Search Results

Author: Shafer, Kevin M.
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. Jensen, Todd M.
Shafer, Kevin M.
Stepfamily Functioning and Closeness: Children's Views on Second Marriages and Stepfather Relationships
Social Work 58,2 (April 2013): 127-136.
Also: http://sw.oxfordjournals.org/content/58/2/127
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Divorce; Family Decision-making/Conflict; Family Structure; Fathers; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Religion; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Current research on stepfamily well-being often overlooks the perspective of children, and deals primarily with factors as reported by the adults involved. The authors examine a number of family role characteristics, parental subsystem characteristics, and resources that might influence how children perceive the quality of their stepfamily relationships. A sample of 1,088 children in households with a mother and stepfather, ages 10 to 16 years, in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort—Children and Young Adult Sample, is used for the analyses. Results indicate that open communication between children and their mothers, low amounts of arguing between mothers and stepfathers, along with agreement on parenting, and gender, all affect the closeness children report having with their stepfathers. Conclusions, limitations, and clinical implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Jensen, Todd M. and Kevin M. Shafer. "Stepfamily Functioning and Closeness: Children's Views on Second Marriages and Stepfather Relationships." Social Work 58,2 (April 2013): 127-136.
2. Pace, Garrett T.
Shafer, Kevin M.
Divorce, Cohabitation and Remarriage: The Association of (Step)Children and Adult Depression
Presented: San Diego CA, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Depression (see also CESD); Divorce; Remarriage; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Method: Data were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of adults born between 1957 and 1965. Data were collected annually until 1994 and biannually since. Respondents (n = 1,561) had each divorced at T1 (age 27-37), and were continuously divorced (27%), cohabiting (12%), or remarried (61%) at T2 (age 40 or 50). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) and dichotomized as “high depressive symptoms” and “low depressive symptoms.” Children were categorized as stepchild in household, biological child from previous relationship in household, or new child with partner. Data were analyzed using logistic regression with odds ratios.

Results: Respondents tended to experience less depressive symptoms during their new relationship than previously during divorce. Also, compared to the continuously divorced, cohabiting and remarried respondents had approximately 38% lower odds of high depressive symptoms (p < .05). Those who had a new child with their new partner while a stepchild was already present in the home were 4.614 times more likely to have high depressive symptoms than those without children (p < .01). Respondents who had a new child in the first year of their new relationship had a very low likelihood of depressive symptoms; however, the odds increased by 10.4% for each year they waited to have a new child together.

Bibliography Citation
Pace, Garrett T. and Kevin M. Shafer. "Divorce, Cohabitation and Remarriage: The Association of (Step)Children and Adult Depression." Presented: San Diego CA, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2013.
3. Pace, Garrett T.
Shafer, Kevin M.
Parenting and Depression: Differences Across Parental Roles
Journal of Family Issues 36,8 (June 2015): 1001-1021.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/36/8/1001.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Children; Depression (see also CESD); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenthood; Parenting Skills/Styles; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Few empirical studies have examined the association between parenthood and psychological well-being. Using NLSY79 data (n = 6,297), we examined how various parental roles, or specific parent–child relationship types, were associated with depressive symptoms in adults. We hypothesized that less traditional and more complex parental roles would be associated with higher depressive symptoms. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that having a stepchild was associated with higher depressive symptoms, regardless of the stepchild’s residential status. Additionally, certain combinations of parental roles were a risk factor for depressive symptoms, including having a biological child residing in the home and another biological child residing outside the home simultaneously, a biological child and a stepchild residing together (with or without a new biological child), and having more than two combined parental roles in general. Findings suggested certain parental roles are indeed associated with higher depressive symptoms, while others may be null relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Pace, Garrett T. and Kevin M. Shafer. "Parenting and Depression: Differences Across Parental Roles." Journal of Family Issues 36,8 (June 2015): 1001-1021.
4. Painter, Matthew A. II
Shafer, Kevin M.
Children, Family Size Change, and Household Wealth Trajectories
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=70861
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Family Size; Hispanics; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Wealth inequality continues to play an increasingly important role in the overall American stratification picture. Previous research tends to examine early childhood and adolescent processes that influence adult wealth accumulation to the exclusion of influential adult life course effects. One important aspect of adulthood is having children and the transition to parenthood, which can affect numerous outcomes, including wealth trajectories. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (NLSY79), and latent-growth curve modeling techniques, we look at the direct effect of family size on wealth and at potential family-size threshold effects in wealth accumulation. Furthermore, we assess racial and ethnic differences between Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in the effect of family size on wealth. Finally, we disaggregate net worth into its two component parts, financial and non-fungible wealth in order to evaluate the effect of family size and family change on each resource pool.
Bibliography Citation
Painter, Matthew A. II and Kevin M. Shafer. "Children, Family Size Change, and Household Wealth Trajectories." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
5. Painter, Matthew A. II
Shafer, Kevin M.
Children, Race/Ethnicity, and Marital Wealth Accumulation in Black and Hispanic Households
Journal of Comparative Family Studies 42,2 (March 2011): 145-169.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/41604430
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Dr. George Kurian
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Family Size; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As wealth inequality in the United States continues to grow, family characteristics have become increasingly important to researchers' understanding of changes in wealth inequality over time. One aspect of adulthood is having children and transitioning to parenthood, which can affect numerous outcomes, including wealth trajectories. Due to widely-recognized structural constraints, black and Hispanic households generally have fewer financial resources to draw upon when they begin to have children. Therefore, existing racial/ethnic wealth inequality may increase when minority families have children. We use growth curve modeling techniques to analyze a sample of continuously married couples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort. Results suggest that children affect family financial resources in different ways and that this effect varies by race and ethnicity. These findings improve our understanding of how a similar family event-having children-within families contributes to divergent financial outcomes between families.
Bibliography Citation
Painter, Matthew A. II and Kevin M. Shafer. "Children, Race/Ethnicity, and Marital Wealth Accumulation in Black and Hispanic Households." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 42,2 (March 2011): 145-169.
6. Seipel, Michael M. O.
Shafer, Kevin M.
The Effect of Prenatal and Postnatal Care on Childhood Obesity
Social Work 58,3 (July 2013): 241-252.
Also: http://sw.oxfordjournals.org/content/58/3/241.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Childhood obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. If this problem is unresolved, some children will be at risk for disorders such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer and will become a high economic and social burden for society. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child and Young Adult sample (N = 6,643), this study examined the relationship between the effect of pre- and postnatal characteristics and obesity. The findings of this study show that the probability of childhood obesity can be lessened if pregnant women do not smoke and do not gain significant pregnancy-related weight. Moreover, breast feeding and health insurance were also found to be correlated to avoiding childhood obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Seipel, Michael M. O. and Kevin M. Shafer. "The Effect of Prenatal and Postnatal Care on Childhood Obesity." Social Work 58,3 (July 2013): 241-252.
7. Shafer, Kevin M.
Disentangling the Relationship Between Age and Marital History in Age-Assortative Mating
Marriage and Family Review 49,1 (2013): 83-114.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01494929.2012.728557
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Dating; Divorce; Remarriage

Many scholars have noted that divorcees have age-assortative mating patterns distinct from the never-married. Similarly, comparisons between older and younger individuals indicate that hypergamy becomes increasingly likely with age. Unfortunately, prior research has not been able to disentangle the effects of age from the effect of divorce. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (n = 12,231 for first marriage and 4,298 for remarriage) and heterogeneous choice models, this research predicted the likelihood of age homogamy and hypergamy as a function of age, marital history, and other factors. The results indicate that homogamy is largely an age-driven phenomena, where the never-married and previously married have similar patterns. However, the likelihood of hypergamy is higher for the previously married, even after accounting for the influence of age in the models.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. "Disentangling the Relationship Between Age and Marital History in Age-Assortative Mating." Marriage and Family Review 49,1 (2013): 83-114.
8. Shafer, Kevin M.
Gender Differences in Remarriage: Marriage Formation and Assortative Mating After Divorce
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Divorce; Economic Well-Being; Economics of Gender; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Remarriage; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Divorce and subsequent remarriage have become an important part of American family life in recent decades. Divorce has negative consequences for mental health, physical health, overall well-being, and economic well-being. Remarriage can help divorcees overcome many of these problems, especially financial difficulties. However, there are significant gender differences in the likelihood of remarriage. Men are much more likely to remarry than women. This gender gap has important micro- and macro-level social implications. At the individual level, gender differences in remarriage mean that men are more likely to regain the benefits associated with marriage, including economic benefits, at higher rates than women. At the macro-level, some family scholars argue that first marriage has increasingly resembled remarriage in recent decades (Popenoe 1993; Cherlin 2004). In first marriage, both men's and women's socioeconomic status is positively associated with first marriage formation and both educational and age homogamy--a move away from traditional marriage where men's, but not women's, economic status was important in the marriage market. However, empirical work focusing on the claim that first marriage and remarriage formation are similar is lacking because little is known about remarriage formation patterns.

I focus on two aspects of remarriage formation to understand how remarriage patterns compare to first marriage formation. First, I analyze the individual characteristics associated with the likelihood of remarriage for men and women. I pay particular attention to socioeconomic status (income, labor force status, and educational attainment), first marriage ties (co-residential children) and time since divorce as important factors in the remarriage market. Second, I examine educational and age assortative mating patterns in second marriages to identify whether remarriage follows a more contemporary homogamous pattern or a more traditional form where men m arry less-educated and younger women. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (NLSY79) to answer these questions.

The results show remarriage formation patterns consistent with traditional first marriages where current and long-term economic status has a positive effect on remarriage for men, but not for women. For women, family background, race/ethnicity, age and parental status are associated with remarriage. The analysis of assortative mating shows that high-status men tend to marry less-educated, young women and both educational and age homogamy is unlikely for both men and women, regardless of socioeconomic status. These patterns are different from those present in contemporary first marriages where both men and women emphasize on spousal economic status as valuable traits. These findings suggest that remarriage differs from first marriage in its likelihood and assortative mating patterns and provide a foundation for future work to incorporate gender dynamics in research on remarriage.

Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. Gender Differences in Remarriage: Marriage Formation and Assortative Mating After Divorce. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 2009.
9. Shafer, Kevin M.
Reconsidering Marital Exchange: A Comparison of First Marriage and Remarriage Patterns in the United States
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Marriage; Parenthood; Remarriage; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Divorce and subsequent remarriage have become an important part of American family life in recent decades. However, there are significant gender differences in the likelihood and formation of remarriage. In first marriage, both men's and women's socioeconomic status is positively associated with first marriage formation—a move away from traditional marriage where men's, but not women's, economic status was important in the marriage market. However, empirical work focusing on the claim that first marriage and remarriage formation are similar is lacking. In this paper I analyze the individual characteristics associated with the likelihood of remarriage for men and women. The preliminary results show remarriage patterns consistent with traditional marriages where economic status has a positive effect on remarriage for men, but not for women. For women, family background, race/ethnicity, age and parental status are associated with remarriage. These results call for additional analyses which directly compare first marriage and remarriage.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. "Reconsidering Marital Exchange: A Comparison of First Marriage and Remarriage Patterns in the United States." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
10. Shafer, Kevin M.
Social Exchange in Remarriage: Are Marriages More Traditional the Second Time Around?
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Marriage; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Divorce and subsequent remarriage have become an important part of American family life in recent decades. However, there are significant gender differences in the likelihood and formation of remarriage. In first marriage, both men's and women's socioeconomic status is positively associated with first marriage formation—a move away from traditional marriage where men's, but not women's, economic status was important in the marriage market. However, empirical work focusing on the claim that first marriage and remarriage formation are similar is lacking. In this paper I analyze the individual characteristics associated with the likelihood of remarriage for men and women. The results indicate that remarriage formation is consistent with traditional marriages where economic status has a positive effect on remarriage for men, but not for women. Instead, women’s remarriage chances are associated with family background, race/ethnicity, age and parental status are associated with remarriage. These findings are particularly robust in light that first marriage patterns between the continuously married and divorced are similar and less gendered than remarriage.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. "Social Exchange in Remarriage: Are Marriages More Traditional the Second Time Around?" Presented: Atlanta GA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2010.
11. Shafer, Kevin M.
Unique Matching Patterns in Remarriage: Educational Assortative Mating Among Divorced Men and Women
Journal of Family Issues 34,11 (November 2013): 1500-1535.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/34/11/1500.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Attainment; Marriage; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Educational assortative mating is a crucial aspect of marriage formation because it confers benefits such as improved health and well-being, affects economic standing, and reflects the level of gender equity within marriage. However, little is known about educational assortative mating patterns in remarriage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort, this study addresses this shortcoming in two ways. First, I compare educational assortative mating patterns in first and second marriages. Second, I address characteristics associated with homogamy, hypergamy, and hypogamy in remarriage. The results show that assortative mating patterns in remarriage are distinct from those in first marriage, remarriage patterns are unique by educational attainment and gender, and these patterns are not explained by differences in income, age, or parental status. The results illustrate the need for theories which specifically address the unique nature of remarriage in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. "Unique Matching Patterns in Remarriage: Educational Assortative Mating Among Divorced Men and Women." Journal of Family Issues 34,11 (November 2013): 1500-1535.
12. Shafer, Kevin M.
James, Spencer
Gender and Socioeconomic Status Differences in First and Second Marriage Formation
Journal of Marriage and Family 75,3 (June 2013): 544-564.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12024/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Divorce; Gender Differences; Life Course; Marital Status; Marriage; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

In this article, we address how first and second marriages are formed by asking whether SES has similar effects on first and second marriage entry. Like many studies of first marriage, we focus on gender, socioeconomic characteristics (education, income, and employment status), and gender differences in the effect of SES. To examine this question, we use the NLSY79 (n = 12,231 never-married and 3,695 divorced persons), discrete-time logistic regression, and heterogeneous choice models to test for statistically significant differences by gender and between first and second marriages. Our models show gender differences in first and second marriage entry, that the effect of SES on marriage entry differs between first and second marriage, and that the interaction between gender and SES has a unique association with marital entry for never- and previously married individuals. Our results have implications for understanding marriage formation, stratification across the life course, and the well-being of divorced persons who remarry.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. and Spencer James. "Gender and Socioeconomic Status Differences in First and Second Marriage Formation." Journal of Marriage and Family 75,3 (June 2013): 544-564.
13. Shafer, Kevin M.
Pace, Garrett T.
Gender Differences in Depression across Parental Roles
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Gender Differences; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (i.e., biological parent and stepparent). We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY, n= 6276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, we explore potential gender differences. Our results indicate that numerous parental roles are negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, while childlessness is negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the U.S., these results help us understand any link how gendered parental roles can influence mental health.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. and Garrett T. Pace. "Gender Differences in Depression across Parental Roles." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
14. Shafer, Kevin M.
Standiford, Kyle
Hathcock, Russell, Ii,
Age Assortative Mating in Second Marriages after Divorce
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Childbearing; Divorce; Fertility; Gender Differences; Homogamy; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although remarriage after divorce is common in the United States, few studies have focused on the remarriage process. We address this shortcoming by focusing on age assortative mating patterns among remarried men and women using NLSY79. We pay particular attention to the effects of socioeconomic status, fertility intention, fertility history, and age on differences in age marital sorting. Our results indicate that each has important effects on age assortative mating for both men and women, though important gender differences are observed. Specifically, homogamy and hypergamy are most common among men, though the likelihood of each outcome varies across our key variables. Among women, remarriage is less common and age assortative mating outcomes are strongly related to age, while fertility intentions, fertility history, and socioeconomic status have smaller effects on sorting. The results have implications for understanding the remarriage market, gender dynamics in remarriage, and childbearing after divorce are considered.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M., Kyle Standiford and Russell Hathcock. "Age Assortative Mating in Second Marriages after Divorce." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.