Search Results

Author: Parcel, Toby L.
Resulting in 44 citations.
1. Campbell, Lori A.
Parcel, Toby L.
Children's Home Environments in Great Britain and the United States
Journal of Family Issues 31,5 (May 2010): 559-584.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/31/5/559
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Cross-national Analysis; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Maternal Employment; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study analyzes the effects of human, social, and financial capital on children's home environments in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the United States with a similar sample from Britain. In both countries, the authors find weaker home environments for boys, minority children, and those with more siblings. Parental education and maternal cognitive ability are linked to stronger home environments. The effects of family structure, maternal school track, grandparents' education, and paternal work vary by society. The authors conclude that parents are important in both societies and that evidence for the notion that the more developed welfare state in Britain may substitute for capital at home in promoting children's home environments is weak.
Bibliography Citation
Campbell, Lori A. and Toby L. Parcel. "Children's Home Environments in Great Britain and the United States." Journal of Family Issues 31,5 (May 2010): 559-584.
2. Elliott, Marta E.
Parcel, Toby L.
Career Disruption Effects on Early Wages: A Comparison of Mothers and Women Without Children
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Dual Economic Theory; Earnings; Human Capital Theory; Labor Market, Secondary; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Occupational Segregation; Occupations; Wages, Women

This paper examines differences between mothers and non-mothers in the relative disruption of careers and the process of earnings attainment. Combining human capital and dual labor market theories, the author hypothesizes that: (1) mothers' and non-mothers' careers diverge both with respect to accumulated human capital, and to the occupational labor market characteristics of their jobs; and (2) these variations are reflected in differential patterns of earnings attainment between the two groups. These hypotheses are tested on a sample of 5,314 women drawn from the NLSY who worked at any time between 1984 and 1987 (85% of the sample). Descriptive results reveal that mothers' careers are substantially more disrupted than the careers of non-mothers, and are characterized by lower wage jobs entailing less substantively complex work in occupational labor markets more heavily dominated by women and minorities. OLS analyses of earnings run separately for mothers and non-mothers indicates that while human capital accumulation plays the most important role in determining non-mothers' wages, occupational content and labor market composition outweigh human capital as determinants of mothers' wages. The disappearance of the negative effect of number of children on mothers' wages when indicators of career disruption are controlled suggests that motherhood is detrimental to women's earnings primarily because of its effects on labor force participation patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Elliott, Marta E. and Toby L. Parcel. "Career Disruption Effects on Early Wages: A Comparison of Mothers and Women Without Children." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991.
3. Elliott, Marta E.
Parcel, Toby L.
The Determinants of Young Women's Wages: Comparing the Effects of Individual and Occupational Labor Market Characteristics
Social Science Research 25,3 (September 1996): 240-259.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X96900113
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Mobility; Mobility, Labor Market; Occupational Choice; Racial Differences; Wage Gap; Wages; Women

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of individual resources and occupational labor market characteristics on the wages of young women. Findings indicated that both individual- and occupational-level factors have significant effects on the wage attainment process, with young women's wages being determined partly by their own human capital but also by characteristics of their occupations. Mothers tend to be paid less than non-mothers, but the negative effect on wages of being a mother holds for non-black women only. These results are employed to inform theory concerning the effects of market relative to human capital characteristics on wages and to comprehend how young, non-black mothers are at a particular disadvantage in the wage attainment process.
Bibliography Citation
Elliott, Marta E. and Toby L. Parcel. "The Determinants of Young Women's Wages: Comparing the Effects of Individual and Occupational Labor Market Characteristics." Social Science Research 25,3 (September 1996): 240-259.
4. Geschwender, Laura Ellen
Parcel, Toby L.
Objective and Subjective Parental Working Conditions' Effects on Child Outcomes: A Comparative Test
Research in the Sociology of Work 5 (1995): 259-284
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Job Satisfaction; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Unions; Working Conditions

Examines the impact of objective and subjective parental working conditions on child cognitive outcomes and quality of children's home environments, based on data from the 1988 National Longitudinal Survey on a sample of 721 mothers and their children ages 5-8. Multiple regression analyses indicate that maternal job satisfaction positively affects the quality of children's home environments. While there is a bivariate association between maternal job satisfaction and child cognitive outcomes, maternal satisfaction is not a significant predictor of cognition, net of objective working conditions and control variables. Because quality of home environments affects cognition, however, maternal job satisfaction has an indirect influence on child cognitive outcomes through quality of the home environment. Findings suggest that the meaning of work can have intergenerational consequences. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Geschwender, Laura Ellen and Toby L. Parcel. "Objective and Subjective Parental Working Conditions' Effects on Child Outcomes: A Comparative Test." Research in the Sociology of Work 5 (1995): 259-284.
5. Geschwender, Laura Ellen
Parcel, Toby L.
Why Do Southern Children Have Lower Verbal Facility Scores Than Children in Other Regions?
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; General Assessment; Geographical Variation; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Religious Influences; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper seeks to explain regional differences in young children's scores on standardized tests of verbal facility. Using a sample of 3 to 6 year old children of employed mothers in 1986 from the NLSY, the author regresses children's verbal facility on region, and adds explanatory variables in sets. It was found that factors explaining much of the regional variation in verbal facility include: maternal ethnicity, maternal measured mental ability, mother being raised fundamentalist, maternal religious attendance, home environment, maternal hourly pay, and maternal work hours. These factors are discussed as possible indicators of environmental complexity. The findings have implications for regional differences in social inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Geschwender, Laura Ellen and Toby L. Parcel. "Why Do Southern Children Have Lower Verbal Facility Scores Than Children in Other Regions?" Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1991.
6. Haurin, Donald R.
Parcel, Toby L.
Haurin, R. Jean
Does Homeownership Affect Child Outcomes?
Real Estate Economics 30,4 (Winter 2002):635-667.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=7717323&db=buh
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association (AREUEA)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Ability; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Home Ownership; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The data set that forms the basis for our analysis is the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), augmented by the NLSY-Child Data. We study the impact of homeowning on the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of children. Using four waves of a comprehensive national panel data set, we control for many social, demographic and economic variables previously found to influence child outcomes. The data are a panel, allowing us to control for unobserved household-and child-specific factors. We use a treatment effects model to address the issue of possible sample selection bias caused by unobserved variables that influence both the parent's choice of whether to own or rent and whether to invest in their children. We find that owning a home compared with renting leads to a 13 to 23% higher quality home environment, greater cognitive ability and fewer child behavior problems. For children living in owned homes, math achievement is up to 9% higher, reading achievement is up to 7% higher, and children's behavioral problems are 1 to 3% lower. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Haurin, Donald R., Toby L. Parcel and R. Jean Haurin. "Does Homeownership Affect Child Outcomes?" Real Estate Economics 30,4 (Winter 2002):635-667.
7. Haurin, Donald R.
Parcel, Toby L.
Haurin, R. Jean
The Impact of Home Ownership on Child Outcomes
Presented: Boston, MA, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, Allied Social Science Association Meetings, January 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association (AREUEA)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Cognitive Ability; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Wages, Adult; Wages, Men; Wages, Women; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We analyze the impact of home owning on the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of children. Our study controls for many social, demographic and economic variables previously found to influence child outcomes. We also address the issue of possible sample selection bias caused by unobserved variables that influence both the parent's choice of whether to own or rent and parental investment in their children. The study uses four waves of a national data set, permitting a panel data analysis of the relationship of owning a home to three child outcomes: math achievement, reading recognition and behavior problems. Using panel data allows us to control for household and child-specific, unobserved, influential factors. We also use a treatment effects model to address the problem of sample selection bias. We find that owning a home compared with renting leads to a higher quality home environment, the improvement being 16 to 22 percent. Considering both the direct and indirect effects of home ownership on child outcomes, we find that for children living in owned homes, math achievement is up to seven percent higher and reading achievement is up to six percent higher, ceteris paribus. We also find that the measure of a child's behavior problems is up to four percent lower if the child resides in an owned home. Existing literature suggests that these youth's greater cognitive abilities and fewer behavioral problems will result in higher educational attainment, greater future earnings, and a reduced tendency to engage in deviant behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Haurin, Donald R., Toby L. Parcel and R. Jean Haurin. "The Impact of Home Ownership on Child Outcomes." Presented: Boston, MA, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, Allied Social Science Association Meetings, January 2000.
8. Haurin, Donald R.
Parcel, Toby L.
Haurin, R. Jean
The Impact of Home Ownership on Child Outcomes
In: Low-income Homeownership: Examining the Unexamined Goal. Nicholas P. Retsinas and Eric S. Belsky, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2002: pp. 427-446
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Home Ownership; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Residence

We analyze the impact of home owning on the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of children. Our study controls for many social, demographic, and economic variables previously found to influence child outcomes. We also address the issue of possible sample selection bias caused by unobserved variables that influence both the parent's choice of whether to own or rent and parental investment in their children.

The study uses four waves of a national data set, permitting a panel data analysis of the relationship of owning a home to three child outcomes: math achievement, reading recognition and behavior problems. Using panel data allows us to control for household and child-specific, unobserved, influential factors. We also use a treatment effects model to address the problem of sample selection bias.

We find that owning a home compared with renting leads to a higher quality home environment, the improvement being 16 to 22 percent. Considering both the direct and indirect effects of home ownership on child outcomes, we find that for children living in owned homes math achievement is up to seven percent higher and reading achievement is up to six percent higher, ceteris paribus. We also find that the measure of a child's behavior problems is up to four percent lower if the child resides in an owned home. Existing literature suggests that these youths' greater cognitive abilities and fewer behavioral problems will result in higher educational attainment, greater future earnings, and a reduced tendency to engage in deviant behaviors

Bibliography Citation
Haurin, Donald R., Toby L. Parcel and R. Jean Haurin. "The Impact of Home Ownership on Child Outcomes" In: Low-income Homeownership: Examining the Unexamined Goal. Nicholas P. Retsinas and Eric S. Belsky, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2002: pp. 427-446
9. Haurin, Donald R.
Parcel, Toby L.
Haurin, R. Jean
The Impact of Homeownership on Child Outcomes
Working Paper LIH0-01.14, Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge MA, October 2001.
Also: http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/research/publications/impact-homeownership-child-outcomes
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Cognitive Ability; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Home Ownership; Income; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Residence; Wages, Adult; Wages, Men; Wages, Women; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does homeownership affect the outcomes of resident children? Using a national data set, we observed that children of homeowners have better home environments, high cognitive test scores, and fewer behavior problems than do children of renters. We find that these results hold even after controlling for a large number of economic, social, and demographic variables. Owning a home compared with renting leads to 13 to 23 percent higher quality home environment, ceteris paribus. The independent impact of homeownership combined with its positive impact on the home environment results in the children of owners achieving math scores up to nine percent higher, reading scores up to seven percent higher, and reductions in children's behavior problems of up to three percent. These findings suggest homeowners support programs should be targeted at households with young children.
Bibliography Citation
Haurin, Donald R., Toby L. Parcel and R. Jean Haurin. "The Impact of Homeownership on Child Outcomes." Working Paper LIH0-01.14, Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge MA, October 2001.
10. Hendrix, Joshua A.
Parcel, Toby L.
Parental Nonstandard Work, Family Processes, and Delinquency During Adolescence
Journal of Family Issues 35,10 (August 2014): 1363-1393.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/35/10/1363.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Single; Shift Workers; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although past research suggests that nonstandard parental work arrangements have negative implications for children, researchers typically assess the effects of maternal and paternal work schedules independently, and studies among older adolescents are rare. Combining insights from family sociology and criminology, we evaluate the effects of household work arrangements on family processes and delinquency among a national sample of 10- to 17-year-old children. We find that children from households where both parents work nonstandard hours report weaker levels of family bonding, which in turn is associated with greater delinquency. Children from single-mother households in which the mother works evening or night shifts report weaker levels of parent–child closeness and family bonding, which fully mediate the association with greater delinquency. We also find that select maternal nonstandard schedules in conjunction with paternal standard schedules are associated with lower delinquency among children. We derive implications for parental work schedules in households with adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Hendrix, Joshua A. and Toby L. Parcel. "Parental Nonstandard Work, Family Processes, and Delinquency During Adolescence." Journal of Family Issues 35,10 (August 2014): 1363-1393.
11. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions
Working Paper, Columbus: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Self-Esteem

Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions." Working Paper, Columbus: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 1991.
12. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,2 (May 1991): 417-431.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352909
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children; Children, Home Environment; Family Influences; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Mothers; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

This paper examines determinants of the home environments that employed mothers provide for their young children and investigates the impact of current employment experiences, current family conditions, and maternal and child characteristics in shaping children's home environments. Using data from the NLSY 1986 Mother-Child Supplement, the authors study 795 employed mothers with a child aged three through six years old. As work socialization theories suggest, it was found that the occupational complexity of mother's work positively affects the home environments mothers provide for their children. In addition, larger family size produces less optimal child environments. The personal resources that mothers bring to their child-rearing--self esteem, locus of control, educational attainment, and age--also have significant effects on children's home environments. Given the importance of home environment for child cognitive and socioemotional outcomes, these findings suggest pathways by which maternal resources and current occupational and family environments have intergenerational repercussions.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Determining Children's Home Environments: The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Current Occupational and Family Conditions." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,2 (May 1991): 417-431.
13. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Measuring Temperament in a Large Cross Sectional Survey: Reliability and Validity for Children of the NLS Youth
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1988.
Also: http://www.nlsinfo.org/usersvc/Child-Young-Adult/MenaghanParcelTemperament1988.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Temperament; Data Quality/Consistency; General Assessment; Memory for Location; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Shyness; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the measurement properties of the set of items used to assess the construct of temperament for the children of NLSY mothers in 1986. After briefly describing the nature of the NLSY itself and origins of the survey of children, the authors describe the scaling procedures used to construct measures from the items, report these measures' reliabilities, and describe initial evidence suggesting validity. Three sets of age-specific measures are developed: activity and predictability for infants under a year; positive affect and fearfulness-fussiness for infants under age two; and compliance, shyness, and demanding dependence for children age two through six. As previous research of other maternal ratings of child temperament have shown, these scales are generally correlated as expected with other constructs, including interviewer ratings of the child's interaction; and they are also related to maternal characteristics. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the advantages of using these measures for study of certain research questions central to the field of child development, as well as limitations inherent in the resource.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Measuring Temperament in a Large Cross Sectional Survey: Reliability and Validity for Children of the NLS Youth." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1988.
14. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Social Sources of Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions
Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 69-84.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353817
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Children, Home Environment; Family Background and Culture; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Job Status; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Dissolution; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Race; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Attainment; Parental Influences; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

This study investigates change in children's home environments as a function of change in parental occupational and family conditions. It uses data from the 1986 and 1988 mother-child supplements to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) on 1,403 mothers with children aged 3 through 6 in 1986 to estimate multivariate regression equations predicting changes in home environments as a function of intervening occupational and family changes. All analyses control for parents' background and education, maternal ethnicity, child gender, and child health. The birth of additional children, marital termination, and mother remaining unmarried have generally negative effects on children's home environments. The effect of mothers' beginning employment varies depending on the occupational complexity of her employment: Beginning a job that is low in complexity is associated with worsening home environments. The generally negative effect of remaining unmarried also varies depending on mothers' employment status and the quality of employment, being more positive for mothers employed at higher wages and more negative for mothers who remain without employment.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Social Sources of Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions." Journal of Marriage and Family 57,1 (February 1995): 69-84.
15. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Social Sources of Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions
Presented: Santa Monica, CA, Economic and Demographic Aspects of Intergenerational Relations, The RAND Corporation, 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Child Health; Children; Children, Home Environment; Family Background and Culture; Family Influences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Parental Influences; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

This paper extends research on determinants of children's home environments by evaluating effects of the occupational conditions that mothers and fathers experience on the home environments they provide and examining stability and change in home environments as a function of stability and change in occupational and family conditions. It utilizes the 1986 and 1988 mother-child supplements to the NLSY, selects the 781 married mothers with children aged three-to-six in 1986, and estimates multivariate regression of 1986 and 1988 child home environments, and change over time, as a function of earlier occupational and family conditions, parents' background and education, initial maternal resources, and intervening occupational and family changes. The findings document strong effects of parental cognitive and psychological resources on children's home environments. They also underscore the importance of both parents' occupational experiences, and of occupational and family change s on parents' abilities to provide adequate home environments.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Social Sources of Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions." Presented: Santa Monica, CA, Economic and Demographic Aspects of Intergenerational Relations, The RAND Corporation, 1992.
16. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions
Presented: Seattle, WA, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined the effects of mothers' and fathers' occupational conditions on children's home environments, and of change in occupational and family conditions on change in home environments. The study used the 1986 and 1988 supplements to the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. Subjects were 781 married mothers with children aged 3 through 6 years in 1986. For mothers in dual-earner families, home environment was affected by mothers': (1) self-esteem and sense of mastery; (2) age (for older mothers); (3) work at a complex occupation; (4) marriage to a highly educated spouse; (5) having fewer children. Improvements over time in children's home environment were affected by spouse's occupational characteristics and age (for spouses who were younger). Declines in home environments occurred when additional children were born or the marriage ended. For mothers in male-earner families who were not employed in 1986, predictors of home environments were similar to those for mothers in families with two earners, with the exception that mothers' cognitive resources and spouses' wage level also had positive effects. Improvements in home environment in this group were also responsive to spouse's working conditions and changes in family circumstances. A list of references is included. ED337292
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions." Presented: Seattle, WA, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 1991.
17. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Transitions in Work and Family Arrangements: Mother's Employment Conditions, Children's Experiences, and Child Outcomes
In: Parent-Child Relations Across the Lifespan. K. Pillemer and K. McCartney, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children; Children, Home Environment; General Assessment; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Wage Levels; Well-Being; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Transitions in Work and Family Arrangements: Mother's Employment Conditions, Children's Experiences, and Child Outcomes" In: Parent-Child Relations Across the Lifespan. K. Pillemer and K. McCartney, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991
18. Nickoll, Rebecca A.
Parcel, Toby L.
The Effects of Parental Work Characteristics and Maternal Nonemployment on Children's Reading and Math Achievement
Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Divorce; Marital Status; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using 1992 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Merged Child-Mother Data of children ages 9-12 (N = 1,067) who have valid scores on the Reading & Math Peabody Individual Achievement Tests, examines how parental work characteristics & maternal nonemployment affect children's reading & math achievement, arguing that parents who perform complex work will encourage self-direction & cognitive achievement in their children. It is found that child background characteristics, as well as maternal cognitive skills & spouse's education, are important predictors of both reading & math outcomes. Results also show that the effects of maternal nonemployment vary by maternal education, child sex, & marital status, while the effects of maternal occupational complexity vary by child sex & the extent of employment. Possible avenues for future research are suggested. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Nickoll, Rebecca A. and Toby L. Parcel. "The Effects of Parental Work Characteristics and Maternal Nonemployment on Children's Reading and Math Achievement." Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996.
19. Parcel, Toby L.
Campbell, Lori A.
Can the Welfare State Replace Parents? Children's Cognition in the United States and Great Britain
Social Science Research (1 November 2016): DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.10.009.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X16302617
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Britain, British; Child Health; Cognitive Ability; Cross-national Analysis; Family Structure; Maternal Employment; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

In recent years we have learned a great deal about how families influence child outcomes in the United States (U.S.). We know that family social capital is important in promoting both child cognition and social adjustment (Dufur et al., 2013 and Dufur et al., 2008); that fathers play a vital role in promoting child well-being (Coltrane, 1996 and Marsiglio and Roy, 2012); and that marital disruption can be detrimental to child and adolescent development (Amato, 2010 and Kim, 2011). We know much less, however, about whether these same findings hold in countries outside the U.S., and whether similar processes are at work cross-culturally.

We address this deficit by studying the determinants of children's cognition in both the U.S. and Great Britain (G.B.). Classic sociological findings suggest that child cognition is important because it predicts school success, an important precursor of placement in western stratification systems (Crouse et al., 1979). Lower levels of cognition, even among younger children, are associated with subsequent reduced high school graduation rates, lower probabilities of college enrollment and lower levels of academic achievement (Jencks, 1979 and Sewell and Hauser, 1975). Thus, children's cognition has implications for long-term socioeconomic success.

Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Lori A. Campbell. "Can the Welfare State Replace Parents? Children's Cognition in the United States and Great Britain." Social Science Research (1 November 2016): DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.10.009.
20. Parcel, Toby L.
Campbell, Lori A.
Capital at Home Affecting Children's Behavior Problems in the United States and Great Britain
Presented: Montreal, QC, Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, August 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Cross-national Analysis; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Maternal Employment; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We analyze the effects of family social, human and financial capital on child behavior problems in two societies. This is possible by comparing a sample of 5-13 year old children from the 1994 NLSY with a similar sample from the 1991 NCDS British Child. In both societies, male children, those with health problems, and those with divorced mothers are at higher risk, while those with stronger home environments are at reduced risk. However, British children are at reduced risk the higher the mothers' mental abilities, and are at increased risk in they live in single parent homes or have higher numbers of siblings, effects absent in the United States. U.S. children are at reduced risk if they have nonwhite mothers, if the mother was reared in an intact family, and if the mother works low part-time hours, effects absent in Great Britain. We conclude that, while some of the specific effects differ, parents are important in both societies in promoting child social adjustment, and that evidence for the notion that the more developed welfare state in Great Britain may substitute for capital at home in promoting child social adjustment is weak.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Lori A. Campbell. "Capital at Home Affecting Children's Behavior Problems in the United States and Great Britain." Presented: Montreal, QC, Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, August 2006.
21. Parcel, Toby L.
Campbell, Lori A.
Zhong, Wenxuan
Children’s Behavior Problems in the United States and Great Britain
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 53,2 (June 2012): 165-182.
Also: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/53/2/165
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Cross-national Analysis; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Maternal Employment; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We analyze the effects of family capital on child behavior problems in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a longitudinal survey sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,864) with a similar sample of children from the 1991 National Child Development Study “British Child” (N = 1,430). Findings suggest that in both societies, male children, those with health problems, and those whose mothers are divorced are at increased risk for behavior problems, while those with stronger home environments are at reduced risk. Family structure effects are more pervasive in Great Britain than in the United States, although some of these findings are a function of our racially diverse U.S. sample. We conclude that parents are important in both societies in promoting child social adjustment, and evidence that the more developed welfare state in Great Britain may substitute for capital at home is weak.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L., Lori A. Campbell and Wenxuan Zhong. "Children’s Behavior Problems in the United States and Great Britain." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 53,2 (June 2012): 165-182.
22. Parcel, Toby L.
Dufur, Mikaela J.
Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Child Social Adjustment
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Child School Survey 1994-1995; Children, Adjustment Problems; Home Environment; Human Capital; Schooling; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Argues for the usefulness of analyzing school & family social capital, human capital, & physical capital as parallel concepts & investigates the effects of family & school social capital on child behavioral problems, controlling for human & physical capital in both contexts. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother-Child Data for 1992 & 1994, to which indicators of the children's schools for 1993-1995 have recently been added, are used to study 1,833 children in grades 1-8 for 1992 & 1994. Findings demonstrate that school social capital effects on child behavior are modest in size, while family social capital, school human capital, & family physical capital effects are stronger. Tests of interactive effects suggest that certain types of capital can help to compensate for negative circumstances in children's home or school lives or can work together to boost the positive effects of each type of capital. Implications for which forms of capital investment are most likely to promote child adjustment are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Mikaela J. Dufur. "Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Child Social Adjustment." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1999.
23. Parcel, Toby L.
Dufur, Mikaela J.
Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Child Social Adjustment
Journal of Marriage and Family 63,1 (February 2001): 32-47.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3599957
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child School Survey 1994-1995; Children, Behavioral Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

We argue for analyzing school and family social capital, human capital, and financial capital as parallel concepts and investigate their effects on child social adjustment. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) merged Child-Mother Data, to which we add indicators of capital in the children's schools. Findings suggest that although school capital effects are present, family social capital and maternal and child human capital effects are more prevalent. Interaction between family and school capital refine these findings. We derive inferences regarding how investment at home and at school can work together to promote child social adjustment.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Mikaela J. Dufur. "Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Child Social Adjustment." Journal of Marriage and Family 63,1 (February 2001): 32-47.
24. Parcel, Toby L.
Dufur, Mikaela J.
Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement
Social Forces 79,3 (March 2001): 881-911.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2675612
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Child School Survey 1994-1995; Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Educational Attainment; Family Characteristics; Family Income; Family Influences; Schooling; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the effects of both family and school capital on student math and reading achievement. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) merged Child-Mother Data for 1992 and 1994, to which indicators of capital in the children's schools for 1993-94 and 1994-95 have recently been added. We study children who attended first through eighth grades in both 1992 and 1994, with samples of 2034 for math achievement and 2203 for reading recognition. Findings suggest that school capital effects are modest in size while family capital effects are stronger; combinations of school and family capital boost or modify additive findings. We sketch directions for future research and discuss the usefulness of analyzing school and family capital as parallel concepts.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Mikaela J. Dufur. "Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement." Social Forces 79,3 (March 2001): 881-911.
25. Parcel, Toby L.
Dufur, Mikaela J.
Family and School Capital Explaining Regional Variation in Math and Reading Achievement
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 27,3 (September 2009): 157-176.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562409000201
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Child School Survey 1994-1995; Children, Academic Development; Family Characteristics; Family Income; Family Influences; Geographical Variation; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Missing Data/Imputation; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Regions; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Tests and Testing

We know that inequality varies by region and also begins early in life. Bivariate data suggest that 5–14-year-old children in the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) score differently in reading and mathematics achievement depending on their region, with children in the South and West scoring lower. We combine literatures on regional bases of inequality and family and school capital to generate hypotheses explaining these differences. Analyses of covariance provide supportive evidence. For both outcomes among boys, the variation is explained by additive models including family and child social and human capital, although selected aspects of school capital are also influential; these models also explain math achievement among girls. A model including both additive and interactive effects explains regional differences in reading achievement for girls. We interpret these findings in terms of their implications for studying inequality in child achievement as well as for emphasizing the importance of regional inequality, particularly beyond the South versus non-South distinction.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Mikaela J. Dufur. "Family and School Capital Explaining Regional Variation in Math and Reading Achievement." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 27,3 (September 2009): 157-176.
26. Parcel, Toby L.
Geschwender, Laura Ellen
Explaining Regional Variation in Verbal Facility Among Young Children
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): General Assessment; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Race; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Regions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Earlier version presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Cincinnati OH, August 1991. Data from the 1986 survey of NLSY mothers' children suggest that southern children aged 3-6 score close to 9 points lower than children in the North Central states on PPVT-R, a standardized test of receptive vocabulary, while children in the Northeast and West score close to children in the North Central states. We argue that regional variation in demographic composition. and in patterns of familial interaction as influenced by regional variations in subculture account for the findings. Descriptive analyses reveal regional differences in maternal characteristics and attitudes, family composition, parental working conditions. and children's home environments, most suggesting Southern disadvantage. Multivariate analyses suggest that regional variation in maternal race and ethnicity; maternal mental ability; maternal background, socialization, and church attendance; maternal working conditions; children's home environments; and child gender account for the differences. We comment on the importance of familial social capital in contributing to regional inequality in cognitive outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Laura Ellen Geschwender. "Explaining Regional Variation in Verbal Facility Among Young Children." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1991.
27. Parcel, Toby L.
Geschwender, Laura Ellen
Explaining Southern Disadvantage in Verbal Facility Among Young Children
Social Forces 73,3 (March 1995): 841-872.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580549
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Children, Home Environment; Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Mothers, Race; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Regions; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data on children from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) suggest that children aged 3 to 6 from the Deep South score lower than children in the north central states on PPVT-R, a standardized test of receptive vocabulary, while children in the Northeast and West and Border South score close to children in the north central states. We argue that regional variation in demographic composition/social class, and in patterns of family social capital as influenced by regional variations in subculture account for the findings. Descriptive analyses reveal regional differences in maternal characteristics and attitudes, family composition, parental working conditions, and children's home environments, most suggesting southern disadvantage. Multivariate analyses suggest that regional variation in maternal race and ethnicity account for the observed differences among girls. Among boys, these factors--in addition to maternal background, socialization, and very frequent church attendance; maternal working conditions; and children's home environments--contribute to explaining the differences.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Laura Ellen Geschwender. "Explaining Southern Disadvantage in Verbal Facility Among Young Children." Social Forces 73,3 (March 1995): 841-872.
28. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Child Home Environment as a Mediating Construct Between SES and Child Outcomes
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1989.
Also: http://www.nlsinfo.org/usersvc/Child-Young-Adult/ParcelMenaghanHOME1989.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Children, Home Environment; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As part of a larger project predicting child outcomes as a function of mothers' working conditions and child care arrangements, the authors develop measures of children's home environments and investigate their relations with other key variables. Children's home environment is viewed as a critical intervening variable between maternal working conditions and household economic status, on the one hand, and children's social and cognitive child outcomes. Using the NLSY begun in 1979, and its 1986 survey of female respondents' children, measures are developed from subsets of items from Bradley and Caldwell's HOME measures. The authors derive a set of scales that reflect the three major concepts underlying the original measures -- cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and physical environment. Factor-based scales are constructed for two age groups, three to five years (N = 1,391), and 6 years and older (N = 1,218); the three components are also combined to yield an overall measure of the quality of the child's home environment. As expected, higher parental education, better occupational conditions, and more adequate economic resources are associated with better home environments. In turn, better child environments are related to stronger cognitive performance and fewer behavior problems. As with the complete HOME scales, relationships with SES indicators are statistically significant but only moderate in size. The derived measures of home environment provide information that is not captured by structural indicators; the authors view them as important tools for multivariate investigation of the ways in which place in the social structure comes to exert its influence on the development of subsequent generations.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Child Home Environment as a Mediating Construct Between SES and Child Outcomes." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1989.
29. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Early Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes
American Journal of Sociology 99, 4 (January 1994): 972-1009.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2781737
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Care; Child Development; Child Health; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Self-Esteem; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Wages

Uses data from the 1986 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to evaluate the impact of parental working conditions on both a cognitive & a social child outcome among a national sample of employed mothers with children ages 3-6. Results indicate that current maternal working conditions affect children's verbal facility, but paternal work hours in the early years have significant effects on children's behavior problems. Mothers' current occupational complexity interacts with her resources & employment characteristics to influence both cognitive & social outcomes. It is concluded that adequate parental resources contribute to the forms of family social capital useful in facilitating positive child outcomes, but that findings of negative effects of maternal work in the child's first year have been overgeneralized. 5 Tables, 1 Figure, 1 Appendix, 70 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1994, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Early Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes." American Journal of Sociology 99, 4 (January 1994): 972-1009.
30. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Effects of Low-Wage Employment on Family Well-Being
The Future of Children Welfare to Work 7,1 (Spring 1997).
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=72223
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Wage Levels; Wages, Women; Welfare; Well-Being; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Assumptions about the processes that link a mother's employment to the development of her child must underlie expectations about how children may fare when their mothers move from welfare dependence into employment. This article explores the idea, mentioned in the research overview by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue, that the working conditions such as ages, work hours, and task complexity that mothers experience on the job can influence their behavior as parents and shape the home environments they provide for their children. This article discusses the significance of home environments for children's intellectual and emotional development and considers how home surroundings change when mothers begin jobs that are more rewarding or less rewarding. The authors conclude that, while maternal employment is not necessarily harmful, if welfare recipients find only low-wage, stressful jobs, working may prose costly for both family and child well being. The authors recommend that welfare-to-work programs devote attention to (1) assisting mothers to obtain more complex work at good wages, (2) helping mothers understand the role home environments play in shaping children's development, and (3) encouraging parents to make their children's home surroundings as positive as possible. Copyright 1997 by Center for the Future of Children. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. All rights reserved. Also available in .pdf format: http://www.futureofchildren.org/usr_doc/vol7no1ART11.pdf
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Effects of Low-Wage Employment on Family Well-Being." The Future of Children Welfare to Work 7,1 (Spring 1997).
31. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Effects of Maternal Working Conditions in the First Year of Life on PPVT Among 3-6 Year Old Children: Estimates from Longitudinal Models
Presented: Prague, Czech Republic, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Current arguments suggest that the child's first year is critical, since both maternal employment outside the home/maternal working conditions and non-maternal child care may be detrimental. The authors analyze the effects of maternal/working conditions in the child's first year, the nature of child care arrangements in the first year, and family configuration as they impact PPVT-R for 3-6 year olds of mothers, who have worked at any point in the child's life (N-1107) using data from the NLSY and Child Supplements for 1986 Analyses using LISREL suggest the extent to which such variables in the child's first year impact analogous constructs at the time of assessment, and whether both have independent effects on PPVT-R.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Effects of Maternal Working Conditions in the First Year of Life on PPVT Among 3-6 Year Old Children: Estimates from Longitudinal Models." Presented: Prague, Czech Republic, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), 1991.
32. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Effects of Maternal Working Conditions in the First Year of Life on PPVT-R Among 3-6 Year Olds: Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Seattle, WA, International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28) Biennial Meetings, April 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Current arguments suggest that the child's first year is critical, since both maternal employment outside the home/maternal working conditions and non-maternal child care may be detrimental. The authors analyze the effects of maternal/working conditions in the child's first year, the nature of child care arrangements in the first year, and family configuration as they impact PPVT-R for 3-6 year olds of mothers ,who have worked at any point in the child's life (N-1107) using data from the NLSY and Child Supplements for 1986 Analyses using LISREL suggest the extent to which such variables in the child's first year impact analogous constructs at the time of assessment, and whether both have independent effects on PPVT-R.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Effects of Maternal Working Conditions in the First Year of Life on PPVT-R Among 3-6 Year Olds: Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Seattle, WA, International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28) Biennial Meetings, April 1991.
33. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Familial Social Capital and Children's Behavior Problems: Differences Between Dual Earner and Male Earner Families
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Family Structure; General Assessment; Household Composition; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Siblings; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We argue that social capital that inheres in the relationships between parents and children should be associated with internalization of social nomms in children. Changes in parental working conditions and family circumstances should affect children's social adjustment because such factors affect the fommation and use of social capital in families. We study variations in children's behavior problems in a sample of 524 6-8 year old children in married couple families in 1988 derived from the National Longitudinal Survey's Youth Cohort Child Mother data 1986 and 1988. We find that higher levels of maternal mastery, and more positive home environments protect children against behavior problems. Analyses of change in behavior problems also suggest that 1986 levels of paternal complexity have protective effects, while the birth of additional siblings and the lowest levels of matemal paid work hours place children at risk. We interpret these findings to suggest specific mechanisms through which family social capital promotes norm transmission across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Familial Social Capital and Children's Behavior Problems: Differences Between Dual Earner and Male Earner Families." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1991.
34. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Family Social Capital and Children's Behavior Problems
Social Psychology Quarterly 56,2 (June 1993):120-135.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2787001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Family Structure; General Assessment; Household Composition; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We argue that social capital that inheres in the relationships between parents and children should be associated with internalization of social norms in children. Changes in parental working conditions and family circumstances should affect children's social adjustment because such factors affect the formation and use of social capital in families. We study variations in children's behavior problems in a sample of 524 6-8 year old children in married couple families in 1988 derived from the National Longitudinal Survey's Youth Cohort Child Mother data 1986 and 1988. We find that higher levels of maternal mastery, and more positive home environments protect children against behavior problems. Analyses of change in behavior problems also suggest that 1986 levels of paternal complexity have protective effects, while the birth of additional siblings and the lowest levels of maternal paid work hours place children at risk. We interpret these findings to suggest specific mechanisms through which family social capital promotes norm transmission across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Family Social Capital and Children's Behavior Problems." Social Psychology Quarterly 56,2 (June 1993):120-135.
35. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Gender Differences in Developmental Patterns of Child Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the NLS Youth
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1988
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Gender Differences; General Assessment; Marital Disruption

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines age by gender interactions in patterns of behavioral problems for 4-15 year old children of the NLSY mothers. The authors derive reliable and valid measures of behavioral problems at three levels of generality: narrow band groupings, wide band groupings, and an overall measure. Looking at the stressor of divorce, it was found that differences in behavior problems by mothers' marital status are greatest among preschool boys and diminish with age, while among girls, differences by maternal marital status are small during the preschool years but increase at later ages. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using data from large surveys to test hypotheses relevant to child development.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Gender Differences in Developmental Patterns of Child Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the NLS Youth." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1988.
36. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Maternal Working Conditions and Child Verbal Facility: Studying the Transmission of Intergenerational Inequality from Mothers to Young Children [Revised Version]
Presented: Utrecht, The Netherlands, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), April 1989
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Child Care; Child Development; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Temperament; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Maternal Working Conditions and Child Verbal Facility: Studying the Transmission of Intergenerational Inequality from Mothers to Young Children [Revised Version]." Presented: Utrecht, The Netherlands, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), April 1989.
37. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Maternal Working Conditions and Children's Verbal Facility: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality from Mothers to Young Children
Social Psychology Quarterly 53,2 (June 1990): 132-147.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2786675
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; Family Background and Culture; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Tests and Testing; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the intergenerational transmission of inequality from mothers to young children by investigating the effects of maternal working conditions on children's verbal facility. The authors argue that the better paying the mother's job and the more substantively complex the work activities in her occupation, the higher the child's measured verbal facility. The researchers also expect a nonlinear relationship between maternal work hours and verbal facility. They argue that children's experiences at home and in non-maternal care arrangements mediate the effects of working conditions on the dependent variable. A sample of 697 3-6 year old children matched to currently employed mothers in the 1986 NLSY are studied. Verbal facility is measured with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), a measure of receptive vocabulary. The hypotheses are generally supported, even when family characteristics and mother's and child's background are controlled, although non-maternal care arrangements do not impact PPVT. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research including extensions to additional child outcomes, incorporation of paternal working conditions into similar models, and investigation of these processes with more elaborate longitudinal models.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Maternal Working Conditions and Children's Verbal Facility: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality from Mothers to Young Children." Social Psychology Quarterly 53,2 (June 1990): 132-147.
38. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Measuring Behavioral Problems in a Large Cross Sectional Survey: Reliability and Validity for Children of the NLS Youth
Working Paper, Columbus OH: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, September 1988.
Also: http://www.nlsinfo.org/usersvc/Child-Young-Adult/ParcelMenaghanBPI1988.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Data Quality/Consistency; General Assessment; Methods/Methodology; Scale Construction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many developmental psychologists have studied the patterning of child behavior with samples of fewer than 200 children. Studies reporting findings from samples of 30 to 60 are not uncommon. Although replication of findings contributes some evidence for external validity, these investigations cannot entirely overcome limitations inherent in small samples. Until recently large data sets were rarely available. By the autumn of 1987 new resource with which to study child development became available. This resource is a survey of the 5,876 children of mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey's Youth Cohort, where the survey of the children contains a number of age appropriate measures of cognitive and social development. While some child outcome measures were included in the survey, time restrictions in a cross-sectional survey format precluded that possibility for other measures. It cannot be assumed that subsets of scales have identical measurement properties to those of the original measures. This study reports the first investigation of the measurement properties of one of these measures, a subset of items from the Child Behavior Checklist developed by Thomas Achenbach (1978). After describing the nature of the Youth Cohort itself and origins of the survey of children, the study describes the scaling procedures used to construct measures from the items, reports these measures' reliabilities, and describes initial evidence suggesting validity. The conclusion discusses the advantages of using these measures for study of certain research questions central to the field of child development, as well as limitations inherent in the resource.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Measuring Behavioral Problems in a Large Cross Sectional Survey: Reliability and Validity for Children of the NLS Youth." Working Paper, Columbus OH: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, September 1988.
39. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mothers' Careers and Child Development: Evidence from the NLS Youth
Presented: Madrid, Spain, 12th World Congress of Sociology, July 1990
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; Exits; General Assessment; Hispanics; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Race; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

What are the effects of maternal working conditions and child care arrangements on child outcomes? Current arguments suggest that the first year of the child's life is a particularly critical time for development, a time when both maternal absence due to employment outside the home and alternative care arrangements may be detrimental. This paper analyzes the effects of maternal working conditions the mother experienced in the first year of the child's life, the nature of child care arrangements the child experienced then, and family configuration during that time as they impact PPVT for 3-6 year olds of mothers who have worked at any point in the child's life (N=1107). The authors find that work hours is non-linearly related to PPVT, such that intermediate working hours has more negative effects than higher or lower total number of hours; additional analysis suggests that repeated entrances and exits from employment in the child's first year may be detrimental. Child care arrangement characteristics have no effects. It was also found that home environment positively affects PPVT, while numbers of older siblings negatively affect PPVT. When maternal race and measured mental ability (AFQT) are controlled, the authors find that PPVT is strongly associated with race, with children of black, Mexican, and non-Mexican Hispanic mothers having lower PPVT scores than children of white mothers. Maternal AFQT positively affects PPVT. The authors conclude that more analysis is required to specify the mechanism through which the timing and duration of maternal employment in the first year may be affecting child PPVT.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Mothers' Careers and Child Development: Evidence from the NLS Youth." Presented: Madrid, Spain, 12th World Congress of Sociology, July 1990.
40. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes
Presented: Prague, Czech Republic, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children; Children, Academic Development; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Current arguments suggest that the child's first year is critical, since both maternal employment outside the home, maternal working conditions and non-maternal child care may be detrimental. The authors analyze the effects of maternal and paternal working conditions in the child's first year, the nature of child care arrangements, and family configuration--in the first year of life and at the time of assessment--on PPVT-R for 3-6-year-olds of mothers who worked at the time of assessment (N=795) using data from the NLSY and the Child Supplement for 1986. It was found that maternal wages in 1986 and paternal wages in the first year positively impact PPVT-R, and that both maternal and paternal work hours in 1986 have a curvilinear relationship with PPVT-R: overtime hours are detrimental while fathers' full-time work and mothers' high part-time hours are advantageous. The child's home environment and several maternal and child background characteristics also impact PPVT-R.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes." Presented: Prague, Czech Republic, Meetings of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Social Stratification (RC28), 1991.
41. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parents' Jobs and Children's Lives
ISBN: 0-202-30483-3. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Aldine de Gruyter
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Care; Child Development; Child Health; Children; Children, Adjustment Problems; Education; Family Studies; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Occupational Prestige; Occupations, Female; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Regions; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Socioeconomic Background; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Published as part of the Sociology and Economics Controversy and Integration series (Paula S. England, George Farkas, and Kevin Lang, series editors), this book examines the effects of parents' occupational and economic conditions on the social development of their young children, using the 1986 and 1988 National Longitudinal Survey's Child-Mother data set. Discussion includes how parents' jobs directly affect the home environments they create for their children and influence child cognition and social adjustment. The impact of parents' social background and resources on child outcomes is also discussed. Drawing on sociology, economics, and developmental psychology, the book concludes with theoretical and policy implications of the research. The 8 Chapters are preceded by a Foreword by Paula England and followed by an Appendix: Supplemental Child Care Arrangements: Determinants and Consequences. (1) How Do Parents' Jobs Affect Children's Lives? (2) Data, Samples, and Variables. (3) Parents' Jobs and Children's Home Environments. (4) Parents' Jobs and Children's Cognition. (5) Parents' Jobs and Children's Behavior Problems. (6) Early Parental Work, Family Social Capital, and Early Childhood Outcomes. (7) The Cumulative Effects of Work and Family Conditions on Cognitive and Social Outcomes: Early, Recent, and Current Effects Reconsidered. (8) Conclusions: Work, Family, and Young Children's Lives. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. Parents' Jobs and Children's Lives. ISBN: 0-202-30483-3. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994.
42. Parcel, Toby L.
Nickoll, Rebecca A.
Dufur, Mikaela J.
The Effects of Parental Work and Maternal Nonemployment on Children's Reading and Math Achievement
Work and Occupations 23,4 (November 1996): 461-483.
Also: http://wox.sagepub.com/content/23/4/461.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Development; Education; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

James Coleman's theory regarding family social capital and Mel Kohn's ideas regarding work and personality suggest that parental work may affect child cognition. Using a sample of 1,067 nine- to twelve-year-old children of working and non-working mothers from the 1992 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's Child-Mother data set, it was found that the most important determinants of children's reading and math achievement were characteristics of the children and parents themselves. Paternal work hours had some effects on math achievement, and maternal work influenced reading achievement under some conditions. Policies allowing parents of either sex to schedule work flexibly may facilitate child cognitive achievement. Copyright Sage Publications Inc. 1996. Fulltext online. Photocopy available from ABI/INFORM.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L., Rebecca A. Nickoll and Mikaela J. Dufur. "The Effects of Parental Work and Maternal Nonemployment on Children's Reading and Math Achievement." Work and Occupations 23,4 (November 1996): 461-483.
43. Rogers, Stacy J.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Effects of Maternal Working Conditions and Mastery on Child Behavior Problems: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Control
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1990
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children; Children, Behavioral Development; Control; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Mothers; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Rogers, Stacy J., Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Toby L. Parcel. "Effects of Maternal Working Conditions and Mastery on Child Behavior Problems: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Control." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, 1990.
44. Rogers, Stacy J.
Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
The Effects of Maternal Working Conditions and Mastery on Child Behavior Problems: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Control
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 32,2 (June 1991): 145-164.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2137149
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children; Children, Behavioral Development; Control; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Mothers; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper assesses the impact of maternal sense of mastery and maternal working conditions on maternal perceptions of children's behavior problems as a means to study the transmission of social control across generations. Data from a sample of 521 employed mothers and their four-to-six-year-old children from the NLSY in 1986 are utilized. Regarding working conditions, the authors consider mother's hourly wage, work hours, and job content including involvement with things (vs. people), the requisite level of physical activity, and occupational complexity. Also considered are maternal and child background and current family characteristics, including marital status, family size, and home environment. Maternal mastery was related to fewer reported behavior problems among children. Lower involvement with people and higher involvement with things, as well as low physical activity, were related significantly to higher levels of perceived problems. In addition, recent changes in maternal marital status, including maternal marriage or remarriage, increased reports of problems; stronger home environments had the opposite effect. The authors interpret these findings as suggesting how maternal experiences of control in the workplace and personal resources of control can influence the internalization of control in children.
Bibliography Citation
Rogers, Stacy J., Toby L. Parcel and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "The Effects of Maternal Working Conditions and Mastery on Child Behavior Problems: Studying the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Control." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 32,2 (June 1991): 145-164.