Search Results

Author: Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Maternal Age and Child Achievement
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Births, Repeat / Spacing; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drawing data from the Children of the NLSY79, we estimate differences in teenage achievement and problem behavior for children born to younger and older mothers. We distinguish between the value for children of being born to a mother who delayed her first birth and the value of the additional years between her first birth and the birth of the child whose outcomes are under study. We find that each year the mother delays a first birth is associated with between a .025 sd and .042 sd increase in school achievement and a .038 sd reduction in teen behavior problems. Coefficients are at least half as large for additional years between the first and given birth, even in the presence of controls for family fixed effects. Our mediational analyses shows that the primary pathway by which delaying first births benefits children is by enabling mothers to complete more schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Kenneth T. H. Lee, Ariel Kalil and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Maternal Age and Child Achievement." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
2. Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Parent Income-Based Gaps in Schooling, Earnings and Family Income: Cross-Cohort Trends in the NLSYs and the PSID
Working Paper, University of California--Irvine, January 9, 2015.
Also: http://sites.uci.edu/gduncan/files/2013/06/RSF-Memo-Duncan-et-al-010815.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of California--Irvine
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Several sources of evidence point to a growing gap in the achievement and school attainment of children growing up in high vs. low-income families (Reardon, 2011; Bailey and Dynarski, 2011; Duncan et al. 2014). Given the voluminous body of research linking labor market success with test scores and, especially, completed schooling (Card, 1999), one would expect that growing parental income-based gaps in completed schooling to translate into growing gaps in children's adult earnings and family income. Surprisingly, Chetty's (2014) recent analysis of tax files indicates that this does not appear to be the case.

We take a new look at this puzzle by investigating trends in the income-based gaps in completed schooling and early- and mid-career earnings and family income using data from the two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97) as well as 31 birth cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Our procedures are detailed in an appendix.

Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Kenneth T. H. Lee, Ariel Kalil and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Parent Income-Based Gaps in Schooling, Earnings and Family Income: Cross-Cohort Trends in the NLSYs and the PSID." Working Paper, University of California--Irvine, January 9, 2015.
3. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): School Dropouts; School Progress; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers have been concerned with the largely unaddressed question of the links between single mother job characteristics and child well-being. In this paper, we use data from a nationally-representative sample of single mothers whose employment experiences we observe over a two-year period during the mid-to-late 1990's. We link employment patterns to change over time in multiple measures of child well-being. Controlling for background characteristics and potential selection factors, we find that, relative to being continuously employed in a good job, teens whose mothers lose a job without re-employment show a decline in self-esteem; those whose mothers are continually employed in a bad job are more at risk for grade repetition; and those whose mothers are persistently out of the labor force or lose more than one job show an increased likelihood of school drop-out. These effects are largely unexplained by changes in family income over the two-year period.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
4. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being
Working Paper No. 04-10, National Poverty Center, The University of Michigan, June 2004.
Also: http://www.npc.umich.edu/publications/workingpaper04/paper10/04-10.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Poverty Center
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Well-Being; Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); School Progress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The booming economy of the mid-to- late 1990's helped single mothers reach unprecedented employment levels. Researchers have been concerned with the largely unaddressed questions of whether single mothers who enter the workforce will be able to earn a living wage, the stability of women's jobs over time, and the links between these job characteristics and child well-being. In this paper, we use data from a nationally- representative sample of single mothers whose employment experiences we observe over a two-year period during the mid-to-late 1990's. We rely on mothers' weekly work histories to create detailed patterns of employment, which we then link to change over time in the well-being of the mothers' adolescent children. Controlling for a wide array of background characteristics and potential selection factors, we find that, relative to being continuously employed in a good job, adolescents whose mothers lose a job without regaining employment show declines in mastery and self-esteem. Those whose mothers are continuously employed in a bad job show an increase in grade repetition and those whose mothers are either persistently out of the labor force or lose more than one job show an increased likelihood of school drop-out. These effects are largely unexplained by concomitant changes in family income.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being." Working Paper No. 04-10, National Poverty Center, The University of Michigan, June 2004.
5. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being
Child Development 76,1 (January/February 2005): 196-212.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00839.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); School Completion; School Dropouts; School Progress; Self-Esteem

The links between single mothers' employment patterns and change over time in the well-being of the mothers' adolescent children were investigated using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents were ages 14 to 16 at baseline, and they and their mothers were followed for 2 years. Relative to being continuously employed in a good job, findings suggest that adolescents whose mothers lose a job without regaining employment show declines in mastery and self-esteem, those whose mothers are continuously employed in a bad job show an increased likelihood of grade repetition, and those whose mothers are either persistently unemployed or lose more than one job show an increased likelihood of school dropout. These effects are not explained by concomitant changes in family income. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being." Child Development 76,1 (January/February 2005): 196-212.
6. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Epstein, Jodie Levin
Nonstandard Work and Marital Instability: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1289-1300.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00765.x/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Characteristics; Marital Stability; Maternal Employment; Shift Workers; Unemployment; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

This article replicated and extended Harriet Presser's (2000) investigation of the linkages between nonstandard work and marital instability. We reexplored this question using data from a sample of 2,893 newlywed couples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and using different analytic techniques. In contrast to Presser, we found that the key dimension of husbands' and wives' employment was nonemployment. Similar to Presser, we found that wives' working of fixed night shifts increased the risk of divorce, driven by the experience in marriages over 5 years in duration. However, we did not replicate Presser's finding that the effect is significant only among households with children; rather, wives' fixed night shifts were associated with divorce only among those without children.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest and Jodie Levin Epstein. "Nonstandard Work and Marital Instability: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1289-1300.
7. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Ryan, Rebecca M.
Markowitz, Anna J.
Changes in Income-Based Gaps in Parent Activities With Young Children From 1988 to 2012
AERA Open published online (August 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416653732.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2332858416653732
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Income; Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parent-Child Interaction; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Numerous studies show large differences between economically advantaged and disadvantaged parents in the quality and quantity of their engagement in young children's development. This "parenting gap" may account for a substantial portion of the gap in children's early cognitive skills. However, researchers know little about whether the socioeconomic gap in parenting has increased over time. The present study investigates this question, focusing on income- and education-based gaps in parents' engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with preschool-aged children. We draw on data from four national studies conducted over 25 years. We found a decrease in income-based gaps in children's book ownership and library attendance but increasing income-based gaps for several other parent behaviors, including reading and telling stories to children and teaching children letters, words, and numbers. Income-based gaps in children's participation in out-of-home cultural activities also increased. Results for education-based gaps were similar. These gaps largely arose from top-income families pulling away from their middle- and low-income counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, Rebecca M. Ryan and Anna J. Markowitz. "Changes in Income-Based Gaps in Parent Activities With Young Children From 1988 to 2012." AERA Open published online (August 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416653732.
8. Ryan, Rebecca M.
Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Padilla, Christina
Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011
Pediatrics 138,6 (December 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0720.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2016/11/10/peds.2016-0720.full.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Discipline; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parenting Skills/Styles; Punishment, Corporal; Socioeconomic Factors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of corporal punishment is high in the United States despite a 1998 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement urging against its use. The current study tests whether the socioeconomic difference in its use by parents has changed over the past quarter century. It goes on to test whether socioeconomic differences in the use of nonphysical discipline have also changed over time.

METHODS: Data are drawn from 4 national studies conducted between 1988 and 2011. Each asked how often a kindergarten-aged child was spanked in the past week and what the parents would do if the child misbehaved, with physical discipline, time-out, and talking to child as possible responses. We use regression models to estimate parents' responses to these questions at the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles of the income and education distributions and t tests to compare estimates across cohorts.

RESULTS: The proportion of mothers at the 50th income-percentile who endorse physical discipline decreased from 46% to 21% over time. Gaps between the 90th and 10th income-percentiles were stable at 11 and 18 percentage points in 1988 and 2011. The percentage of mothers at the 10th income-percentile endorsing time-outs increased from 51% to 71%, and the 90/10 income gap decreased from 23 to 14 percentage points between 1998 and 2011.

CONCLUSIONS: Decline in popular support for physical discipline reflects real changes in parents' discipline strategies. These changes have occurred at all socioeconomic levels, producing for some behaviors a significant reduction in socioeconomic differences.

Bibliography Citation
Ryan, Rebecca M., Ariel Kalil, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest and Christina Padilla. "Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011." Pediatrics 138,6 (December 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0720.
9. Ryan, Rebecca M.
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Duncan, Greg J.
Reardon, Sean F.
Markowitz, Anna J.
Preschool-Age Skills Gaps and the Changing Technology of Parenting
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Children, Preschool; Children, Well-Being; Home Environment; Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Influences; Parental Investments; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We aim to identify the home-environment drivers of increasing gaps in cognitive and non-cognitive skills between poor and more affluent children. These gap increases could arise in multiple ways. The most obvious is that the gap between the quality of home environments available to poor and more affluent children could be growing. This might happen if rapid increases in the incomes of affluent families have led them to spend more on children's early education, lessons, books, computers, etc. in ways that have enriched the home environments of affluent children more rapidly than the home environments of poor children.

We draw on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (1988/1990 n= ~ 2,700 children ages 3-5), the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Supplement (1997; n = ~ 800) and National Household Education Surveys covering the period 1991-2007 n = ~ 30,000). In this paper we document over-time class-based gaps in children's home environments in the three different data sets. The measure of the home environment is multifaceted, including measures of parents' time inputs, emotional support, and provision of a physical environment conducive to children's learning and emotional well-being.

Bibliography Citation
Ryan, Rebecca M., Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, Greg J. Duncan, Sean F. Reardon and Anna J. Markowitz. "Preschool-Age Skills Gaps and the Changing Technology of Parenting." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
10. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
A Single Father's Shopping Bag: Purchasing Decisions in Single Father Families
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2005.
Also: http://www.human.cornell.edu/pam/seminars/ziolguest.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Consumer Expenditure Survey (CEX); Family Structure; Fathers; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1980-1998 panels from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, this paper examines purchasing decisions in father-headed single-parent families. Very little research exists on this new and growing "other single parent," and much of what does exist is based on small samples of convenience. Extant literature finds that children growing up in single father families, like those in single mother families, are disadvantaged compared to children in married families. This paper examines consumption differences that exist in father-headed families. The analysis presents Engel Curve estimation and expenditure elasticities for different consumption bundles. Comparison multivariate analysis finds that single fathers' consumption choices differ from bundles across married-parent households. Single fathers spend more money on food consumed away from home, less on publications and toys, as well as children's education. Single fathers also spend a larger proportion of total non-medical expenditures on food away from home, as well as alcohol and tobacco products, and a smaller proportion on children's education. Single fathers differ from single mothers by spending more money on food away from home, as well as alcohol and tobacco, and less on children's education. Further they spend a larger proportion of their total expenditure on food consumed away from home, alcohol and tobacco products, and recreation; and they spend a smaller share on children's education. These findings are further examined using Cragg's two-stage model for limited dependent variables.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M. "A Single Father's Shopping Bag: Purchasing Decisions in Single Father Families." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2005.
11. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Dunifon, Rachel
Kalil, Ariel
Parental Employment and Children's Body Weight: Mothers, Others, and Mechanisms
Social Science and Medicine 95 (October 2013): 52-59.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953612006673
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Employment; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Parental Influences; Television Viewing; Weight; Work Hours

A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother–child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M., Rachel Dunifon and Ariel Kalil. "Parental Employment and Children's Body Weight: Mothers, Others, and Mechanisms." Social Science and Medicine 95 (October 2013): 52-59.
12. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Dunifon, Rachel
Morrissey, Taryn
Kalil, Ariel
Maternal Employment and Children's Body Mass Index: Examining Developmental Timing and Explanatory Mechanisms
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Care; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Sleep; Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD); Television Viewing; Weight; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates whether mothers’ employment patterns across a child’s lifetime are associated with their children’s body mass index (BMI) and overweight at adolescence. We also examine potential mechanisms that may explain these relationships, and whether relationships vary by maternal education. We use two comprehensive, longitudinal datasets: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Children of the NLSY (N = 4,087) and the NICHD’s Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). Using multiple imputation, we conduct multivariate regression analyses predicting children’s BMI z-scores (a standardized measure of BMI by age and gender), overweight (BMI>=85th percentile for height and weight by age and gender), and obesity (BMI>=95th percentile) at adolescence from their mothers’ work hours at different developmental periods: prenatal, the first year of life, the second year, preschool (ages 3-5), middle childhood (ages 6-10), and adolescence (ages 11-13/14 or 15). A wealth of child and family characteristics are controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M., Rachel Dunifon, Taryn Morrissey and Ariel Kalil. "Maternal Employment and Children's Body Mass Index: Examining Developmental Timing and Explanatory Mechanisms." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
13. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Parent Income–Based Gaps in Schooling: Cross-Cohort Trends in the NLSYs and the PSID
AERA Open published online (April 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416645834.
Also: http://ero.sagepub.com/content/2/2/2332858416645834.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Both income inequality and the achievement test score gap between high- and low-income children increased dramatically in the United States beginning in the 1970s. Recent work by Chetty, Hendren, Kline, Saez, and Turner (2014) suggests that, unlike the test score gap, the gap in college enrollment is essentially constant. This article takes a longer historical view and investigates trends in income-based gaps in a number of schooling attainment measures using data from two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97) as well as 31 birth cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Findings support Chetty and colleagues' conclusion of little change in college enrollment for their cohorts but show significant increases in college enrollment gaps between Chetty and colleagues' and prior cohorts in both the PSID and the NLSY. We further find strong evidence of growing gaps in college completion. In contrast, gaps in high school graduation have fallen, which provide at least one optimistic sign of catching up among low-income individuals. The net result of these trends is to produce a modestly increasing gap in completed schooling between children growing up in low- and high-income families.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M. and Kenneth T. H. Lee. "Parent Income–Based Gaps in Schooling: Cross-Cohort Trends in the NLSYs and the PSID." AERA Open published online (April 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416645834.