Search Results

Author: Pollack, Harold
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Levine, Judith A.
Emery, Clifton R.
Pollack, Harold
The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,1 (February 2007): 105-122.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00348.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Age at First Intercourse; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Behavioral Development; Drug Use; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Progress; Substance Use

Children born to early child bearers are more likely than other children to display problem behaviors or poor academic performance, but it is unclear whether early childbearing plays a causal role in these outcomes. Using multiple techniques to control for background factors, we analyze 2,908 young children and 1,736 adolescents and young adults in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults (CNLSY79) data sets to examine whether early childbearing causes children's outcomes. We find evidence that teen childbearing plays no causal role in children's test scores and in some behavioral outcomes of adolescents. For other behavioral outcomes, we find that different methodologies produce differing results. We thus suggest caution in drawing conclusions about early parenthood's overarching effect.
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Judith A., Clifton R. Emery and Harold Pollack. "The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,1 (February 2007): 105-122.
2. Levine, Judith A.
Emery, Clifton R.
Pollack, Harold
The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Multiple Approaches to Assessing the Causal Links
Presented: Miami, FL, Society for Social Work Research 9th Annual Meeting, 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Behavioral Problems; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Kinship; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; School Progress; Sexual Activity; Substance Use; Truancy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children born to early-childbearers display high prevalence of problem behaviors and poor academic performance. Previous research indicates that many adverse outcomes stem from poverty or other risk-factors, not from early childbearing per se. This paper uses linked maternal-child data from the 1979-98 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore these questions in greater depth. Using the large sample size made possible through an expanded adolescent sample, we use three types of analyses to explore the causal impact of early-childbearing on subsequent child and adolescent outcomes. First, we run models using a variety of explicit controls for background factors. Second, we use a fixed-effect, cousin-comparison analysis to control for unobserved family characteristics that may influence child outcomes. Third, we examine outcomes among children born to women who had miscarriages during their teen years. Because teenagers who have miscarriages are in some ways similar to teens who carry infants to live birth, miscarriage data allows us to further scrutinize whether delayed childbearing is associated with improved outcomes.

In all analyses, we find that teen childbearing plays only a small, if any, causal role in children's performance on standardized tests, reported use of marijuana, or fighting. Pre-birth characteristics of teen mothers, birth order, and family size are more important factors in determining this set of outcomes. For other outcomes, namely grade repetition, early sexual initiation, and truancy, the fixed effects and miscarriage analyses produce differing results. Teen childbearing has no sizeable or statistically significant results for any of our outcomes in the miscarriage analysis. However, the fixed effects results suggest teen childbearing is associated with grade retention in school, school truancy, and possibly with early initiation of sexual activity. We interpret these differing results to suggest that teen mothers share more in common with other young women who conceive, but due to miscarriage, do not carry their pregnancies to term than they do with their own siblings who delay childbearing. It is these commonalities that appear to drive the zero-order association between early fertility and several negative behavioral consequences for off-spring.

Bibliography Citation
Levine, Judith A., Clifton R. Emery and Harold Pollack. "The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Multiple Approaches to Assessing the Causal Links." Presented: Miami, FL, Society for Social Work Research 9th Annual Meeting, 2004.
3. Levine, Judith A.
Pollack, Harold
The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Multiple Approaches to Assessing the Causal Links
Working Paper 288, Joint Center for Poverty Research, April 2002.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/levine_pollack.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Behavioral Problems; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Sexual Activity; Substance Use; Truancy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children born to early-childbearers display high prevalence of problem behaviors and poor academic performance. Previous research indicates that many adverse outcomes stem from poverty or other risk-factors, not from early childbearing per se. This paper uses linked maternal-child data from the 1979-98 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore these questions in greater depth.

Using the large sample size made possible through an expanded adolescent sample, we use two econometric techniques to explore the causal impact of early-childbearing on subsequent child and adolescent outcomes. First, we use a fixed-effect, cousin-comparison analysis to control for unobserved family characteristics that may influence child outcomes. Second, we examine outcomes among children born to women who had miscarriages during their teen years. Because teenagers who have miscarriages are in some ways similar to teens who carry infants to live birth, miscarriage data allows us to further scrutinize whether delayed childbearing is associated with improved outcomes.

In both analyses, we find that teen childbearing plays only a small, if any, causal role in children?s performance on standardized tests, reported use of marijuana, or fighting. Pre-birth characteristics of teen mothers, birth order, and family size are more important factors in determining this set of outcomes. For other outcomes, namely grade repetition, early sexual initiation, and truancy, the fixed effects and miscarriage analyses produce differing results. Teen childbearing has no sizeable or statistically significant results for any of our outcomes in the miscarriage analysis. However, the fixed effects results suggest teen childbearing is associated with grade retention in school, school truancy, and possibly with early initiation of sexual activity. We interpret these differing results to suggest that teen mothers share more in common with other young women who conceive, but due to miscarriage, do not carry their pregnancies to term than they do with their own siblings who delay childbearing. It is these commonalities that appear to drive the zero-order association between early fertility and several negative behavioral consequences for off-spring. In the paper, we discuss the implications of these findings and possible social policy responses to adolescent parenthood.

Bibliography Citation
Levine, Judith A. and Harold Pollack. "The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Multiple Approaches to Assessing the Causal Links." Working Paper 288, Joint Center for Poverty Research, April 2002.
4. Levine, Judith A.
Pollack, Harold
Comfort, Maureen E.
Academic and Behavioral Outcomes Among the Children of Young Mothers
JCPR Working Paper 193, Joint Center for Poverty Research, June 2000.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/levine_pollack_comfort.PDF
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Childbearing; Children, Well-Being; Family Background; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Truancy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was originally presented as the Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000, in Los Angeles, CA.

In this paper, we use newly available data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate the effects of early motherhood on academic and behavioral outcomes for children born to early childbearers. We find that early motherhood's strong negative correlation with children's test scores and positive correlation with children's grade repetition is almost entirely explained by pre-birth individual and family background factors of teen mothers themselves. However, early childbearing is associated indirectly with reduced children's test scores through its linkage to family size (and thus to child birth order). We find a different pattern in predicting fighting, truancy, early sexual activity, and other problem behaviors among adolescent and young adult off-spring. For these behaviors, maternal age-at-first-birth remains an important risk-factor even after controlling for a wide range of background factors and maternal characteristics. These results highlight the diverse pathways through which teen parenting might influence subsequent child well-being and social performance.

Bibliography Citation
Levine, Judith A., Harold Pollack and Maureen E. Comfort. "Academic and Behavioral Outcomes Among the Children of Young Mothers." JCPR Working Paper 193, Joint Center for Poverty Research, June 2000.
5. Levine, Judith A.
Pollack, Harold
Comfort, Maureen E.
Academic and Behavioral Outcomes Among the Children of Young Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 63,2 (May 2001): 355-369.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00355.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Childbearing; Children, Well-Being; Family Background; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Truancy

In this article, we use newly available data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate the effects of early motherhood on academic and behavioral outcomes for children born to early childbearers. We find that early motherhood's strong negative correlation with children's test scores and positive correlation with children's grade repetition is almost entirely explained by pre-birth individual and family background factors of teen mothers themselves. However, early childbearing is associated indirectly with reduced children's test scores through its linkage to family size (and thus to child birth order). We find a different pattern in predicting fighting, truancy, early sexual activity, and other problem behaviors among adolescent and young adult off-spring. For these behaviors, maternal age-at-first-birth remains an important risk-factor even after controlling for a wide range of background factors and maternal characteristics. These results highlight the diverse pathways through which teen parenting might influence subsequent child well-being and social performance.
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Judith A., Harold Pollack and Maureen E. Comfort. "Academic and Behavioral Outcomes Among the Children of Young Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 63,2 (May 2001): 355-369.
6. Pollack, Harold
Where Should Teen Mothers Live? What Should We Do About It?
In: Race, Poverty and Domestic Policy. C. Michael Henry, ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004: pp. 509-564
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Yale University Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childhood Residence; Children, Academic Development; Children, Adjustment Problems; Cohabitation; Mothers, Education; Residence; School Progress; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Blurb Review
What explains the continuing hardship of so many black Americans? A distinguished group of scholars analyzes the long, complex structural and environmental causes of discrimination and their effects on African-Americans. The authors examine the impact of poverty, poor health, poor schools, poor housing, poor neighborhoods, and few job opportunities—and demonstrate how multiple causes reinforce each other and condemn African-Americans to positions of inferiority and poverty.

Some of the contributors examine policies designed to correct problems, while others look at the changing racial and ethnic composition in America and its implications for African-Americans, as other minorities surpass them in numbers and claim political, economic, and social attention. The late James Tobin has contributed a foreword to this important collection.

Bibliography Citation
Pollack, Harold. "Where Should Teen Mothers Live? What Should We Do About It?" In: Race, Poverty and Domestic Policy. C. Michael Henry, ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004: pp. 509-564
7. Pollack, Harold
Levine, Judith A.
Comfort, Maureen E.
How Do the Adolescent Children of Adolescent Mothers Behave?
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Mothers, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Pollack, Harold, Judith A. Levine and Maureen E. Comfort. "How Do the Adolescent Children of Adolescent Mothers Behave?" Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 2001.
8. Strauss, Richard S.
Pollack, Harold
Epidemic Increase in Childhood Overweight, 1986-1998
Journal of the American Medical Association 286,22 (December 2001): 2845-2848.
Also: http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/286/22/2845.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Income; Obesity; Racial Differences; Regions; Residence; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Overweight is the most common health problem facing US children. Data for adults suggest that overweight prevalence has increased by more than 50% in the last 10 years. Data for children also suggest that the prevalence of overweight continues to increase rapidly.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate recent changes in the prevalence of overweight within a nationally representative sample of children.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective cohort study conducted from 1986 to 1998 among 8270 children aged 4 to 12 years (24 174 growth points were analyzed).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of overweight children, defined as body mass index (BMI) greater than the 95th percentile for age and sex, and prevalence of overweight and at-risk children, defined as BMI greater than the 85th percentile for age and sex. The roles of race/ethnicity, sex, income, and region of residence were also examined.

RESULTS: Between 1986 and 1998, overweight increased significantly and steadily among African American (P<.001), Hispanic (P<.001), and white (P =.03) children. By 1998, overweight prevalence increased to 21.5% among African Americans, 21.8% among Hispanics, and 12.3% among non-Hispanic whites. In addition, overweight children were heavier in 1998 compared with 1986 (P<.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, overweight increased fastest among minorities and southerners, creating large demographic differences in the prevalence of childhood overweight by 1998. The number of children with BMI greater than the 85th percentile increased significantly from 1986 to 1998 among African American and Hispanic children (P<.001 for both) and nonsignificantly among white children (P =.77).

CONCLUSIONS: Childhood overweight continues to increase rapidly in the United States, particularly among African Americans and Hispanics. Culturally competent treatment strategies as well as other policy interventions are required to increase physical activity and encourage healthy eating patterns among children.

Bibliography Citation
Strauss, Richard S. and Harold Pollack. "Epidemic Increase in Childhood Overweight, 1986-1998." Journal of the American Medical Association 286,22 (December 2001): 2845-2848.