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Author: Greenwell, Lisa
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Greenwell, Lisa
Early Determinants of Heterogeneity and Work Commitment Among Women Near the Time of Childbirth
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; First Birth; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Minorities; Minority Groups; Parents, Single; Unemployment; Welfare; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

People with unstable labor force participation are often assumed to be weakly committed to work. Such assumptions have been made of women, and of minority groups who have high rates of unemployment. There is particular concern with potential "cultures of dependence," through which intergenerational transmission of attitudes is thought to affect subsequent work behavior, particularly among single welfare mothers with children. Research necessary to address the "culture of dependence" hypothesis remains inconclusive about the relations between work commitment attitudes and subsequent work behavior. This is partly because determinants of work commitment and work behavior have not been examined independently of life-cycle changes. Therefore, this paper examines early determinants of work in a particular life-cycle stage-one year following first childbirth, when working is likely to be especially difficult for women. With an extract of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) containing data on women who had a first birth between 1980 and 1986, logit regression is used to determine how labor force participation a year after the first birth is related to: 1) work commitment (measured between the ages of 14 and 22); 2) family and local context characteristics that have been hypothesized to affect work commitment (e.g., whether the mother worked, whether the young woman lived in a single-parent household, whether the family received welfare, unemployment rates in the county where the young woman grew up); 3) other characteristics, such as region of residence and personal characteristics, including self-esteem. The paper also estimates how measures of work commitment relate to background and area-level characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Greenwell, Lisa. "Early Determinants of Heterogeneity and Work Commitment Among Women Near the Time of Childbirth." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
2. Greenwell, Lisa
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Do Women's Early Work Commitment and Welfare Attitudes Predict Employment After Childbirth?
Working Paper DRU-427-1-NICHD, Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 1994.
Also: http://www.rand.org/labor/dru_archive.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Employment; Family Background; Fertility; First Birth; Maternal Employment; Self-Esteem; Welfare; Work Attitudes

In this study, the authors investigate women's work commitment and welfare attitudes in adolescence, and how these relate to women's employment status a year after their first childbirth. The authors find that willingness to combine family and work, rather than simply a desire to work, predicts employment a year after first childbirth, net of background and social psychological characteristics. Though women with welfare backgrounds are less likely to be subsequently employed, women's welfare attitudes are unrelated to their subsequent employment. These findings suggest that women's willingness to use welfare is compatible with work commitment, and with employment while an infant is present.
Bibliography Citation
Greenwell, Lisa, Arleen A. Leibowitz and Jacob Alex Klerman. "Do Women's Early Work Commitment and Welfare Attitudes Predict Employment After Childbirth?" Working Paper DRU-427-1-NICHD, Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 1994.
3. Greenwell, Lisa
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Welfare Background, Attitudes, and Employment Among New Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 60,1 (February 1998): 175-193.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353450
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Attitudes; First Birth; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Logit; Self-Esteem; Sex Roles; Welfare

This article investigates whether new mothers' chances of being employed appear to be influenced by an intergenerationally transmitted welfare culture. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are analyzed using logit and ordinary least squares regression. The findings show that, as adolescents, new mothers with welfare backgrounds were more willing than others to use welfare but were no less likely to have positive attitudes toward work. Adolescents' work attitudes influence their chances of being employed when they are new mothers, but adolescents' welfare attitudes do not. These results suggest that new mothers' chances of being employed be not influenced by an intergenerationally transmitted welfare culture.

Also available as a RAND reprint, RP-738, http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/e-getabbydoc.pl?RP-738

Bibliography Citation
Greenwell, Lisa, Arleen A. Leibowitz and Jacob Alex Klerman. "Welfare Background, Attitudes, and Employment Among New Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 60,1 (February 1998): 175-193.