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Author: Maroto, Michelle Lee
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Maroto, Michelle Lee
Pathways into Bankruptcy: Accumulating Disadvantage and the Consequences of Adverse Life Events
Sociological Inquiry 85,2 (May 2015): 183-216.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/soin.12073/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Dissolution; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Net Worth; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study combines theories of accumulating disadvantage and economic insecurity using the event of bankruptcy to investigate how certain adverse life events jointly affect inequality. I analyze National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data from 1985 through 2008 to highlight the complexities of financial hardship in the path to bankruptcy. By applying hybrid mixed effects models to parse out within- and between-person variation, I show that, in the case of bankruptcy, financial hardship unfolds over a specific series of events, which can lead to the accumulation of disadvantage connected to changes in employment, marital, and health statuses. I find that bankruptcy results from people's recent experiences of illness and marital dissolution, but not always directly from employment disruption. The effects of job loss on bankruptcy become more apparent as these events accumulate over time and limit wealth creation. The timing of events and their relationship with net worth also influence when a person will file for bankruptcy. As a whole, my findings demonstrate how adverse events and financial hardship lead to bankruptcy through multiple pathways.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "Pathways into Bankruptcy: Accumulating Disadvantage and the Consequences of Adverse Life Events." Sociological Inquiry 85,2 (May 2015): 183-216.
2. Maroto, Michelle Lee
Saving, Sharing, or Spending? The Wealth Consequences of Raising Children
Demography 55,6 (December 2018): 2257-2282.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0716-1
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Modeling, Fixed Effects; Net Worth; Parenthood; Savings; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses 1986-2012 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort data to investigate the relationship between raising children and net worth among younger Baby Boomer parents. I combine fixed-effects and unconditional quantile regression models to estimate changes in net worth associated with having children in different age groups across the wealth distribution. This allows me to test whether standard economic models for savings and consumption over the life course hold for families at different wealth levels. My findings show that the wealth effects of children vary throughout the distribution. Among families at or below the median, children of all ages were associated with wealth declines, likely due to the costs of child-rearing. However, at the 75th percentile and above, wealth increased with the presence of younger children but decreased after those children reached age 18. My results, therefore, provide evidence for a saving and investment model of child-rearing among wealthier families but not among families at or below median wealth levels. For these families, the costs of raising children largely outweighed motivations for saving.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "Saving, Sharing, or Spending? The Wealth Consequences of Raising Children." Demography 55,6 (December 2018): 2257-2282.
3. Maroto, Michelle Lee
The Absorbing Status of Incarceration and its Relationship with Wealth Accumulation
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 31,2 (June 2015): 207-236.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-014-9231-8
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Home Ownership; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Net Worth; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: This study extends our knowledge on the negative effects of incarceration to the accumulation of wealth by examining whether, how, and how much incarceration affects home ownership and net worth. It also investigates how these outcomes vary with the time since a person was incarcerated and the number of incarceration periods, along with addressing potential mechanisms behind this relationship.

Methods: I apply hybrid mixed effects models that disaggregate within- and between person variation to investigate incarceration’s relationship with home ownership and net worth, using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data from 1985 to 2008. I also incorporate a set of mediation models in order to test for indirect effects of incarceration on wealth through earnings, health, and family formation.

Results: My results show that incarceration limits wealth accumulation. Compared to never-incarcerated persons, ex-offenders are less likely to own their homes by an average of 5 percentage points, and their probability of home ownership decreases by an additional 28 percentage points after incarceration. Ex-offenders’ net worth also decreases by an average of $42,000 in the years after incarceration.

Conclusions: When combined with previous research on incarceration, my findings show that incarceration acts as an absorbing status, potentially leading to the accumulation of disadvantage. Although incarceration’s negative effects on wealth accumulation were partially mediated by its relationship with earnings and family formation, incarceration directly affected home ownership and net worth. In most cases, former inmates began with flatter wealth trajectories and experienced additional losses after incarceration.

Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "The Absorbing Status of Incarceration and its Relationship with Wealth Accumulation." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 31,2 (June 2015): 207-236.
4. Maroto, Michelle Lee
The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Earnings; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Multilevel; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although the labor market functions as the primary mechanism for the distribution of resources in the United States, credit markets can also enhance, maintain, or reduce inequality. My project uses the event of bankruptcy to investigate how credit and labor markets jointly affect inequality. I apply fixed effects and multilevel models to two longitudinal datasets, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), which I have combined with state-level bankruptcy data. My findings support a general model of cumulative disadvantage across spheres in which bankruptcy tends to be sparked by adverse events combined with a high debt burden. After declaring bankruptcy, bankrupters earn less and spend more time out of work than non-bankrupters, net of their prior labor market statuses. Interestingly, bankruptcy has similar causes and consequences for respondents in this sample regardless of their race, ethnicity, or sex.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2012.
5. Maroto, Michelle Lee
The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage Across Credit and Labor Markets
Social Forces, 91,1 (September 2012): 99-130.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/social_forces/v091/91.1.maroto.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Earnings; Labor Force Participation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect through the event of bankruptcy to disadvantage certain individuals over time. The transmission of bankruptcy’s stigma across markets occurs in a specific legal setting where, even though the current U.S. Bankruptcy Code grants bankrupters a fresh start through debt forgiveness, the Fair Credit Reporting Act limits bankrupters’ ability to begin anew because it permits employers to access credit reports. My findings highlight these ambiguities and show that, net of their previous labor market statuses, bankrupters spend less time working and have lower earnings than nonbankrupters. Thus, having become bankrupt exposes people to subsequent disadvantage in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage Across Credit and Labor Markets." Social Forces, 91,1 (September 2012): 99-130.
6. Maroto, Michelle Lee
When the Kids Come Home: Coresidence with Adult Children and Its Influence on Parental Wealth
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Household Composition; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Net Worth; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1979 cohort data from 1985 through 2012 to investigate how coresidence with adult children influences wealth levels among baby boomer parents. I apply hybrid-mixed effects regression models that partition between- and within-person variation to estimate household equivalent net worth across a set of covariates. By expanding previous research that shows a relationship between increasing economic security, limited wealth, and the rise in multigenerational households among millennials, this study offers broader implications for the interconnectivity of debt and financial hardship across generations. My results show that coresidence with adult children – particularly those over age 25 – was negatively associated with net worth in multiple ways. On average, individuals living with adult children held less wealth than otherwise similar individuals, and these individuals saw their wealth decrease once their children moved back home. Although the effects were largest for non-Hispanic white households, coresidence with adult children led to wealth declines across racial and ethnic groups.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "When the Kids Come Home: Coresidence with Adult Children and Its Influence on Parental Wealth." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
7. Maroto, Michelle Lee
When the Kids Live at Home: Coresidence, Parental Assets, and Economic Insecurity
Journal of Marriage and Family 79,4 (August 2017): 1041-1059.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12407/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Assets; Coresidence; Economic Changes/Recession; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Savings

This study uses National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort data from 1994 through 2012 (N = 16,108 person-years, 4,671 individuals) to investigate how coresidence with adult children influences asset levels among parents. It applies hybrid mixed effects regression models that partition between- and within-person variation to estimate parental savings and financial assets over time and across different households. The results suggest that coresidence with adult children led to decreases in parental assets and savings. In the years in which their children lived at home, parents held 24% less in financial assets and 23% less in savings when compared with the years when adult children were not present. By expanding previous research that shows a relationship between increasing economic insecurity, limited wealth, and the rise in coresidence among young adults, this study also offers broader implications for the interconnectivity of financial hardship across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "When the Kids Live at Home: Coresidence, Parental Assets, and Economic Insecurity." Journal of Marriage and Family 79,4 (August 2017): 1041-1059.
8. Maroto, Michelle Lee
Serafini, Brian
Different Story, Same Ending: Family-related Gender Earnings Penalties and Premiums Across Two Generations
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent research suggests that the gender gap in earnings has almost vanished among young millennials, who comprise the youngest cohort of workers born between 1980 and 1984. Nevertheless, women in this cohort still report lingering sources of gender inequity, particularly in terms of the work-family conflicts that have also plagued baby boomer women. We apply hybrid mixed effects models to two longitudinal surveys – the NLSY 1979 baby boomer cohort, and the NLSY1997 millennial cohort - to compare earnings disparities by gender, marriage, and parental status for young workers. These models allow us to parse out between-gender differences in earnings and changes over time within respondents’ earnings that coincide with marriage and childbirth. Our findings show that between-gender inequalities have become less pronounced compared to those observed among the boomer generation, suggesting that millennial wives, mothers, and, most notably, single women have made some labor market gains. However, marriage and parenthood effects that reward men and disadvantage women still persist and explain much of the within-gender inequality that occurs with changing family responsibilities. Finally, we find that the timing of family transition is an important determinant of future earnings, especially among young women.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee and Brian Serafini. "Different Story, Same Ending: Family-related Gender Earnings Penalties and Premiums Across Two Generations." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
9. Maroto, Michelle Lee
Serafini, Brian
The Declining Significance of Parenthood? Effects of Parental Status on Wages for Young Adults Across Generations
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Fatherhood; Motherhood; Mothers, Income; Parenthood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although many studies demonstrate motherhood penalties and fatherhood premiums, most rely on data from older cohorts of workers, and questions remain as to whether parenthood still leads to the same earnings disparities for millennial workers as it has for the baby boomer cohort. To answer these questions, this paper presents results from cross-cohort analyses of NLSY 1979 and 1997 data that compare family earnings disparities among young workers. We combine modeling strategies to highlight trends across cohorts, tease out composition and "price" effects, and account for selection factors. We find that, while parenthood continues to pattern the earnings of younger-aged workers, the nature of these effects has changed over time. The motherhood penalty has declined, largely because mothers increased their work hours and work experience, but the fatherhood premium remains unchanged. Finally, we conclude that different selection processes into parenthood likely play a role in its changing effects on earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee and Brian Serafini. "The Declining Significance of Parenthood? Effects of Parental Status on Wages for Young Adults Across Generations." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
10. Maroto, Michelle Lee
Sykes, Bryan L.
The Varying Effects of Incarceration, Conviction, and Arrest on Wealth Outcomes Among Young Adults
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Assets; Criminal Justice System; Debt/Borrowing; Home Ownership; Incarceration/Jail; Net Worth; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do interactions with the criminal justice system influence wealth accumulation among young adults? Previous research using NLSY79 data indicates that incarceration leads to declines in rates of homeownership and net worth among baby boomers, but questions remain as to how other interactions with the criminal justice system affect wealth outcomes. Using data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we expand on previous work and study how arrests, convictions, and incarceration periods influence a variety of wealth outcomes among younger adults. In particular, we investigate how wealth accumulation between the ages of 25 and 30 varies across individuals with a previous incarceration, conviction, or arrest. We emphasize a broad conception of wealth and include six outcome variables as measures of wealth accumulation: home ownership, total net worth, any financial assets, logged total financial assets, any debt, and logged total debt. Although most interactions with the criminal justice system were negatively associated with future wealth in our preliminary analyses, incarceration presented some of the strongest effects. Our findings lend further support showing that incarceration, along with other interactions with the criminal justice system, can act as absorbing statuses, potentially leading to the accumulation of disadvantage. [Also presented at Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017]
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee and Bryan L. Sykes. "The Varying Effects of Incarceration, Conviction, and Arrest on Wealth Outcomes Among Young Adults." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.