Search Results

Author: Addo, Fenaba
Resulting in 27 citations.
1. Addo, Fenaba
"Playing House": Financial Integration and Relationship Transitions among Current Cohabitors
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Credit/Credit Constraint; Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines whether financial attributes of shared living are associated with transitions to marriage or dissolution among current cohabitors. Using a sample of cohabitors interviewed during the two most recent waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 Child and Young Adult study (N=712), the analysis focused on varying degrees of financial integration as proxies for relationship constraint commitments (Stanley & Markman 1992). Preliminary results indicated cohabitors engaged in progressive practices, such as having joint credit cards with their partner, have an increased probability of union dissolution, whereas respondents who practiced investment strategies, e.g. sharing a mortgage, were more likely to marry. This study sheds light on the heterogeneous ways that a recent cohort of young couples manage their finances and navigate relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. ""Playing House": Financial Integration and Relationship Transitions among Current Cohabitors." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
2. Addo, Fenaba
A Debt-Financed Life: Does It Preclude or Induce the Transition to First Cohabitation or Marriage?
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Coresidence; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the role of consumption debt on young adult transitions into first unions, both marital and cohabiting. For many young adults, assuming the debtor role may serve as a vehicle for achieving financial independence (Arnett, 2004) an important step in the transition to coresidential relationships. Given that the theoretical predictions of consumption smoothing with debt are ambiguous given the dependence on the timing, quantity, and quality of the debt,(Chiteji, 2007) and existing research suggesting that the economic and financial “underpinnings” for cohabitation and marriage may not necessarily be congruent (Kravdal, 2010; Sassler, 2004; Clarkberg,1999), I hypothesize that a large debt load may act as a precursor to cohabitation but as a hindrance to marriage. Using the NLSY97, I follow approximately 4,000 from age 18 through age 25 and analyze the effect of early exposure to credit card and other non-collateralized debt on transitioning to their first coresidential relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "A Debt-Financed Life: Does It Preclude or Induce the Transition to First Cohabitation or Marriage?" Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
3. Addo, Fenaba
Debt, Cohabitation, and Marital Timing in Young Adulthood
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, I follow approximately 6,700 youth from early adulthood through their late 20s and compare youth who transition from singlehood into their first cohabitation to those who enter directly into marriage, utilizing a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework. Results suggest total debt amount is associated with transitioning into a cohabitating union, increasing the odds of cohabitation over marriage and remaining single for both women and men. Credit card debt increases the probability of cohabitation, whereas education loan debt decreases the odds of marriage relative to remaining single and marrying for young women. Holding debt, independent of debt size, appears to influence first union choice in young adulthood for women. Transitioning to marriage is positively associated with greater educational attainment for all, but women with education loan debt are more likely to delay marrying and cohabit first.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "Debt, Cohabitation, and Marital Timing in Young Adulthood." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
4. Addo, Fenaba
Debt, Cohabitation, and Marriage in Young Adulthood
Demography 51,5 (October 2014): 1677-1701.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-014-0333-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is unaffordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "Debt, Cohabitation, and Marriage in Young Adulthood." Demography 51,5 (October 2014): 1677-1701.
5. Addo, Fenaba
Financial Integration and Relationship Transitions of Young Adult Cohabiters
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,1 (March 2017): 84-99.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-016-9490-7
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Assets; Cohabitation; Credit/Credit Constraint; Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Home Ownership; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite increasing rates of pre-marital cohabitation, the majority of research on household financial practices in the United States has focused on married couples. This study explored ways young adult cohabiters (N = 691) financially combined their lives and the associations with subsequent relationship outcomes. Results indicated cohabiters were intertwining credit histories and bank accounts, and acquiring assets such as purchasing homes together. Sharing a mortgage was associated with an increased likelihood of marriage, whereas joint credit card accounts increased the odds of dissolution. Cohabiters with an intent to marry were much more likely to start integrating their finances prior to marriage. This study sheds light on the heterogeneous ways that a recent cohort of young adult couples manages their finances and navigates relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "Financial Integration and Relationship Transitions of Young Adult Cohabiters." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,1 (March 2017): 84-99.
6. Addo, Fenaba
Seeking Relief: Bankruptcy and Health Outcomes of Adult Women
SSM - Population Health 3 (December 2017): 326-334.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827316300842
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Women

This study examined the impact of declaring consumer bankruptcy on the physical and mental health of adult women and whether the effects differ depending on whether the filer received automatic debt discharge under Chapter 7 compared to a debt repayment plan with Chapter 13. Sample data consisted of women from the NLSY79 cohort who completed the age 40 and 50 health modules as of the most recent wave. Results indicated a negative effect of bankruptcy on self-assessed health, whereas prior health history explained its negative relationship with depressive symptoms. Debt liquidation under Chapter 7 was associated with poor physical health relative to those who did not file and with depressive symptoms relative to Chapter 13 repayment plan filers. Poor health is an unintended consequence for women who seek financial relief through bankruptcy.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "Seeking Relief: Bankruptcy and Health Outcomes of Adult Women." SSM - Population Health 3 (December 2017): 326-334.
7. Addo, Fenaba
Houle, Jason N.
Cross-Cohort Changes in Entry into First Marriage: Does Debt Matter, and Has This Association Changed over Time
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Family Formation; Marital Status; Marriage; Net Worth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For this study we use data from two cohorts, the Baby Boomer generation of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1979 Cohort, and the "Millennials" represented by the NLSY 1997 cohort to explore cohort changes in economic attributes predicting early union formation. We are particularly interested in examining how much more difficult debt and the increasing significance of net worth makes it to enter into a marriage directly relative to cohabiting first. We use event history methods, comparing men and women, to predict transitions into first union, cohabitation versus marriage. Our analysis highlights the growing influence of negative financial assets on family formation decisions in early and young adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba and Jason N. Houle. "Cross-Cohort Changes in Entry into First Marriage: Does Debt Matter, and Has This Association Changed over Time." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
8. Addo, Fenaba
Houle, Jason N.
Sassler, Sharon
The Changing Nature of the Association Between Student Loan Debt and Marital Behavior in Young Adulthood
Journal of Family and Economic Issues published online (26 September 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s10834-018-9591-6.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9591-6
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we compared young adults from the NLSY 1979 and the NLSY 1997 to examine how the relationship between student debt and the likelihood of marrying changed across cohorts, in light of the growing acceptance of non-marital cohabitation. In the 1997 cohort, student loan debt among college-attending young adults was associated with delays in marriage, but not in the 1979 cohort. Among men, the positive association between education debt and marriage in the 1979 cohort was no longer evident for the 1997 cohort of young men. Our findings provide further evidence that rising student debt is reshaping relationship formation among college-going youth, and that as cohabitation has become more widespread, social and economic disparities in who marries without cohabiting first have increased.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Jason N. Houle and Sharon Sassler. "The Changing Nature of the Association Between Student Loan Debt and Marital Behavior in Young Adulthood." Journal of Family and Economic Issues published online (26 September 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s10834-018-9591-6.
9. Addo, Fenaba
Houle, Jason N.
Simon, Daniel
Young, Black, and (Still) in the Red: Parental Wealth, Race, and Student Loan Debt
Race and Social Problems 8,1 (March 2016): 64-76.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12552-016-9162-0
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Cost; Debt/Borrowing; Family Resources; Financial Assistance; Net Worth; Parental Investments; Racial Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Taking out student loans to assist with the costs of postsecondary schooling in the US has become the norm in recent decades. The debt burden young adults acquire during the higher education process, however, is increasingly stratified with black young adults holding greater debt burden than whites. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort, we examine racial differences in student loan debt acquisition and parental net wealth as a predictor contributing to this growing divide. We have four main results. First, confirming prior research, black young adults have substantially more debt than their white counterparts. Second, we find that this difference is partially explained by differences in wealth, family background, postsecondary educational differences, and family contributions to college. Third, young adults' net worth explain a portion of the black-white disparity in debt, suggesting that both differences in accumulation of debt and ability to repay debt in young adulthood explain racial disparities in debt. Fourth, the black-white disparity in debt is greatest at the highest levels of parents' net worth. Our findings show that while social and economic experiences can help explain racial disparities in debt, the situation is more precarious for black youth, who are not protected by their parents' wealth. This suggests that the increasing costs of higher education and corresponding rise in student loan debt are creating a new form of stratification for recent cohorts of young adults, and that student loan debt may be a new mechanism by which racial economic disparities are inherited across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Jason N. Houle and Daniel Simon. "Young, Black, and (Still) in the Red: Parental Wealth, Race, and Student Loan Debt." Race and Social Problems 8,1 (March 2016): 64-76.
10. Addo, Fenaba
Perelli-Harris, Brienna
Hoherz, Stefanie
Lappegard, Trude
Sassler, Sharon
Partnership Status and the Wage Premium in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway: What Explains Differentials Between Married and Cohabiting Adults?
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Cross-national Analysis; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Marital Status; Marriage; Norway, Norwegian; Wage Dynamics; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research has found that marriage often results in a wage premium. With recent increases in cohabitation, cohabitors may experience similar returns to their relationship status (or may continue to be stigmatized). Here we are interested in whether legal, welfare, and cultural contexts contribute to differentials in the marriage and cohabitation wage premium. We compare differences in wages between married and cohabiting men and women in the UK (BCS70), US (NLSY), Norway (GGS), and Germany (SOEP). Preliminary results indicate that both gender and context matter. Marriage provides a boost to wages in the U.S. and U.K. for both men and women, however, family background and the selectivity of cohabiting unions reduces differences. There are no differences between cohabitation and married in the Norwegian context, and German female cohabiters earn slightly more than married women, but this is reduced once accounting for the presence of children.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Brienna Perelli-Harris, Stefanie Hoherz, Trude Lappegard and Sharon Sassler. "Partnership Status and the Wage Premium in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway: What Explains Differentials Between Married and Cohabiting Adults?" Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
11. Addo, Fenaba
Sassler, Sharon
Williams, Kristi
Reexamining the Association of Maternal Age and Marital Status at First Birth With Youth Educational Attainment
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1252-1268.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12360/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; High School Completion/Graduates; Mothers, Adolescent; Parental Marital Status

We reexamined the association of maternal age and marital status at birth with youth high school completion using data from the Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and giving attention to multiple age categories and race and ethnic variations. Youth born to older teen mothers were no more likely to graduate from high school than those born to the youngest teen mothers. Although delaying childbirth to young adulthood was associated with greater odds of children's high school completion when compared with the earliest teen births, those born to young adult mothers were disadvantaged when compared with those born to mothers aged 25 years or older. Being born to an unmarried mother was associated with lower odds of high school completion. We found no evidence that maternal age at birth more strongly predicted high school graduation for White compared with Latino and Black youth.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Sharon Sassler and Kristi Williams. "Reexamining the Association of Maternal Age and Marital Status at First Birth With Youth Educational Attainment." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1252-1268.
12. Addo, Fenaba
Su, Jessica Houston
Unintended Fertility, Wealth, and Wealth Trajectories of U.S. Adult Mothers
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; First Birth; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The ability to control the timing and spacing of children is related to several aspects of economic and social mobility for women. Although a large body of research has evaluated socioeconomic outcomes related to access to contraception and teen childbearing, there is little research on (1) unplanned childbearing among adults and (2) the relationship between unintended childbearing and wealth trajectories. Using linear hierarchical growth curve models and panel data from the 1979 cohort of the NLSY (N=1,696), we estimate the wealth trajectories of U.S. mothers after the birth of their first child. Our analysis has three main results. First, mothers who had an unintended first birth have lower wealth than mothers who had a planned birth and these wealth disparities grow over time. Second, group differences in social and economic status explain half of the observed wealth differences. Third, the wealth trajectories of mothers with mistimed births decline over time.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba and Jessica Houston Su. "Unintended Fertility, Wealth, and Wealth Trajectories of U.S. Adult Mothers." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
13. Houle, Jason N.
Addo, Fenaba
Racial Disparities in Student Loan Debt and the Reproduction of Inequality
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): College Cost; Debt/Borrowing; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Student Loans; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we aim to make three contributions to the growing literature on race and student loan debt. First, we ask whether racial disparities in debt change as young adults move through young adulthood. If black young adults are struggling with repayment, and also facing lower wages and higher rates of unemployment, racial disparities in student loan debt may increase as young people age. Second, we ask if parental wealth, postsecondary institutional characteristics, and young adult social and economic characteristics help explain why racial gaps in student loan debt persist, increase, or diminish across young adulthood. As part of this question, we will also ask whether the gap is largest, or increases faster, for students who left college without a degree (versus college graduates), 4 year versus 2 year grads, and for profit versus non-profit attendees. Third, we ask to what extent racial disparities in student loan debt contribute to black-white disparities in wealth among the current generation of young adults. As noted above, scholars have recently posited that student loan debt may be a new mechanism by which racial economic inequalities are perpetuated across generations, but to date there has been no clear test of this hypothesis.

To address these questions, we use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. We draw additional data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Delta Cost Project Database, which provides longitudinal information on characteristics of postsecondary institutions attended by NLSY97 respondents. We measure changes in student loan debt and wealth holdings at two points in time, using the age 25 and age 30 debts and assets modules. We will use regression models to examine changes in self-reported debt across these time points by race. We will also use decomposition techniques to quantify the extent to which student loan debt contributes to black-white differences in wealth.

Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Fenaba Addo. "Racial Disparities in Student Loan Debt and the Reproduction of Inequality." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
14. Perelli-Harris, Brienna
Hoherz, Stefanie
Addo, Fenaba
Lappegard, Trude
Evans, Ann
Sassler, Sharon
Styrc, Marta
Do Marriage and Cohabitation Provide Benefits to Health in Mid-Life? The Role of Childhood Selection Mechanisms and Partnership Characteristics Across Countries
Population Research and Policy Review 37,5 (October 2018): 703-728.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11113-018-9467-3
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Australia, Australian; Britain, British; Cohabitation; Cross-national Analysis; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Marriage; Norway, Norwegian

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Extensive research has found that marriage provides health benefits to individuals, particularly in the U.S. The rise of cohabitation, however, raises questions about whether simply being in an intimate co-residential partnership conveys the same health benefits as marriage. Here, we use OLS regression to compare differences between partnered and unpartnered, and cohabiting and married individuals with respect to self-rated health in mid-life, an understudied part of the lifecourse. We pay particular attention to selection mechanisms arising in childhood and characteristics of the partnership. We compare results in five countries with different social, economic, and policy contexts: the U.S. (NLSY), U.K. (UKHLS), Australia (HILDA), Germany (SOEP), and Norway (GGS). Results show that living with a partner is positively associated with self-rated health in mid-life in all countries, but that controlling for children, prior separation, and current socio-economic status eliminates differences in Germany and Norway. Significant differences between cohabitation and marriage are only evident in the U.S. and the U.K., but controlling for childhood background, union duration, and prior union dissolution eliminates partnership differentials. The findings suggest that cohabitation in the U.S. and U.K., both liberal welfare regimes, seems to be very different than in the other countries. The results challenge the assumption that only marriage is beneficial for health.
Bibliography Citation
Perelli-Harris, Brienna, Stefanie Hoherz, Fenaba Addo, Trude Lappegard, Ann Evans, Sharon Sassler and Marta Styrc. "Do Marriage and Cohabitation Provide Benefits to Health in Mid-Life? The Role of Childhood Selection Mechanisms and Partnership Characteristics Across Countries." Population Research and Policy Review 37,5 (October 2018): 703-728.
15. Perelli-Harris, Brienna
Styrc, Marta
Addo, Fenaba
Lappegard, Trude
Sassler, Sharon
Evans, Ann
Comparing the Benefits of Cohabitation and Marriage for Health and Happiness in Mid-Life: Is the Relationship Similar Across Countries?
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Australia, Australian; British Cohort Study (BCS); Cohabitation; Cross-national Analysis; Happiness (see Positive Affect/Optimism); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Satisfaction; Marriage; Norway, Norwegian

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research has found that marriage conveys benefits to individuals, but with recent increases in cohabitation, it is no longer clear that marriage per se matters, compared to living in a co-residential partnership. This association is especially unclear in countries where cohabitation is becoming widespread, such as Australia, the UK, the US, and Norway. Here we compare differences between married and cohabiting people with respect to self-rated health and life satisfaction in mid-life. Our surveys - the Australian HILDA, Norwegian GGS, UK BCS70 and US NLSY - include a mix of longitudinal and retrospective questions, allowing us to match individuals on socio-economic background and childhood family structure. Using Propensity Score Matching, we examine current partnership type and long-term cohabiting unions vs. long-term marriages. Preliminary results show that marriage is positively associated with health and happiness in countries where cohabitation is less regulated and more selective of childhood disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Perelli-Harris, Brienna, Marta Styrc, Fenaba Addo, Trude Lappegard, Sharon Sassler and Ann Evans. "Comparing the Benefits of Cohabitation and Marriage for Health and Happiness in Mid-Life: Is the Relationship Similar Across Countries?" Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
16. Perelli-Harris, Brienna
Styrc, Marta
Addo, Fenaba
Lappegard, Trude
Sassler, Sharon
Evans, Ann
Comparing the Benefits of Cohabitation and Marriage for Health and Happiness in Mid-Life: Is the Relationship Similar Across Countries?
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Australia, Australian; British Cohort Study (BCS); Cohabitation; Cross-national Analysis; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Satisfaction; Marriage; Norway, Norwegian; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research has found that marriage conveys benefits to individuals, but with recent increases in cohabitation, it is no longer clear that marriage per se matters, compared to living in a co-residential partnership. This association is especially unclear in countries where cohabitation is becoming widespread, such as Australia, the UK, the US, and Norway. Here we compare differences between married and cohabiting people with respect to self-rated health and life satisfaction in mid-life. Our surveys - the Australian HILDA, Norwegian GGS, UK BCS70 and US NLSY - include a mix of longitudinal and retrospective questions, allowing us to match individuals on socio-economic background and childhood family structure. Using Propensity Score Matching, we examine current partnership type and long-term cohabiting unions vs. long-term marriages. Preliminary results show that marriage is positively associated with health and happiness in countries where cohabitation is less regulated and more selective of childhood disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Perelli-Harris, Brienna, Marta Styrc, Fenaba Addo, Trude Lappegard, Sharon Sassler and Ann Evans. "Comparing the Benefits of Cohabitation and Marriage for Health and Happiness in Mid-Life: Is the Relationship Similar Across Countries?" Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
17. Sassler, Sharon
Addo, Fenaba
Williams, Kristi
Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at Birth; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent demographic trends indicate declines in teen childbirth, increases in non-marital childbearing, and shifts to more births to women in their twenties. Using data from the linked Children and Young Adult sample (N=2,865) of the NLSY79, this study examines the potential benefits to the offspring of women who delay childbirth. We investigate whether the children born to mothers who delay childbirth into their early and late twenties have more positive educational outcomes compared with children born to teen mothers. Results suggest youth born to teen and young adult mothers are less likely to graduate from high school than youth born to older mothers. And, this association remains robust to mother's marital status at birth. Our results highlight the diverging destinies faced by youth born to teen mothers and older mothers, but suggest that those born to young adult women (in their early 20s) may also face educational disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Sassler, Sharon, Fenaba Addo and Kristi Williams. "Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?" Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
18. Sassler, Sharon
Williams, Kristi
Addo, Fenaba
Frech, Adrianne
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Family Structure and High School Graduation: How Children Born to Unmarried Mothers Fare
Genus: Journal of Population Sciences 69,2 (2013): 1-33.
Also: http://scistat.cilea.it/index.php/genus/article/view/501/254
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Universita Degli Studi Di Roma "La Sapienza"
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at Birth; Cohabitation; Fertility; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine whether the union transitions of unmarried mothers into marriage or cohabitation during their children's youth are associated with their offspring's likelihood of graduating from high school by age 20. Data are from the linked Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which enables us to extend the growing body of research on the intergenerational reproduction of family structure and well-being in the United States
Bibliography Citation
Sassler, Sharon, Kristi Williams, Fenaba Addo, Adrianne Frech and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Family Structure and High School Graduation: How Children Born to Unmarried Mothers Fare." Genus: Journal of Population Sciences 69,2 (2013): 1-33.
19. Sassler, Sharon
Williams, Kristi
Addo, Fenaba
Frech, Adrianne
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?
Presented: Paris, France, EUCCONET/Society For Longitudinal And Life Course Studies International Conference, October 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at Birth; Cohabitation; Fertility; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 2008, 41% of all births in the United States occurred outside of marriage. Children born to unmarried mothers are often disadvantaged in young adulthood, including being less likely to graduate high school. In recent years, the age composition of mothers has changed; teen births declined substantially, and non-marital births are now most heavily concentrated among women in their twenties. This paper examines whether maternal age at birth differentiates the educational outcomes of children, and if this varies by maternal marital status. Data are from the linked Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). We find significant differences in the likelihood of high school graduation among youth born to a never-married versus a married mother. These disparities remain even after including controls for maternal age at birth, as well as social and economic characteristics of mothers prior to the birth. The marital status gap in the likelihood of graduating from high school among youth born to older mothers is far narrower than for youth whose mothers were either teenagers or in their early 20s when they were born, though this finding is limited to white youth. Impacts for racial educational disparities are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Sassler, Sharon, Kristi Williams, Fenaba Addo, Adrianne Frech and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?" Presented: Paris, France, EUCCONET/Society For Longitudinal And Life Course Studies International Conference, October 2012.
20. Su, Jessica Houston
Addo, Fenaba
Born Without a Silver Spoon: Race, Wealth, and Unintended Childbearing
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 600-615.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9577-4
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The United States has a surprisingly high rate of unintended fertility, particularly among women of color. Although studies have examined socioeconomic correlates of unintended fertility, the role of economic resources remains unclear. Wealth may provide an important context for whether a birth was intended or unintended. Moreover, staggering racial wealth disparities may contribute to racial/ethnic patterns of unintended childbearing. This study examines the linkages between wealth and unintended first births, drawing on data from the NLSY79 (N = 1508). Results suggest that net wealth is negatively related to the probability of having an unintended first birth, controlling for a host of sociodemographic characteristics. We also use decomposition analysis to quantify wealth's contribution to racial/ethnic disparities in unintended childbearing. Second only to marital status, differences in net wealth account for 9-17% of racial/ethnic disparities in unintended childbearing. Our results suggest that wealth is a significant and heretofore overlooked correlate of unintended childbearing.
Bibliography Citation
Su, Jessica Houston and Fenaba Addo. "Born Without a Silver Spoon: Race, Wealth, and Unintended Childbearing." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 600-615.
21. Su, Jessica Houston
Addo, Fenaba
Born Without a Silver Spoon: Wealth and Unintended Childbearing
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing; First Birth; Socioeconomic Factors; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Theoretical and empirical research suggests that wealth is a critical precursor to marriage, but not childbearing. Although wealth may be unrelated to fertility in general, it is unclear whether it is related to unintended childbearing specifically. Unintended births are more common among relatively disadvantaged groups, such as people of color, unmarried adults, and those with low levels of education, and it is possible that wealth accounts for these patterns. In this paper, we examine the linkages between wealth and unintended first births, drawing on data from the NLSY79. Results suggest that wealth is negatively related to the probability of having an unintended first birth, even after controlling for a host of sociodemographic characteristics such as race, marital status, education, and income. Although wealth does not account for racial and marital status disparities in unintended birth, our results suggest that it is a significant and heretofore overlooked correlate of unintended childbearing. Also presented at Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
Bibliography Citation
Su, Jessica Houston and Fenaba Addo. "Born Without a Silver Spoon: Wealth and Unintended Childbearing." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
22. Su, Jessica Houston
Addo, Fenaba
Wealth and Unintended First Births
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Unintended fertility is concentrated among relatively disadvantaged groups, such as racial minorities, unmarried adults, and those with low levels of education, but the factors that underlie these disparities are unclear. In this paper, we examine whether differences in wealth contribute to or explain patterns of unintended fertility, drawing on data from the NLSY79. Preliminary results suggest that wealth is negatively related to the probability of having an unintended first birth; each decile increase in the wealth distribution is associated with a 10% decrease in the odds of having an unintended first birth, even after controlling for a host of sociodemographic characteristics such as race, marital status, education, and wages. Although wealth does not account for racial and marital status disparities in unintended birth, our preliminary results provide evidence that it is an independent, significant, and heretofore overlooked correlate of pregnancy intentions.
Bibliography Citation
Su, Jessica Houston and Fenaba Addo. "Wealth and Unintended First Births." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
23. Williams, Kristi
Addo, Fenaba
Frech, Adrianne
Family Structure and Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood: How Children Born to Unwed Mothers Fare
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; CESD (Depression Scale); Cohabitation; Coresidence; Educational Outcomes; Family Structure; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital Status; Mothers, Adolescent; Parents, Single; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research indicates that being raised in a family that does not include both biological parents is associated with a range of poor outcomes in childhood. This literature has focused primarily on children in divorced families. Less is known about the well-being of children born to single mothers, especially when they reach young adulthood. This paper explores how young adults born to single mothers fare in young adulthood, focusing on high school graduating and teen parenthood. Data are from the linked Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). We find significant differences in the likelihood of graduating from high school and experiencing a teen birth for those born to a never-married versus a married mother. Among those born to single mothers, there are few differences between those who remain in stable, single mother families and those whose mothers marry or cohabit.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Fenaba Addo and Adrianne Frech. "Family Structure and Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood: How Children Born to Unwed Mothers Fare." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
24. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Addo, Fenaba
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Early Childbearing, Union Status, and Women's Health at Midlife
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Ethnic Differences; First Birth; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the prevalence of early and nonmarital childbearing, little is known about their long-term consequences for women’s health. We use data from the NLSY79 and multivariate propensity score matching to examine differences in midlife health between women who had an adolescent or young adult first birth and those whose first birth occurred at later ages. We then estimate the effect of marital status at birth and later marital history on the midlife self-assessed health of women who had an early first birth. Results suggest few negative health consequences of early childbearing except for black women who have their first birth in young adulthood. Among those who have an early first birth, marriage at birth appears beneficial for the midlife health of white women, while marriage after a nonmarital birth may pose health risks for black and Hispanic women.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Fenaba Addo and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Early Childbearing, Union Status, and Women's Health at Midlife." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
25. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Addo, Fenaba
Frech, Adrianne
First-birth Timing, Marital History, and Women's Health at Midlife
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 56,4 (December 2015): 514-533.
Also: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/56/4/514.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; First Birth; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital History/Transitions; Propensity Scores; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite evidence that first-birth timing influences women's health, the role of marital status in shaping this association has received scant attention. Using multivariate propensity score matching, we analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to estimate the effect of having a first birth in adolescence (prior to age 20), young adulthood (ages 20-24), or later ages (ages 25-35) on women's midlife self-assessed health. Findings suggest that adolescent childbearing is associated with worse midlife health compared to later births for black women but not for white women. Yet, we find no evidence of health advantages of delaying first births from adolescence to young adulthood for either group. Births in young adulthood are linked to worse health than later births among both black and white women. Our results also indicate that marriage following a nonmarital adolescent or young adult first birth is associated with modestly worse self-assessed health compared to remaining unmarried.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Fenaba Addo and Adrianne Frech. "First-birth Timing, Marital History, and Women's Health at Midlife." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 56,4 (December 2015): 514-533.
26. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Frech, Adrianne
Addo, Fenaba
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Mothers’ Union Histories and the Mental and Physical Health of Adolescents Born to Unmarried Mothers
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 54,3 (September 2013): 278-295.
Also: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/54/3/278.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Age at Birth; CESD (Depression Scale); Cohabitation; Depression (see also CESD); Fertility; Health Factors; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children’s well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers’ subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers’ subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Adrianne Frech, Fenaba Addo and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Mothers’ Union Histories and the Mental and Physical Health of Adolescents Born to Unmarried Mothers." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 54,3 (September 2013): 278-295.
27. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Frech, Adrianne
Addo, Fenaba
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women’s Health at Midlife
American Sociological Review 76,3 (June 2011): 465-486.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/76/3/465.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Cohabitation; Fertility; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Mothers, Health; Parents, Single; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite high rates of nonmarital childbearing in the United States, little is known about the health of women who have nonmarital births. We use data from the NLSY79 to examine differences in age 40 self-assessed health between women who had a premarital birth and those whose first birth occurred within marriage. We then differentiate women with a premarital first birth according to their subsequent union histories and estimate the effect of marrying or cohabiting versus remaining never-married on midlife self-assessed health. We pay particular attention to the paternity status of a mother’s partner and the stability of marital unions. To partially address selection bias, we employ multivariate propensity score techniques. Results suggest that premarital childbearing is negatively associated with midlife health for white and black women, but not for Hispanic women. We find no evidence that the negative health consequences of nonmarital childbearing are mitigated by either marriage or cohabitation for black women. For other women, only enduring marriage to the child’s biological father is associated with better health than remaining unpartnered. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Adrianne Frech, Fenaba Addo and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women’s Health at Midlife." American Sociological Review 76,3 (June 2011): 465-486.