Search Results

Author: Kalil, Ariel
Resulting in 23 citations.
1. Dave, Dhaval
Corman, Hope
Kalil, Ariel
Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira
Reichman, Nancy
Effects of Maternal Work Incentives on Adolescent Behaviors
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Geocoded Data; Maternal Employment; Monitoring the Future (MTF); State-Level Data/Policy; Substance Use; Volunteer Work; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Robert Moffitt’s 2014 PAA address highlighted the need for studies of effects on children of the substantial (and un-reversed) reduction of the cash assistance safety net that took place in the 1990s. This study investigates the effects of welfare reform, which dramatically limited cash assistance for low-income families, on adolescent behaviors that are important for socioeconomic trajectories and represent observable outcomes of the reforms for the next generation as they transition to adulthood. Using two nationally-representative datasets, we exploit differences in welfare reform implementation across states and over time in a difference-in-differences framework to identify causal effects of welfare reform on a range of social behaviors (volunteering, clubs/teams/activities; delinquency, substance use). We investigate differential effects by gender and age and explore maternal employment and supervision as potential mediators. Preliminary results suggest that welfare reform had largely unfavorable effects on adolescent behaviors and do not support longstanding culture of poverty arguments.
Bibliography Citation
Dave, Dhaval, Hope Corman, Ariel Kalil, Ofira Schwartz-Soicher and Nancy Reichman. "Effects of Maternal Work Incentives on Adolescent Behaviors." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
2. Dave, Dhaval
Corman, Hope
Kalil, Ariel
Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira
Reichman, Nancy
Effects of Maternal Work Incentives on Adolescent Social Behaviors
NBER Working Paper No. 25527, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2019.
Also: https://www.nber.org/papers/w25527
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Geocoded Data; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; State-Level Data/Policy; Substance Use; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

This study exploits variations in the timing of welfare reform implementation in the U.S. in the 1990s to identify plausibly causal effects of welfare reform on a range of social behaviors of the next generation as they transition to adulthood. We focus on behaviors that are important for socioeconomic and health trajectories, estimate effects by gender, and explore potentially mediating factors. Welfare reform had no favorable effects on any of the youth behaviors examined and led to decreased volunteering among girls, increases in skipping school, damaging property, and fighting among boys, and increases in smoking and drug use among both boys and girls, with larger effects for boys (e.g., -6% for boys compared to 4% for girls for any substance use). Maternal employment, supervision, and child's employment explain little of the effects. Overall, the intergenerational effects of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors were unfavorable, particularly for boys, and do not support longstanding arguments that limiting cash assistance leads to responsible behavior in the next generation. As such, the favorable effects of welfare reform for women may have come at a cost to the next generation, particularly to boys who have been falling behind girls in high school completion for decades.
Bibliography Citation
Dave, Dhaval, Hope Corman, Ariel Kalil, Ofira Schwartz-Soicher and Nancy Reichman. "Effects of Maternal Work Incentives on Adolescent Social Behaviors." NBER Working Paper No. 25527, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2019.
3. Deleire, Thomas
Kalil, Ariel
Who Becomes a Multigenerational Grandmother? Selection into Multigenerational Households
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Family, Extended; Grandmothers; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Who becomes a multigenerational grandmother? Multigenerational coresidence is increasingly prevalent among adult single mothers with children. Research on the effects of multigenerational coresidence on children, however, is equivocal, though our recent study (DeLeire and Kalil, 2002) found that teenagers in multigenerational families have better educational and behavioral outcomes than even teenagers in 2-biological parent families. Understanding issues of who chooses to form a multigenerational household is necessary for understanding whether observed positive benefits of multigenerational coresidence are merely the result of selection. To address this question, we use data on a sample of 640 grandmothers from the NLSY-CS, 44% of whom have co-resided with their daughter and grandchild
Bibliography Citation
Deleire, Thomas and Ariel Kalil. "Who Becomes a Multigenerational Grandmother? Selection into Multigenerational Households." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
4. Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Mayer, Susan E.
Tepper, Robin L.
Payne, Monique R.
The Apple Does Not Fall Far from the Tree
In: Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success. S. Bowles, H. Gintis, and M. O. Groves eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008: pp. 23-79
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Cognitive Ability; Depression (see also CESD); Deviance; Economic Well-Being; Genetics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Risk-Taking; Role Models; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Ariel Kalil, Susan E. Mayer, Robin L. Tepper and Monique R. Payne. "The Apple Does Not Fall Far from the Tree" In: Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success. S. Bowles, H. Gintis, and M. O. Groves eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008: pp. 23-79
5. Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Mayer, Susan E.
Tepper, Robin L.
Payne, Monique R.
The Apple Does Not Fall Far from the Tree
Working Paper WP-02-17, Institute for Policy Research, Chicago IL, March 16, 2002.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/publications/papers/2002/WP-02-17.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Policy Research - Northwestern University - (formerly Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavioral Problems; CESD (Depression Scale); Cognitive Ability; Depression (see also CESD); Economic Well-Being; Genetics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Risk-Taking; Role Models; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the Children of the NLSY, and from a study in Prince George's County, Maryland, to assess the relationship between 17 characteristics of mothers measured during adolescence and the same characteristics of their children, also measured during adolescence. We find positive correlations between specific characteristics of parents and children. But we also find that few parental characteristics predict characteristics of children other than the same one that is measured in parents. Four mechanisms might explain such correlations — socioeconomic resources, parenting practices, genetic inheritance, and role modeling. These four mechanisms make varying predictions about which parental traits will be correlated with which child traits; whether the traits of fathers or mothers should be more important to sons or daughters; and to what extent parental socioeconomic characteristics, parenting behaviors, and children's identification with their parents account for the observed correlations. Our evidence provides little support for the SES and parenting explanations, but more substantial support that role modeling may account for some of the intergenerational correlations, and genetic factors may account for others.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Ariel Kalil, Susan E. Mayer, Robin L. Tepper and Monique R. Payne. "The Apple Does Not Fall Far from the Tree." Working Paper WP-02-17, Institute for Policy Research, Chicago IL, March 16, 2002.
6. Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Maternal Age and Child Achievement
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Births, Repeat / Spacing; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drawing data from the Children of the NLSY79, we estimate differences in teenage achievement and problem behavior for children born to younger and older mothers. We distinguish between the value for children of being born to a mother who delayed her first birth and the value of the additional years between her first birth and the birth of the child whose outcomes are under study. We find that each year the mother delays a first birth is associated with between a .025 sd and .042 sd increase in school achievement and a .038 sd reduction in teen behavior problems. Coefficients are at least half as large for additional years between the first and given birth, even in the presence of controls for family fixed effects. Our mediational analyses shows that the primary pathway by which delaying first births benefits children is by enabling mothers to complete more schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Kenneth T. H. Lee, Ariel Kalil and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Maternal Age and Child Achievement." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
7. Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Parent Income-Based Gaps in Schooling, Earnings and Family Income: Cross-Cohort Trends in the NLSYs and the PSID
Working Paper, University of California--Irvine, January 9, 2015.
Also: http://sites.uci.edu/gduncan/files/2013/06/RSF-Memo-Duncan-et-al-010815.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of California--Irvine
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Several sources of evidence point to a growing gap in the achievement and school attainment of children growing up in high vs. low-income families (Reardon, 2011; Bailey and Dynarski, 2011; Duncan et al. 2014). Given the voluminous body of research linking labor market success with test scores and, especially, completed schooling (Card, 1999), one would expect that growing parental income-based gaps in completed schooling to translate into growing gaps in children's adult earnings and family income. Surprisingly, Chetty's (2014) recent analysis of tax files indicates that this does not appear to be the case.

We take a new look at this puzzle by investigating trends in the income-based gaps in completed schooling and early- and mid-career earnings and family income using data from the two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97) as well as 31 birth cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Our procedures are detailed in an appendix.

Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Kenneth T. H. Lee, Ariel Kalil and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Parent Income-Based Gaps in Schooling, Earnings and Family Income: Cross-Cohort Trends in the NLSYs and the PSID." Working Paper, University of California--Irvine, January 9, 2015.
8. Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Rosales-Rueda, Maria Fernanda
Kalil, Ariel
Maternal Age and Child Development
Demography 55,6 (December 2018): 2229-2255.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0730-3
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Educational Attainment; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although the consequences of teen births for both mothers and children have been studied for decades, few studies have taken a broader look at the potential payoffs--and drawbacks--of being born to older mothers. A broader examination is important given the growing gap in maternal ages at birth for children born to mothers with low and high socioeconomic status. Drawing data from the Children of the NLSY79, our examination of this topic distinguishes between the value for children of being born to a mother who delayed her first birth and the value of the additional years between her first birth and the birth of the child whose achievements and behaviors at ages 10–13 are under study. We find that each year the mother delays a first birth is associated with a 0.02 to 0.04 standard deviation increase in school achievement and a similar-sized reduction in behavior problems. Coefficients are generally as large for additional years between the first and given birth. Results are fairly robust to the inclusion of cousin and sibling fixed effects, which attempt to address some omitted variable concerns. Our mediational analyses show that the primary pathway by which delaying first births benefits children is by enabling mothers to complete more years of schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Kenneth T. H. Lee, Maria Fernanda Rosales-Rueda and Ariel Kalil. "Maternal Age and Child Development." Demography 55,6 (December 2018): 2229-2255.
9. Kalil, Ariel
Khalid, Salma
Accounting for the Intergenerational Elasticity of Education: Cognitive Ability, Socioeconomic Status, Non-Cognitive Skills and Home Environment
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Education; Home Environment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Noncognitive Skills; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the NLSY97 (n= 3,459) to explore the intergenerational transmission of education from parents to their children and the factors that mediate this transmission. Children are initially observed in 1997 at ages 12-14, when measures of their cognitive abilities, family backgrounds, non-cognitive skills, and home environments are collected. Educational attainment is measured in 2007. We show a correlation of .43 between parents' and offsprings' years of education. Children's cognitive skills account for 29% of this association. However, when we expand our model to include family economic background, parents' and youth's efficacy and expectations, and measures of the home environment, we explain 60% of this correlation. Family economic background plays a comparatively greater role for less-educated families, whereas expectations figure prominently for higher-educated families. These findings are important insofar as resources, expectations, and home environments may be improved through targeted and effective child and education policy.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Salma Khalid. "Accounting for the Intergenerational Elasticity of Education: Cognitive Ability, Socioeconomic Status, Non-Cognitive Skills and Home Environment." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
10. Kalil, Ariel
Kunz, James Peter
Long-Term Effects of Teenage Childbearing on Mental Health in Young Adulthood
Presented: Evanston, IL, Nothrwestern University, Joint Center for Poverty Research: Poverty Research Seminars 2000-2001, May 2001.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/povsem/teenmoms_paper.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Family Background; Fertility; Health, Mental; Marriage; Parental Marital Status; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

High levels of depressive symptoms among teenage mothers are typically attributed to the "impact" or "consequences" of early parenting; recent studies, however, challenge the view that negative life outcomes observed among teenage childbearers are attributable to early childbearing, per se, suggesting instead that pre-childbearing selection factors play an important role. We draw on data from 609 black and white adolescents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to test the relative contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology measured during young adulthood (ages 27-29). At the univariate level, teenage childbearers display, as expected, significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms during young adulthood than women who first give birth as married adults. These differences are dramatically reduced and no longer significant once pre-childbearing individual background characteristics, measured during adolescence, are controlled. Academic achievement and self-esteem measured in early adolescence are especially important in explaining differences among the groups in mental health in later life.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and James Peter Kunz. "Long-Term Effects of Teenage Childbearing on Mental Health in Young Adulthood." Presented: Evanston, IL, Nothrwestern University, Joint Center for Poverty Research: Poverty Research Seminars 2000-2001, May 2001.
11. Kalil, Ariel
Kunz, James Peter
Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life
Child Development 73,6 (November-December 2002): 1748-1760.
Also: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-8624.00503
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Childbearing; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Household Composition; Marital Status; Mothers, Education; Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

This study examined the role of prechildbearing characteristics in later-life depressive symptomatology among 990 married and unmarried teenage childbearers. Data from teenagers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) were used to test the relative contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology measured during young adulthood (ages 27-29). Unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood than did women who first gave birth as married adults. However, the psychological health of married teenager mothers later in life was as good as that of married adult mothers, whereas unmarried adult mothers and unmarried teenage mothers had similar poor outcomes. The findings of this study suggest that marital status, rather than age of first birth, may be more relevant for later-life psychological health.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and James Peter Kunz. "Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life." Child Development 73,6 (November-December 2002): 1748-1760.
12. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): School Dropouts; School Progress; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers have been concerned with the largely unaddressed question of the links between single mother job characteristics and child well-being. In this paper, we use data from a nationally-representative sample of single mothers whose employment experiences we observe over a two-year period during the mid-to-late 1990's. We link employment patterns to change over time in multiple measures of child well-being. Controlling for background characteristics and potential selection factors, we find that, relative to being continuously employed in a good job, teens whose mothers lose a job without re-employment show a decline in self-esteem; those whose mothers are continually employed in a bad job are more at risk for grade repetition; and those whose mothers are persistently out of the labor force or lose more than one job show an increased likelihood of school drop-out. These effects are largely unexplained by changes in family income over the two-year period.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
13. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being
Working Paper No. 04-10, National Poverty Center, The University of Michigan, June 2004.
Also: http://www.npc.umich.edu/publications/workingpaper04/paper10/04-10.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Poverty Center
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Well-Being; Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); School Progress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The booming economy of the mid-to- late 1990's helped single mothers reach unprecedented employment levels. Researchers have been concerned with the largely unaddressed questions of whether single mothers who enter the workforce will be able to earn a living wage, the stability of women's jobs over time, and the links between these job characteristics and child well-being. In this paper, we use data from a nationally- representative sample of single mothers whose employment experiences we observe over a two-year period during the mid-to-late 1990's. We rely on mothers' weekly work histories to create detailed patterns of employment, which we then link to change over time in the well-being of the mothers' adolescent children. Controlling for a wide array of background characteristics and potential selection factors, we find that, relative to being continuously employed in a good job, adolescents whose mothers lose a job without regaining employment show declines in mastery and self-esteem. Those whose mothers are continuously employed in a bad job show an increase in grade repetition and those whose mothers are either persistently out of the labor force or lose more than one job show an increased likelihood of school drop-out. These effects are largely unexplained by concomitant changes in family income.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being." Working Paper No. 04-10, National Poverty Center, The University of Michigan, June 2004.
14. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being
Child Development 76,1 (January/February 2005): 196-212.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00839.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); School Completion; School Dropouts; School Progress; Self-Esteem

The links between single mothers' employment patterns and change over time in the well-being of the mothers' adolescent children were investigated using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents were ages 14 to 16 at baseline, and they and their mothers were followed for 2 years. Relative to being continuously employed in a good job, findings suggest that adolescents whose mothers lose a job without regaining employment show declines in mastery and self-esteem, those whose mothers are continuously employed in a bad job show an increased likelihood of grade repetition, and those whose mothers are either persistently unemployed or lose more than one job show an increased likelihood of school dropout. These effects are not explained by concomitant changes in family income. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being." Child Development 76,1 (January/February 2005): 196-212.
15. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Epstein, Jodie Levin
Nonstandard Work and Marital Instability: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1289-1300.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00765.x/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Characteristics; Marital Stability; Maternal Employment; Shift Workers; Unemployment; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

This article replicated and extended Harriet Presser's (2000) investigation of the linkages between nonstandard work and marital instability. We reexplored this question using data from a sample of 2,893 newlywed couples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and using different analytic techniques. In contrast to Presser, we found that the key dimension of husbands' and wives' employment was nonemployment. Similar to Presser, we found that wives' working of fixed night shifts increased the risk of divorce, driven by the experience in marriages over 5 years in duration. However, we did not replicate Presser's finding that the effect is significant only among households with children; rather, wives' fixed night shifts were associated with divorce only among those without children.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest and Jodie Levin Epstein. "Nonstandard Work and Marital Instability: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Journal of Marriage and Family 72,5 (October 2010): 1289-1300.
16. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Ryan, Rebecca M.
Markowitz, Anna J.
Changes in Income-Based Gaps in Parent Activities With Young Children From 1988 to 2012
AERA Open published online (August 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416653732.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2332858416653732
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Income; Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parent-Child Interaction; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Numerous studies show large differences between economically advantaged and disadvantaged parents in the quality and quantity of their engagement in young children's development. This "parenting gap" may account for a substantial portion of the gap in children's early cognitive skills. However, researchers know little about whether the socioeconomic gap in parenting has increased over time. The present study investigates this question, focusing on income- and education-based gaps in parents' engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with preschool-aged children. We draw on data from four national studies conducted over 25 years. We found a decrease in income-based gaps in children's book ownership and library attendance but increasing income-based gaps for several other parent behaviors, including reading and telling stories to children and teaching children letters, words, and numbers. Income-based gaps in children's participation in out-of-home cultural activities also increased. Results for education-based gaps were similar. These gaps largely arose from top-income families pulling away from their middle- and low-income counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, Rebecca M. Ryan and Anna J. Markowitz. "Changes in Income-Based Gaps in Parent Activities With Young Children From 1988 to 2012." AERA Open published online (August 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416653732.
17. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior
In: Developmental Contexts in Middle Childhood: Bridges to Adolescence and Adulthood. A. Huston and M. Ripke, eds., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006: 150-172.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Structure; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our chapter seeks to assess the extent to which the diverse contexts experienced during middle childhood matter for children's subsequent well-being. Given the established importance of genetic factors and pre-school family background conditions, the extent to which contexts during the middle childhood years play a role in shaping – the achievement and behavior trajectories established during the preschool years is far from clear.

We address three specific questions. First, how much variation in adolescents' academic achievement and problem behaviors are uniquely explained by the contexts they experience in middle childhood? Second, to the extent that middle childhood contexts matter, which contexts matter the most? And third, are the effects of contexts in middle childhood on early adolescents' outcomes different for boys and girls and for poor and middle class children?

Our answers to these questions are based on an analysis of data from a national sample of over 2,000 children followed from birth until adolescence. Family poverty, structure and home environments are measured throughout this time, enabling us to both describe the stability of contexts between early and middle childhood and assess the extent to which middle childhood contexts add to the explanation of adolescent achievement and behavior over and above early environments.

Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A., Greg J. Duncan and Ariel Kalil. "Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior" In: Developmental Contexts in Middle Childhood: Bridges to Adolescence and Adulthood. A. Huston and M. Ripke, eds., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006: 150-172.
18. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior
Working Paper, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, June 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Policy Research - Northwestern University - (formerly Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Structure; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We address three specific questions. First, how much variation in adolescents' academic achievement and problem behaviors are uniquely explained by the contexts they experience in middle childhood? Second, to the extent that middle childhood contexts matter, which contexts matter the most? And third, are the effects of contexts in middle childhood on early adolescents' outcomes different for boys and girls and for poor and middle class children?

Our answers to these questions are based on an analysis of data from a national sample of over 2,000 children followed from birth until adolescence. Family poverty, structure and home environments are measured throughout this time, enabling us to both describe the stability of contexts between early and middle childhood and assess the extent to which middle childhood contexts add to the explanation of adolescent achievement and behavior over and above early environments.

Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A., Greg J. Duncan and Ariel Kalil. "Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior." Working Paper, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, June 2003.
19. Mayer, Susan E.
Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Tepper, Robin L.
Like Mother Like Daughter: Does SES Account for the Similarity between Mothers and Daughters?
Presented: Chicago, IL, Joint Center for Poverty Research, "Family Investments in Children's Potential", Research Conference, September 2002.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/conferences/SRI_2002/mayer.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; CESD (Depression Scale); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Depression (see also CESD); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Self-Esteem; Shyness; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[This paper assesses the importance of maternal income and education to daughters' adolescent characteristics that are associated with her own future economic success. The analysis looks beyond socio-economic status to account for the strong correlations between parents' and children's educational achievement, psychological and personality characteristics, attitudes, interests, and highrisk behaviors, such as smoking, early pregnancy, or antisocial behavior. Although their findings are preliminary, they suggest a lesser role for socioeconomic status than previously thought.

Specifically, the authors find that mothers' own characteristics, measured when she herself was an adolescent, can predict her future income and education, and the latter, in turn, predict her daughter's adolescent characteristics, which presumably predict the daughter's future income and education. These findings are important for research and policy on several levels. In short, the authors argue that the importance of socioeconomic status will be overstated if researchers omit a mother's own adolescent characteristics in their measurement models.

Bibliography Citation
Mayer, Susan E., Greg J. Duncan, Ariel Kalil and Robin L. Tepper. "Like Mother Like Daughter: Does SES Account for the Similarity between Mothers and Daughters?" Presented: Chicago, IL, Joint Center for Poverty Research, "Family Investments in Children's Potential", Research Conference, September 2002.
20. Price, Joseph P.
Kalil, Ariel
The Effect of Mother-Child Reading Time on Children's Reading Skills: Evidence From Natural Within‐Family Variation
Child Development published online (28 August 2018): DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13137.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.13137
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Achievement; Parent-Child Interaction; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Children's exposure to book reading is thought to be an influential input into positive cognitive development. Yet there is little empirical research identifying whether it is reading time per se, or other factors associated with families who read, such as parental education or children's reading skill, that improves children's achievement. Using data on 4,239 children ages 0-13 of the female respondents of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study applies two different methodologies to identify the causal impact of mother-child reading time on children's achievement scores by controlling for several confounding child and family characteristics. The results show that a 1 SD increase in mother-child reading time increases children's reading achievement by 0.80 SDs.
Bibliography Citation
Price, Joseph P. and Ariel Kalil. "The Effect of Mother-Child Reading Time on Children's Reading Skills: Evidence From Natural Within‐Family Variation." Child Development published online (28 August 2018): DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13137.
21. Ryan, Rebecca M.
Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Padilla, Christina
Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011
Pediatrics 138,6 (December 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0720.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2016/11/10/peds.2016-0720.full.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Discipline; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parenting Skills/Styles; Punishment, Corporal; Socioeconomic Factors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of corporal punishment is high in the United States despite a 1998 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement urging against its use. The current study tests whether the socioeconomic difference in its use by parents has changed over the past quarter century. It goes on to test whether socioeconomic differences in the use of nonphysical discipline have also changed over time.

METHODS: Data are drawn from 4 national studies conducted between 1988 and 2011. Each asked how often a kindergarten-aged child was spanked in the past week and what the parents would do if the child misbehaved, with physical discipline, time-out, and talking to child as possible responses. We use regression models to estimate parents' responses to these questions at the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles of the income and education distributions and t tests to compare estimates across cohorts.

RESULTS: The proportion of mothers at the 50th income-percentile who endorse physical discipline decreased from 46% to 21% over time. Gaps between the 90th and 10th income-percentiles were stable at 11 and 18 percentage points in 1988 and 2011. The percentage of mothers at the 10th income-percentile endorsing time-outs increased from 51% to 71%, and the 90/10 income gap decreased from 23 to 14 percentage points between 1998 and 2011.

CONCLUSIONS: Decline in popular support for physical discipline reflects real changes in parents' discipline strategies. These changes have occurred at all socioeconomic levels, producing for some behaviors a significant reduction in socioeconomic differences.

Bibliography Citation
Ryan, Rebecca M., Ariel Kalil, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest and Christina Padilla. "Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011." Pediatrics 138,6 (December 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0720.
22. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Dunifon, Rachel
Kalil, Ariel
Parental Employment and Children's Body Weight: Mothers, Others, and Mechanisms
Social Science and Medicine 95 (October 2013): 52-59.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953612006673
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Employment; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Parental Influences; Television Viewing; Weight; Work Hours

A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother–child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M., Rachel Dunifon and Ariel Kalil. "Parental Employment and Children's Body Weight: Mothers, Others, and Mechanisms." Social Science and Medicine 95 (October 2013): 52-59.
23. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Dunifon, Rachel
Morrissey, Taryn
Kalil, Ariel
Maternal Employment and Children's Body Mass Index: Examining Developmental Timing and Explanatory Mechanisms
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Care; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Sleep; Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD); Television Viewing; Weight; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates whether mothers’ employment patterns across a child’s lifetime are associated with their children’s body mass index (BMI) and overweight at adolescence. We also examine potential mechanisms that may explain these relationships, and whether relationships vary by maternal education. We use two comprehensive, longitudinal datasets: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Children of the NLSY (N = 4,087) and the NICHD’s Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). Using multiple imputation, we conduct multivariate regression analyses predicting children’s BMI z-scores (a standardized measure of BMI by age and gender), overweight (BMI>=85th percentile for height and weight by age and gender), and obesity (BMI>=95th percentile) at adolescence from their mothers’ work hours at different developmental periods: prenatal, the first year of life, the second year, preschool (ages 3-5), middle childhood (ages 6-10), and adolescence (ages 11-13/14 or 15). A wealth of child and family characteristics are controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M., Rachel Dunifon, Taryn Morrissey and Ariel Kalil. "Maternal Employment and Children's Body Mass Index: Examining Developmental Timing and Explanatory Mechanisms." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.