Search Results

Author: Han, Wen-Jui
Resulting in 25 citations.
1. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care
Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1052-1072.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.00457/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Care; Cognitive Development; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Parenting Skills/Styles

With increased numbers of women employed in their children's first year of life and with increased attention being paid by parents and policy makers to the importance of early experiences for children, establishing the links that might exist between early maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes is more important than ever. Negative associations between maternal employment during the first year of life and children's cognitive outcomes at age 3 (and later ages) have been reported using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement. However, it was not known whether these findings would be replicated in another study, nor whether these results were due to features of child care (e.g., quality, type), home environment (e.g., provision of learning), and/or parenting (e.g., sensitivity). This study explored these issues using data on 900 European American children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, which provides information on child cognitive scores at 15, 24, and 36 months, as well as data about the home environment (as assessed by the Home Observation of the Measurement of the Environment Scale), parental sensitivity, and child-care quality and type over the first 3 years of life. Maternal employment by the ninth month was found to be linked to lower Bracken School Readiness scores at 36 months, with the effects more pronounced when mothers were working 30 hr or more per week and with effects more pronounced for certain subgroups (i.e., children whose mothers were not sensitive, boys, and children with married parents). Although quality of child care, home environment, and maternal sensitivity also mattered, the negative effects of working 30 hr or more per week in the first 9 months were still found, even when controlling for child-care quality, the quality of the home environment, and maternal sensitivity. Implications for policy are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Wen-Jui Han and Jane Waldfogel. "Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care." Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1052-1072.
2. Fuligni, Allison Sidle
Han, Wen-Jui
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Infant-Toddler HOME in the 2nd and 3rd Years of Life
Parenting: Science and Practice 4, 2-3 (April-September 2004): 139-159.
Also: http://www.parentingscienceandpractice.com/Past_Contents/V4_2_3/v4_2_3.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Infants; Parenting Skills/Styles; Preschool Children

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Fuligni, Allison Sidle, Wen-Jui Han and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Infant-Toddler HOME in the 2nd and 3rd Years of Life." Parenting: Science and Practice 4, 2-3 (April-September 2004): 139-159.
3. Han, Wen-Jui
Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Behavioral Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Meetings of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR): Research That Matters, January 17-20, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Maternal Employment; Shift Workers; Welfare; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose. A 24-7 economy has increasingly become the norm in our daily lives, and to provide the conveniences of this economy an increasing proportion of the workforce is composed of nonstandard hours -- hours that are not between 6 A.M. and 6 P.M.. Those who are African American, low-educated, and/or low-skilled are disproportionately more likely to work at nonstandard hours. Moreover, families with young children (under age 6) are also more likely to work at nonstandard hours. Empirical studies have shown the potential negative effects of working nonstandard schedules on adults' psychological, physical, and sociological well-being. These findings raise concerns about the potential impact – direct or indirect – of parents' nonstandard work schedules on their children's well-being. We know little, however, about the relationship between parental nonstandard work schedules and child development. This paper explores the relationship between maternal work schedules and child behavioral outcomes for children age 4 to 10. Special attention was also given to subgroups of children (e.g., family type, welfare status, mother's occupation, and work hours) and the patterns of parental work schedules.

Methods. Using a large contemporary data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), 1,972 children were followed since birth until age 10. The sample consists of all the children in the NLSY-CS whose mothers had ever worked since the time of the child's birth and who can be followed longitudinally to age 10, with no missing data for any of the outcome variables. Of this sample, 51% are non-Hispanic white, 29% are non-Hispanic African American, and 20% are Hispanic. Children's behavioral problems were measured by using the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI). Two empirical approaches were use to account for selection bias and omitted variables in estimating the effects of maternal employment, one is an extensive set of child, mother, and family characteristics controlled for in the model, and the other is the use of ordinary least square, random-effect, and child fixed-effect models.

Results. Regression results suggest that maternal nonstandard work schedules may contribute to more behavior problems. The strongest effect of maternal nonstandard work schedules were found for children who live in single-mother or welfare families, whose mothers work in cashier or service occupations, and whose mothers working at nonstandard hours for full-time.

Conclusions and Implications. Family type, welfare status, mother's occupation, and the patterns of parental work schedules and work hours make a substantial difference in the links between children's behavioral problems and maternal nonstandard work schedules. Evidence provided in this paper has implications for practitioners identify the potential needs of young children with working mothers, especially those of single mothers influenced by the strict working requirement due to welfare reform. For example, we need to better understand the consequences that maternal work schedules have for children when that employment is undertaken "involuntarily," whether it is because of a spouse's unemployment, restrictions in welfare benefits, or other factors that might push women to work nonstandard hours that they might not have otherwise chosen.

Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui. "Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Behavioral Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Meetings of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR): Research That Matters, January 17-20, 2008.
4. Han, Wen-Jui
Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, October 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Shift Workers; Welfare; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past three decades, scholar Harriet Presser has documented the increasing number of people working at hours that are not between 6 am and 6 pm (e.g., they work at nonstandard schedules that are either evenings, nights, or rotating shifts). Numerous empirical studies have acknowledged the potential negative effects of working nonstandard hours on adults, psychological, physical, and sociological well-being. Such adverse impacts on individual wellbeing raise concerns about the potential impact - directly or indirectly - of mothers' nonstandard work schedules on their children's wellbeing. As of today, however, we still know very little about the relationship between parental nonstandard work schedules and child development. This paper examines the association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and child cognitive and behavioral outcomes using a contemporary national data set - National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS) - with 1,625 children who were born between 1982 and 1991 and were followed longitudinally from birth to age nine or ten and for whom assessment data are available. Particular attention is also paid to various subgroups of children (i.e., in different racial/ethnic groups, in single-mother families, in families ever received welfare, and fathers not working).The NLSY79-CS is well suited for this analysis because, in addition to collecting information on family demographic background, it also contains detailed information on maternal work schedules at every assessment point. The cognitive outcomes analyzed in this paper include Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at age 3 or 4, and Peabody Individual Achievement Tests (PIATs) on Math and Reading Recognition at age 5 or 6, at age 7 or 8, and at age 9 or 10. The Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) is used to measure the behavioral outcome. Additionally, to account for selection bias in estimating the effects of maternal employment, an extensive set of child, mother, and family characteristics are controlled for in the model: whether the child is male; whether the child has any older siblings; mother's cognitive capability (measured by Armed Force Qualification Test; AFQT); mother's age at birth; mother's education at birth; mother's marital status at birth; years living in a single-parent family; family income in the year before birth; and whether the family was ever in poverty up until the assessment year. The results reported will fill gaps in knowledge about child development in the context of maternal work, and the knowledge thus gained should prove useful in shaping policy responses.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui. "Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, October 2004.
5. Han, Wen-Jui
Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Cognitive Outcomes
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Maternal Employment; Shift Workers; Welfare; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first major aim of this paper is to examine whether the effects of maternal employment on children's cognitive outcomes differ by mothers' work schedules. The second major aim of this paper is to examine whether or not the effects of maternal work schedules may differ in different contexts (e.g., low-income families or welfare families). This paper, thus, builds on and extends prior research on the effects of early maternal employment by utilizing data on a large national sample of children in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY79-CS). The NLSY79-CS is well suited for this analysis because, in addition to collecting detailed information on family demographic background, it also contains information on various dimensions of maternal work schedules (e.g., working at evenings, nights, or rotating shifts) at every assessment point along with a rich set of information on early child care and home environment.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui. "Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Cognitive Outcomes." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
6. Han, Wen-Jui
Shift Work and Child Behavioral Outcomes
Work Employment and Society 22,1(March 2008): 67-87
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Marital Instability; Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Shift Workers; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a large, contemporary US dataset, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child Supplement, this article explores the relationship between maternal shift work and the behavioral outcomes for children aged four to 10. Special attention was given to subgroups of children (e.g. based on family type, family income, and mother's occupation and working hours) and the patterns of parental work schedules and work hours. Regression results suggest that maternal shift work may contribute to more behavioral problems. Of all children whose mothers worked non-day shifts, the strongest associations were found for children who lived in single-mother or low-income families, whose mothers worked in cashier or service occupations, and whose mothers worked non-day shifts full-time. Implications for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui. "Shift Work and Child Behavioral Outcomes." Work Employment and Society 22,1(March 2008): 67-87.
7. Han, Wen-Jui
Fox, Liana E.
Children's Cognitive Trajectories in the Context of Parental Work Schedules
Presented: Tampa FL, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Multilevel; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Shift Workers; Welfare; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the relationship between parental work schedules (e.g., working evenings, nights, or early mornings) and children's cognitive trajectories from age 5 to age 14. This issue is important because a great number of parents work nonstandard shifts in order to share care responsibilities for their children. While many parents intentionally seek a nonstandard shift as a strategy to provide daytime or after-school care for their children, for many other parents, a nonstandard shift is not an option but a requirement of the job that can put pressure on work-family balance. Nonstandard schedules can facilitate or impede parent-child contact, which in turn has implications for children's well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui and Liana E. Fox. "Children's Cognitive Trajectories in the Context of Parental Work Schedules." Presented: Tampa FL, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2011.
8. Han, Wen-Jui
Fox, Liana E.
Parental Work Schedules and Children's Cognitive Trajectories
Journal of Marriage and Family 73,5 (October 2011): 962-980.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2011.00862.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Multilevel; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Shift Workers; Welfare; Work Hours

Previous work has shown an association between mothers' nonstandard work schedules and children's well-being. We built on this research by examining the relationship between parental shift work and children's reading and math trajectories from age 5–6 to 13–14. Using data (N = 7,105) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and growth-curve modeling, we found that children's math and reading trajectories were related to parents' nonstandard shifts (i.e., evening, night, or variable). We found that having a mother who worked more years at a night shift was associated with lower reading scores, having a mother work more years at evening or night shifts was associated with reduced math trajectories, and having a father work more years at an evening shift was associated with reduced math scores. Mediation tests suggest that eating meals together, parental knowledge about children's whereabouts, and certain after-school activities might help explain these results.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui and Liana E. Fox. "Parental Work Schedules and Children's Cognitive Trajectories." Journal of Marriage and Family 73,5 (October 2011): 962-980.
9. Han, Wen-Jui
Leventhal, Tama
Linver, Miriam R.
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) in Middle Childhood: A Study of Three Large-Scale Data Sets
Parenting: Science and Practice 4, 2-3 (April-September 2004): 189-210.
Also: http://www.parentingscienceandpractice.com/Past_Contents/V4_2_3/v4_2_3.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Scale Construction

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui, Tama Leventhal and Miriam R. Linver. "Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) in Middle Childhood: A Study of Three Large-Scale Data Sets." Parenting: Science and Practice 4, 2-3 (April-September 2004): 189-210.
10. Han, Wen-Jui
Miller, Daniel P.
Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Depression
Health Sociology Review 18,1 (June 2009): 36-49
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: eContent Management Pty Ltd
Keyword(s): Children, Mental Health; Depression (see also CESD); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a large contemporary United States data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this paper examines the relationship between parental work schedules and adolescent depression at age 13 or 14, paying particular attention to the mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Analysis based on structural equation modelling showed that increased work at night by mothers was significantly associated with a lower quality of home environment and fewer meals together, and this mediator was significantly linked to increased risks for adolescent depression. In addition, evening work by fathers was significantly associated with lower paternal closeness and this mediator was significantly associated with increases in adolescent depression. In contrast, irregular shifts by both mothers and fathers increased the likelihood of mothers knowing where the child was and this relationship in turn reduced adolescent depression. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui and Daniel P. Miller. "Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Depression." Health Sociology Review 18,1 (June 2009): 36-49.
11. Han, Wen-Jui
Miller, Daniel P.
Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Health Behaviors
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
Also: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=81139
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; Birthweight; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Parent-Child Interaction; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity; Siblings; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use; Welfare; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a large contemporary data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this paper examines the relationship between parental work schedules and adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14, paying particular attention to the mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Structural equation modeling suggests that parental work schedules were associated with adolescent risky behaviors. In particular, increased work at night by mothers was significantly associated with spending less time with children and lower quality of the home environment, and both of these mediators were significantly linked to adolescent risky behaviors. Subgroup analyses revealed that some groups of children (i.e., males, those ever living in single-mother families, and those in families with low incomes) may particularly be affected by mothers working at nights, due to spending less time together, having a lower degree of maternal closeness, and experiencing lower quality home environments. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui and Daniel P. Miller. "Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Health Behaviors." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
12. Han, Wen-Jui
Miller, Daniel P.
Waldfogel, Jane
Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors
Developmental Psychology 46,5 (September 2010): 1245-1267.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/dev/46/5/1245/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Parent-Child Interaction; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity; Shift Workers; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use; Welfare; Work Hours

Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less time with children and had lower quality home environments, and these mediators were significantly linked to adolescent risky behaviors. Similar effects were not found for evening work schedules, while other types of maternal and paternal nonstandard work schedules were linked to higher parental knowledge of children's whereabouts, which led to lower levels of adolescent risky behaviors. Subgroup analyses revealed that boys, those in families with low incomes, and those whose mothers never worked at professional jobs may particularly be affected by mothers working at nights, due to spending less time together, having a lower degree of maternal closeness, and experiencing lower quality home environments. In addition, the effects of maternal night shifts were particularly pronounced if children were in the preschool or middle-childhood years when their mothers worked those schedules. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui, Daniel P. Miller and Jane Waldfogel. "Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors." Developmental Psychology 46,5 (September 2010): 1245-1267.
13. Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Parental Work Schedules, Family Process, and Early Adolescents' Risky Behavior
Children and Youth Services Review 29, 9 (September 2007): 1249-1266.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740907001181
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Home Environment; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Single; Risk-Taking; Shift Workers; Substance Use; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Using data on a large contemporary sample of 10 to 14 year olds from the NLSY-CS, this paper examines whether mothers' and fathers' work schedules are associated with parental monitoring and adolescent–parent closeness, and with adolescents' substance use and delinquency. Regression results for two-parent families indicate that parental nonstandard work schedules have mixed associations with family process, tending to improve monitoring but also having some deleterious effects on reported closeness. Regression results for single-mother families also show mixed effects. These results provide support for the hypothesis that nonstandard work schedules have offsetting effects on family process. Consistent with this hypothesis, in analyses for both two-parent and single-parent families, there are few significant associations between parents' work schedules and adolescents' risky behavior. These findings suggest that parental nonstandard work schedules have mainly neutral effects on early adolescents' risky behavior, because although they may reduce closeness, they also tend to improve monitoring. However, the results also raise a red flag about single mothers working rotating shifts, which we find is associated with an elevated likelihood that children have engaged in all three types of delinquent behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui and Jane Waldfogel. "Parental Work Schedules, Family Process, and Early Adolescents' Risky Behavior ." Children and Youth Services Review 29, 9 (September 2007): 1249-1266.
14. Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Parents' Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescents' Socio-Emotional Outcomes
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Depression (see also CESD); Family Background; Home Environment; Maternal Employment; Sexual Behavior; Shift Workers; Substance Use; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The main focus of this paper is to assess whether the effects of parental employment on adolescents/ socio-emotional outcomes (i.e., depression, sexual behavior, substance use, and defiant behavior) differ by parental work schedules. This paper uses data from a large national sample of children in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY79-CS). The NLSY79-CS is well suited for this analysis because, in addition to collecting detailed information on family demographic background and home environment, it also contains information on various dimensions of parental work schedules (e.g., working at evenings, nights, or rotating shifts).
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui and Jane Waldfogel. "Parents' Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescents' Socio-Emotional Outcomes." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
15. Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Long-Run Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Children's Achievement and Behavior
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Children, Home Environment; Cognitive Ability; Fathers, Presence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the long-term impact of maternal employment and childcare utilization on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Baydar and Brooks-Gunn (1991) used data from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to investigate the effects of continuity, intensity, and timing of maternal employment in the first year and of child-care arrangements in the first three years on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes as assessed at ages 3 and 4. This paper revisits the same children, four years later, when they are 5/6 and 7/8 years of age, to see whether the effects that Baydar and Brooks-Gunn found at age 3 to 4 persist into the school-age years or whether those effects attenuate over time. As such, this paper will provide valuable new insights into the potential long-term effects of early maternal employment and early child care. Specifically, this paper will provide evidence on: 1) how the continuity, intensity, and timing of maternal employment in the first year of life affect children's development as assessed at age 5/6 and 7/8; 2) how maternal employment and child care arrangements in the first 3 years of life affect children's cognitive and socioemotional functioning at age 5/6 and 7/8 and what factors might mediate these effects; and 3) whether there are interactive influences of the types of early childcare arrangements and early maternal employment on later child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui, Jane Waldfogel and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Long-Run Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Children's Achievement and Behavior." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999.
16. Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Maternal Employment, Child Care, and Child Behavioral Outcomes: What Do We Know?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the impact of early maternal employment and child care on children's behavioral outcomes, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and NICHD Study of Early Child Care (SECC). The NLSY is limited in that its behavioral outcomes are based on mothers' reports. Further, the NLSY has no information on the quality of care and only limited information on the quality of children's home environments. Therefore, we use a second dataset, the NICHD-SECC, which has, in addition to early maternal employment and mother-reported behavior problems, the quality of the home environment, the quality of the child care environment, and several additional measures of children's behavior and socioemotional adjustment. Thus, we will be able to use the NICHD-SECC dataset to determine whether the findings from the NLSY hold up when controls for home and child care quality are introduced and when other outcome variables are studied.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui, Jane Waldfogel and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Maternal Employment, Child Care, and Child Behavioral Outcomes: What Do We Know?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
17. Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Later Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes
Journal of Marriage and Family 63,2 (May 2001): 336-354.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3654596
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Welfare

This article investigates the long-term impact of early maternal employment on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Non-Hispanic White and African American children aged 3 to 4 in the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were followed longitudinally to see whether the effects that prior studies found at age 3 to 4 persist into the school-age years (ages 7 to 8) or whether those effects attenuate over time. The empirical results indicate that maternal employment in the 1st year of a child's life has significant negative effects on White children's cognitive outcomes. These effects persist to ages 7 or 8 for some children but not for others. We also found some negative effects of maternal employment in the 1st year on behavioral problems assessed at age 7 or 8, but again these effects are found only for white children.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui, Jane Waldfogel and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Later Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes ." Journal of Marriage and Family 63,2 (May 2001): 336-354.
18. Hill, Jennifer L.
Waldfogel, Jane
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Han, Wen-Jui
Maternal Employment and Child Development: A Fresh Look Using Newer Methods
Developmental Psychology 41,6 (November 2005), 833-850.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/dev/41/6/833/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Propensity Scores

The employment rate for mothers with young children has increased dramatically over the past 25 years. Estimating the effects of maternal employment on children's development is challenged by selection bias and the missing data endemic to most policy research. To address these issues, this study uses propensity score matching and multiple imputation. The authors compare outcomes across 4 maternal employment patterns: no work in first 3 years postbirth, work only after 1st year, part-time work in 1st year, and full-time work in 1st year. Our results demonstrate small but significant negative effects of maternal employment on children's cognitive outcomes for full-time employment in the 1st year postbirth as compared with employment postponed until after the 1st year. Multiple imputation yields noticeably different estimates as compared with a complete case approach for many measures. Differences between results from propensity score approaches and regression modeling are often minimal.

[Editor's Summary]
This study uses data from the NLSY longitudinal study to compare outcomes across four different patterns of maternal employment: no work for three years after a child's birth, work after one year post-birth, part time work in the child's first year, and full time work in the child's first year. Findings indicate small but significant negative effects of full time maternal employment during a child's first year in comparison with the postponement of employment for one year post-birth. The authors also discuss the problem of selection bias and missing data in estimating the effects of maternal employment.

Bibliography Citation
Hill, Jennifer L., Jane Waldfogel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Wen-Jui Han. "Maternal Employment and Child Development: A Fresh Look Using Newer Methods." Developmental Psychology 41,6 (November 2005), 833-850.
19. Huang, Chien-Chung
Han, Wen-Jui
Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,3 (August 2007): 69-72.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4622479
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Child Support; Contraception; Ethnic Differences; Fathers and Sons; Sexual Behavior

Strong child support enforcement requires fathers to take financial responsibility for their children and may also encourage more responsible sexual behavior. Using the 1997 – 2001 waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,272), this article examines the association between child support enforcement and the sexual activity of male adolescents. Stronger child support enforcement was associated with fewer sexual partners, less frequent sexual intercourse, and a higher likelihood of using contraceptive methods among adolescents who had had sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding data collection. The effects of child support enforcement were particularly strong for non-White adolescents and those living in high-poverty areas. These findings suggest that strengthening child support enforcement may be associated with reductions in some aspects of male adolescents' sexual activity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Huang, Chien-Chung and Wen-Jui Han. "Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,3 (August 2007): 69-72.
20. Miller, Daniel P.
Han, Wen-Jui
Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescent Overweight
American Journal of Public Health 98,8 (June 2008): 1495-1502.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/8/1495
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Family Income; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Shift Workers; Weight; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We investigated whether nonstandard work schedules by mothers was associated with adolescent overweight. Methods. We conducted multiple regression analyses using a sample of mother-child pairs (n=2353) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the association between the number of years mothers worked at nonstandard schedules and adolescent overweight at age 13 or 14 years. Separate analyses were also conducted by family income and family type. Results. Child's body mass index increased significantly if mothers worked either a few years or many years at nonstandard schedules. Risk of overweight was also significantly associated with 1 to 4 and 10 or more years of maternal nonstandard work schedules. In both cases, results were driven by those families with predicted incomes in the 2nd quartile ("near-poor"), with a few or many years of nonstandard work schedules also associated with increased risk of adolescent overweight in 2-parent families. Conclusions. Results indicate the importance of the overlooked association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and adolescent overweight at age 13 or 14 years. Nonstandard work schedules among near-poor families and in 2-parent families may disrupt the work-family balance, affecting adolescent overweight.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Daniel P. and Wen-Jui Han. "Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescent Overweight." American Journal of Public Health 98,8 (June 2008): 1495-1502.
21. Miller, Daniel P.
Han, Wen-Jui
Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescent Overweight
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, Annual Meeting, 2008.
Also: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=81137
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Mothers; Obesity; Poverty; Shift Workers; Television Viewing; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Weight; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the association between nonstandard shift work and overweight in 13 and 14 year-old adolescents. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth – Child Supplement, we examine how the number of years of nonstandard work by mothers over the lifetime of her child is associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) and the odds of being overweight. We find a significant, non-linear relationship between the number of years a mother worked nonstandard shifts and both outcomes, independent of a number of covariates. Specifically, working either a few years or many years of nonstandard shifts was associated with increases in BMI and risk of overweight. Moreover, this association is driven by families with incomes that identify them as "near-poor." Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Daniel P. and Wen-Jui Han. "Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescent Overweight." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, Annual Meeting, 2008.
22. Waldfogel, Jane
Han, Wen-Jui
Parental Work Schedules, Home Life and Adolescents' Socio-Emotional Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, November 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Depression (see also CESD); Deviance; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Shift Workers; Substance Use; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Abstract: While we enjoy the convenience of the 24-7 economy, shopping whenever we like, we often overlook the fact that a non-trivial proportion of the workforce (e.g., cashiers, waiters and waitresses, etc.) work at non-standard hours (hours that are not between 6 am and 6 pm) to provide this convenience for us. Yet, given that children's daily life experience revolves around parental work schedules, such work schedules may be associated with children's well-being. Currently, little theory or research is available about whether parental work schedules are associated with child outcomes, and whether the association is positive or negative. Only a few studies have considered the effects of non-standard work schedules on child outcomes. Two recent studies found that mothers' working nonstandard hours may have some adverse influence on their children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes (Han, 2005; Heymann, 2000). However, Han's study was limited to children under age 3, while Heymann's study was primarily qualitative. And both studies focused mainly on mothers' work schedules. The proposed paper will be the first to explore the extent to which mothers' and fathers' work schedules may be associated with adolescents' daily life experiences and how such experiences may be related to socio-emotional outcomes. The paper will focus on children age 13 and 14, using a contemporary national data set – the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS). We focus on 13 and 14 year olds because they are old enough to provide information themselves about their home life, time with parents, and so on. Some children this age also begin to engage in risky behaviors, such as delinquency and substance use. Taking advantage of the rich information in the NLSY-CS, this study will examine the associations between parental work schedules (e.g., working evenings, nights, or rotating shifts for both mothers and fathers) and measures of adolescents' perceptions about their daily life (i.e., time spent with parent(s), closeness with the parent(s), parental expectations and monitoring, and parental demands on the child) and home environment. We will examine the extent to which the associations between parental work schedules and adolescents' socio-emotional outcomes (i.e., depression, substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquent behavior), if there are any, may be accounted for by associations between parental work schedules and children's daily life experiences and home environment.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane and Wen-Jui Han. "Parental Work Schedules, Home Life and Adolescents' Socio-Emotional Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, November 2005.
23. Waldfogel, Jane
Han, Wen-Jui
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Early Maternal Employment and Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of Children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD)
Keyword(s): Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane, Wen-Jui Han and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Early Maternal Employment and Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of Children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 2001.
24. Waldfogel, Jane
Han, Wen-Jui
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Early Maternal Employment and Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of Children from the NLSY
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Breastfeeding; Employment, History; Ethnic Differences; Fathers, Presence; Hispanics; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the long-term impact of early maternal employment on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes, using data on 1872 children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We analyze non-Hispanic white, African American and Hispanic children separately and find that the effects of early maternal employment on later cognitive outcomes vary by race/ethnicity. For the non-Hispanic white children, employment in the first year of life has small but persistent adverse effects on cognitive outcomes even after controlling for poverty and other maternal and child characteristics, while employment in the second or third year of life has a small but persistent positive effect: having a mother who worked in the first year of life is associated with a 3-point lower score on the PPVT at ages 3 or 4, and a 2- to 3-point lower score on the PIAT Math and PIAT Reading Recognition at ages 5 or 6, and 7 or 8, while employment in the second or third years is associated with a 2- or 3-point higher score on most of these measures. These negative effects of first-year employment on cognitive outcomes, and positive effects of subsequent employment, are not found for the Africa-American children, while the results for the Hispanic children are mixed. The results for behavior problems also vary by race and ethnicity. For non-Hispanic white children, first-year maternal employment is associated with somewhat higher levels of internalizing problems at age 4 while second or third year employment is associated with lower levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 4, but all these effects fade out by age 7 or 8. For African-American children and Hispanic children, we found no significant effects of first, second, or third year employment.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane, Wen-Jui Han and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Early Maternal Employment and Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of Children from the NLSY." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
25. Waldfogel, Jane
Han, Wen-Jui
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Child Cognitive Development
Demography 39,2 (May 2002): 369-392.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0644x86357l11872/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Breastfeeding; Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Development; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigated the effects of early maternal employment on children's cognitive outcomes, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on 1,872 children who can be followed from birth to age 7 or 8. We found some persistent adverse effects of first-year maternal employment and some positive effects of second- and third-year maternal employment on cognitive outcomes for non-Hispanic white children, but not for African American or Hispanic children. These effects are present even after we controlled for a range of individual and family characteristics that affect child development, including those that are likely to be correlated with maternal employment, such as breast-feeding and the use of nonmaternal child care. Controlling for family fixed effects reduces the effects of early maternal employment on some cognitive outcomes but not on others.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane, Wen-Jui Han and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Child Cognitive Development." Demography 39,2 (May 2002): 369-392.