arrangements. Its empirical implications are tested using data from the NLSY. The sample consists of 28,143 observations of families with children 18 years old or younger between 1986 and 1998. Probit models are used to estimate the probability that children from both single- and two-parent families are living in various out-of-home care arrangements. Results suggest that lower-income families, as well as single-parent and mother-partner families, are more likely to have a child living out-of-home in a given year. Higher AFDC/TANF benefits are associated with decreases in the probability that a family has a child living in a child welfare service setting, but increases in the probability that a family has a child living with relatives. Additionally, higher foster care payments are associated with increases in children living out-of-home.

Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Children Living Out-of-Home: Effects of Family and Environmental Characteristics." Presented: Washington, DC, Society for Social Work and Research Meetings, January 2003.
3. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Children Living Out-Of-Home: Effects of Family and Environmental Characteristics
Children and Youth Services Review 28,2 (February 2006): 158-179.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740905000824
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Childhood Residence; Family Structure; Foster Care; Geocoded Data; Household Composition; Income; Parents, Single; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Residence; Welfare

This paper uses data from the NLSY to estimate the effects of income, family structure, and public policies on the probability that a mother has children living in various out-of-home settings. Results suggest that lower-income mothers and those living in single-parent and mother–partner families are more likely to have children living out-of-home in a given year than are mothers in higher-income and mother–father families. Higher welfare benefits are associated with decreased probabilities that children are living in service settings, but increased probabilities that they are living with relatives. Higher foster care payments are associated with increased service setting placements. NOTE: This analysis uses the Geocode data.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Children Living Out-Of-Home: Effects of Family and Environmental Characteristics ." Children and Youth Services Review 28,2 (February 2006): 158-179.
4. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Economic Analyses of Child Abuse and Neglect
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2002. DAI-A 63/03, p. 1130, Sep 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Benefits; Childhood Residence; Family Structure; Family Studies; Foster Care; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income; Parents, Single; Poverty; Punishment, Corporal; Social Work; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

Despite firmly established relationships between socioeconomic factors and child maltreatment in the U.S., microeconomic approaches to understanding child abuse and neglect have yet to be developed and researchers have only recently begun to study the effects of various economic policies on child maltreatment rates. This dissertation presents three free-standing papers which offer theoretical and empirical models for better understanding the effects of family structure, income, poverty, and public policies on child maltreatment and children's living arrangements. The first paper estimates the existence and strength of relationships between income, family characteristics, state characteristics, and physical violence toward children using data from the 1985 National Family Violence Survey. Results suggest that, in both single-parent and two-parent families, race/ethnicity, depression, maternal alcohol consumption, and history of family violence affect children's probabilities of being physically abused. Additionally, income is significantly related to violence toward children in single-parent families. The second paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to explore the effects of income and poverty, family structure, and public policies on seven indicators of child maltreatment. Results suggest that these factors differentially affect the outcome measures. Income and poverty impact routine medical and dental care, the quality of the caregiving environment, and spanking behaviors. Single-parent families and families with a biological mother and non-biological father figure are found to have lower quality caregiving environments than mother-father families. This analysis also provides some tentative evidence that higher welfare benefit levels and lower unemployment rates serve as protective factors for children. The third paper uses data from the NLSY to estimate the effects of income and poverty, family structure, and income support polici es on the probabilities that children are living in various out-of-home settings. Results suggest that lower-income, single-parent, and mother-partner families are more likely to have children living out-of-home in a given year. Higher AFDC/TANF benefits are associated with decreases in the probability that a family has a child living in a child welfare service setting, but increases in the probability that a family has a child living with relatives. Higher foster care payments are associated with increases in out-of-home placements.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. Economic Analyses of Child Abuse and Neglect. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2002. DAI-A 63/03, p. 1130, Sep 2002.
5. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Family Resources, Family Structure, Public Policies, and Child Maltreatment Risk: A Longitudinal Analysis
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Health; Children, Health Care; Children, Home Environment; Family Resources; Family Structure; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is limited research on the mechanisms through which poverty and child maltreatment are connected. This paper uses data from the NLSY to estimate the effects of family resources, family structures, and public policies on child maltreatment risk. These relationships are also explored over time using child fixed-effects models. "Maltreatment risk" is operationalized in terms of the adequacy of the child's physical environment, emotional and cognitive support, parental spanking behaviors, and medical care. Preliminary results suggest that income and poverty impact routine medical and dental care, the quality of the caregiving environment, and spanking behaviors. In addition, single-parent families and families with a biological mother and non-biological father figure tend have lower quality caregiving environments than mother-father families, and changes in family structure tend to put children at greater risk of maltreatment. Finally, this analysis provides some evidence that more generous welfare policies may serve as protective factors for children.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Family Resources, Family Structure, Public Policies, and Child Maltreatment Risk: A Longitudinal Analysis." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
6. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Income, Family Structure, and Child Maltreatment Risk
Children and Youth Services Review 26,8 (August 2004): 725-799.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740904000465
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Health; Children, Health Care; Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income; Parents, Single; Punishment, Corporal; Unemployment; Welfare

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the effects of income, family structure, and public policies on several indicators of child maltreatment. Results suggest that income and family structure affect a family's overall risk of child maltreatment, and that these factors differentially affect various outcome measures. In particular, income impacts routine medical and dental care, the quality of the caregiving environment, and to a lesser extent, spanking behaviors. Single-parent families and families with a biological mother and non-biological father figure tend to have lower quality caregiving environments than mother-father families, and single-mother families with working mothers are at even greater risk of poor caregiving. Finally, this analysis provides some tentative evidence that higher welfare benefits and lower unemployment rates may serve as protective factors for children. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Income, Family Structure, and Child Maltreatment Risk." Children and Youth Services Review 26,8 (August 2004): 725-799.
7. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Parental Debt and Child Wellbeing
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Debt/Borrowing; Family Resources; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses an instrumental variables strategy to estimate associations between particular types and amounts of parental debt with child cognitive skills and social-emotional development. The data are drawn from the 1986 through 2011 waves of the mother and child files of the 1979 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which have been linked to a unique dataset of state-by-year consumer financial protection policies. The policy data include information on homestead exemption levels, usury caps/criminal usury laws, payday lending laws, debt collection practices, average housing prices, mortgage interest rates, home foreclosure rates, and college prices, each of which is likely to influence debt accumulation. These data are used to predict household level home mortgage debt, educational debt, and unsecured debt. The predicted debt amounts in each category--which represent exogenous variation in debt due to state and year level differences in consumer financial protection policie--are then used to estimate unbiased effects of debt on child cognitive skills and social--motional development. Cognitive skills are measured by the Peabody Individual Achievement Test. Social-emotional development is measured by the internalizing and externalizing behaviors subscales of the Behavioral Problems Index.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Parental Debt and Child Wellbeing." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
8. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Socioeconomic Factors and Substandard Parenting
Social Service Review 81,3 (September 2007): 485-522.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/520963
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parenthood; Parents, Single; Work Hours

This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the independent and interactive effects of income, family structure, and maternal work on measures of substandard parenting. Results from child fixed-effects analyses suggest that children in mother-partner families are more likely to be exposed to substandard parenting than children in mother-father families. However, income plays a particularly strong protective role in regard to substandard parenting in mother-partner families, such that parenting improves as income rises. Increases in maternal work hours are associated with increases in substandard parenting for children in single-mother families. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Socioeconomic Factors and Substandard Parenting." Social Service Review 81,3 (September 2007): 485-522.
9. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Bzostek, Sharon H.
Young Adults' Roles as Partners and Parents in the Context of Family Complexity
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 654,1 (July 2014): 87-109.
Also: http://ann.sagepub.com/content/654/1/87.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Household Composition; Life Course; Marital Status; Parenthood; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimate the proportions of young men and women who will take on a variety of partner and parent roles by age 30, and describe how these estimates have changed between cohorts. We then draw on identity theory and related theoretical work to consider how the multiple family roles that young adults are likely to occup--both over their life course and at a single point in time--may influence interfamily and intrafamily relationships. Our discussion highlights key implications of identity theory as it relates to family complexity and proposes several hypotheses for future empirical research, such as the greater likelihood of role conflict in families with greater complexity and limited resources. Our analysis suggests that families may be less likely to function--economically and socially--as cohesive units than has been the case in the past and than most existing policies assume.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Sharon H. Bzostek. "Young Adults' Roles as Partners and Parents in the Context of Family Complexity." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 654,1 (July 2014): 87-109.
10. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Cancian, Maria
Maternal Re-Partnering and Non-Resident Father Investments in Children
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Support; Cohabitation; Fathers, Absence; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Parental Investments

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A considerable body of research suggests that paternal re-partnering is associated with decreased non-resident father investments in children. Fewer studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering on non-resident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (cohabitation or marriage formation with a new partner) with non-resident father visitation and child support payment, paying particular attention to the role of residential moves that may accompany new partnerships. Preliminary results from standard regression models with extensive controls, as well as random effects and fixed effects regressions, reveal consistent evidence that maternal re-partnering is associated with decreased father involvement and increased geographic distance between mothers' and fathers' households. We find less consistent evidence of links between maternal re-partnering and formal child support payments. Finally, new partner births are consistently associated with decreased child support payments, but less consistently with father-child contact.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Maria Cancian. "Maternal Re-Partnering and Non-Resident Father Investments in Children." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
11. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Cancian, Maria
Meyer, Daniel R.
Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children
Children and Youth Services Review 34,2 (February 2012): 426-436.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740911004245
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Support; Childhood Residence; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Marital Stability; Parental Investments; Parental Marital Status; Parents, Non-Custodial; Remarriage

Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc, Maria Cancian and Daniel R. Meyer. "Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children." Children and Youth Services Review 34,2 (February 2012): 426-436.
12. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Hill, Jennifer L.
Waldfogel, Jane
Family Leave and Child Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Child Health; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Pre/post Natal Health Care

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While family leave policies have been advocated on the grounds that they allow new mothers to take longer maternity leaves, thus promoting better child outcomes, the empirical evidence on the connection between leave policies, leave-taking, and child outcomes is scarce. In this paper, we utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate both the effect of family leave coverage on leave-taking, and the effect of leave-taking on child outcomes. Our data include detailed measures of family leave coverage, usage, and length of leave, child health and development, and parental behaviors. By shedding light on the pathway from family leave policies to child outcomes, the results prove relevant not only to the literature on the effects of early experiences on child outcomes, but also to the current policy debate about allowing more workers to take leaves and for longer periods of time.

Berger, Hill and Waldfogel (2002) find that family leave coverage is associated with more breast-feeding and that children whose mothers did not have family leave coverage scored lower on tests of their cognitive ability at ages 3 and 4. They also document that women who return to work between 0 and 6 weeks following the birth of a child are less likely to breast-feed, to have taken their child to a well baby visit and to have had their child immunized.

Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc, Jennifer L. Hill and Jane Waldfogel. "Family Leave and Child Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
13. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Hill, Jennifer L.
Waldfogel, Jane
Maternity Leave, Early Maternal Employment and Child Health and Development in the US
Economic Journal 115,501 (February 2005): F29-F47.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0013-0133.2005.00971.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Royal Economic Society (RES)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Breastfeeding; Child Development; Child Health; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Re-employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore links between mothers' returns to work within 12 weeks of giving birth and health and developmental outcomes for their children. OLS models and propensity score matching methods are utilised to account for selection bias. Considerable associations between early returns to work and children's outcomes are found suggesting causal relationships between early returns to work and reductions in breastfeeding and immunisations, as well as increases in externalising behaviour problems. These results are generally stronger for mothers who return to work full-time within 12 weeks of giving birth. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc, Jennifer L. Hill and Jane Waldfogel. "Maternity Leave, Early Maternal Employment and Child Health and Development in the US." Economic Journal 115,501 (February 2005): F29-F47.
14. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Hill, Jennifer L.
Waldfogel, Jane
Parental Leave Policies, Early Maternal Employment, and Child Outcomes in the U.S.
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Breastfeeding; Child Health; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores links between parental leave policies, the length of time mothers remain at home after giving birth, and cognitive, behavioural, and health related outcomes for children. We use state leave laws and unionization rates as instruments to estimate the effect of (instrumented) early maternal employment on a series of child outcomes in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Health related outcomes include whether the child received preventive "well-baby" care and the frequency of that "well-baby" care in the first year of life, whether the child was breast-fed and the duration of breast-feeding in the first year of life, and whether the child was fully immunized by age 18 months. We also examine the effects of (instrumented) early maternal employment on child cognitive and behavioural outcomes assessed at age 3 or 4. Preliminary results suggest that the shortfall in parental leave coverage in the U.S. may affect child well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc, Jennifer L. Hill and Jane Waldfogel. "Parental Leave Policies, Early Maternal Employment, and Child Outcomes in the U.S." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
15. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Houle, Jason N.
Parental Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being
Pediatrics 137,2 (February 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-3059.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/01/20/peds.2015-3059
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Investments; Home Ownership; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Parental Investments; Student Loans

OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations between total amount of parental debt and of home mortgage, student loan, automobile, and unsecured debt with children's socioemotional well-being.

METHODS: We used population-based longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 Cohort and Children of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 Cohort. Our analytic sample consisted of 29,318 child-year observations of 9011 children and their mothers observed annually or biennially from 1986 to 2008. We used the Behavioral Problems Index to measure socioemotional well-being. We used ordinary least squares regressions to estimate between-child associations of amounts and types of parental debt with socioemotional well-being, net of a host of control variables, and regressions with child-specific fixed effects to estimate within-child associations of changes in parental debt with changes in socioemotional well-being, net of all time-constant observed and unobserved confounders.

RESULTS: Greater total debt was associated with poorer child socioemotional well-being. However, this association varied by type of debt. Specifically, higher levels of home mortgage and education debt were associated with greater socioemotional well-being for children, whereas higher levels of and increases in unsecured debt were associated with lower levels of and declines in child socioemotional well-being.

CONCLUSIONS: Debt that allows for investment in homes (and perhaps access to better neighborhoods and schools) and parental education is associated with greater socioemotional well-being for children, whereas unsecured debt is negatively associated with socioemotional development, which may reflect limited financial resources to invest in children and/or parental financial stress. This suggests that debt is not universally harmful for children's well-being, particularly if used to invest in a home or education.

Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jason N. Houle. "Parental Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being." Pediatrics 137,2 (February 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-3059.
16. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Houle, Jason N.
Rising Household Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being Trajectories
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Debt/Borrowing; Social Emotional Development

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Household debt increased dramatically over time, becoming a substantial aspect of family finances. Yet, there has been limited rigorous research on whether particular types and amounts of household debt are associated with child well-being. We use data from NLSY79 and Children of the NLSY79 and Hierarchical Linear Models, which take advantage of both between- and within-individual variation, to estimate associations of amounts and types (home, education, auto, unsecured) of parental debt with child socioemotional well-being, net of a host of selection factors. Results suggest that unsecured debt is associated with growth in child behavior problems over time, whereas this is not the case for other types of debt. We also find some evidence that increased education debt is associated with decreases over time in child behavior problems. Moreover, these associations vary by socioeconomic status with less advantaged groups experiencing larger negative influences of unsecured debt.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jason N. Houle. "Rising Household Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being Trajectories." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
17. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Houle, Jason N.
Rising Household Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being Trajectories
Demography 56,4 (August 2019): 1273-1301.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-019-00800-7
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Debt/Borrowing; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Debt is now a substantial aspect of family finances. Yet, research on how household debt is linked with child development has been limited. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort and hierarchical linear models to estimate associations of amounts and types of parental debt (home, education, auto, unsecured/uncollateralized) with child socioemotional well-being. We find that unsecured debt is associated with growth in child behavior problems, whereas this is not the case for other forms of debt. Moreover, the association of unsecured debt with child behavior problems varies by child age and socioeconomic status, with younger children and children from less-advantaged families experiencing larger associations of unsecured debt with greater behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jason N. Houle. "Rising Household Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being Trajectories." Demography 56,4 (August 2019): 1273-1301.
18. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Langton, Callie
Maternal Re-Partnering and Non-Resident Father Investments in Children
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Society for Social Work and Research 14 Annual Conference, January 2010.
Also: http://sswr.confex.com/sswr/2010/webprogram/Paper12947.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Structure; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Influence; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Leaving; Household Composition; Marital Disruption; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parents, Single; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background and Purpose: Research suggests that paternal re-partnering through marriage or cohabitation is associated with reductions in both the amount of time fathers spend with their non-resident children and the economic support they provide. Whereas the literature on paternal re-partnering and non-resident father investments in children is relatively well developed, few studies have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering on non-resident father investments. This paper examines associations of maternal re-partnering, in the form of new marriages and cohabitations, with changes in non-resident father investments in children vis-à-vis both visitation and formal child support payments.

Methods: We utilize longitudinal data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on approximately 5,500 children who spent some part of their childhood living with a single mother. We focus on 5 measures of father investment: (1) whether the father has seen the child during the past year; (2) how often the father has seen the child during the past year; (3) whether the father pays any (formal) child support; and (4) the amount of child support the father pays. We also investigate whether maternal re-partnering is associated with changes in the geographic distance between fathers' homes and those of their children. Our analytic approach consists of both standard regressions and fixed effects models. The standard regressions (ordinary least squares and logit models) assess whether there are static differences in levels of non-resident father investments in children by whether children's mothers have remarried or formed new cohabiting unions, as opposed to having remained single. The fixed effects models assess the extent to which fathers' investment behaviors change when mothers enter into new partnerships and have the advantage of adjusting for unobserved time invariant child and family characteristics when estimating these associations.

Results: Preliminary results suggest that, on average, children whose mothers have re-partnered spend less time with their biological father and are less likely to see their biological father over the course of a year than are children living with a single-mother who has not re-partnered. Fixed effects results also reveal that both the likelihood that a non-resident father has seen his child in the past year and the number of times the father has seen the child decrease after a mother re-partners. In addition, we find that the geographic distance between fathers' homes and those of their children increases when mothers re-partner and that this is only partially explained by residential moves on the part of the mother; non-resident fathers are also more likely to move away from their children after a maternal re-partnership. Yet, we find little evidence of associations between maternal re-partnering and child support payments.

Conclusions: Given that a sizeable proportion of children will experience maternal re-partnering, coupled with evidence that non-resident father involvement may positively influence children's wellbeing, it is crucial to understand how maternal re-partnering affects non-resident fathers' investments in children. Implications of this research for public policies regarding marriage and family formation, as well as for designing programs to promote child wellbeing in complex families, are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Callie Langton. "Maternal Re-Partnering and Non-Resident Father Investments in Children." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Society for Social Work and Research 14 Annual Conference, January 2010.
19. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Magnuson, Katherine A.
Family Structure Transitions and Children's Wellbeing During Middle Childhood
Presented: Washington, DC, Meetings of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR): Research That Matters, January 17-20, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Household Composition; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: About half of all children under 18 will spend time in a single-parent family and approximately one third will spend time in a step-family. Adverse associations between these family structures and child wellbeing are well documented. However, pathways to non-traditional family structures are diverse and include both births into non-traditional families and transitions into (or between) these family types. Most prior research has focused on associations between family structure states and children's development and wellbeing. Yet, it is likely that family structure transitions, in and of themselves, may account for some portion of these associations given that such transitions may be disruptive and destabilizing, thereby necessitating considerable reorganization of family roles and creating multiple stresses. Children's responses to these stresses may, at least in part, depend upon the developmental stage at which they occur, as well as the quality of caregiving to which children have previously been exposed. A considerable number of studies have explored these associations for older children and adolescents; few have examined these relations for younger children. Furthermore, existing research provides little insight as to whether the quality of early caregiving experiences may moderate these associations in middle childhood.

Methods: We use longitudinal data on about 3,700 children age 5 to 12 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) to examine associations of family structure states and transitions with children's achievement (PIAT math and reading tests) and behavior (Behavior Problems Index) trajectories. We consider whether these associations vary by children's ages, as well as the quality of their home environments in early childhood. We also assess whether they are transitory or persist over time. An important methodological concern is that families that transition may be different from those who do not in multiple ways, and that these differences may, in part, explain differences children's achievement and behavior. Consequently, it is important to use analytic approaches which reduce the likelihood of selection bias. Because the HLM identifies the effects of family structure transitions on changes in achievement and behavior, this method reduces bias from unobserved persistent child and family characteristics.

Results: Results suggest that both residing in and transitioning to a single-mother family during middle childhood is associated with small increases in behavior problems. These associations are stronger for children who experienced higher quality home environments in early childhood. Transitions into as well as stable residence in step families are less consistently associated with child behavior, although we find some evidence that residence in a step family may be associated with small short-term increases in behavior problems. We find little consistent evidence linking any types of family structure transitions or states to children's achievement during middle childhood.

Implications: As a sizeable proportion of children experience family structure transitions, it is crucial to understand how these changes affect their achievement and behavior. Implications of this research for public policies regarding marriage and family formation, as well as for designing programs to promote child wellbeing in complex families, are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Katherine A. Magnuson. "Family Structure Transitions and Children's Wellbeing During Middle Childhood." Presented: Washington, DC, Meetings of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR): Research That Matters, January 17-20, 2008.
20. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Waldfogel, Jane
Determinants of Out-of-Home Living Arrangements for Children: To What Extent Do Family Resources, Family Structures, and Public Policies Make a Difference?
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Family Structure; Foster Care; Parents, Single; Residence; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large and growing number of children in the U.S. spend some part of their childhood in living arrangements that do not include their birth parents. This paper uses data from the NLSY to estimate the effects of income and poverty, family structure, and income support policies on the probabilities that children are living in various out-of-home settings. Results suggest that lower-income, single-parent, and mother-partner families are more likely to have children living out-of-home in a given year. Higher AFDC/TANF benefits are associated with decreases in the probability that a family has a child living in a child welfare service setting, but increases in the probability that a family has a child living with relatives. Higher foster care payments are associated with increases in out-of-home placements. This research holds implications for predicting the ways in which changes in policies that affect family resources and structures may influence childrens living arrangements.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jane Waldfogel. "Determinants of Out-of-Home Living Arrangements for Children: To What Extent Do Family Resources, Family Structures, and Public Policies Make a Difference?" Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
21. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Waldfogel, Jane
Maternity Leave and the Employment of New Mothers in the United States
Journal of Population Economics 17,2 (June 2004): 331-350.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0qu7lhrhngplmlpy/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment; Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA); Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the relationships between maternity leave coverage and U.S. women's post-birth leave taking and employment decisions from 1988 to 1996. We find that women who were employed before birth are working much more quickly post-birth than women who were not. We also find that, among mothers who were employed pre-birth, those in jobs that provided leave coverage are more likely to take a leave of up to 12 weeks, but return more quickly after 12 weeks. Our results suggest that maternity leave coverage is related to leave taking, as well as the length of time that a new mother stays home after a birth. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jane Waldfogel. "Maternity Leave and the Employment of New Mothers in the United States." Journal of Population Economics 17,2 (June 2004): 331-350.
22. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Waldfogel, Jane
Out-of-Home Placement of Children and Economic Factors: An Empirical Analysis
Review of Economics of the Household 2,4 (December 2004): 387-411.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/r0267143242p8411/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Childhood Residence; Cohabitation; Event History; Family Structure; Foster Care; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Residence; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate the effects of income, maternal employment, family structure, and public policies on several measures of children's living arrangements. We use both linear probability models and discrete-time event history models to explore the effects of these factors on: (1) the probability that a child is living out-of-home in a given year; (2) the probability that a child is removed from home in a given year, conditional on the child living at home in the previous year; (3) the probability that a child is removed from home for the first time; (4) the probability that a child is reunified with his/her biological parent(s) given that the child was living out-of-home in the previous year. We also analyze whether these estimates differ by types of out-of-home placements. Our results suggest that children from lower-income, single-mother, and mother-partner families are considerably more likely both to be living out-of-home and to be removed from home. A change in family structure also tends to place a child at higher risk of an out-of-home living arrangement, unless this transition functions to bring a child's father back into the household. Maternal work appears to increase the probability that a child lives at home. Additionally, once a removal has taken place, we do not find a relationship between income and the probability of a family reunification, but we do find that single-mother and mother-partner families are less likely to reunify. Finally, our analyses provide some evidence that welfare benefit levels are negatively related to out-of-home placements. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
...We use data from the Geographic Micro-Data and Child and Young Adult files of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We begin with all children who were observed at any point from 1984 through 2000.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jane Waldfogel. "Out-of-Home Placement of Children and Economic Factors: An Empirical Analysis." Review of Economics of the Household 2,4 (December 2004): 387-411.
23. Curtis, Marah A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Houle, Jason N.
Housing Tenure, Stability and Children's Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children; Children, Well-Being; Home Ownership; Mobility, Residential; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A small body of research finds that the children of owners, compared to renters, are less likely to experience negative outcomes such as school dropout or teen parenthood. This line of research, however, has not yet identified what it is about homeownership that seems to be good for children. Since the costs of moving are much lower for renters than owners, renters move more frequently. Stability, then, is likely particularly important for child outcomes regardless of tenure, but may also account for differences in child well-being between owners and renters. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM), we estimate the effects of stable housing tenure (owning or renting) and exits from either arrangement on changes in children’s achievement (math and reading tests) and problem behavior (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). We consider whether the effects of stable tenure and exits vary by children’s ages and assess whether these effects are transitory or persist over time. We expect that the age of the child is particularly consequential given the marked changes occurring in child development and parental oversight between the ages of 5 and 17. Younger children spend more supervised time in the home, suggesting that the stability of that arrangement rather than the tenure status might be most important, however, older children with more extensive peer networks and active use of public goods may be impacted by tenure if that status is associated with higher quality schools and other public goods.
Bibliography Citation
Curtis, Marah A., Lawrence Marc Berger and Jason N. Houle. "Housing Tenure, Stability and Children's Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
24. Houle, Jason N.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Children with Disabilities and Trajectories of Parents' Unsecured Debt Across the Life Course
Social Science Research 64 (May 2017): 184-196.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X15301964
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Health, Limiting Condition(s); Debt/Borrowing; Disability; Life Course; Parenthood

Prior research shows that having a child with a disability is economically burdensome for parents but we know little about whether this burden extends to unsecured debt. In this study, we examine the link between having a child with a disability that manifests between birth and age 4 and subsequent trajectories in unsecured household debt. We have three key findings. First, we find that having a child with an early-life disabling health condition is associated with a substantial increase in indebtedness in the years immediately following the child's birth, and that this association persists net of a range of potential confounders. Second, we find that parents do not quickly repay this debt, such that parents of a child with a disabling health condition have different trajectories of unsecured debt across the life course than do parents of children without a disabling health condition. Third, we find that the association between early-life child disability and debt is stronger for more severe conditions, such as those that require ongoing medical treatment. The results of this study are informative for understanding an important aspect of economic functioning--indebtedness--for parents of children with disabilities, as well as the causes and correlates of rising unsecured debt in the U.S.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Children with Disabilities and Trajectories of Parents' Unsecured Debt Across the Life Course." Social Science Research 64 (May 2017): 184-196.
25. Houle, Jason N.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Is Student Loan Debt Discouraging Home Buying Among Young Adults?
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Cost; Debt/Borrowing; Home Ownership; Racial Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Scholars, policy makers, and journalists have long speculated that the rise of student loan debt may lead to a range of negative outcomes among the recent generations of young adults. Most recently, many have suggested that student loan debt is holding back the housing market recovery, and that high debt burdens are leading young adults to leave the housing market, en masse. But despite these strong claims, there is very little empirical evidence on this topic. In this study, we use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 cohort and ask how student loan debt accumulation is associated with home ownership outcomes (1) owning a home; 2) having a mortgage; 3) amount of mortgage debt among homeowners) in the current generation of young adults. In addition, given large racial and socioeconomic disparities in home ownership and student loan debt, we also examine whether the association between student loan debt and homeownership outcomes differs across racial and socioeconomic groups. We use a variety of methodological techniques; including OLS and 2-stage least squares instrumental variables, and find limited evidence that student loan debt is reducing home ownership among young adults. Although we find a significant association between debt and home-ownership, the association is substantively modest in size, suggesting that student loan debt is not a drag on the housing market. However, we find important race differences in the association between debt and homeownership, such that the effect of student loan debt on ownership outcomes is stronger for blacks than whites.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Is Student Loan Debt Discouraging Home Buying Among Young Adults?" Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
26. Houle, Jason N.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Student Loan Debt and Home Buying: Are Student Loans Replacing Home Mortgages Among Young Adults?
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): College Cost; College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Assistance; Home Ownership; Propensity Scores; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The rise in student loan debt over the past decade has raised questions about its potential impact on the economic well-being of young adults. Educational loans are a unique resource for those pursuing postsecondary education. On the one hand, debt is a borrowed resource that young adults can use to bridge the gap between their own and their family’s resources and the rising costs of college. On the other hand, debt comes with inherent risks, and some scholars have argued that high payment burdens may limit students’ opportunities and choices after college. Moreover, unlike other types of debt, student loan debt cannot be erased by filing bankruptcy, and there are often heavy financial penalties for missing loan payments. But despite rising concern about debt, little is known about the impact of student loan debt on longer term wealth acquisition and inequalities therein. We begin to address this question by examining the association of student loan debt burden and first time home buying. We also ask whether racial and socioeconomic disparities in student loan debt may be associated with inequality in home ownership among young adults.

To address these questions we use data from 4800 young adults who engaged in any postsecondary education in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY-97). Student loan debt is observed in the age 25 debts and assets module, and home ownership is observed at each survey wave. We first describe differences in student loan debt burden (e.g. student loan debt to income ratio; expected student loan payment to income ratios) and the probability of home ownership at age 25. We then examine the association of student loan debt at age 25 with the probability of home ownership over the next ten years, adjusting for a wide range of sociodemographic characteristics, and other forms of debt (e.g. credit card debt, other consumer debt). We use propensity score weighting to further adjust for selection into debt. We also take advantage of exogenous variation in institutional and state higher education costs (e.g. sticker price; net price) and financial aid generosity to instrument the effect of student loan debt on home ownership. Finally, among those who own homes at baseline when student loan debt is measured, we examine whether student loan debt is associated with the probability of home ownership exit in the next ten years. In all of these analyses we examine heterogeneity in the association of student loan debt and home ownership by race, socioeconomic status, and degree attainment (e.g. 2 year degree, 4 year degree, no degree).

Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Student Loan Debt and Home Buying: Are Student Loans Replacing Home Mortgages Among Young Adults?." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
27. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Associations of Family Structure States and Transitions During Middle Childhood
Working Paper No. 07-15, National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, June 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Poverty Center
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Household Composition; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Hierarchical Linear Models (i.e., multilevel models), we estimate associations of family structure states and transitions with children's achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. We consider whether these associations vary by children's ages, as well as the quality of their home environments in early childhood. Results suggest that both residing in and transitioning to a single-mother family during middle childhood is associated with small increases in behavior problems. These associations are stronger for children who experienced higher quality home environments in early childhood. Results for transitions to and residence in step families are less consistent, although we find some evidence that residence in a step family may be associated with small short-term increases in behavior problems. We find little consistent evidence linking any types of family structure states or transitions to children's achievement during middle childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Associations of Family Structure States and Transitions During Middle Childhood." Working Paper No. 07-15, National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, June 2007.
28. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Family Structure States and Transitions: Associations with Children's Well-Being During Middle Childhood.
Journal of Marriage and Family 71,3 (August 2009): 575-591.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00620.x/pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Family Structure; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Using longitudinal data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth ( N = 3,862) and Hierarchical Linear Models, we estimated associations of family structure states and transitions with children's achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. Results suggest that residing in a single-mother family was associated with small increases in behavior problems and decreases in achievement and that residing in a social-father family was associated with small increases in behavior problems. Family structure transitions, in general, were associated with increases in behavior problems and marginally associated with decreases in achievement. Transitioning to a single-mother family was associated with increases in behavior problems, whereas transitioning to a social-father family was associated with decreases in reading achievement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Family Structure States and Transitions: Associations with Children's Well-Being During Middle Childhood." Journal of Marriage and Family 71,3 (August 2009): 575-591.
29. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Transitions in Family Structure and Children's Wellbeing
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71620
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Family Structure; Household Composition; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Modeling; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Stepfamilies; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A considerable body of research explores associations between marital dissolution, single-parent family structure, and child wellbeing. Although about 30 percent of children will spend some time in stepfamilies, the effects of maternal re-partnering on children's wellbeing have received much less scrutiny. We use longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Hierarchical Linear Models (multilevel models) to estimate the effects of family structure transitions, with a specific focus on maternal re-partnering, on children's achievement and behavior trajectories. We consider whether these effects vary by children's ages and assess whether they are transitory or persist over time. Moreover, we focus on whether there are differences in these effects when maternal 're-partnerings' constitute cohabitations or marriages, as well as whether they differ by maternal education level. This research has implications for policies and programs regarding marriage and family formation and those that promote child wellbeing for children in complex families.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Transitions in Family Structure and Children's Wellbeing." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.