Search Results

Author: Pavalko, Eliza K.
Resulting in 25 citations.
1. Artis, Julie E.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Explaining The Decline In Women's Household Labor: Individual Change and Cohort Differences
Journal of Marriage and Family 65,3 (August 2003): 746-762.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00746.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings, Wives; Housework/Housewives; Life Course; Marital Status; Women

Women's hours of housework have declined, but does this change represent shifts in the behavior of individuals or differences across cohorts? Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, individual and cohort change in housework are examined over a 13-year period. Responsibility for household tasks declined 10% from 1974-75 to 1987-88. For individual women, changes in housework are associated with life course shifts in time availability as well as with changes in gender attitudes and marital status, but are not related to changes in relative earnings. Cohort differences exist in responsibility for housework in the mid-1970s and they persist over the 13-year period. Overall, these findings suggest that aggregate changes in women's household labor reflect both individual change and cohort differences. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Artis, Julie E. and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Explaining The Decline In Women's Household Labor: Individual Change and Cohort Differences." Journal of Marriage and Family 65,3 (August 2003): 746-762.
2. Caputo, Jennifer
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Midlife Work and Women's Long-Term Health and Mortality
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mortality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While paid work is a well-established predictor of health, several gaps in our knowledge about the relationship between work and later health and mortality remain, including whether these benefits remain stable over long periods and whether they are dependent on job characteristics and experiences. We draw on over three decades of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women to assess how labor force participation over a period of twenty years during midlife affects mental and physical health and mortality over the following fourteen to twenty-three years. We find that persistent work earlier in life continues to predict improved health and longevity many years later as women pass retirement, even after accounting for many health-linked variations in this work experiences and the presence of later life work. These findings add to knowledge about the cumulative nature through which key adult social experiences shape health as individuals enter later life. Note: A similar paper was presented in Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
Bibliography Citation
Caputo, Jennifer, Eliza K. Pavalko and Melissa A. Hardy. "Midlife Work and Women's Long-Term Health and Mortality." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
3. Caputo, Jennifer
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Midlife Work and Women's Long-Term Health and Mortality
Demography 57 (2020): 373-402.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-019-00839-6
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mortality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although paid work is a well-established predictor of health, several gaps in our knowledge about the relationship between adult work patterns and later health and mortality remain, including whether these benefits persist over long periods and whether they are dependent on subjective experiences with work. We draw on more than three decades of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women to assess how labor force participation over a period of 20 years during midlife is related to mental and physical health and mortality over the following 16-25 years. We find that consistent work earlier in life continues to predict improved health and longevity over many years as women enter late life, and this relationship does not differ between women with positive and those with negative subjective work experiences. These findings add to knowledge about how key adult social experiences are related to health as individuals enter later life.
Bibliography Citation
Caputo, Jennifer, Eliza K. Pavalko and Melissa A. Hardy. "Midlife Work and Women's Long-Term Health and Mortality." Demography 57 (2020): 373-402.
4. Caputo, Jennifer
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Hardy, Melissa A.
The Long-Term Effects of Caregiving on Women's Health and Mortality
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1382-1398.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12332/abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Caregivers, Adult Children; Depression (see also CESD); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Mortality

Caregivers experience numerous mental and physical health effects from the stress of providing care, but we know little about whether these problems persist in the long term and whether long-term effects differ across caregiving contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examined the relationship between caregiving and long-term patterns of depressive symptoms, functional limitations, and mortality. We also explored the health effects of caregiving in-home versus out-of-home and by caregiver/care-recipient relationship. Analyses show that in-home spousal and parental caregiving predict increased depressive symptoms and functional limitations in the long term but are unassociated with mortality, whereas caregiving outside the home is unassociated with later depression and functional limitations but predicts a lower risk of mortality. This study highlights the usefulness of approaching stressful experiences such as caregiving from the life course perspective, viewing them as processes that unfold over time within specific contexts that may carry delayed or cumulative consequences.
Bibliography Citation
Caputo, Jennifer, Eliza K. Pavalko and Melissa A. Hardy. "The Long-Term Effects of Caregiving on Women's Health and Mortality." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1382-1398.
5. Gee, Gilbert C.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Long, J. Scott
Age, Cohort and Perceived Age Discrimination: Using the Life Course to Assess Self-reported Age Discrimination
Social Forces 86,1 (September 2007): 265-290.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4495036
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Discrimination, Age; Gender Differences; Life Course; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Self-reported discrimination is linked to diminished well-being, but the processes generating these reports remain poorly understood. Employing the life course perspective, this paper examines the correspondence between expected age preferences for workers and perceived age discrimination among a nationally representative sample of 7,225 working women, followed between 1972-1989. Analyses find that perceived age discrimination is high in the 20s, drops in the 30s and peaks in the 50s. This curvilinear pattern matches external reports of age preferences and is robust to a variety of controls and model specifications. Additionally, the primary driver of perceived age discrimination is age--not cohort or historical period. These findings suggest that perceived age discrimination is a useful indicator of population-level exposure to work-related age discrimination among women. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Social Forces is the property of University of North Carolina Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Longitudinal data from the Mature and Young Women's Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) are used to examine reports of discrimination between 1972 and 1988. Unlike previous cross-sectional studies of age discrimination, the NLS cohorts allow us to follow a nationally representative sample of U,S. women spanning several birth cohorts.

Bibliography Citation
Gee, Gilbert C., Eliza K. Pavalko and J. Scott Long. "Age, Cohort and Perceived Age Discrimination: Using the Life Course to Assess Self-reported Age Discrimination." Social Forces 86,1 (September 2007): 265-290.
6. Hardy, Melissa A.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
The Internal Structure of Self-Reported Health Measures Among Older Workers and Retirees
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 27,4 (December 1986): 346-357.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2136949
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Health Factors; Mobility; Occupational Status; Retirees; Retirement; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the internal structure of the self-reported health measures available in the 1976 wave of the NLS of Older Men. In assessing the relationship between a measure of work-limitations and a set of health factors based on reports of specific symptoms, activity limitations and problematic work conditions, it was found that physical symptoms and activity limitations were especially strong predictors of reported health conditions that limit the respondent's ability to perform on the job. The mix of specific symptom/condition/activity limitations associated with reported work limitations differs not only by occupational category, but by retirement status as well, in that employed workers in lower blue-collar positions were less likely to report work limitations when they said they experienced several symptoms of weakness/fatigue or mobility restrictions. The authors interpret the results as supportive of the notion that the evaluative context invoked by a health question can influence the consistency of the health reports obtained from respondents.
Bibliography Citation
Hardy, Melissa A. and Eliza K. Pavalko. "The Internal Structure of Self-Reported Health Measures Among Older Workers and Retirees." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 27,4 (December 1986): 346-357.
7. Kleiner, Sibyl
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Clocking In: The Organization of Work Time and Health in the United States
Social Forces 88,3 (March 2010): 1463-1486.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/sof/summary/v088/88.3.kleiner.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Family Characteristics; Health Factors; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Characteristics; Obesity; Part-Time Work; Stress; Time Use; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article assesses the health implications of emerging patterns in the organization of work time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine general mental and physical health (SF-12 scores), psychological distress (CESD score), clinical levels of obesity, and the presence of medical conditions, at age 40. Overall, we find that health varies more across work hours than across types of shifts, and part-time workers report worse physical and emotional health than full-time workers. However, controlling for individual, family and job characteristics explains the poorer health observed among part-time workers. Those who are satisfied with their jobs, have more education, or have an employed spouse, report better health, while women and those with a prior health limitation report worse health. After taking these factors into account, we find a curvilinear relationship between work hours and health, with those working between 40 and 59 hours per week reporting worse mental and physical health than those working 40 hours per week. We also find that obesity differs from current health problems in its relationship to work time. Those who work part-time or fixed-hour schedules are less likely to be obese, suggesting that long-term health risks operating through obesity, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, are affected by time availability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Social Forces is the property of University of North Carolina Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Kleiner, Sibyl and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Clocking In: The Organization of Work Time and Health in the United States." Social Forces 88,3 (March 2010): 1463-1486.
8. Kleiner, Sibyl
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Double Time: Is Health Affected by a Spouse's Time at Work?
Social Forces 92,3 (March 2014): 983-1007.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/92/3/983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Exercise; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Husbands; Stress; Wives; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The amount of time families spend at work increased substantially over the course of the 20th century, but the health implications of these shifts remain poorly understood. Using the NLSY79, we examine potential consequences of men's and women's work time on the health of their spouse. We also investigate three mechanisms through which spousal hours might affect health: resources from the job, stress, and time for physical activity and exercise. Husbands' long (50+) hours predict better health for wives, due in part to greater resources. Wives' moderately long (41–49) hours of work predict worse health for husbands, due in part to husbands' reduced exercise time. Our gendered findings highlight persistent inequities in work and family life that constrain the family health–promoting benefits of women's labor.
Bibliography Citation
Kleiner, Sibyl and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Double Time: Is Health Affected by a Spouse's Time at Work?" Social Forces 92,3 (March 2014): 983-1007.
9. Long, J. Scott
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Life Course of Activity Limitations: Exploring Indicators of Functional Limitations over Time
Journal of Aging and Health 16,4 (August 2004): 490-517.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=13866432&db=aph
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Leisure; Scale Construction; Social Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To strengthen the foundations for the use of survey-based measures of functional limitations and to explore associations between limitations in a variety of activities across the adult life course. Method: Five panels of data from the young and mature women's cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys are used to (a) examine patterns of limitations in activities as women age, (b) compare how limitations develop over the life course, (c) explore how limitations in one activity are associated with limitations in others, and (d) investigate whether limitations develop incrementally or occur in clusters. Results: We find that scales of functional limitations are not dependent on the age of the respondent, activity limitations emerge in clusters, and relationships between items do not consistently fall into upper and lower body groups. Discussion: Scales of functional limitations are equally applicable to younger and older women, but further research is needed to compare substantive results using different methods of scale construction. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Long, J. Scott and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Life Course of Activity Limitations: Exploring Indicators of Functional Limitations over Time." Journal of Aging and Health 16,4 (August 2004): 490-517.
10. McLeod, Jane D.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
From Selection Effects to Reciprocal Processes: What Does Attention to the Life Course Offer?
Advances in Life Course Research: Stress Processes Across the Life Course 13 (2008): 75-104.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104026080800004X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Mental Health; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Stress

In this chapter, we review how the term ‘‘selection effects’’ has been used by researchers, what processes are implied by the term, and how analyses of selection effects can contribute to our understanding of the associations between socially structured experience and individual health and wellbeing. Our review draws on the life course perspective to suggest that selection effects represent more complex processes than are often recognized and to create a template for more nuanced analyses of those processes. Through logical arguments and examples, we build the case for a sociological research agenda on selection processes equivalent in importance and relevance to our long tradition of research on social causation.
Bibliography Citation
McLeod, Jane D. and Eliza K. Pavalko. "From Selection Effects to Reciprocal Processes: What Does Attention to the Life Course Offer? ." Advances in Life Course Research: Stress Processes Across the Life Course 13 (2008): 75-104.
11. Meyer, Madonna Harrington
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Family, Work, and Access to Health Insurance Among Mature Women
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 37,4 (December 1996): 311-325.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2137259
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Employment, History; Family Characteristics; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Life Cycle Research; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Wives

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use a life course approach to address much ignored variation in access to health insurance. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we reinterpret the role of both family and employment characteristics in shaping coverage. Mature women are more likely to be insured as wives than as workers, but that safety net is only available to married women. As a result, unmarried women are two to three times as likely to be uninsured or to rely on public programs such as Medicaid. And because they are significantly less likely to be married to a covered worker, Black women are two to three times more likely to be uninsured or to rely on public programs. Given rising instability in employment and marital status across the life course, stable health insurance coverage can only be attained by universal rather than employment-based or family-based schemes. (AUTHOR)
Bibliography Citation
Meyer, Madonna Harrington and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Family, Work, and Access to Health Insurance Among Mature Women." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 37,4 (December 1996): 311-325.
12. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Artis, Julie E.
Caregiving and Paid Work in Women's Lives
Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Disability; Employment; Employment, History; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Retirement; Women; Work History; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Care of an ill or disabled family member or friend is disproportionately done by women, typically in late mid-life. Because this is also a time in the life course when women's labor force participation peaks, many women faced with caregiving demands have to decide how to balance them with their employment. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women are used to examined the relationship between employment & caring for an ill or disabled friend or relative over a 3-year period. It is found that the relationship between caregiving & employment is complex. Employed women are as likely as nonemployed women to start caregiving, but among the employed, work history is related to starting caregiving. Starting caregiving has a strong effecton reduction in employment hours, & these hours are not regained after women stop caregiving. Hour reductions among caregivers are not affected by the woman's attitudes toward her paid work, her proximity to retirement, or her prior employment history. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K. and Julie E. Artis. "Caregiving and Paid Work in Women's Lives." Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996.
13. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Artis, Julie E.
Women's Caregiving and Paid Work: Causal Relationships in Late Midlife
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 52B,4 (July 1997): S170-S179.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/52B/4/S170.abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Part-Time Work

Used 1984 and 1987 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women to examine the causal relationship between employment and caring for an ill or disabled friend or relative over the 3 yr. period, and to study the ways these women balanced their caregiving demands and their employment. A total of 3,147 women participated in both the 1984 and 1987 samples; 1,389 cases contained complete information on all independent variables: demographic data, caregiving, employment characteristics, and employment history. Results showed that employment did not affect whether or not women started caregiving, but that women who did start were more likely to reduce employment hours or to stop work.Thus, the causal relationship between employment and caregiving in late midlife is largely unidirectional, with women reducing work hours to meet caregiving demands. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1998 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K. and Julie E. Artis. "Women's Caregiving and Paid Work: Causal Relationships in Late Midlife." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 52B,4 (July 1997): S170-S179.
14. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Caputo, Jennifer
Hardy, Melissa A.
Long-term Effects of Employment and Employment Discrimination on Women's Health and Mortality
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Discrimination, Age; Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Job; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mortality; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The short-term health effects of discrimination have been well documented, but we know much less about whether these health effects persist even after the risk of further discriminatory experiences is eliminated. In this paper we use long-term longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women and newly matched mortality records to examine whether the health effects of work discrimination persist into later life, when most women are no longer working, and whether they extend to mortality. We find that 8 percent of women report experiencing work discrimination over a 5 year period when they are between the ages of 47-66 and that the most commonly reported form of discrimination is age discrimination. After controlling for prior health, we find that women who reported experiencing workplace discrimination over this time also reported more depressive symptoms and more functional limitations at the end of the period than did women who were employed during the same period but did not report experiencing work discrimination. Women who were not employed during that same period also had more emotional and physical health problems than those who worked but did not experience discrimination. These health differences continue as women age and move into retirement even though the risk of work discrimination is eliminated, but they do not extend to all-cause mortality. Our findings suggest that the health effects of work discrimination are both broad and persistent as they impact both physical and emotional health and remain significant as women move into their retirement years. They also point to the long-term health benefits women gain from non-discriminatory employment experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K., Jennifer Caputo and Melissa A. Hardy. "Long-term Effects of Employment and Employment Discrimination on Women's Health and Mortality." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
15. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Gong, Fang
Long, J. Scott
Women's Work, Cohort Change, and Health
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 48, 4 (December 2007): 352-368.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27638721
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Logit; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Rapid changes in women's labor force participation, access to good jobs, and changing work-family pressures have altered the landscape of work and family life. We use logit negative binomial hurdle models to examine whether these countervailing trends have affected the physical health of women across four birth cohorts. Longitudinal data are used to compare successive cohorts of U.S. women when they are between the ages 44 and 50. While the health of women overall did not change across cohorts, we find an increase in health problems among employed women, explained by increases in the ability of women with physical limitations to become and remain employed. Health problems among housewives decline across cohorts, resulting in better health among housewives than among employed women in the most recent cohort. These findings provide further evidence of the importance of selection processes in understanding health effects of roles, and they highlight the need for greater attention to the health effects of unpaid work.
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K., Fang Gong and J. Scott Long. "Women's Work, Cohort Change, and Health." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 48, 4 (December 2007): 352-368.
16. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Henderson, Kathryn A.
Combining Care Work and Paid Work: Do Workplace Policies Make a Difference?
Research on Aging 28,3 (May 2006): 359-374.
Also: http://roa.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/28/3/359.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Benefits; Caregivers, Adult Children; Employment; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Demographic shifts mean that workers will increasingly face challenges of caring for ill or disabled family members. The authors use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women to assess whether employed women are more likely to leave the labor force when they start care work and whether access to workplace policies alters these patterns. They found that, as with earlier cohorts, employed women are more likely to leave the labor force after they start care work. Workers in jobs that provide access to flexible hours, unpaid family leave, and paid sick or vacation days are more likely to remain employed and maintain work hours over a two-year period, but access to job benefits has little impact on women's distress. Although most policies do not provide additional benefits for employed caregivers than for other workers, unpaid family leave does increase their employment retention.
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K. and Kathryn A. Henderson. "Combining Care Work and Paid Work: Do Workplace Policies Make a Difference?" Research on Aging 28,3 (May 2006): 359-374.
17. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Mossakowski, Krysia N.
Hamilton, Vanessa J.
Does Perceived Discrimination Affect Health? Longitudinal Relationships between Work Discrimination and Women's Physical and Emotional Health
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 44,1 (March 2003): 18-33.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1519813
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Job; Discrimination, Sex; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses longitudinal data to examine the causal relationships between perceived work discrimination and women's physical and emotional health. Using data on 1,778 employed women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we investigate the structural and individual characteristics that predict later perceptions of discrimination and the effects of those perceptions on subsequent health. We find that perceptions of discrimination are influenced by job attitudes, prior experiences of discrimination, and work contexts, but prior health is not related to later perceptions. However, perceptions of discrimination do impact subsequent health, and these effects remain significant after controlling for prior emotional health, physical health limitations, discrimination, and job characteristics. Overall, the results provide even stronger support for the health impact of workplace discrimination and suggest a need for further longitudinal analyses of causes and consequences of perceived discrimination.
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K., Krysia N. Mossakowski and Vanessa J. Hamilton. "Does Perceived Discrimination Affect Health? Longitudinal Relationships between Work Discrimination and Women's Physical and Emotional Health." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 44,1 (March 2003): 18-33.
18. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Smith, Brad
The Rhythm of Work: Health Effects of Women's Work Dynamics
Social Forces 77,3 (March 1999): 1141-1162.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3005974
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Benefits; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Theories on the health benefits of employment, health selection, and the stress of changes in work all suggest that work patterns should be important for women's health. Using a national longitudinal sample of women in their fifties and sixties, we examine how employment duration and transitions inform these theories of physical and emotional health. Women leave the labor force because of poor health, but longer employment also provides health benefits, and some work transitions have long-term negative effects on physical health. Our findings are consistent between physical and emotional health, but employment appears to be more strongly associated with physical limitations during this life stage. These results point to the value of work-life dynamics for understanding the work-health relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K. and Brad Smith. "The Rhythm of Work: Health Effects of Women's Work Dynamics." Social Forces 77,3 (March 1999): 1141-1162.
19. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Woodbury, Shari
Social Roles as Process: Caregiving Careers and Women's Health
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41,1 (March 2000): 91-105.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2676362
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Exits; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Psychological Effects; Social Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Is involvement in multiple roles beneficial for women's health or do the often noted health benefits of multiple roles reflect an ongoing process of role management? We address this question by looking at two roles, caregiving and employment, and by investigating changes in women's health as they move into and out of both roles. We examine changes in physical health limitations and psychological distress over a two-year period with data from a nationally representative sample of 2,929 late-midlife women. Looking first at health changes associated with caregiving, we find that psychological distress increases as women move into and continue caring for an ill or disabled person in their household. Caregiving has a weaker effect on physical health, but increases in physical limitations prompt exits from caregiving. Increases in physical limitations also appear to be greater for non-employed women, but some or all of this difference reflects selection out of the labor force for women having difficulty combining both roles. Our findings provide further evidence that care work has implications for women's health, while also suggesting a need for further attention to the ways that women actively manage problematic role combinations.
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K. and Shari Woodbury. "Social Roles as Process: Caregiving Careers and Women's Health." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41,1 (March 2000): 91-105.
20. Reyes, Adriana M.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Race Differences in Linking Family Formation Transitions to Women's Mortality
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 59,2 (June 2018): 231-247.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022146518757014
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Family Formation; First Birth; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine how the timing and sequencing of first marriage and childbirth are related to mortality for a cohort of 4,988 white and black women born between 1922 and 1937 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. We use Cox proportional hazard models to estimate race differences in the association between family formation transitions and mortality. Although we find no relationships between marital histories and longevity, we do find that having children, the timing of first birth, and the sequencing of childbirth and marriage are associated with mortality. White women who had children lived longer than those who had none, but the opposite was found for black women. The effects of birth timing also differed by race; delaying first birth to older ages was protective for white women but not black women. These results underscore the importance of social context in the study of life course transitions.
Bibliography Citation
Reyes, Adriana M., Melissa A. Hardy and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Race Differences in Linking Family Formation Transitions to Women's Mortality." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 59,2 (June 2018): 231-247.
21. Wolfe, Joseph D.
Bauldry, Shawn
Hardy, Melissa A.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Multigenerational Attainments and Mortality Among Older Men: An Adjacent Generations Approach
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mortality; Occupational Attainment; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent work in stratification argues the importance of multiple generations in attainment processes. In support of this line of reasoning, studies find evidence that grandparent and parent socioeconomic attainments are associated with both children's life chances and health. This research generally assumes that the rewards of attainment are paid forward across successive generations, but an emerging literature suggests that mortality risk in old age is linked to the attainments of parents and adult children. No single study, however, considers the unique multigenerational structure of health disparities suggested by this literature. To address this gap, we use nearly complete and recently updated information on mortality from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (NLS-OM), a nationally representative sample of U.S. men aged 45 to 59 beginning in 1966. Our results support a three-generation model in which men with high-attaining adult children have an especially low risk of mortality in later life.
Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Joseph D., Shawn Bauldry, Melissa A. Hardy and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Multigenerational Attainments and Mortality Among Older Men: An Adjacent Generations Approach." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
22. Wolfe, Joseph D.
Bauldry, Shawn
Hardy, Melissa A.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Multigenerational Attainments, Race, and Mortality Risk among Silent Generation Women
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 59,3 (September 2018): 335-351.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022146518784596
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mortality; Occupations; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study extends health disparities research by examining racial differences in the relationships between multigenerational attainments and mortality risk among "Silent Generation" women. An emerging literature suggests that the socioeconomic attainments of adjacent generations, one's parents and adult children, provide an array of life-extending resources in old age. Prior research, however, has demonstrated neither how multigenerational resources are implicated in women's longevity nor how racial disparities faced by Silent Generation women may differentially structure the relationships between socioeconomic attainments and mortality. With data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, the analysis provided evidence of a three-generation model in which parent occupation, family wealth, and adult child education were independently associated with women's mortality. Although we found evidence of racial differences in the associations between parental, personal, and spousal education and mortality risk, the education of adult children was a robust predictor of survival for black and white women.
Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Joseph D., Shawn Bauldry, Melissa A. Hardy and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Multigenerational Attainments, Race, and Mortality Risk among Silent Generation Women." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 59,3 (September 2018): 335-351.
23. Wolfe, Joseph D.
Bauldry, Shawn
Hardy, Melissa A.
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Multigenerational Socioeconomic Attainments and Mortality Among Older Men: An Adjacent Generations Approach
Demographic Research 39 (2018): 719-752.
Also: https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol39/26/default.htm
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Mortality; Occupations; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: We develop a new approach to understanding family attainments and mortality in later life and test the multigenerational structure of health disparities suggested by the long arm, personal attainment, and social foreground perspectives.

Methods: The analysis uses nearly complete mortality data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, a representative sample of US men aged 45 to 59 in 1966.

Results: We find that older men with parents who farmed had a median age of death that was 1.3 years higher than those who had parents with manual occupations, and men with adult children who had 16 or more years of schooling had a median age of death almost 2 years higher than those with children with 12 or fewer years of schooling.

Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Joseph D., Shawn Bauldry, Melissa A. Hardy and Eliza K. Pavalko. "Multigenerational Socioeconomic Attainments and Mortality Among Older Men: An Adjacent Generations Approach." Demographic Research 39 (2018): 719-752.
24. Wolfe, Joseph D.
Bauldry, Shawn
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Multigenerational Educational Attainment and Women's Mortality
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mortality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study develops and tests a model of multigenerational educational attainment and women's mortality. While developed separately, the long arm, personal attainment, and social foreground perspectives suggest a single, overarching process in which parent, personal, and adult child educational attainment provide unique health-related resources at various points in the life course. No single study, however, tests whether the attainment of multiple generations has a cumulative effect on women's mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (NLS-MW), a nationally representative sample with recently updated information on mortality, this paper examines the relationships between mortality and the educational attainment of three generations whose lives, when taken together, span the entirety of the twentieth century. Results indicate that adult child educational attainment is an important predictor of older women's mortality risk, whereas parent, personal, and husband attainment appear to have no association with mortality after adjusting for adult child attainment and sociodemographic controls. An integration of these findings with prior research on mortality suggests a model of multigenerational attainment and mortality in which, as women grow older, the relative importance of each generation's attainment for one's survival shifts from past to future generations.
Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Joseph D., Shawn Bauldry, Eliza K. Pavalko and Melissa A. Hardy. "Multigenerational Educational Attainment and Women's Mortality." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
25. Wolfe, Joseph D.
Bauldry, Shawn
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Hardy, Melissa A.
The Multi-Generational Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Mortality
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Mortality; Occupational Status; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) Older Men Cohort linked with death records to analyze multigenerational effects of SES on mortality. In particular, the study simultaneously examines (1) the long arm perspective, which emphasizes early-life socioeconomic conditions as a cause of mortality by way of biological programming and cumulative disadvantage, (2) the status attainment perspective, which emphasizes one's own attainment as a central determinant of mortality, and (3) the social foreground perspective, which emphasizes the advantages in later life of those who have higher SES adult children. Preliminary results indicate that each generation's attainment is to varying degrees associated with one's mortality. We find that adult children's education and occupational status becomes an important resource net of one's socioeconomic resources. Parents' SES, on the other hand, had the smallest effect on mortality, which was generally reduced to non-significance after controlling for one’s attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Joseph D., Shawn Bauldry, Eliza K. Pavalko and Melissa A. Hardy. "The Multi-Generational Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Mortality." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.