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Author: Forrest, Walter
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Forrest, Walter
Cohabitation, Relationship Quality, and Desistance From Crime
Journal of Marriage and Family 76,3 (June 2014): 539-556.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12105/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Crime; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Status; Marriage

Although the empirical links between marriage and desistance are well established, very little is known about the degree to which cohabitation is associated with changes in criminal behavior. This is a significant oversight given that, among some segments of the population, cohabitation has become more common than marriage. In this article, the author investigated the links between cohabitation and desistance from crime. In doing so, particular attention was paid to the possibility that similarities between the apparent effects of marriage and cohabitation are obscured by variations in relationship quality and the increasing tendency for cohabitation to precede marriage. Analyses based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 3,232) indicate that cohabitation is associated with reductions in the rate of property and drug offending, but not the termination of violent, property, or drug offending. By contrast, marriage is consistently associated with large reductions in the rate of offending across the 3 crime categories as well as the abandonment of those crimes. These results provide greater insight into the links between adult family relationships, such as cohabitation and marriage, and desistance from crime.
Bibliography Citation
Forrest, Walter. "Cohabitation, Relationship Quality, and Desistance From Crime." Journal of Marriage and Family 76,3 (June 2014): 539-556.
2. Forrest, Walter
Hay, Carter
Life-Course Transitions, Self-Control and Desistance from Crime
Criminology and Criminal Justice 11,5 (November 2011): 487-513.
Also: http://crj.sagepub.com/content/11/5/487.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Control; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Life Course; Marital Status; Neighborhood Effects; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In recent years a number of studies have observed empirical associations between the occurrence of key life events such as marriage, employment, and military service, and desistance from crime. The relationships between these life-course transitions and changes in criminal behaviour have been cited as evidence in support of social control and social learning theories of delinquency and in contradiction to alternative theoretical perspectives that downplay the significance of life events in the development of criminal behaviour over the lifespan. In this paper we develop and test an alternative explanation for the apparent impact of marriage on criminal and delinquent behaviour. We argue that transitions such as marriage might also promote desistance, in part, by enabling offenders to develop and exercise increased self-control. We then test this hypothesis using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and explore the implications of our findings for the study of desistance and for self-control theory.
Bibliography Citation
Forrest, Walter and Carter Hay. "Life-Course Transitions, Self-Control and Desistance from Crime." Criminology and Criminal Justice 11,5 (November 2011): 487-513.
3. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
Implications of Family Poverty for a Pattern of Persistent Offending
In: The Development of Persistent Criminality. Joanne Savage, ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Household Income; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Table of Contents:
1. Joanne Savage: Understanding Persistent Offending: Linking Developmental Psychology with Research on the Criminal Career
Section 1: The Family, Poverty, and Stressful Life Events
2. Linda S. Pagani: The Influence of Family Context on the Development and Persistence of Antisocial Behavior
3. Carter Hay and Walter Forrest: The Implications of Family Poverty for a Pattern of Persistent Offending
4. Stephanie Ellis and Joanne Savage: Strain, Social Support, and Persistent Criminality
5. Timothy O. Ireland, Craig J. Rivera and John P. Hoffman: Developmental Trajectories, Stressful Life Events, and Delinquency
6. Paul Millar: The Effects of the Family on Children's Behavioural Difficulties
Section 2: Biosocial Influences on Persistent Criminality
7. Patick Sylvers, Stacy R. Ryan, S. Amanda Alden, and Patricia A. Brennan: Biological Factors and the Development of Persistent Criminality
8. John Paul Wright and Kevin M. Beaver: A Systematic Approach to Understanding Human Variability in Serious, Persistent Offending
9. Steve G. Tibbetts: Perinatal and Developmental Determinants of Early Onset of Offending: A Biosocial Approach for Explaining the Two Peaks of Early Antisocial Behavior
Section 3: Special Topics and Populations
10. Asha Goldweber, Lisa M. Broidy, and Elizabeth Cauffman: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Persistent Female Offending: A Review of Theory and Research
11. Mary Ann Davis: Foster Care Youth: Aging Out of Care to Criminal Activities
12. Thomas G. Blomberg, William D. Bales, and Courtney A. Waid: Educational Achievement Among Incarcerated Youth: Post-Release Schooling, Employment and Crime Desistance
Section 4: Methodology for Understanding the Criminal Career
13. Alex R. Piquero: Methodological Issues in the Study of Persistence in Offending
14. Manfred H.M. van Dulm en, Elizabeth A. Goncy, Andrea Vest, and Daniel J. Flannery: Group-Based Trajectory Modeling of Externalizing Behavior Problems from Childhood through Adulthood: Exploring Discrepancies in the Empirical Findings
15. KiDeuk Kim: Sanction Threats and Desistance from Criminality
Section 5: Conceptualizing the Persistent Offender
16. Rudy Haapanen, Lee Britton, Tim Croisdale, and Branko Coebergh: Serious Juvenile Offenders and Persistent Criminality
17. Travis C. Pratt: Reconsidering Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime: Linking the Micro- and Macro-Level Sources of Self-Control and Criminal Behavior Over the Life Course
18. Deborah M. Capaldi and Margit Wiesner: A Dynamic Developmental Systems Approach to Understanding Offending in Early Adulthood
19. Per-Olof H. Wikström and Kyle Treiber: What Drives Persistent Offending? The Neglected and Unexplored Role of the Social Environment
Section 6: Conclusions
20. Joanne Savage: What Have We Learned? Directions for Future Research and Policy
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "Implications of Family Poverty for a Pattern of Persistent Offending" In: The Development of Persistent Criminality. Joanne Savage, ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009
4. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
Self-Control Theory and the Concept of Opportunity: The Case For A More Systematic Union
Criminology 46,4 (November 2008): 1039-1072.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2008.00135.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study is to advance the idea that low self-control — one of the strongest known predictors of crime—likely has effects that are conditional on the supply of criminal opportunities. Some scholars initially interpreted the theory to make this exact prediction, but Gottfredson and Hirschi (2003) have rejected this interpretation. They have insisted that the simplistic nature of most crimes ensures that opportunities are limitless and that variation in opportunity simply reflects variation in self-control. We trace the history of this uncertain position of opportunity in self-control theory and argue that it should play a significant role in the theory, even if Gottfredson and Hirschi did not originally envision this. Next, we draw on routine activities theory and applications of it to individual offending to offer a theoretical statement of how opportunity should be incorporated into self-control theory. Last, using data from a national sample of juveniles, we test the arguments that have been made. The analysis suggests that the effects of low self-control on delinquency partially depend on the availability of criminal opportunities, as indicated by the time juveniles spend with their friends or away from the supervision of their parents.
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "Self-Control Theory and the Concept of Opportunity: The Case For A More Systematic Union." Criminology 46,4 (November 2008): 1039-1072.
5. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis
Criminology 44,4 (December 2006): 739-774.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2006.00062.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research on self-control theory consistently supports its central prediction that low self-control significantly affects crime. The theory includes other predictions, however, that have received far less scrutiny. Among these is the argument that self-control is developed early in childhood and that individual differences emerging then persist over time. The purpose of this study is to provide a rigorous test of the stability thesis. First, we examine the extent of stability and change in self-control for a national sample of U.S. children age 7 to age 15. Second, we consider whether parenting continues to affect self-control during adolescence--a period after the point at which self-control differences should be fixed. The analysis revealed strong absolute and relative stability of self-control for more than 80 percent of the sample, and this stability emerged in large part as early as age 7. Contradicting the theory was a smaller portion of respondents (roughly 16 percent) who experienced substantial absolute and relative changes in self-control even after the age of 10. Moreover, parental socialization continued to affect self-control during adolescence, even after accounting for both prior self-control and exposure to parental socialization.
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis." Criminology 44,4 (December 2006): 739-774.
6. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis
Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Society of Criminology Meetings, November 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) self-control theory has inspired extensive new research, with most studies supporting its central prediction that low self-control significantly affects crime and deviance. The theory includes other predictions, however, that have received much less scrutiny. Included among these is the stability thesis—the argument that self-control is developed early in childhood as a result of parental socialization, and that individual differences emerging then persist over time. The purpose of this study is to provide a rigorous test of the stability thesis. First, we examine the extent of stability and change in self-control for a national sample of U.S. children age 7 to 15. We go beyond earlier studies by using a group-based modeling approach (Nagin, 2005) to consider that self-control may not develop in a uniform pattern for all individuals in the sample. Second, we consider whether parenting continues to affect self-control during adolescence—a period after the point at which self-control differences should be fixed. The analysis reveals evidence that both supports and contradicts the theory. Supporting the theory is the roughly 60 percent of respondents who have high levels of self-control from as early as age 7, and exhibit almost perfect stability (in both an absolute and relative sense) through age 15. Contradicting the theory, however, is a smaller portion of respondents (roughly 20 percent) who experienced substantial absolute and relative change in self-control even after the age of 10. Moreover, parental socialization continued to affect self-control during adolescence, even after accounting for both prior self-control and exposure to parental socialization.
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis." Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Society of Criminology Meetings, November 2005.