Search Results

Source: Demography
Resulting in 106 citations.
1. Aassve, Arnstein
The Impact of Economic Resources on Premarital Childbearing and Subsequent Marriage among Young American Women
Demography 40,1 (February 2003): 105-126.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a46465334436xm34/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Earnings; Family Formation; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Parental Marital Status; Parents, Single; Wage Rates; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper extends previous work on premarital childbearing by modeling both the entry rates and the exit rates of unwed motherhood among young American women. In particular, I investigate the impact of economic resources on the likelihood of experiencing a premarital birth and then of subsequent marriage. Using a multiple-destination, multiple-spell hazard regression model and a microsimulation analysis, I analyze the accumulating effects of various economic variables. The results show that the economic resources are indeed important both for premarital childbearing and for subsequent marriage. However, the simulations show that large changes in these economic variables do not necessarily translate into large changes in nonmarital childbearing. Copyright: 2003 The Population Association of America. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Aassve, Arnstein. "The Impact of Economic Resources on Premarital Childbearing and Subsequent Marriage among Young American Women." Demography 40,1 (February 2003): 105-126.
2. Addo, Fenaba
Debt, Cohabitation, and Marriage in Young Adulthood
Demography 51,5 (October 2014): 1677-1701.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-014-0333-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is unaffordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "Debt, Cohabitation, and Marriage in Young Adulthood." Demography 51,5 (October 2014): 1677-1701.
3. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
How Do Marital Status, Work Effort, and Wage Rates Interact?
Demography 44,3 (August 2007): 623-647.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/hh5267335207k735/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Labor Market Outcomes; Marital Status; Marriage; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How marital status interacts with men's earnings is an important analytic and policy issue, especially in the context of debates in the United States over programs that encourage healthy marriage. This paper generates new findings about the earnings-marriage relationship by estimating the linkages among flows into and out of marriage, work effort, and wage rates. The estimates are based on National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel data, covering 23 years of marital and labor market outcomes, and control for unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate marriage effects on hours worked (our proxy for work effort) and on wage rates for all men and for black and low-skilled men separately. The estimates reveal that entering marriage raises hours worked quickly and substantially but that marriage's effect on wage rates takes place more slowly while men continue in marriage. Together, the stimulus to hours worked and wage rates generates an 18%-19% increase in earnings, with about one-third to one-half of the marriage earnings premium attributable to higher work effort. At the same time, higher wage rates and hours worked encourage men to marry and to stay married. Thus, being married and having high earnings reinforce each other over time. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "How Do Marital Status, Work Effort, and Wage Rates Interact?" Demography 44,3 (August 2007): 623-647.
4. Argys, Laura M.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Smith, Judith R.
The Impact of Child Support on Cognitive Outcomes of Young Children
Demography 35,2 (May 1998): 159-173.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/du641383632n8048/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Support; Children, Preschool; Cognitive Development; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Absence; Intelligence; Marital Status; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Variables, Instrumental; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child data to address three questions. First, does the receipt of child support have beneficial effects for children with absent fathers apart from increasing income? Second, do the effects of child support differ when child-support awards and payments are made cooperatively as opposed to being court ordered? Third, are any positive effects of child support solely a product of unmeasured differences among fathers and families? Controlling for the socioeconomic characteristics of the child and family, we find some evidence that receipt of child support has a positive impact on children's cognitive test scores over and above its contribution to total income. However, the effects vary by test, by race, and by reason for father's absence. Our results also indicate that the distinction between cooperative and noncooperative awards is important. Finally, our instrumental variables estimates show that the effects of child support persist after we control for unobserved characteristics of fathers and families.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., H. Elizabeth Peters, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Judith R. Smith. "The Impact of Child Support on Cognitive Outcomes of Young Children." Demography 35,2 (May 1998): 159-173.
5. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Pierret, Charles R.
Rothstein, Donna S.
The Impact of Family Structure Transitions on Youth Achievement: Evidence from the Children of the NLSY79
Demography 42,3 (August 2005): 447-468.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p827q00p7x183118/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Marital Disruption; Marital Stability; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigated the sensitivity of measures of cognitive ability and socioemotional development to changes in parents' marital status using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979. We used several scores for each assessment, taken at different times relative to parents' marital transitions, which allowed us to trace the effects starting up to five years before a parent's change in marital status and continuing for up to six years afterward. It also allowed us to correct for the unobserved heterogeneity of the transition and nontransition samples by controlling for the child's fixed effect in estimating the time path of his or her response to the transition. We found that children from families with both biological parents scored significantly better on the BPI and the PIAT-math and PIAT-reading assessments than did children from nonintact families. However, much of the difference disappeared when we controlled for background variables. Furthermore, when we controlled for child fixed effects, we did not find significant longitudinal variation in these scores over long periods that encompass the marital transition. This finding suggests that most of the variation is due to cross-sectional differences and is not a result of marital transitions per se.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen, Charles R. Pierret and Donna S. Rothstein. "The Impact of Family Structure Transitions on Youth Achievement: Evidence from the Children of the NLSY79 ." Demography 42,3 (August 2005): 447-468.
6. Augustine, Jennifer March
Negraia, Daniela V.
Can Increased Educational Attainment Among Lower-Educated Mothers Reduce Inequalities in Children's Skill Development?
Demography 55,1 (February 2018): 59-82.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-017-0637-4
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Development; Cognitive Ability; Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Noncognitive Skills; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A rich tradition of stratification research has established a robust link between mothers' education and the skills in children that forecast children's own mobility. Yet, this research has failed to consider that many U.S. women are now completing their education after having children. Such a trend raises questions about whether increases in mothers' educational attainment can improve their children's skill development and whether these gains are enough to reduce inequalities in skills compared with children whose mothers completed the same degree before they were born. To answer these questions, we draw on a nationally representative sample of mothers and children participating in the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLSY79 and CNLSY), random- and fixed-effects techniques, and repeated measures of children's cognitive and noncognitive skills. Contrary to existing research and theory, our results reveal that educational attainment obtained after children's births is not associated with an improvement in children's skills. Such findings offer substantial refinement to a long-standing model of intergenerational mobility by suggesting that the intergenerational returns to mother's education are weaker when education is acquired after children are born. Results also highlight the limits of two-generation policy approaches to reducing inequality in future generations.
Bibliography Citation
Augustine, Jennifer March and Daniela V. Negraia. "Can Increased Educational Attainment Among Lower-Educated Mothers Reduce Inequalities in Children's Skill Development?" Demography 55,1 (February 2018): 59-82.
7. Barber, Jennifer S.
East, Patricia L.
Children's Experiences After the Unintended Birth of a Sibling
Demography 48,1 (February 2011): 101-125.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/2464235l622118w1/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Births, Repeat / Spacing; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Siblings; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines whether children with a younger sibling whose birth was unintended experience larger declines in the quality of their home environment and larger increases in behavioral problems than children whose younger sibling's birth was intended. We use data from the NLSY79 to estimate cross-lag regression models that assess changes in the home environment and children's behavioral problems after the birth of a sibling (intended or unintended). Results are consistent with our hypotheses, finding that, indeed, unintended births have negative spillover effects. Compared with children whose sibling's birth was intended, both boys and girls whose sibling's birth was unintended experienced larger declines in the quality of their home environment, and boys had larger increases in behavioral problems. We also find some unexpected evidence that mistimed births may have larger negative effects than unwanted births. This deserves further research, and we offer some possible explanations that could guide those investigations.
Bibliography Citation
Barber, Jennifer S. and Patricia L. East. "Children's Experiences After the Unintended Birth of a Sibling." Demography 48,1 (February 2011): 101-125.
8. Baum, Charles L., II
A Dynamic Analysis of the Effect of Child Care Costs on the Work Decisions of Low-Income Mothers with Infants
Demography 39,1 (February 2002): 139-164.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/3551655125501255/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Employment; Income Level; Mothers; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Child care costs reduce the net benefit of working and consequently influence mothers' decisions to work. They affect the employment of low-income mothers in particular because they represent a larger portion of these mothers' earnings. I used a hazard framework to examine a mother's decisions about work and hours of work after childbirth. I focused on low-income mothers with infants because they are the ones who may be most affected by child care costs. The results showed that child care costs are a barrier to work that is larger for low-income mothers than for non-low-income mothers. Further, child care costs have large negative effects on hours of work.
Bibliography Citation
Baum, Charles L., II. "A Dynamic Analysis of the Effect of Child Care Costs on the Work Decisions of Low-Income Mothers with Infants." Demography 39,1 (February 2002): 139-164.
9. Baum, Charles L., II
The Effects of College on Weight: Examining the "Freshman 15" Myth and Other Effects of College Over the Life Cycle
Demography 54,1 (February 2017): 311-336.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-016-0530-6
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Life Cycle Research; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Socioeconomic Background; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the effects of college on weight over much of the life cycle. I compare weights for college students with their weights before and after college and with the weights of noncollege peers using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). I also examine the longer-term effects of college measured almost three decades later. I find that college freshmen gain substantially less than the 15 pounds rumored to be typical for freshmen. Using difference models, individual-specific fixed-effects models, and instrumental variables models to control for various sources of potential bias, I find that freshman year college attendance is estimated to cause only about a one-pound increase. Supplemental results show that those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds gain more weight during the freshman college year. Longer term, having a college education consistently decreases weight. These negative effects have faded over the last 20 years, and they diminish as respondents approach middle age. These trends are more prevalent for whites and Hispanics than for blacks.
Bibliography Citation
Baum, Charles L., II. "The Effects of College on Weight: Examining the "Freshman 15" Myth and Other Effects of College Over the Life Cycle." Demography 54,1 (February 2017): 311-336.
10. Bennett, Neil G.
Bloom, David E.
Miller, Cynthia K.
The Influence of Nonmarital Childbearing on the Formation of First Marriages
Demography 32,1 (February 1995): 47-62.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/u703781053n13766/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Fertility; Marital Status; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study documents a negative association between nonmarital childbearing and the subsequent likelihood of first marriage in the United States controlling for a variety of potentially confounding influences. Nonmarital childbearing does not appear to be driven by low expectations of future marriage. Rather, it tends to be an unexpected and unwanted event, whose effects on a woman's subsequent likelihood of first marriage are negative on balance. Results indicate that women who bear a child outside marriage and who receive welfare have a particularly low probability of marrying subsequently, although there is no evidence that AFDC recipients have lower expectations of marriage. In addition, results indicate no evidence that stigma associated with nonmarital childbearing plays an important role in this process or that the demands of children significantly reduce unmarried mothers' time for marriage market activities.
Bibliography Citation
Bennett, Neil G., David E. Bloom and Cynthia K. Miller. "The Influence of Nonmarital Childbearing on the Formation of First Marriages." Demography 32,1 (February 1995): 47-62.
11. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Houle, Jason N.
Rising Household Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being Trajectories
Demography published online (10 July 2019): DOI: 10.1007/s13524-019-00800-7.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-019-00800-7
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Debt/Borrowing; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Debt is now a substantial aspect of family finances. Yet, research on how household debt is linked with child development has been limited. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort and hierarchical linear models to estimate associations of amounts and types of parental debt (home, education, auto, unsecured/uncollateralized) with child socioemotional well-being. We find that unsecured debt is associated with growth in child behavior problems, whereas this is not the case for other forms of debt. Moreover, the association of unsecured debt with child behavior problems varies by child age and socioeconomic status, with younger children and children from less-advantaged families experiencing larger associations of unsecured debt with greater behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jason N. Houle. "Rising Household Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being Trajectories." Demography published online (10 July 2019): DOI: 10.1007/s13524-019-00800-7.
12. Blau, David M.
Robins, Philip K.
A Dynamic Analysis of Turnover In Employment and Child Care
Demography 35,1 (February 1998): 83-96.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/tk7832976846gn80/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Job Turnover; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Surveys; Labor Market, Secondary; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Modeling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The causes of turnover in child-care arrangements and maternal employment are analyzed using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, supplemented with state-level information on child-care markets. The results indicate that turnover in child care is quite high and that child and family characteristics help explain turnover. Important factors include the mother's wage, the cost of child care, age of the child, and previous child-care decisions. The reduced-form nature of the analysis makes it difficult to determine whether these factors are important because they are associated with unstable child-care supply or because they affect family decisions, conditional on supply factors. The results provide no direct evidence that child-care turnover is higher in states with more unstable child-care markets. Photocopy available from ABI/INFORM.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, David M. and Philip K. Robins. "A Dynamic Analysis of Turnover In Employment and Child Care." Demography 35,1 (February 1998): 83-96.
13. Blau, David M.
Robins, Philip K.
Child Care Demand and Labor Supply of Young Mothers Over Time
Demography 28,3 (August 1991): 333-351.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/771316w650q87xw7/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior; Child Care; Children; Fertility; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses data from the NLSY 1979-1986 to examine trends in fertility, labor supply, and child care demand among a sample of young women. Generally, as the sample ages (from 21 to 25 years, on average), the women become increasingly more likely to have young children, to be employed, and to purchase child care in the market. A multivariate analysis reveals that rising wage rates and changes in household structure are the most important determinants of these upward trends. A hazard rate analysis reveals that the upward trends are not solely the result of entry into these states -- a considerable amount of exiting from these states also occurs. Overall, the panel data indicate that NLSY young women are in a volatile stage of their lives when many economic and demographic factors are changing, and that they seem to be responding to these changes by altering their labor supply and child care behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, David M. and Philip K. Robins. "Child Care Demand and Labor Supply of Young Mothers Over Time." Demography 28,3 (August 1991): 333-351.
14. Bloom, David E.
Trussell, James
What are the Determinants of Delayed Childbearing and Permanent Childlessness in the United States?
Demography 21,4 (November 1984): 591-611.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/n40691657016u588/
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Education; Racial Differences; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper presents estimates of delayed childbearing and permanent childlessness in the United States and the determinants of those phenomena. The estimates are derived by fitting the Coale-McNeil marriage model to survey data on age at first birth and by letting the parameters of the model depend on covariates. Substantively, the results provide evidence that the low first birth fertility rates experienced in the 1970s were due to both delayed childbearing and to increasing levels of permanent childlessness. The results also indicate that (a) delayed childbearing is less prevalent among black women than among nonblack women; (b) education is an important determinant of delayed childbearing whose influence on this phenomenon seems to be increasing across cohorts; (c) education is positively associated with heterogeneity among women in their age at first birth; (d) the dispersion of age at first birth is increasing across cohorts; (e) race has an insignificant effect on childlessness; and (f) education is positively associated with childlessness, with the effect of education increasing and reaching strikingly high levels for the most recent cohorts.
Bibliography Citation
Bloom, David E. and James Trussell. "What are the Determinants of Delayed Childbearing and Permanent Childlessness in the United States?" Demography 21,4 (November 1984): 591-611.
15. Bloome, Deirdre
Childhood Family Structure and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States
Demography 54,2 (April 2017): 541-569.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-017-0564-4
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Family Structure; Income Distribution; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The declining prevalence of two-parent families helped increase income inequality over recent decades. Does family structure also condition how economic (dis)advantages pass from parents to children? If so, shifts in the organization of family life may contribute to enduring inequality between groups defined by childhood family structure. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I combine parametric and nonparametric methods to reveal how family structure moderates intergenerational income mobility in the United States. I find that individuals raised outside stable two-parent homes are much more mobile than individuals from stable two-parent families. Mobility increases with the number of family transitions but does not vary with children's time spent coresiding with both parents or stepparents conditional on a transition. However, this mobility indicates insecurity, not opportunity. Difficulties maintaining middle-class incomes create downward mobility among people raised outside stable two-parent homes. Regardless of parental income, these people are relatively likely to become low-income adults, reflecting a new form of perverse equality. People raised outside stable two-parent families are also less likely to become high-income adults than people from stable two-parent homes. Mobility differences account for about one-quarter of family-structure inequalities in income at the bottom of the income distribution and more than one-third of these inequalities at the top.
Bibliography Citation
Bloome, Deirdre. "Childhood Family Structure and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States." Demography 54,2 (April 2017): 541-569.
16. Boardman, Jason D.
Powers, Daniel A.
Padilla, Yolanda Chavez
Hummer, Robert A.
Low Birth Weight, Social Factors, and Developmental Outcomes Among Children in the United States
Demography 39,2 (May 2002): 353-368.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p451770226375195/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Cognitive Development; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We used six waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (1986-1996) to assess the relative impact of adverse birth outcomes vis-a-vis social risk factors on children's developmental outcomes. Using the Peabody Individual Achievement Tests of Mathematics and Reading Recognition as our outcome variables, we also evaluated the dynamic nature of biological and social risk factors from ages 6 to 14. We found the following: (1) birth weight is significantly related to developmental outcomes, net of important social and economic controls; (2) the effect associated with adverse birth outcomes is significantly more pronounced at very low birth weights (< 1,500 grams) than at moderately low birth weights (1,500-2,499 grams); (3) whereas the relative effect of very low-birth-weight status is large, the effect of moderately low weight status, when compared with race/ethnicity and mother's education, is small; and (4) the observed differentials between moderately low-birth-weight and normal-birth-weight children are substantially smaller among older children in comparison with younger children.
Bibliography Citation
Boardman, Jason D., Daniel A. Powers, Yolanda Chavez Padilla and Robert A. Hummer. "Low Birth Weight, Social Factors, and Developmental Outcomes Among Children in the United States." Demography 39,2 (May 2002): 353-368.
17. Brand, Jennie E.
Davis, Dwight R.
The Impact of College Education on Fertility: Evidence for Heterogeneous Effects
Demography 48,3 (August 2011): 863-887.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/x126m21k85706456/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Fertility; Heterogeneity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As college-going among women has increased, more women are going to college from backgrounds that previously would have precluded their attendance and completion. This affords us the opportunity and motivation to look at the effects of college on fertility across a range of social backgrounds and levels of early achievement. Despite a substantial literature on the effects of education on women's fertility, researchers have not assessed variation in effects by selection into college. With data on U.S. women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine effects of timely college attendance and completion on women's fertility by the propensity to attend and complete college using multilevel Poisson and discrete-time event-history models. Disaggregating the effects of college by propensity score strata, we find that the fertility-decreasing college effect is concentrated among women from comparatively disadvantaged social backgrounds and low levels of early achievement. The effects of college on fertility attenuate as we observe women from backgrounds that are more predictive of college attendance and completion.
Bibliography Citation
Brand, Jennie E. and Dwight R. Davis. "The Impact of College Education on Fertility: Evidence for Heterogeneous Effects." Demography 48,3 (August 2011): 863-887.
18. Buckles, Kasey S.
Price, Joseph P.
Selection and the Marriage Premium for Infant Health
Demography 50,4 (August 2013): 1315-1339.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-013-0211-7
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Infants; Marriage; Natality Detail Files; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research has found a positive relationship between marriage and infant health, but it is unclear whether this relationship is causal or a reflection of positive selection into marriage. We use multiple empirical approaches to address this issue. First, using a technique developed by Gelbach (2009) to determine the relative importance of observable characteristics, we show how selection into marriage has changed over time. Second, we construct a matched sample of children born to the same mother and apply panel data techniques to account for time-invariant unobserved characteristics. We find evidence of a sizable marriage premium. However, this premium fell by more than 40 % between 1989 and 2004, largely as a result of declining selection into marriage by race. Accounting for selection reduces ordinary least squares estimates of the marriage premiums for birth weight, prematurity, and infant mortality by at least one-half.
Bibliography Citation
Buckles, Kasey S. and Joseph P. Price. "Selection and the Marriage Premium for Infant Health." Demography 50,4 (August 2013): 1315-1339.
19. Carlson, Marcia Jeanne
VanOrman, Alicia
Pilkauskas, Natasha
Examining the Antecedents of U.S. Nonmarital Fatherhood
Demography 50,4 (August 2013): 1421-1447.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-013-0201-9
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Fatherhood; Marital Status; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the dramatic rise in U.S. nonmarital childbearing in recent decades, limited attention has been paid to factors affecting nonmarital fatherhood (beyond studies of young fathers). In this article, we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to examine the antecedents of nonmarital fatherhood, as compared to marital fatherhood. Overall, we find the strongest support across both data sets for education and race/ethnicity as key predictors of having a nonmarital first birth, consistent with prior literature about women�s nonmarital childbearing and about men�s early/teenage fatherhood. Education is inversely related to the risk of nonmarital fatherhood, and minority (especially black) men are much more likely to have a child outside of marriage than white men. We find little evidence that employment predicts nonmarital fertility, although it does strongly (and positively) predict marital fertility. High predicted earnings are also associated with a greater likelihood of marital childbearing but with a lower likelihood of nonmarital childbearing. Given the socioeconomic disadvantage associated with nonmarital fatherhood, this research suggests that nonmarital fatherhood may be an important aspect of growing U.S. inequality and stratification both within and across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Marcia Jeanne, Alicia VanOrman and Natasha Pilkauskas. "Examining the Antecedents of U.S. Nonmarital Fatherhood." Demography 50,4 (August 2013): 1421-1447.
20. Case, Anne
Paxson, Christina
Causes and Consequences of Early-Life Health
Demography 47,Supplement (August 2010): S65-S85.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v047/47.S.case.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Methods/Methodology; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the consequences of child health for economic and health outcomes in adulthood, using height as a marker of childhood health. After reviewing previous evidence, we present a conceptual framework that highlights data limitations and methodological problems that complicate the study of this topic. We then present estimates of the associations between height and a range of outcomes—including schooling, employment, earnings, health, and cognitive ability—measured in five data sets from early to late adulthood. These results indicate that, on average, taller individuals attain higher levels of education. Height is also positively associated with better economic, health, and cognitive outcomes. These associations are only partially explained by the higher average educational attainment of taller individuals. We then use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults survey to document the associations between health, cognitive development, and growth in childhood. Even among children with the same mother, taller siblings score better on cognitive tests and progress through school more quickly. Part of the differences found between siblings arises from differences in their birth weights and lengths attributable to mother's behaviors while pregnant. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that childhood health influences health and economic status throughout adulthood. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Demography is the property of Population Association of America and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Case, Anne and Christina Paxson. "Causes and Consequences of Early-Life Health." Demography 47,Supplement (August 2010): S65-S85.
21. Cheadle, Jacob E.
Amato, Paul R.
King, Valarie
Patterns of Nonresident Father Contact
Demography 47,1 (February 2010): 206-225.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a818107v1h6tj831/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Care; Child Support; Children, Well-Being; Cohabitation; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Marriage; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers, Education; Parent-Child Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2002 and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) from 1986 to 2002 to describe the number, shape, and population frequencies of U.S. nonresident father contact trajectories over a 14-year period using growth mixture models. The resulting four-category classification indicated that nonresident father involvement is not adequately characterized by a single population with a monotonic pattern of declining contact over time. Contrary to expectations, about two-thirds of fathers were consistently either highly involved or rarely involved in their children's lives. Only one group, constituting approximately 23% of fathers, exhibited a clear pattern of declining contact. In addition, a small group of fathers (8%) displayed a pattern of increasing contact. A variety of variables differentiated between these groups, including the child's age at father-child separation, whether the child was born within marriage, the mother's education, the mother's age at birth, whether the father pays child support regularly, and the geographical distance between fathers and children. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Cheadle, Jacob E., Paul R. Amato and Valarie King. "Patterns of Nonresident Father Contact." Demography 47,1 (February 2010): 206-225.
22. Cherlin, Andrew J.
The Effect of Children on Marital Dissolution
Demography 14,3 (August 1977): 265-272.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/ar71152416661310/
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Marital Dissolution; Preschool Children; Welfare; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between the presence of children and divorce and separation is examined using data from the first four years of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience in Women Aged 30 to 44. The data show that children were a deterrent to separation and divorce only when they were in the preschool ages. Once all the children in a family were in school, they did not seem to influence the probability of separation and divorce. It is suggested that the high costs of child care for preschool children, in terms of time, money, and effort, act as a deterrent to marital dissolution. The associations between several other social demographic variables and marital dissolution also are investigated.
Bibliography Citation
Cherlin, Andrew J. "The Effect of Children on Marital Dissolution." Demography 14,3 (August 1977): 265-272.
23. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Factors in the Resolution of Adolescent Premarital Pregnancies
Demography 27,2 (May 1990): 207-218.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/bl7j9202kw04rk32/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Fertility; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLSY, this paper examines factors influencing the pregnancy resolution decision of premaritally pregnant teenagers. Three possible outcomes, bearing the child out-of-wedlock, legitimizing the child through marriage, or aborting, are analyzed. The effects of such factors as family structure, age at conception, race, parental education, mothers' employment, number of siblings, and religious affiliation on each pregnancy resolution decision are explored. Significant racial differences were found for the three outcomes studied and higher educational attainment levels were associated with pregnancy termination.
Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C. "Factors in the Resolution of Adolescent Premarital Pregnancies." Demography 27,2 (May 1990): 207-218.
24. Cramer, James C.
Racial and Ethnic Differences in Birthweight: The Role of Income and Financial Assistance
Demography 32,2 (May 1995): 231-247.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q17147u630600115/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Birthweight; Ethnic Differences; Family Income; Financial Assistance; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper attempts to explain the differences in birthweight observed between blacks, white Anglos, Chicanos, and other racial and ethnic groups. The analysis focuses on the role of income and financial assistance from relatives and public programs. Using data from the NLS Youth Panel, I construct a causal model of birthweight containing exogenous social and demographic risk factors and intervening proximate determinants of birthweight. A substantial part of the gap in birthweight between white Anglos and other ethnic groups (especially blacks) can be explained by the unfavorable socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the latter. On the other hand, blacks and other minorities smoke less and have other favorable proximate characteristics that depress differences in birthweight. When these proximate determinants are controlled, large ethic differences in birthweight remain unexplained by income and other sociodemographic factors.
Bibliography Citation
Cramer, James C. "Racial and Ethnic Differences in Birthweight: The Role of Income and Financial Assistance." Demography 32,2 (May 1995): 231-247.
25. Damaske, Sarah
Frech, Adrianne
Women's Work Pathways Across the Life Course
Demography 53,2 (April 2016): 365-391.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13524-016-0464-z
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Constraints; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite numerous changes in women's employment in the latter half of the twentieth century, women's employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women's weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women's labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable full-time work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two full-time work pathways, while fewer than 10 % follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work–family conflict and early socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages on women’s work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women’s work careers. Work–family opportunities and constraints also were related to women's work hours, as were a woman’s gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women's employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work–family constraints, all working in concert, as key explanations for how women are "tracked" onto work pathways from an early age.
Bibliography Citation
Damaske, Sarah and Adrianne Frech. "Women's Work Pathways Across the Life Course." Demography 53,2 (April 2016): 365-391.
26. Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Pleck, Joseph H.
Astone, Nan Marie
Sonenstein, Freya L.
Pathways of Early Fatherhood, Marriage, and Employment: A Latent Class Growth Analysis
Demography 48,2 (May 2011): 593-623.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/8820l65763327583/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Economic Well-Being; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Employment, Youth; Fatherhood; Heterogeneity; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), young fathers include heterogeneous subgroups with varying early life pathways in terms of fatherhood timing, the timing of first marriage, and holding full-time employment. Using latent class growth analysis with 10 observations between ages 18 and 37, we derived five latent classes with median ages of first fatherhood below the cohort median (26.4), constituting distinct early fatherhood pathways representing 32.4% of NLSY men: (A) Young Married Fathers, (B) Teen Married Fathers, (C) Young Underemployed Married Fathers, (D) Young Underemployed Single Fathers, and (E) Young Later-Marrying Fathers. A sixth latent class of men who become fathers around the cohort median, following full-time employment and marriage (On-Time On-Sequence Fathers), is the comparison group. With sociodemographic background controlled, all early fatherhood pathways show disadvantage in at least some later-life circumstances (earnings, educational attainment, marital status, and incarceration). The extent of disadvantage is greater when early fatherhood occurs at relatively younger ages (before age 20), occurs outside marriage, or occurs outside full-time employment. The relative disadvantage associated with early fatherhood, unlike early motherhood, increases over the life course.

Copyright of Demography is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Dariotis, Jacinda K., Joseph H. Pleck, Nan Marie Astone and Freya L. Sonenstein. "Pathways of Early Fatherhood, Marriage, and Employment: A Latent Class Growth Analysis." Demography 48,2 (May 2011): 593-623.
27. Datar, Ashlesha
Kilburn, M. Rebecca
Loughran, David S.
Endowments and Parental Investments in Infancy and Early Childhood
Demography 47,1 (February 2010): 145-162.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v047/47.1.datar.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Human Capital; Infants; Mothers, Health; Parental Influences; Parents, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Preschool Children; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article tests whether parents reinforce or compensate for child endowments. We estimate how the difference in birth weight across siblings impacts specific parental investments: breast-feeding, well-baby visits, immunizations, and preschool attendance. Our results indicate that normal-birthweight children are 5%–11% more likely to receive early childhood parental investments than their low-birth-weight siblings. Moreover, the presence of additional low-birth-weight siblings in the household increases the likelihood of investments such as well-baby visits and immunizations for normal-birth-weight children. These results suggest that parental investments in early childhood tend to reinforce endowment differences.
Bibliography Citation
Datar, Ashlesha, M. Rebecca Kilburn and David S. Loughran. "Endowments and Parental Investments in Infancy and Early Childhood." Demography 47,1 (February 2010): 145-162.
28. Desai, Sonalde
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Michael, Robert T.
Mother or Market? Effects of Maternal Employment on Cognitive Development of Four-Year-Old Children
Demography 26,4 (November 1989): 545-561.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k612587ln0x288n4/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children; Employment; Family Income; Gender Differences; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper is a first report on a project investigating the influence of maternal employment on the cognitive and social development of young children. The data set analyzed is the newly available "Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth," a 1986 survey of the 5,000 biological offspring of the females in the NLSY data set. The paper focuses on the cognitive development of the four-year-old children, of whom there are 585. Demographic, economic, and social background factors are controlled in the analysis of relationships among maternal employment, child care, and the child's test score on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT).
Bibliography Citation
Desai, Sonalde, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Robert T. Michael. "Mother or Market? Effects of Maternal Employment on Cognitive Development of Four-Year-Old Children." Demography 26,4 (November 1989): 545-561.
29. Diaz, Christina
Fiel, Jeremy E.
The Effect(s) of Teen Pregnancy: Reconciling Theory, Methods, and Findings
Demography 53,1 (February 2016): 85-116.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-015-0446-6
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; College Enrollment; College Graduates; Earnings; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Methods/Methodology; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Modeling, Logit; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although teenage mothers have lower educational attainment and earnings than women who delay fertility, causal interpretations of this relationship remain controversial. Scholars argue that there are reasons to predict negative, trivial, or even positive effects, and different methodological approaches provide some support for each perspective. We reconcile this ongoing debate by drawing on two heuristics: (1) each methodological strategy emphasizes different women in estimation procedures, and (2) the effects of teenage fertility likely vary in the population. Analyses of the Child and Young Adult Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,661) confirm that teen pregnancy has negative effects on most women's attainment and earnings. More striking, however, is that effects on college completion and early earnings vary considerably and are most pronounced among those least likely to experience an early pregnancy. Further analyses suggest that teen pregnancy is particularly harmful for those with the brightest socioeconomic prospects and who are least prepared for the transition to motherhood.
Bibliography Citation
Diaz, Christina and Jeremy E. Fiel. "The Effect(s) of Teen Pregnancy: Reconciling Theory, Methods, and Findings." Demography 53,1 (February 2016): 85-116.
30. Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Rosales-Rueda, Maria Fernanda
Kalil, Ariel
Maternal Age and Child Development
Demography 55,6 (December 2018): 2229-2255.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0730-3
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Educational Attainment; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although the consequences of teen births for both mothers and children have been studied for decades, few studies have taken a broader look at the potential payoffs--and drawbacks--of being born to older mothers. A broader examination is important given the growing gap in maternal ages at birth for children born to mothers with low and high socioeconomic status. Drawing data from the Children of the NLSY79, our examination of this topic distinguishes between the value for children of being born to a mother who delayed her first birth and the value of the additional years between her first birth and the birth of the child whose achievements and behaviors at ages 10–13 are under study. We find that each year the mother delays a first birth is associated with a 0.02 to 0.04 standard deviation increase in school achievement and a similar-sized reduction in behavior problems. Coefficients are generally as large for additional years between the first and given birth. Results are fairly robust to the inclusion of cousin and sibling fixed effects, which attempt to address some omitted variable concerns. Our mediational analyses show that the primary pathway by which delaying first births benefits children is by enabling mothers to complete more years of schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Kenneth T. H. Lee, Maria Fernanda Rosales-Rueda and Ariel Kalil. "Maternal Age and Child Development." Demography 55,6 (December 2018): 2229-2255.
31. Duncan, Greg J.
Wilkerson, Bessie
England, Paula A.
Cleaning Up Their Act: The Effects of Marriage and Cohabitation on Licit and Illicit Drug Use
Demography 43,4 (November 2006): 691-710.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q3547p0538418771/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Drug Use; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Illegal Activities; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate changes in binge drinking, marijuana use, and cigarette smoking surrounding young adults' first experiences of cohabitation and marriage. Both marriage and cohabitation are accompanied by decreases in some risk behaviors, but reductions surrounding marriage are larger and most consistent, particularly for men. Binge drinking and marijuana use respond to these events, especially marriage, but smoking does not.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Bessie Wilkerson and Paula A. England. "Cleaning Up Their Act: The Effects of Marriage and Cohabitation on Licit and Illicit Drug Use." Demography 43,4 (November 2006): 691-710.
32. England, Paula A.
Reid, Lori Lynn
Kilbourne, Barbara Stanek
The Effect of the Sex Composition of Jobs on Starting Wages in an Organization: Findings from the NLSY
Demography 33,4 (November 1996): 511-521.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/24423kln0q8x0658/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Wage Theory

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is shown that individuals in a job with a higher percentage of males earn lower starting wages with an employing organization. This holds true with controls for individuals' human capital, job demands for skill or difficult working conditions, and detailed industry. A measure of sex composition is used that applies to detailed jobs: cells in a 3-digit census occupation by 3-digit census industry matrix. Pooled panel data from the 1979-1987 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used. The unit of analysis is the spell--the time in which a person worked for one organization. The dependent variable is the first wage in the spell. Models with fixed-effects are used to control for unmeasured, unchanging individual characteristics. In addition, results from OLS and weighted models are shown for comparison. The negative effect on wages of the percentage female in one's job is robust across procedures for black women, white women, and white men. For black men, the sign is always negative, but the coefficient is often nonsignificant. Photocopy available from ABI/INFORM
Bibliography Citation
England, Paula A., Lori Lynn Reid and Barbara Stanek Kilbourne. "The Effect of the Sex Composition of Jobs on Starting Wages in an Organization: Findings from the NLSY." Demography 33,4 (November 1996): 511-521.
33. Felmlee, Diane Helen
A Dynamic Analysis of Women's Employment Exits
Demography 21,2 (May 1984): 171-183.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/d01101715r1x5j08/
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Exits; Family Influences; Fertility; Job Tenure; Quits; Transition Rates, Activity to Work; Wages; Work Attachment; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines women's rates of leaving a job to become nonemployed (unemployed or out of the labor force) using a stochastic continuous time model. The data consist of employment histories of white women constructed from the NLS of Young Women (1968-1973). The results demonstrate the importance of examining the underlying processes in women's employment. Several differences are found between the determinants of employment exits and what might be expected from the cross sectional and panel literature on female labor force participation. The findings also provide evidence of the interdependence of fertility and employment, with young children increasing rates of employment exits and with high wages on a job decreasing rates of leaving a job because of a pregnancy. Finally, involuntary employment terminations are examined, and their transition rates are found to decrease with job wages and job tenure and to increase when a woman has children.
Bibliography Citation
Felmlee, Diane Helen. "A Dynamic Analysis of Women's Employment Exits." Demography 21,2 (May 1984): 171-183.
34. Fleisher, Belton M.
Mother's Home Time and the Production of Child Quality
Demography 14,2 (May 1977): 197-212.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f21v14272148p723/
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Family Resources; I.Q.; Mothers; Time Use; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper deals with the effect of mother's time spent out of the labor force, and presumably in the home, on the "production" of child quality, where child quality is measured by intelligence (IQ), level of schooling attained, and market earning power. The results indicate that mother's home time is most effective in producing (male) child quality for mothers who have attained relatively high levels of schooling. The results suggest that education programs which devote equal school resources to all (male) children do not necessarily provide equal educational opportunity and that the influence of family background on economic success is indirect, operating through home investments in children.
Bibliography Citation
Fleisher, Belton M. "Mother's Home Time and the Production of Child Quality." Demography 14,2 (May 1977): 197-212.
35. Frijters, Paul
Johnston, David W.
Shah, Manisha
Shields, Michael A.
Intrahousehold Resource Allocation: Do Parents Reduce or Reinforce Child Ability Gaps?
Demography 50,6 (December 2013): 2187-2208.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-013-0224-2
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Handedness; Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Do parents invest more or less in their high-ability children? We provide new evidence on this question by comparing observed ability differences and observed investment differences between siblings living in the United States. To overcome endogeneity issues, we use sibling differences in handedness as an instrument for cognitive ability differences. We find that parents invest more in high-ability children, with a 1 standard deviation increase in child cognitive ability increasing parental investments by approximately one-third of a standard deviation. Consequently, differences in child cognitive ability are enhanced by differential parental investments.
Bibliography Citation
Frijters, Paul, David W. Johnston, Manisha Shah and Michael A. Shields. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation: Do Parents Reduce or Reinforce Child Ability Gaps?" Demography 50,6 (December 2013): 2187-2208.
36. Gangl, Markus
Ziefle, Andrea
Motherhood, Labor Force Behavior, and Women's Careers: An Empirical Assessment of the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in Britain, Germany, and the United States
Demography 46,2 (May 2009): 341-369.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/v826x34734746775/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): British Household Panel Survey (BHPS); Career Patterns; Cross-national Analysis; Discrimination, Sex; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Motherhood; Wage Differentials; Wage Levels; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using harmonized longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we trace career prospects after motherhood for five cohorts of American, British, and West German women around the 1960s. We establish wage penalties for motherhood between 9% and 18% per child, with wage losses among American and British mothers being lower than those experienced by mothers in Germany. Labor market mechanisms generating the observed wage penalty for motherhood differ markedly across countries, however. For British and American women, work interruptions and subsequent mobility into mother-friendly jobs fully account for mothers' wage losses. In contrast, respective penalties are considerably smaller in Germany, yet we observe a substantial residual wage penalty that is unaccounted for by mothers' observable labor market behavior. We interpret this finding as indicating a comparatively more pronounced role for statistical discrimination against mothers in the German labor market. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Gangl, Markus and Andrea Ziefle. "Motherhood, Labor Force Behavior, and Women's Careers: An Empirical Assessment of the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in Britain, Germany, and the United States." Demography 46,2 (May 2009): 341-369.
37. Garcia-Manglano, Javier
Opting Out and Leaning In: The Life Course Employment Profiles of Early Baby Boom Women in the United States
Demography 52,6 (December 2015): 1961-1993.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-015-0438-6
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Marriage; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Most literature on female employment focuses on the intersection between women's labor supply and family events such as marriage, divorce, or childbearing. Even when using longitudinal data and methods, most studies estimate average net effects over time and assume homogeneity among women. Less is known about diversity in women's cumulative work patterns over the long run. Using group-based trajectory analysis, I model the employment trajectories of early Baby Boom women in the United States from ages 20 to 54. I find that women in this cohort can be classified in four ideal-type groups: those who were consistently detached from the labor force (21 %), those who gradually increased their market attachment (27 %), those who worked intensely in young adulthood but dropped out of the workforce after midlife (13 %), and those who were steadily employed across midlife (40 %). I then explore a variety of traits associated with membership in each of these groups. I find that (1) the timing of family events (marriage, fertility) helps to distinguish between groups with weak or strong attachment to the labor force in early adulthood; (2) external constraints (workplace discrimination, husband's opposition to wife's work, ill health) explain membership in groups that experienced work trajectory reversals; and (3) individual preferences influence labor supply across women's life course. This analysis reveals a high degree of complexity in women's lifetime working patterns, highlighting the need to understand women's labor supply as a fluid process.
Bibliography Citation
Garcia-Manglano, Javier. "Opting Out and Leaning In: The Life Course Employment Profiles of Early Baby Boom Women in the United States." Demography 52,6 (December 2015): 1961-1993.
38. Gemmill, Alison
Gemmill, Alison
From Some to None? Fertility Expectation Dynamics of Permanently Childless Women
Demography 56,1 (February 2019): 129-149.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0739-7
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Permanent childlessness is increasingly acknowledged as an outcome of a dynamic, context-dependent process, but few studies have integrated a life course framework to investigate the complex pathways leading to childlessness. This study focuses on an understudied yet revealing dimension of why individuals remain childless: stated fertility expectations over the life course. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, I use a combination of sequence analysis, data-driven clustering techniques, and multivariable regression models to identify and describe groups of permanently childless women who follow similar trajectories of stated fertility expectations. Results indicate that a little more than one-half (56 %) of eventually childless women fall into a cluster where childlessness is expected before age 30. Women in the remaining clusters (44 %) transition to expecting childlessness later in the life course but are differentiated by the types of trajectories that precede the emergence of a childless expectation. Results from multivariable regression show that several respondent characteristics, including race/ethnicity, education, and marital history, predict cluster membership. Taken together, these findings add to a growing body of literature that provides a more nuanced description of permanently childless women and motivates further research that integrates interdependencies between life course domains and fertility expectations and decision-making of those who remain childless. Permanent childlessness is increasingly acknowledged as an outcome of a dynamic, context-dependent process, but few studies have integrated a life course framework to investigate the complex pathways leading to childlessness. This study focuses on an understudied yet revealing dimension of why individuals remain childless: stated fertility expectations over the life course. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, I use a combination of sequence analysis, data-driven clustering techniques, and multivariable regression models to identify and describe groups of permanently childless women who follow similar trajectories of stated fertility expectations. Results indicate that a little more than one-half (56 %) of eventually childless women fall into a cluster where childlessness is expected before age 30. Women in the remaining clusters (44 %) transition to expecting childlessness later in the life course but are differentiated by the types of trajectories that precede the emergence of a childless expectation. Results from multivariable regression show that several respondent characteristics, including race/ethnicity, education, and marital history, predict cluster membership. Taken together, these findings add to a growing body of literature that provides a more nuanced description of permanently childless women and motivates further research that integrates interdependencies between life course domains and fertility expectations and decision-making of those who remain childless.
Bibliography Citation
Gemmill, AlisonGemmill, Alison. "From Some to None? Fertility Expectation Dynamics of Permanently Childless Women." Demography 56,1 (February 2019): 129-149.
39. Geronimus, Arline T.
Korenman, Sanders D.
The Socioeconomic Costs of Teenage Childbearing: Evidence and Interpretation
Demography 30,2 (May 1993): 281-290.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/d1gr58p1v2u91374/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Family Background; Fertility; First Birth; Heterogeneity; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Pregnancy, Adolescent; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Until recently, the belief that teenage childbearing makes a substantial causal contribution to persistent socioeconomic disadvantage was pervasive. The scientific evidence used to support this interpretation was open to the criticism by failure to account for unobserved heterogeneity; fertility timing varies across populations, and early fertility is much more common in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Investigators therefore made efforts to control for background differences among mothers who had first births at different ages. We were concerned, however, that measures of family background used in these studies might have been inadequate. We undertook a sibling approach as a matched comparison group study in which the set of match characteristics is more complete than that provided by matching measured or observable family background characteristics. The recent replication of our study by Hoffman, Foster, and Furstenberg (1993) supports our principal conclusions that standard cross-sectional estimates of the consequences of teen childbearing are biased by failure to control adequately for family background differences between women who have first births as teenagers and those who have first births at later ages, and that previous estimates are likely to have exaggerated the costs of teen childbearing.
Bibliography Citation
Geronimus, Arline T. and Sanders D. Korenman. "The Socioeconomic Costs of Teenage Childbearing: Evidence and Interpretation." Demography 30,2 (May 1993): 281-290.
40. Ginther, Donna K.
Pollak, Robert A.
Family Structure and Children's Educational Outcomes: Blended Families, Stylized Facts, and Descriptive Regressions
Demography 41,4 (2004): 671-696.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/y452487043748w32/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Education; Educational Outcomes; Family Structure; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article adds to the growing literature describing correlations between children's educational outcomes and family structure. Popular discussions have focused on the distinction between two-parent families and single-parent families. This article shows that educational outcomes for both types of children in blended families­ stepchildren and their half-siblings who are the joint children of both parents ­are similar to each other and substantially worse than outcomes for children reared in traditional nuclear families. We conclude that as a description of the data, the crucial distinction is between children reared in traditional nuclear families (i.e., families in which all children are the joint children of both parents) and children reared in other family structures (e.g., single-parent families or blended families). We then turn from "stylized facts" (i.e., simple correlations) that control only for family structure to "descriptive regressions" that control for other variables such as family income. When controls for other variables are introduced, the relationship between family structure and children's educational outcomes weakens substantially and is often statistically insignificant.
Bibliography Citation
Ginther, Donna K. and Robert A. Pollak. "Family Structure and Children's Educational Outcomes: Blended Families, Stylized Facts, and Descriptive Regressions." Demography 41,4 (2004): 671-696.
41. Gordon, Rachel A.
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Availability of Child Care in the United States: A Description and Analysis of Data Sources
Demography 38, 2 (May 2001): 299-316.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/demography/v038/38.2gordon.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Child Care; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Lack of high quality, affordable child care is an oft cited impediment to a maageable work-family balance. This is particularly true given demographic trends toward more dual earner families and employed unmarried parents in the U.S., and given political focus on reducing long term welfare dependency through parents' employment. However, researchers have lacked data about the availability of child care in communities, restricting research on these topics. In this paper, we lay out a conceptual framework regarding the importance of child care availability in a community, considering potential variation based on the urbanicity of the area and the economic resources of its residents. We then describe and evaluate several indicators of child care availability that have been released by the U.S. Census Bureau over the last 15 years. We examine the validity of these data for measuring child care availability using community- and individual-level analyses. We discuss the data sources' benefits and limitations, and point to directions for future data developments and research.
Bibliography Citation
Gordon, Rachel A. and P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale. "Availability of Child Care in the United States: A Description and Analysis of Data Sources." Demography 38, 2 (May 2001): 299-316.
42. Graefe, Deborah Roempke
Lichter, Daniel T.
Life Course Transitions of American Children: Parental Cohabitation, Marriage, and Single Motherhood
Demography 36,2 (May 1999): 205-217.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/u778278h0315u010/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Health; Cohabitation; Demography; Event History; Family Studies; Life Course; Marital Status; Marriage; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The life course transitions into and from families headed by unmarried cohabiting couples for a recent cohort of American children are examined. Life table estimates, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth mother-child files, indicate about one in four children will live in a family headed by a cohabiting couple sometime during childhood. Economic uncertainty is an important factor determining whether children in single-parent families subsequently share a residence with a mother's unmarried partner. Moreover, virtually all children in cohabiting-couple families will experience rapid subsequent changes in family status. The estimates provide a point of departure for future work on children's exposure to parental cohabitation and its social and economic implications.
Bibliography Citation
Graefe, Deborah Roempke and Daniel T. Lichter. "Life Course Transitions of American Children: Parental Cohabitation, Marriage, and Single Motherhood." Demography 36,2 (May 1999): 205-217.
43. Guo, Guang
Harris, Kathleen Mullan
The Mechanisms Mediating the Effects of Poverty on Children's Intellectual Development
Demography 37,4 (November 2000): 431-447.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/c08312674v02ng22/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Child Care; Child Health; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although adverse consequences of poverty for children are documented widely, little is understood about the mechanisms through which the effects of poverty disadvantage young children. In this analysis we investigate multiple mechanisms through which poverty affects a child's intellectual development. Using data from the NLSY and structural equation models, we have constructed five latent factors (cognitive stimulation, parenting style, physical environment, child's ill health at birth, and ill health in childhood) and have allowed these factors, along with child care, to mediate the effects of poverty and other exogenous variables. We produce two main findings. First, the influence of family poverty on children's intellectual development is mediated completely by the intervening mechanisms measured by our latent factors. Second, our analysis points to cognitive stimulation in the home, and (to a lesser extent) to parenting style, physical environment of the home, and poor child health at birth, as mediating factors that are affected by lack of income and that influence children's intellectual development.
Bibliography Citation
Guo, Guang and Kathleen Mullan Harris. "The Mechanisms Mediating the Effects of Poverty on Children's Intellectual Development." Demography 37,4 (November 2000): 431-447.
44. Hamoudi, Amar
Nobles, Jenna
Do Daughters Really Cause Divorce? Stress, Pregnancy, and Family Composition
Demography 51,4 (August 2014): 1423-1449.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-014-0305-x
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Divorce; First Birth; Gender; Marital Instability; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Relationship Conflict; Stress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Provocative studies have reported that in the United States, marriages producing firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those producing firstborn sons. The findings have been interpreted as contemporary evidence of fathers’ son preference. Our study explores the potential role of another set of dynamics that may drive these patterns: namely, selection into live birth. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the characteristic female survival advantage may begin before birth. If stress accompanying unstable marriages has biological effects on fecundity, a female survival advantage could generate an association between stability and the sex composition of offspring. Combining regression and simulation techniques to analyze real-world data, we ask, How much of the observed association between sex of the firstborn child and risk of divorce could plausibly be accounted for by the joint effects of female survival advantage and reduced fecundity associated with unstable marriage? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that relationship conflict predicts the sex of children born after conflict was measured; conflict also predicts subsequent divorce. Conservative specification of parameters linking pregnancy characteristics, selection into live birth, and divorce are sufficient to generate a selection-driven association between offspring sex and divorce, which is consequential in magnitude. Our findings illustrate the value of demographic accounting of processes which occur before birth—a period when many outcomes of central interest in the population sciences begin to take shape.
Bibliography Citation
Hamoudi, Amar and Jenna Nobles. "Do Daughters Really Cause Divorce? Stress, Pregnancy, and Family Composition." Demography 51,4 (August 2014): 1423-1449.
45. Haurin, R. Jean
Mott, Frank L.
Adolescent Sexual Activity in the Family Context: The Impact of Older Siblings
Demography 27,4 (November 1990): 537-557.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/e283316w36q50577/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Family Resources; Pairs (also see Siblings); Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Sexual Experiences/Virginity; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using approximately 2,000 sibling pairs from the NLSY, this study examines the influence of an older sibling's age at first sexual intercourse upon the sexual initiation of a younger sibling. Hypotheses about differences by gender- composition of the pair are tested using a framework derived from social comparison theory and a two-stage failure-time model. Results provide evidence of a direct, but modest sized older sibling effect for white, but not black youth. This effect is approximately equal in magnitude for same- and opposite-sex siblings. Little support is offered for the greater salience and association of sexual activity for brother-brother as compared to sister-sister pairs.
Bibliography Citation
Haurin, R. Jean and Frank L. Mott. "Adolescent Sexual Activity in the Family Context: The Impact of Older Siblings." Demography 27,4 (November 1990): 537-557.
46. Hayford, Sarah R.
The Evolution of Fertility Expectations Over the Life Course
Demography 46,4 (November 2009): 765-783.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/dem/summary/v046/46.4.hayford.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Family Formation; Family Size; Fertility; Growth Curves; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In low-fertility contexts, how many children people have is largely a product of how many children they want. However, the social, institutional, and individual factors that influence how many children people want are not well understood. In particular, there is scant evidence about how fertility expectations change over the life course. This article provides an empirical description of changes in women's expected fertility over the entire span of childbearing years. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort, group-based trajectory analysis illuminates common patterns in the evolution of fertility intentions and identifies individual characteristics associated with these patterns. Factors related to family formation, such as marriage and whether a woman has a child at an early age, are found to be the most consistent correlates of patterns of change in expected family size.
Bibliography Citation
Hayford, Sarah R. "The Evolution of Fertility Expectations Over the Life Course." Demography 46,4 (November 2009): 765-783.
47. Hayward, Mark D.
Gorman, Bridget K.
Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early-Life Social Conditions on Men's Mortality
Demography 41,1 (February 2004): 87-108.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=12618581&db=aph
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Education; Family Income; Family Studies; Household Income; Income; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Mortality; Occupational Choice; Parental Influences; Rural/Urban Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Increasingly, social scientists are turning to childhood to gain a better understanding of the fundamental social causes of adult mortality. However, evidence of the link between childhood and the mortality of adults is fragmentary, and the intervening mechanisms remain unclear. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, our analysis shows that men's mortality is associated with an array of childhood conditions, including socioeconomic status, family living arrangements, mother's work status, rural residence, and parents' nativity. With the exception of parental nativity, socioeconomic-achievement processes in adulthood and lifestyle factors mediated these associations. Education, family income, household wealth, and occupation mediated the influence of socioeconomic status in childhood. Adult lifestyle factors, particularly body mass, mediated the effects of family living arrangements in childhood, mother's work status, and rural residence. Our findings bring into sharp focus the idea that economic and educational policies that are targeted at children's well-being are implicitly health policies with effects that reach far into the adult life course. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. and Bridget K. Gorman. "Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early-Life Social Conditions on Men's Mortality." Demography 41,1 (February 2004): 87-108.
48. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Work and Retirement Among a Cohort of Older Men in the United States, 1966-1983
Demography 27,3 (August 1990): 337-356.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a4031v28172234n7/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Disabled Workers; Labor Force Participation; Mobility; Modeling; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement; Simultaneity; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Attachment; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multivariate increment-decrement working life tables are estimated for a cohort of older men in the United States for the period 1966-1983. The approach taken allows multiple processes to be simultaneously incorporated into a single model, resulting in a more realistic portrayal of a cohort's labor force behavior. In addition, because the life table model is developed from multivariate hazard equations, we identify the net effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the potentially complex process by which the labor force career is ended. In contrast to the assumed homogeneity of previous working life table analyses, the present study shows marked differences in labor force mobility, and working the nonworking life expectancy according to occupation, class of worker, education, race, and marital status. Policy and substantive implications of these patterns are briefly discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. and William R. Grady. "Work and Retirement Among a Cohort of Older Men in the United States, 1966-1983." Demography 27,3 (August 1990): 337-356.
49. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Sommers, David Gerard
Occupational Influences on Retirement, Disability and Death
Demography 26,3 (August 1989): 393-409.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/92n1655360080128/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines the alternative mechanisms by which occupations influence the nature and timing of older men's labor force withdrawal. In particular, the authors assess the extent to which occupational factors operate directly and indirectly on exiting events and whether occupations augment or constrain traditional determinants of labor force participation. Based on a discrete-time hazards modeling approach, the results substantiate that the occupational task activities, substantive complexity and physical demands, are key elements of the work environment that are evaluated against the set of non-work alternatives. In the case of retirement, these aspects of occupational attractiveness function as a dominant and direct force in retirement decision-making. With regard to disability, the occupational attribute of substantive complexity operates as an indirect advantage (through higher wage rates) by reducing the risk of a disability exit. Indicators of career continuity also determine the rate of retirement among older workers. Finally, results suggest that financial characteristics and health problems are central to the distribution of older workers across the alternative destination statuses of retirement, disability and death.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., William R. Grady, Melissa A. Hardy and David Gerard Sommers. "Occupational Influences on Retirement, Disability and Death." Demography 26,3 (August 1989): 393-409.
50. Hernandez, Elaine M.
Vuolo, Mike
Frizzell, Laura C.
Kelly, Brian
Moving Upstream: The Effect of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions on Educational Inequalities in Smoking Among Young Adults
Demography published online (6 August 2019): DOI: 10.1007/s13524-019-00805-2.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-019-00805-2
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Geocoded Data; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Education affords a range of direct and indirect benefits that promote longer and healthier lives and stratify health lifestyles. We use tobacco clean air policies to examine whether policies that apply universally--interventions that bypass individuals' unequal access and ability to employ flexible resources to avoid health hazards--have an effect on educational inequalities in health behaviors. We test theoretically informed but competing hypotheses that these policies either amplify or attenuate the association between education and smoking behavior. Our results provide evidence that interventions that move upstream to apply universally regardless of individual educational attainment--here, tobacco clean air policies--are particularly effective among young adults with the lowest levels of parental or individual educational attainment. These findings provide important evidence that upstream approaches may disrupt persistent educational inequalities in health behaviors. In doing so, they provide opportunities to intervene on behaviors in early adulthood that contribute to disparities in morbidity and mortality later in the life course. These findings also help assuage concerns that tobacco clean air policies increase educational inequalities in smoking by stigmatizing those with the fewest resources.
Bibliography Citation
Hernandez, Elaine M., Mike Vuolo, Laura C. Frizzell and Brian Kelly. "Moving Upstream: The Effect of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions on Educational Inequalities in Smoking Among Young Adults." Demography published online (6 August 2019): DOI: 10.1007/s13524-019-00805-2.
51. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin
Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood
Demography 47,2 (May 2010): 415-437.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/d581m75h73683202/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Event History; Family Formation; Family Structure; Fatherhood; Fathers, Absence; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call “fragile families.” The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L. and Frances Kobrin Goldscheider. "Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood ." Demography 47,2 (May 2010): 415-437.
52. Hoffman, Saul D.
Foster, E. Michael
Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr.
Reevaluating the Costs of Teenage Childbearing
Demography 30,1 (February 1993): 1-13.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061859
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Background; Family Size; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Siblings; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Teenage childbearing in the United States has long been regarded as an important social problem with substantial costs to teen mothers and their children. Recently, however, several researchers have argued that the apparent negative effects of teenage childbearing primarily reflect unmeasured family background rather than the true consequences of a teen birth. To distinguish the effect of teen childbearing from that of family background, we use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and compare teen mothers with their sisters. We find that accounting for unobserved family background reduces, but does not eliminate, the estimated consequences of early childbearing. Statistically significant and quantitatively important effects of teen parenthood remain for high school graduation, family size, and economic well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Hoffman, Saul D., E. Michael Foster and Frank F. Jr. Furstenberg. "Reevaluating the Costs of Teenage Childbearing." Demography 30,1 (February 1993): 1-13.
53. Hoffman, Saul D.
Foster, E. Michael
Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr.
Reevaluating the Costs of Teenage Childbearing: Response to Geronimus and Korenman
Demography 30,2 (May 1993): 291-296.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/e17684r567083k0w/
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Data Analysis; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evidence suggests that early childbearing, although not as disastrous an event as portrayed in early studies, still often causes harm to already disadvantaged women. In particular, the evidence to date suggests that educational attainment and economic well-being are reduced by a teen birth, even after controlling for the effects of family background. Although the differences between the conventional estimates and fixed-effect estimates are not always statistically significant, sister comparisons suggest that the effects of teen childbearing have been overstated somewhat in the past. None of the replications, however, provide any evidence that the remaining effects of teen childbearing are negligible, as originally suggested. In constrast to other research that uses various technical variations of sampling and data analysis, analysts argue that it is premature to conclude that the true effects of teenage childbearing are quite small.
Bibliography Citation
Hoffman, Saul D., E. Michael Foster and Frank F. Jr. Furstenberg. "Reevaluating the Costs of Teenage Childbearing: Response to Geronimus and Korenman." Demography 30,2 (May 1993): 291-296.
54. Jackson, Margot I.
Understanding Links Between Adolescent Health and Educational Attainment
Demography 46,4, (November 2009): 671-694.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/demography/v046/46.4.jackson.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Child Health; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Health Factors; Household Models; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The educational and economic consequences of poor health during childhood and adolescence have become increasingly clear, with a resurgence of evidence leading researchers to reconsider the potentially significant contribution of early-life health to population welfare both within and across generations. Meaningful relationships between early-life health and educational attainment raise important questions about how health may influence educational success in young adulthood and beyond, as well as for whom its influence is strongest. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how adolescents' health and social status act together to create educational disparities in young adulthood, focusing on two questions in particular. First, does the link between adolescent health and educational attainment vary across socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups? Second, what academic factors explain the connection between adolescent health and educational attainment? The findings suggest that poorer health in adolescence is strongly negatively related to educational attainment, net of both observed confounders and unobserved, time-invariant characteristics within households. The reduction in attainment is particularly large for non-Hispanic white adolescents, suggesting that the negative educational consequences of poor health are not limited to only the most socially disadvantaged adolescents. Finally, I find that the link between adolescent health and educational attainment is explained by academic factors related to educational participation and, most importantly, academic performance, rather than by reduced educational expectations. These findings add complexity to our understanding of how the educational consequences of poor health apply across the social hierarchy, as well as why poor health may lead adolescents to complete less schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Jackson, Margot I. "Understanding Links Between Adolescent Health and Educational Attainment." Demography 46,4, (November 2009): 671-694.
55. Jones, Elise F.
Forrest, Jacqueline D.
Underreporting of Abortion in Surveys of U.S. Women: 1976 to 1988
Demography 29,1 (February 1992): 113-126.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f326385u33604573/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Abortion; Behavior; Data Quality/Consistency; Fertility; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Self-Reporting; Underreporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although research on reproductive behavior depends heavily on information from surveys, abortions are characteristically underreported in such data. Estimates of the level of reporting are made for each of the recent major surveys of U.S. women: the 1976, 1982, and 1988 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth, the 1976 and 1979 National Surveys of Young Women, and the National Longitudinal Surveys of Work Experience of Youth. The estimates are based on comparisons with external counts of abortions taking place. We examine variation by characteristics of women, trends over time, and the possible effects of length of rack and of the way in which questions about abortion are asked. Abortion reporting is round to be highly deficient in all the surveys, although the level varies widely. Whites are more likely to report their abortions than nonwhites. Special, confidential questioning procedures hold promise for improving the results.
Bibliography Citation
Jones, Elise F. and Jacqueline D. Forrest. "Underreporting of Abortion in Surveys of U.S. Women: 1976 to 1988." Demography 29,1 (February 1992): 113-126.
56. Joyce, Theodore J.
Kaestner, Robert
Korenman, Sanders D.
On the Validity of Retrospective Assessments of Pregnancy Intention
Demography 39,1 (February 2002): 199-213.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v039/39.1joyce.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Childbearing; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Fertility; Infants; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Information on pregnancy intention is often gathered retrospectively (after the birth of a child). This article investigates whether the retrospective assessment of pregnancy intention leads to biased estimates of the extent or consequences of unintended fertility. Comparisons are made between pregnancy intentions ascertained during pregnancy and after birth using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. To address the bias caused by selective recognition or acknowledgment of pregnancy, we used the longitudinal feature of the data to determine actual pregnancy status at the time of interviews, which, in turn, was used as an instrumental variable for the retrospective (versus prospective) reporting of pregnancy intention. After correction for selective pregnancy recognition, we found no evidence that the retrospective assessment of pregnancy intention produces misleading estimates of either the number or the consequences of unintended births. This finding is supported by additional analyses of a small subsample of women for whom information on pregnancy intention was collected both during pregnancy and after birth.
Bibliography Citation
Joyce, Theodore J., Robert Kaestner and Sanders D. Korenman. "On the Validity of Retrospective Assessments of Pregnancy Intention." Demography 39,1 (February 2002): 199-213.
57. Joyce, Theodore J.
Kaestner, Robert
Korenman, Sanders D.
The Effect of Pregnancy Intention on Child Development
Demography 37,1 (February 2000): 83-94.
Also: https://zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/faculty/profiles/papers/joyce1.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Health; Fertility; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Siblings; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate the empirical link between unintended pregnancy and child health and development. An important contribution of our study is the use of information on siblings to control for unmeasured factors that may confound estimates of the effect of pregnancy intentions on infant and child outcomes. Results from our study indicate that unwanted pregnancy is associated with prenatal and postpartum maternal behaviors that adversely affect infant and child health, but that unwanted pregnancy has little association with birth weight and child cognitive outcomes. Estimates of the association between unwanted pregnancy and maternal behaviors were greatly reduced after controls for unmeasured family background were included in the model. Our results also indicate that there are no significant differences in maternal behaviors or child outcomes between mistimed and wanted pregnancies.
Bibliography Citation
Joyce, Theodore J., Robert Kaestner and Sanders D. Korenman. "The Effect of Pregnancy Intention on Child Development." Demography 37,1 (February 2000): 83-94.
58. Joyner, Kara
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Hynes, Kathryn
Sikora, Asia
Taber, Jamie Rubenstein
Rendall, Michael S.
The Quality of Male Fertility Data in Major U.S. Surveys
Demography 49,1 (February 2012): 101-124.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/n52u383172070883/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Data Quality/Consistency; Fathers; Fathers, Biological; Fertility; Methods/Methodology; Monte Carlo; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers continue to question fathers’ willingness to report their biological children in surveys and the ability of surveys to adequately represent fathers. To address these concerns, this study evaluates the quality of men’s fertility data in the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97) and in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Comparing fertility rates in each survey with population rates based on data from Vital Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau, we document how the incomplete reporting of births in different surveys varies according to men’s characteristics, including their age, race, marital status, and birth cohort. In addition, we use Monte Carlo simulations based on the NSFG data to demonstrate how birth underreporting biases associations between early parenthood and its antecedents. We find that in the NSFG, roughly four out of five early births were reported; but in the NLSY79 and NLSY97, almost nine-tenths of early births were reported. In all three surveys, incomplete reporting was especially pronounced for nonmarital births. Our results suggest that the quality of male fertility data is strongly linked to survey design and that it has implications for models of early male fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Joyner, Kara, H. Elizabeth Peters, Kathryn Hynes, Asia Sikora, Jamie Rubenstein Taber and Michael S. Rendall. "The Quality of Male Fertility Data in Major U.S. Surveys ." Demography 49,1 (February 2012): 101-124.
59. Kahn, Joan R.
Kalsbeek, William D.
Hofferth, Sandra L.
National Estimates of Teenage Sexual Activity: Evaluating the Comparability of Three National Surveys
Demography 25,2 (May 1988): 189-204.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h157407726170kj3/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, the reliability with which teenage sexual activity was reported in three recent national surveys is examined. Unlike other study-effects analyses of objective demographic phenomena such as births and marriages, the study focuses on a more sensitive question - age at first intercourse as reported in three very different surveys. Specifically, we compare reports for the 1959-1963 cohort in the 1979 Kantner-Zelnik Study of Young Women, the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, and the 1983 wave of the NLSY. For the ages when the majority of teens become sexually active (16-19), the three surveys provide comparable estimates of early sexual activity. For the younger teen ages, however, there is some disagreement among the estimates. Nevertheless, all three studies produce consistent estimates of the determinants of sexual activity throughout the teen years.
Bibliography Citation
Kahn, Joan R., William D. Kalsbeek and Sandra L. Hofferth. "National Estimates of Teenage Sexual Activity: Evaluating the Comparability of Three National Surveys." Demography 25,2 (May 1988): 189-204.
60. Killewald, Alexandra
Lundberg, Ian
New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium
Demography 54,3 (June 2017): 1007-1028.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-017-0566-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Husbands, Income; Marriage; Wage Dynamics; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men’s economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives. We show that wage declines predate rather than follow divorce, indicating no evidence that staying married benefits men's wages. We find that older grooms experience no unusual wage patterns at marriage, suggesting that the observed marriage premium may simply reflect co-occurrence with the transition to adulthood for younger grooms. We show that men entering shotgun marriages experience similar premarital wage gains as other grooms, casting doubt on the claim that anticipation of marriage drives wage increases. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying when their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Ian Lundberg. "New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium." Demography 54,3 (June 2017): 1007-1028.
61. Killewald, Alexandra
Zhuo, Xiaolin
U.S. Mothers' Long-Term Employment Patterns
Demography 56,1 (February 2019): 285-320.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0745-9
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment, Part-Time; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research on maternal employment has disproportionately focused on the immediate postpartum period and typically modeled either cross-sectional employment status or time until a specific employment transition. We instead conceptualize maternal employment as a long-term pattern, extending the observation window and embedding employment statuses in temporal context. Using data from NLSY79 and sequence analysis, we document five common employment patterns of American mothers over the first 18 years of maternity. Three typical patterns revolve around a single employment status: full-time (36 %), part-time (13 %), or nonemployment (21 %); the other two patterns are characterized by 6 (15 %) or 11 (14 %) years of nonemployment, followed by a period of transition and then full-time employment. Analyses of the immediate postpartum period cannot distinguish between the nonemployment and reentry groups, which have different employment experiences and different prematernity characteristics. Next, we describe how mothers' human capital, attitudes and cultural models, family experiences, and race/ethnicity are associated with the employment patterns they follow, elucidating that these characteristics may be associated not only with how much mothers work but also the patterning of their employment. Our results support studying maternal employment as a long-term pattern and employing research approaches that address the qualitative distinctness of these diverse patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Xiaolin Zhuo. "U.S. Mothers' Long-Term Employment Patterns." Demography 56,1 (February 2019): 285-320.
62. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Job Continuity among New Mothers
Demography 36,2 (May 1999): 145-155.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/au407895178u3382/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Childbearing; Fertility; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Legislation; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the early 1990s, both state and federal governments enacted maternity-leave legislation. The key provision of that legislation is that after a leave of a limited duration, the recent mother is guaranteed the right to return to her preleave employer at the same or equivalent position. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we correlate work status after childbirth with work status before pregnancy to estimate the prevalence, before the legislation, of returns to the preleave employer. Among women working full-time before the pregnancy, return to the prepregnancy employer was quite common. Sixty percent of women who worked full-time before the birth of a child continued to work for the same employer after the child was born. Furthermore, the labor market behavior of most of the remaining 40% suggests that maternity-leave legislation is unlikely to have a major effect on job continuity. Compared with all demographically similar women, however, new mothers have an excess probability of leaving their jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex and Arleen A. Leibowitz. "Job Continuity among New Mothers." Demography 36,2 (May 1999): 145-155.
63. Kraft, Joan Marie
Coverdill, James E.
Employment and the Use of Birth Control by Sexually Active Single Hispanic, Black, and White Women
Demography 31,4 (November 1994): 593-602.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/w42452h5425883t1/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Contraception; Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Employment; Employment, History; Ethnic Differences; Family Background; Family Studies; Fertility; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Wage Effects; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous studies of the use of birth control by sexually active single women tend to emphasize family background and aspirations, and restrict their attention to teenagers. This framework is elaborated by considering how labor market experiences might shape the birth control practices of women in their late teens and 20s. Data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Experiences - Youth Cohort provide evidence that employment histories and wages influence birth control practices, net of the effects of family background, aspirations, and educational attainment. Several pronounced racial and ethnic differences are found.
Bibliography Citation
Kraft, Joan Marie and James E. Coverdill. "Employment and the Use of Birth Control by Sexually Active Single Hispanic, Black, and White Women." Demography 31,4 (November 1994): 593-602.
64. Krein, Sheila Fitzgerald
Beller, Andrea H.
Educational Attainment of Children from Single-Parent Families: Differences by Exposure, Gender and Race
Demography 25,2 (May 1988): 221-234.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/r7293w7873823862/
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parents, Single; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the effect of living in a single-parent family on the educational attainment of young men and women. According to household production theory, the reduction in parental resources for human capital investment in children living in a single-parent family should lower their educational attainment. Using matched mother-daughter and mother-son samples from the National Longitudinal Surveys, precise measures of whether, at what age, and for how long a child lived in a single-parent family are constructed. Empirical findings show that the negative effect of living in a single-parent family: (1) increases with the number of years spent in this type of family; (2) is greatest during the preschool years; and (3) is larger for boys than for girls.
Bibliography Citation
Krein, Sheila Fitzgerald and Andrea H. Beller. "Educational Attainment of Children from Single-Parent Families: Differences by Exposure, Gender and Race." Demography 25,2 (May 1988): 221-234.
65. Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Waite, Linda J.
Witsberger, Christina
Child Care for Preschoolers: Differences by Child's Age
Demography 25,2 (May 1988): 205-220.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/j472319256077641/
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Labor Force Participation; Preschool Children

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Because of the high rates of employment of mothers, a large and increasing number of preschool children receive regular care from someone else. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about choice of child care arrangements for younger and older preschool children using data from the Young Women's cohort. The authors argue that appropriate care depends on the age of the child. It includes both care by the mother and care by a paid provider in the child's home for children aged 0 to 2, and mother care and nursery school or center care for those 3 to 5. Models of the mother's employment and choice of child care are estimated separately for younger and older preschoolers. The results show that need for care, presence of substitutes for the mother, financial resources, and preferences all affect both full-time care by the mother and type of child care chosen by working women, although they affect these two decisions in different ways.
Bibliography Citation
Leibowitz, Arleen A., Linda J. Waite and Christina Witsberger. "Child Care for Preschoolers: Differences by Child's Age." Demography 25,2 (May 1988): 205-220.
66. Lewis, Susan Kay
Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincaid
Educational Assortative Mating Across Marriage Markets: Non-Hispanic Whites in the United States
Demography 37,1 (February 2000): 29-40.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p46r1515r2240263/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Educational Attainment; Educational Status; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The writers analyze the effect of local marriage markets' educational composition on educational assortative mating and on how sorting varies with age. They expect that in less educationally concentrated marriage markets, residents are more likely to marry hypogamously along education and predict that the less the degree of educational concentration in a marriage market, the more residents' chance of educational hypogamy increases with age. Drawing on individual data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and community descriptors aggregated from census microdata, they estimate a discrete-time competing-risks model of educational sorting outcomes. Their findings reveal that residents of educationally less favorable marriage markets are more likely to marry down on education and that, for women, their chance of doing so rises with age more than for residents of more favorable markets. Copyright: Database Producer Copyright (c) the H.W. Wilson Company. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Lewis, Susan Kay and Valerie Kincaid Oppenheimer. "Educational Assortative Mating Across Marriage Markets: Non-Hispanic Whites in the United States." Demography 37,1 (February 2000): 29-40.
67. Lichter, Daniel T.
Qian, Zhenchao
Mellott, Leanna Marie
Marriage or Dissolution? Union Transitions Among Poor Cohabiting Women
Demography 43,2 (May 2006): 223-40.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v043/43.2lichter.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Income Level; Marriage; Poverty; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective of this paper is to identify the incentives and barriers to marriage among cohabiting women, especially disadvantaged mothers who are targets of welfare reform. We use the newly released cohabitation data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979–2000), which tracks the partners of cohabiting women across survey waves. Our results support several conclusions. First, cohabiting unions are short-lived -- about one-half end within one year, and over 90% end by the fifth year. Unlike most previous research, our results show that most cohabiting unions end by dissolution of the relationship rather than by marriage. Second, transitions to marriage are especially unlikely among poor women; less than one-third marry within five years. Cohabitation among poor women is more likely than that among nonpoor women to be a long-term alternative or substitute for traditional marriage. Third, our multinomial analysis of transitions from cohabitation into marriage or dissolution highlights the salience of economically disadvantaged family backgrounds, cohabitation and fertility histories, women's economic resources, and partner characteristics. These results are interpreted in a policy environment that increasingly views marriage as an economic panacea for low-income women and their children.
Bibliography Citation
Lichter, Daniel T., Zhenchao Qian and Leanna Marie Mellott. "Marriage or Dissolution? Union Transitions Among Poor Cohabiting Women." Demography 43,2 (May 2006): 223-40.
68. Light, Audrey L.
Gender Differences in the Marriage and Cohabitation Income Premium
Demography 41,2 (May 2004): 263-275.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=13494321&db=aph
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Family Income; Family Size; Gender Differences; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marital Status; Marriage; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I identify causal effects of marriage and cohabitation on total family income. My goals are to compare men's and women changes in financial status upon entering unions and to assess the relative contributions of adjustments in own income, income pooling, and changes in family size. Changes in own income that are due to intrahousehold specialization prove to be minor for both men and women relative to the effects of adding another adult's income to the family total. Women gain roughly 55% in needs-adjusted, total family income, regardless of whether they cohabit or marry, whereas men's needs-adjusted income levels remain unchanged when men make these same transitions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. "Gender Differences in the Marriage and Cohabitation Income Premium." Demography 41,2 (May 2004): 263-275.
69. Light, Audrey L.
Ahn, Taehyun
Divorce as Risky Behavior
Demography 47,4 (November 2010): 895-921.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/15g8j58430171381/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marriage; Modeling, Probit; Risk Perception; Risk-Taking; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. and Taehyun Ahn. "Divorce as Risky Behavior." Demography 47,4 (November 2010): 895-921.
70. Mann, David R.
Honeycutt, Todd C.
Understanding the Disability Dynamics of Youth: Health Condition and Limitation Changes for Youth and Their Influence on Longitudinal Survey Attrition
Demography 53,3 (June 2016): 749-776.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-016-0469-7
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Attrition; Disability; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Nonresponse

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Disability status--experiencing a functional limitation caused by a health condition--is dynamic throughout the life cycle, even during adolescence and young adulthood. We use data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to better understand these dynamics, examining how health condition and limitation statuses evolve during adolescence and young adulthood as well as how changes in these characteristics are related to survey nonresponse and attrition. Health condition and limitation dynamics are evident in our data: the proportion of sample members who reported having a limitation in their activities for any interview increased from approximately 12% during the initial interview (when sample members were 12 to 17 years old) to almost 25% 13 years later. Multivariate analyses revealed that women are more likely than men to report changes in health condition or limitation status. Those with mild limitations were relatively less likely than those without limitations or with severe limitations to experience changes in limitation status. Somewhat surprisingly, a survival analysis of survey participation outcomes found limited correlation among health conditions, limitations, and either missing a survey interview for the first time or permanently leaving the survey sample.
Bibliography Citation
Mann, David R. and Todd C. Honeycutt. "Understanding the Disability Dynamics of Youth: Health Condition and Limitation Changes for Youth and Their Influence on Longitudinal Survey Attrition." Demography 53,3 (June 2016): 749-776.
71. Manning, Wendy D.
Joyner, Kara
Hemez, Paul
Cupka, Cassandra Jean
Measuring Cohabitation in U.S. National Surveys
Demography published online (17 June 2019): DOI: 10.1007/s13524-019-00796-0.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-019-00796-0
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Research Methodology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cohabitation is one of the fastest growing family forms in the United States. It is widespread and continues to increase but has not been consistently measured across surveys. It is important to track the quality of data on cohabitation because it has implications for research on the correlates and consequences of cohabitation for adults and children. Recent rounds of the Current Population Survey (CPS), National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-97), and National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provide an opportunity to contrast estimates of cohabitation status and experience using nationally representative data sets and assess the quality of data on cohabitation in these data sets. Results demonstrated that the surveys provide similar estimates of current cohabitation status, except the CPS resulted in lower estimates. In terms of cohabitation experience (i.e., having ever cohabited), Add Health produced higher estimates, whereas both the NSFG and NLSY-97 produced lower estimates. We documented a strong education gradient across all surveys, with lower levels of current cohabitation and cohabitating experience and with increases in educational attainment. Racial/ethnic differences in cohabitation were inconsistent across surveys. We discuss aspects of sampling and measurement that potentially explain differences in estimates. Our findings have implications not only for survey design but also for the interpretation of results based on these four national surveys.
Bibliography Citation
Manning, Wendy D., Kara Joyner, Paul Hemez and Cassandra Jean Cupka. "Measuring Cohabitation in U.S. National Surveys." Demography published online (17 June 2019): DOI: 10.1007/s13524-019-00796-0.
72. Maralani, Vida
Stabler, Samuel
Intensive Parenting: Fertility and Breastfeeding Duration in the United States
Demography 55,5 (October 2018): 1681-1704.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0710-7
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Breastfeeding; Expectations/Intentions; Fertility

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using 30 years of longitudinal data from a nationally representative cohort of women, we study the association between breastfeeding duration and completed fertility, fertility expectations, and birth spacing. We find that women who breastfeed their first child for five months or longer are a distinct group. They have more children overall and higher odds of having three or more children rather than two, compared with women who breastfeed for shorter durations or not at all. Expected fertility is associated with initiating breastfeeding but not with how long mothers breastfeed. Thus, women who breastfeed longer do not differ significantly from other breastfeeding women in their early fertility expectations. Rather, across the life course, these women achieve and even exceed their earlier fertility expectations. Women who breastfeed for shorter durations (1-21 weeks) are more likely to fall short of their expected fertility than to achieve or exceed their expectations, and they are significantly less likely than women who breastfeed for longer durations (≥22 weeks) to exceed their expected fertility. In contrast, women who breastfeed longer are as likely to exceed as to achieve their earlier expectations, and the difference between their probability of falling short versus exceeding their fertility expectations is relatively small and at the boundary of statistical significance (p = .096). These differences in fertility are not explained by differences in personal and family resources, including family income or labor market attachment. Our findings suggest that breastfeeding duration may serve as a proxy for identifying a distinct approach to parenting. Women who breastfeed longer have reproductive patterns quite different than their socioeconomic position would predict. They both have more children and invest more time in those children.
Bibliography Citation
Maralani, Vida and Samuel Stabler. "Intensive Parenting: Fertility and Breastfeeding Duration in the United States." Demography 55,5 (October 2018): 1681-1704.
73. Maroto, Michelle Lee
Saving, Sharing, or Spending? The Wealth Consequences of Raising Children
Demography 55,6 (December 2018): 2257-2282.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0716-1
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Modeling, Fixed Effects; Net Worth; Parenthood; Savings; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses 1986-2012 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort data to investigate the relationship between raising children and net worth among younger Baby Boomer parents. I combine fixed-effects and unconditional quantile regression models to estimate changes in net worth associated with having children in different age groups across the wealth distribution. This allows me to test whether standard economic models for savings and consumption over the life course hold for families at different wealth levels. My findings show that the wealth effects of children vary throughout the distribution. Among families at or below the median, children of all ages were associated with wealth declines, likely due to the costs of child-rearing. However, at the 75th percentile and above, wealth increased with the presence of younger children but decreased after those children reached age 18. My results, therefore, provide evidence for a saving and investment model of child-rearing among wealthier families but not among families at or below median wealth levels. For these families, the costs of raising children largely outweighed motivations for saving.
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "Saving, Sharing, or Spending? The Wealth Consequences of Raising Children." Demography 55,6 (December 2018): 2257-2282.
74. McClendon, David
Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan
Raley, R. Kelly
Opportunities to Meet: Occupational Education and Marriage Formation in Young Adulthood
Demography 51,4 (August 2014): 1319-1344.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24980386
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We focus on work--and the social ties that it supports--and consider whether the educational composition of occupations is important for marriage formation during young adulthood. Employing discrete-time event-history methods using the NLSY-97, we find that occupational education is positively associated with transitioning to first marriage and with marrying a college-educated partner for women but not for men.
Bibliography Citation
McClendon, David, Janet Chen-Lan Kuo and R. Kelly Raley. "Opportunities to Meet: Occupational Education and Marriage Formation in Young Adulthood." Demography 51,4 (August 2014): 1319-1344.
75. Mensch, Barbara S.
Kandel, Denise B.
Drug Use as a Risk Factor for Premarital Teen Pregnancy and Abortion in a National Sample of Young White Women
Demography 29,3 (August 1992): 409-429.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/2166r53270u1987u/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Contraception; Deviance; Drug Use; Event History; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Religion; Self-Esteem; Sexual Activity; Substance Use; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between adolescent drug use and premarital teen pregnancy and abortion as a pregnancy outcome among sexually active women is investigated in a sample of white women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Event history analysis is used to explore whether prior drug use has a unique effect on premarital teen pregnancy. with controls for personality, lifestyle, and biological factors. Logistic regression is used to estimate whether drug use affects the decision to terminate a premarital teen pregnancy. The results show that the risk of premarital teen pregnancy is nearly four times as high for those who have used illicit drugs other than marijuana as for those with no history of any prior substance involvement. Furthermore, illicit drug use increases the likelihood of an abortion by a factor of 5. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Mensch, Barbara S. and Denise B. Kandel. "Drug Use as a Risk Factor for Premarital Teen Pregnancy and Abortion in a National Sample of Young White Women." Demography 29,3 (August 1992): 409-429.
76. Michael, Robert T.
Tuma, Nancy Brandon
Entry into Marriage and Parenthood by Young Adults
Demography 22,4 (November 1985): 515-544.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/7m4gt2035165549w/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Family Background; Fertility; First Birth; Hispanics; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the marital and fertility patterns of young men and women (age 14-21) using the first year data from the NLSY. The paper's substantive focuses are the influences of family background on early (teenage) entry into marriage and parenthood and the extent to which measured family characteristics can explain the large differences among whites, Hispanics and blacks. The paper's methodological focus is the comparison of results when a data set is analyzed as either a conventional cross-section file using a linear probability (OLS regression) or logistic (maximum likelihood) model or as a continuous time, event-history file using a partial likelihood model.
Bibliography Citation
Michael, Robert T. and Nancy Brandon Tuma. "Entry into Marriage and Parenthood by Young Adults." Demography 22,4 (November 1985): 515-544.
77. Miller, Warren B.
Bard, David E.
Pasta, David J.
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Biodemographic Modeling of the Links Between Fertility Motivation and Fertility Outcomes in the NLSY79
Demography 47,2 (May 2010): 393-414.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/demography/v047/47.2.miller.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Fertility; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Genetics; LISREL; Modeling; Modeling, Multilevel

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In spite of long-held beliefs that traits related to reproductive success tend to become fixed by evolution with little or no genetic variation, there is now considerable evidence that the natural variation of fertility within populations is genetically influenced and that a portion of that influence is related to the motivational precursors to fertility. We conduct a two-stage analysis to examine these inferences in a time-ordered multivariate context. First, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979, and LISREL analysis, we develop a structural equation model in which five hypothesized motivational precursors to fertility, measured in 1979-1982, predict both a child-timing and a child-number outcome, measured in 2002. Second, having chosen two time-ordered sequences of six variables from the SEM to represent our phenotypic models, we use Mx to conduct both univariate and multivariate behavioral genetic analyses with the selected variables. Our results indicate that one or more genes acting within a gene network have additive effects that operate through childnumber desires to affect both the timing of the next child born and the final number of children born, that one or more genes acting through a separate network may have additive effects operating through gender role attitudes to produce downstream effects on the two fertility outcomes, and that no genetic variance is associated with either child-timing intentions or educational intentions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Warren B., David E. Bard, David J. Pasta and Joseph Lee Rodgers. "Biodemographic Modeling of the Links Between Fertility Motivation and Fertility Outcomes in the NLSY79." Demography 47,2 (May 2010): 393-414.
78. Min, Stella
Taylor, Miles G.
Racial and Ethnic Variation in the Relationship Between Student Loan Debt and the Transition to First Birth
Demography 55,1 (February 2018): 165-188.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-017-0643-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Debt/Borrowing; Ethnic Differences; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Motherhood; Racial Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The present study employs discrete-time hazard regression models to investigate the relationship between student loan debt and the probability of transitioning to either marital or nonmarital first childbirth using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Accounting for nonrandom selection into student loans using propensity scores, our study reveals that the effect of student loan debt on the transition to motherhood differs among white, black, and Hispanic women. Hispanic women holding student loans experience significant declines in the probability of transitioning to both marital and nonmarital motherhood, whereas black women with student loans are significantly more likely to transition to any first childbirth. Indebted white women experience only a decrease in the probability of a marital first birth. The results from this study suggest that student loans will likely play a key role in shaping future demographic patterns and behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Min, Stella and Miles G. Taylor. "Racial and Ethnic Variation in the Relationship Between Student Loan Debt and the Transition to First Birth." Demography 55,1 (February 2018): 165-188.
79. Moffitt, Robert A.
Reville, Robert T.
Winkler, Anne E.
Beyond Single Mothers: Cohabitation and Marriage in the AFDC Program
Demography 35,3 (August 1998): 259-278.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/x517133085778732/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Cohabitation; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Household Composition; Marital Status; Marriage; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parents, Single; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the extent and implications of cohabitation and marriage among U.S. welfare recipients. An analysis of four data sets (the Current Population Survey, the National Survey of Families and Households, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and the National longitudinal Survey of Youth) shows significant cant numbers of cohabitors among recipients of AFDC. An even more surprising finding is the large number of married women on welfare. We also report the results of a telephone survey of state AFDC agencies conducted to determine state rules governing cohabitation and marriage. The survey results indicate that, in a number of respects, AFDC rules encourage cohabitation. Finally, we conduct an analysis of the impact of AFDC rules on cohabitation, marriage, and single motherhood and find weak evidence in support of incentives to cohabit.
Bibliography Citation
Moffitt, Robert A., Robert T. Reville and Anne E. Winkler. "Beyond Single Mothers: Cohabitation and Marriage in the AFDC Program." Demography 35,3 (August 1998): 259-278.
80. Moore, David Eugene
Hayward, Mark D.
Occupational Careers and Mortality of Elderly Men
Demography 27,1 (February 1990): 31-53.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/x1j16803835p7539/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Occupational; Mortality; Occupations; Work Histories; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study examined occupational differentials in mortality among a cohort of men aged 55 and older in the US for the period 1966-1983. Using data from the NLS of Older Men, event histories were constructed for 3,080 respondents who reached the exact age of 55. The dynamics that characterize the socioeconomic differentials in mortality were examined by evaluating the differential effects of occupation over the career cycle. The maximum likelihood estimates of hazard-model parameters showed that the mortality of current or last occupation differed substantially from that of longest occupation, controlling for education, income, health status, and other sociodemographic factors. The rate of mortality was reduced by the substantive complexity of the longest occupation, while social skills and physical and environmental demands of the latest occupation lowered mortality. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Moore, David Eugene and Mark D. Hayward. "Occupational Careers and Mortality of Elderly Men." Demography 27,1 (February 1990): 31-53.
81. Mott, Frank L.
When is a Father Really Gone? Paternal-Child Contact in Father-Absent Homes
Demography 27,4 (November 1990): 499-517.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/v537607144253572/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fathers and Children; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Influence; Household Composition

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing data from the 1979-1986 NLSY, this paper examines the dynamics of father's presence-absence during a child's first few years of life and considers the extent to which overt father presence/absence statistics mask a continuing contact with potential father/father figures. This includes tendencies of children to have frequent contact with "absent" fathers or to have a "new" father figure in the home--be he a spouse or partner of the child's mother or some other designated adult "father figure." The paper documents the extent to which (1) substantial proportions of children born to younger mothers never have had a biological father residing in the home, (2) "net" levels of fathers' absence at various post birth points mask significant "gross" flows of fathers in and out, and (3) large proportions of children in homes where the biological father is not present have potentially significant contact with absent fathers or new father figures, be they spouses or partners of the child's mother or some other significant adult. Racial differences in these patterns are considered.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. "When is a Father Really Gone? Paternal-Child Contact in Father-Absent Homes." Demography 27,4 (November 1990): 499-517.
82. Musick, Kelly
Mare, Robert D.
Family Structure, Intergenerational Mobility and the Reproduction of Poverty: Evidence for Increasing Polarization?
Demography 41,4 (November 2004): 629-649.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f317q7n734t4471g/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Fertility; Inheritance; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Modeling; Parenthood; Parents, Single; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A substantial body of research has demonstrated links between poverty and family structure from one generation to the next, but has left open key questions about the implications of these associations for aggregate-level change. To what extent does intergenerational inheritance affect trends in poverty and single parenthood over time and, in particular, trends in the relative economic positions of single-parent and two-parent families? This article examines how patterns of intergenerational inheritance play out in the population over the long run, using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys and a model of population renewal that takes into account intergenerational mobility and differential fertility across groups that are defined by poverty status and family structure. Our results suggest that current rates of intergenerational inheritance have little effect on population change over time. They account for only a small share of the recent historical change in poverty and family structure and play no role in exacerbating existing economic disparities by family structure. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Musick, Kelly and Robert D. Mare. "Family Structure, Intergenerational Mobility and the Reproduction of Poverty: Evidence for Increasing Polarization?" Demography 41,4 (November 2004): 629-649.
83. Nixon, Lucia A.
Robinson, Michael D.
The Educational Attainment of Young Women: Role Model Effects of Female High School Faculty
Demography 36,2 (May 1999): 185-194.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/lx8241053l218162/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; High School; High School Students; Role Models; Teachers/Faculty; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To test for the presence of role model effects of female high school faculty and professional staff on young women in high school, we estimate several models of educational attainment for young women using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Exposure to female high school faculty and professional staff has a positive impact on the educational attainment of young women. This result, combined with our finding that female faculty and professional staff have no significant impact on the educational attainmnet of young men, supports a female role model hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Nixon, Lucia A. and Michael D. Robinson. "The Educational Attainment of Young Women: Role Model Effects of Female High School Faculty." Demography 36,2 (May 1999): 185-194.
84. Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincaid
Cohabiting and Marriage During Young Men's Career-Development Process
Demography 40,1 (February 2003): 127-149.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/b375408371723548/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Cohabitation; Event History; Male Sample; Marriage; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using recently released cohabitation data for the male sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, first interviewed in 1979, I conducted multinomial discrete-time event-history analyses of how young men's career-development process affects both the formation and the dissolution of cohabiting unions. For a substantial proportion of young men, cohabitation seemed to represent an adaptive strategy during a period of career immaturity, whereas marriage was a far more likely outcome for both stably employed cohabitors and noncohabitors alike. Earnings positively affected the entry into either a cohabiting or marital union but exhibited a strong threshold effect. Once the men were in cohabiting unions, however, earnings had little effect on the odds of marrying. Men with better long-run socioeconomic prospects were far more likely to marry from either the noncohabiting or cohabiting state, and this was particularly true for blacks.
Bibliography Citation
Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincaid. "Cohabiting and Marriage During Young Men's Career-Development Process." Demography 40,1 (February 2003): 127-149.
85. Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincaid
Kalmijn, Matthijs
Lim, Nelson
Men's Career Development and Marriage Timing During a Period of Rising Inequality
Demography 34,3 (August 1997): 311-330.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/x91g23831up18126/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Education Indicators; Event History; Job Analysis; Marriage; Racial Differences; Schooling; Transition Rates, Activity to Work; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on data from 1979-1990 NLSY interviews, we investigate the implications of rising economic inequality for young men's marriage timing. Our approach is to relate marriage formation to the ease or difficulty of the career-entry process and to show that large race/schooling differences in career development lead to substantial variations in marriage timing. We develop measures of current career "maturity" and of long-term labor-market position. Employing discrete-time event-history methods, we show that these variables have a substantial impact on marriage formation for both blacks and whites. Applying our regression results to models based on observed race/schooling patterns of career development, we then estimate cumulative proportions ever married in a difficult versus an easy career-entry process. We find major differences in the pace of marriage formation, depending on the difficulty of the career transition. We also find considerable differences in these marriage timing patterns across race/schooling groups corresponding to the large observed differences in the speed and difficulty of career transitions between and within these groups. ©2000-2002 JSTOR
Bibliography Citation
Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincaid, Matthijs Kalmijn and Nelson Lim. "Men's Career Development and Marriage Timing During a Period of Rising Inequality." Demography 34,3 (August 1997): 311-330.
86. Painter, Matthew A. II
Frech, Adrianne
Williams, Kristi
Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth
Demography 52,1 (February 2015): 153-182.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-014-0367-9
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Stability; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.
Bibliography Citation
Painter, Matthew A. II, Adrianne Frech and Kristi Williams. "Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth." Demography 52,1 (February 2015): 153-182.
87. Pais, Jeremy
Cumulative Structural Disadvantage and Racial Health Disparities: The Pathways of Childhood Socioeconomic Influence
Demography 51,5 (October 2014): 1729-1753.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-014-0330-9
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Workers Ability

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cumulative structural disadvantage theory posits two major sources of endogenous selection in shaping racial health disparities: a race-based version of the theory anticipates a racially distinct selection process, whereas a social class-based version anticipates a racially similar process. To operationalize cumulative structural disadvantage, this study uses data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in a Latent Class Analysis that demographically profiles health impairment trajectories. This analysis is used to examine the nature of selection as it relates to racial differences in the development of health impairments that are significant enough to hinder one's ability to work. The results provide no direct support for the race-based version of cumulative structural disadvantage theory. Instead, two key findings support the social class-based version of cumulative disadvantage theory. First, the functional form of the different health trajectories are invariant for whites and blacks, suggesting more racial similarly in the developmental process than anticipated by the race-based version of the theory. The extent of the racial disparity in the prevalences across the health impairment trajectories is, however, significant and noteworthy: nearly one-third of blacks (28 %) in the United States experience some form of impairment during their prime working years compared with 18.8 % of whites. Second, racial differences in childhood background mediate this racial health disparity through the indirect pathway of occupational attainment and through the direct pathway of early-life exposure to health-adverse environments. Thus, the selection of individuals into different health trajectories, based largely on childhood socioeconomic background, helps explain racial disparities in the development of health impairments.
Bibliography Citation
Pais, Jeremy. "Cumulative Structural Disadvantage and Racial Health Disparities: The Pathways of Childhood Socioeconomic Influence." Demography 51,5 (October 2014): 1729-1753.
88. Peterson, Christine E.
Davanzo, Julie
Why are Teenagers in the United States Less Likely to Breast-Feed than Older Women?
Demography 29,3 (August 1992): 431-450.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/37623p1657412185/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Breastfeeding; Motherhood; Mothers, Adolescent; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Teenage mothers are much less likely than older mothers to breastfeed their infants. The lower breastfeeding rate among teenagers aged 16-19, compared with women aged 20-29, is due almost entirely to the fact that teenage mothers tend to have characteristics associated with a lower likelihood of breastfeeding among all women, such as lower educational level, lower income, and being unmarried. Even so, nearly 40% of the difference between teenage mothers aged 15 or less and mothers aged 20-29 remains unexplained by these factors and may be due to developmental aspects of adolescence, such as greater egocentricity and greater concern about body image.
Bibliography Citation
Peterson, Christine E. and Julie Davanzo. "Why are Teenagers in the United States Less Likely to Breast-Feed than Older Women?" Demography 29,3 (August 1992): 431-450.
89. Powers, Daniel A.
Hsueh, James Cherng-Tay
Sibling Models of Socioeconomic Effects on the Timing of First Premarital Birth
Demography 34,4 (November 1997): 493-511.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/7445273624p02117/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Characteristics; Family Studies; Marital Status; Marriage; Modeling; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parents, Single; Shift Workers; Siblings; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data on 1,090 pairs of sisters from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to estimate the effects of observed individual-level factors, common family-level variables, and shared unobserved family-level traits on the timing of premarital births. Results show a moderate correlated risk of premarital childbearing among siblings after controlling for the effects of measured covariates. The effect of older sisters' out-of-wedlock childbearing on the timing of younger sisters 'premarital birth is overestimated when shared unmeasured family-level traits are ignored. Public policy measures designed to reduce premarital births have a smaller multiplier effect via reduced younger sisters 'premarital births because unmeasured family-level factors are less amenable to policy measures. However, because the older-sibling effect is large when other sources of variability in premarital birth timing are controlled, interventions may be effective in reducing premarital births among young women in high-risk families.
Bibliography Citation
Powers, Daniel A. and James Cherng-Tay Hsueh. "Sibling Models of Socioeconomic Effects on the Timing of First Premarital Birth." Demography 34,4 (November 1997): 493-511.
90. Reagan, Patricia Benton
Olsen, Randall J.
You Can Go Home Again: Evidence from Longitudinal Data
Demography 37,3 (August 2000): 339-350.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/b5j14454n6147r76/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Economics, Demographic; Immigrants; Migration; Migration Patterns; Residence; Skills; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we analyze the economic and demographic factors that influence return migration, focusing on generation 1.5 immigrants. Using longitudinal data from the 1979 youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLSY79), we track residential histories of young immigrants to the United States and analyze the covariates associated with return migration to their home country. Overall, return migration appears to respond to economic incentives, as well as to cultural and linguistic ties to the United States and the home country. We find no role for welfare magnets in the decision to return, but we learn that welfare participation leads to lower probability of return migration. Finally, we see no evidence of a skill bias in return migration, where skill is measured by performance on the Armed Forces Qualifying Test.
Bibliography Citation
Reagan, Patricia Benton and Randall J. Olsen. "You Can Go Home Again: Evidence from Longitudinal Data." Demography 37,3 (August 2000): 339-350.
91. Schneider, Daniel J.
Harknett, Kristen S.
Stimpson, Matthew
Job Quality and the Educational Gradient in Entry Into Marriage and Cohabitation
Demography 56,2 (April 2019): 451-476.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0749-5
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Cohabitation; Educational Attainment; Job Characteristics; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men's and women's economic resources are important determinants of marriage timing. Prior demographic and sociological literature has often measured resources in narrow terms, considering employment and earnings and not more fine-grained measures of job quality. Yet, scholarship on work and inequality focuses squarely on declining job quality and rising precarity in employment and suggests that this transformation may matter for the life course. Addressing the disconnect between these two important areas of research, this study analyzes data on the 1980-1984 U.S. birth cohort from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the relationships between men's and women's job quality and their entry into marital or cohabiting unions. We advance existing literature by moving beyond basic measures of employment and earnings and investigating how detailed measures of job quality matter for union formation. We find that men and women in less precarious jobs--both jobs with standard work schedules and those that provide fringe benefits--are more likely to marry. Further, differences in job quality explain a significant portion of the educational gradient in entry into first marriage. However, these dimensions of job quality are not predictive of cohabitation.
Bibliography Citation
Schneider, Daniel J., Kristen S. Harknett and Matthew Stimpson. "Job Quality and the Educational Gradient in Entry Into Marriage and Cohabitation." Demography 56,2 (April 2019): 451-476.
92. Schwartz, Christine R.
Pathways to Educational Homogamy in Marital and Cohabiting Unions
Demography 47,3 (August 2010): 735-753.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/u377n482781tv002/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Homogamy; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is considerable disagreement about whether cohabitors are more or less likely to be educationally homogamous than married couples. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I reconcile many of the disparate findings of previous research by conducting a "stock and flow" analysis of assortative cohabitation and marriage. I find that cohabitors are less likely to be educationally homogamous than married couples overall, but these differences are not apparent when cohabiting and marital unions begin. Instead, the results suggest that differences in educational homogamy by union type are driven by selective exits from marriage and cohabitation rather than by differences in partner choice. Marriages that cross educational boundaries are particularly likely to end. The findings suggest that although cohabitors place greater emphasis on egalitarianism than married couples, this does not translate into greater educational homogamy. The findings are also consistent with a large body of research on cohabitation and divorce questioning the effectiveness of cohabitation as a trial marriage. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Schwartz, Christine R. "Pathways to Educational Homogamy in Marital and Cohabiting Unions." Demography 47,3 (August 2010): 735-753.
93. Schwartz, Christine R.
Mare, Robert D.
The Proximate Determinants of Educational Homogamy: The Effects of First Marriage, Marital Dissolution, Remarriage, and Educational Upgrading
Demography 49,2 (May 2012): 629-650.
Also: http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-012-0093-0
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Attainment; Homogamy; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper adapts the population balancing equation to develop a framework for studying the proximate determinants of educational homogamy. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on a cohort of women born between 1957 and 1964, we decompose the odds of homogamy in prevailing marriages into four proximate determinants: (1) first marriages, (2) first and later marital dissolutions, (3) remarriages, and (4) educational attainment after marriage. The odds of homogamy among new first marriages are lower than among prevailing marriages, but not because of selective marital dissolution, remarriage, and educational attainment after marriage, as has been speculated. Prevailing marriages are more likely to be educationally homogamous than new first marriages because of the accumulation of homogamous first marriages in the stock of marriages. First marriages overwhelmingly account for the odds of homogamy in prevailing marriages in this cohort. Marital dissolutions, remarriages, and educational upgrades after marriage have relatively small and offsetting effects. Our results suggest that, despite the high prevalence of divorce, remarriage, and continued schooling after marriage in the United States, the key to understanding trends in educational homogamy lies primarily in variation in assortative mating into first marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Schwartz, Christine R. and Robert D. Mare. "The Proximate Determinants of Educational Homogamy: The Effects of First Marriage, Marital Dissolution, Remarriage, and Educational Upgrading." Demography 49,2 (May 2012): 629-650.
94. Shapiro, David
Mott, Frank L.
Labor Supply Behavior of Prospective and New Mothers
Demography 16,2 (May 1979): 199-208.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/97g24103133w4u2q/
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Income; First Birth; Life Cycle Research; Mothers; Vocational Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing unique data generated from the NLS of Young Women, this paper examines the labor force participation of young mothers in the months immediately preceding and following the birth of the first child. Labor supply behavior at this point in the life cycle is described in greater detail than has hitherto been available. In addition, the independent effect of several factors of interest on the probability that a young woman will be in the labor force during various intervals surrounding the first birth is analyzed.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Frank L. Mott. "Labor Supply Behavior of Prospective and New Mothers." Demography 16,2 (May 1979): 199-208.
95. Smock, Pamela Jane
The Economic Costs of Marital Disruption for Young Women Over the Past Two Decades
Demography 30,3 (August 1993): 353-371.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061645
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Divorce; Economic Well-Being; Marital Disruption; Marital Dissolution; Women; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the economic costs of separation and divorce for young women in the United States from the late 1960s through the late 1980s. Broadened opportunities for women outside marriage may have alleviated some of the severe economic costs of marital disruption for women. This paper contrasts the experiences of two cohorts of young women: those who married and separated or divorced in the late 1960s through the mid-1970s and those who experienced these events in the 1980s. Based on panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979-1988, Young Women 1968-1978, and Young Men 1966-1978, the results show stability in the costs of disruption. A multivariate analysis shows that young women in the more recent cohort have more labor force experience before disruption than those in the earlier cohort, but prior work history does not protect women from the severe costs of marital disruption.
Bibliography Citation
Smock, Pamela Jane. "The Economic Costs of Marital Disruption for Young Women Over the Past Two Decades." Demography 30,3 (August 1993): 353-371.
96. Stewart, Jay
Male Nonworkers: Who Are They and Who Supports Them?
Demography 43,3 (August 2006): 537-552.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v043/43.3stewart.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Income; Male Sample; Support Networks; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although male nonworkers have become a larger fraction of the population since the late 1960s, very little is known about who they are or who supports them. Using data from the March Current Population Survey and the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this article fills that void. The picture that emerges is that there is a small cadre of marginal workers who often do not work for periods of a year or more. The vast majority of nonworking men (men who do not work at all during the year) receive unearned income from at least one source, and the amount of unearned income they receive varies significantly by their reason for not working. Family members provide an important alternative source of support for nonworking men who have little or no unearned income of their own.
Bibliography Citation
Stewart, Jay. "Male Nonworkers: Who Are They and Who Supports Them?" Demography 43,3 (August 2006): 537-552.
97. Su, Jessica Houston
Dunifon, Rachel
Sassler, Sharon
Better for Baby? The Retreat From Mid-Pregnancy Marriage and Implications for Parenting and Child Well-being
Demography, 52, 4 (August 2015): 1167-1194.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-015-0410-5
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Children, Well-Being; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marriage; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent decades have seen a significant decline in mid-pregnancy ("shotgun") marriage, particularly among disadvantaged groups, which has contributed to increasing nonmarital birth rates. Despite public and political concern about this shift, the implications for parenting and child well-being are not known. Drawing on a sample of U.S. black and white mothers with nonmarital conceptions from the NLSY79, our study fills this gap. Using propensity score techniques to address concerns about selection bias, we found that mid-pregnancy marriages were associated with slightly better parenting quality relative to remaining single, although effect sizes were small and limited to marriages that remained intact at the time of child assessment. Mid-pregnancy marriages were not associated with improved children's behavior or cognitive ability. These findings suggest that the retreat from mid-pregnancy marriage may contribute to increasing inequality in parenting resources for children.
Bibliography Citation
Su, Jessica Houston, Rachel Dunifon and Sharon Sassler. "Better for Baby? The Retreat From Mid-Pregnancy Marriage and Implications for Parenting and Child Well-being ." Demography, 52, 4 (August 2015): 1167-1194.
98. Teachman, Jay D.
Race, Military Service, and Marital Timing: Evidence from the NLSY-79
Demography 44,2 (May 2007): 389-404.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f2825282g00n1041/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Income; Marriage; Military Service; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I use data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the relationship between military service and marital timing for white men and black men during the 1980s. I use information about active-duty and reserve-duty service as well as veteran status to implement strong controls for selectivity. I find that active-duty military service increases the probability of first marriage for both whites and blacks. In part, this relationship is due to positive selectivity into the military and, for whites, to greater income and economic stability. Above and beyond the effects of selectivity, income, and economic stability, the effect of active-duty military service is particularly strong for black men.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D. "Race, Military Service, and Marital Timing: Evidence from the NLSY-79." Demography 44,2 (May 2007): 389-404.
99. Upchurch, Dawn M.
Lillard, Lee A.
Panis, Constantijn W. A.
Nonmarital Childbearing: Influences of Education, Marriage, and Fertility
Demography 39, 2 (May 2002): 311-329.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/w173r5810x4g1j8g/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Divorce; Education; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Family Formation; Fertility; Life Course; Marital Dissolution; Marital Status; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examined the determinants of nonmarital fertility, focusing on the effects of other life-course events: education, marriage, marital dissolution, and marital fertility. Since these determinants are potentially endogenous, we modeled the processes that generate them jointly with nonmarital fertility and accounted for the sequencing of events and the unobserved correlations across processes. The results showed that the risk of nonmarital conception increases immediately after leaving school and that the educational effects are less pronounced for black women than for other women. The risk is lower for previously married women than for never-married women, even controlling for age, but this reduction is only significant for black women. The more children a woman already has, the lower her risk of nonmarital childbearing, particularly if the other children were born during a previous marriage. Ignoring endogeneity issues seriously biases the estimates of several substantively important effects.
Bibliography Citation
Upchurch, Dawn M., Lee A. Lillard and Constantijn W. A. Panis. "Nonmarital Childbearing: Influences of Education, Marriage, and Fertility." Demography 39, 2 (May 2002): 311-329.
100. van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.
Rowe, David C.
Racial Differences in Birth Health Risk: A Quantitative Genetic Approach
Demography 37,3 (August 2000): 285-298.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/1hj1327113014059/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Genetics; Infants; Mothers, Race; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The gap between black and white babies' birth weights in the US has remained largely unexplained. Rather than trying to measure all relevant variables, a genetically informative design was used to study the relevant importance of genetic and environmental factors, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Employing multiple indicators of "birth health risk," it was found that the racial differences increased with the magnitude of the shared environmental effects. This suggested that possible genetic effects would not pertain to fetal genes, although genes affecting the mother's physical or physiological characteristics could be important because they contribute to shared environment in the analysis. 4 Tables, 3 Figures, 49 References. Adapted from the source document.
Bibliography Citation
van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G. and David C. Rowe. "Racial Differences in Birth Health Risk: A Quantitative Genetic Approach." Demography 37,3 (August 2000): 285-298.
101. Vespa, Jonathan Edward
Painter, Matthew A. II
Cohabitation History, Marriage, and Wealth Accumulation
Demography 48,3 (August 2011): 983-1004.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/ag75174242632630/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Ethnic Differences; Marital Status; Marriage; Racial Differences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.
Bibliography Citation
Vespa, Jonathan Edward and Matthew A. II Painter. "Cohabitation History, Marriage, and Wealth Accumulation." Demography 48,3 (August 2011): 983-1004.
102. Waite, Linda J.
Spitze, Glenna D.
Young Women's Transition to Marriage
Demography 18,4 (November 1981): 681-694.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/b8n6453728t53wxu/
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Marriage; Occupational Status; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines determinants of timing of marriage for young women by modeling the transition from the single to the married state by age. The authors find that those characteristics of a young woman's parental family that reflect the availability of parental resources tend to decrease the chances of a marriage during the early teens. Chances of marrying appear to decrease with increases in the availability and attractiveness of alternatives to the wife role and in the costs of assuming it.
Bibliography Citation
Waite, Linda J. and Glenna D. Spitze. "Young Women's Transition to Marriage." Demography 18,4 (November 1981): 681-694.
103. Waldfogel, Jane
Han, Wen-Jui
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Child Cognitive Development
Demography 39,2 (May 2002): 369-392.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0644x86357l11872/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Breastfeeding; Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Development; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigated the effects of early maternal employment on children's cognitive outcomes, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on 1,872 children who can be followed from birth to age 7 or 8. We found some persistent adverse effects of first-year maternal employment and some positive effects of second- and third-year maternal employment on cognitive outcomes for non-Hispanic white children, but not for African American or Hispanic children. These effects are present even after we controlled for a range of individual and family characteristics that affect child development, including those that are likely to be correlated with maternal employment, such as breast-feeding and the use of nonmaternal child care. Controlling for family fixed effects reduces the effects of early maternal employment on some cognitive outcomes but not on others.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane, Wen-Jui Han and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Child Cognitive Development." Demography 39,2 (May 2002): 369-392.
104. Wildeman, Christopher
Parental Imprisonment, the Prison Boom, and the Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage
Demography 46,2 (May 2009): 265-280.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/j0837x05331476t1/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood; Disadvantaged, Economically; Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course; Mothers, Incarceration; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although much research has focused on how imprisonment transforms the life course of disadvantaged black men, researchers have paid little attention to how parental imprisonment alters the social experience of childhood. This article estimates the risk of parental imprisonment by age 14 for black and white children born in 1978 and 1990. This article also estimates the risk of parental imprisonment for children whose parents did not finish high school, finished high school only, or attended college. Results show the following: (1) 1 in 40 white children born in 1978 and 1 in 25 white children born in 1990 had a parent imprisoned; (2) 1 in 7 black children born in 1978 and 1 in 4 black children born in 1990 had a parent imprisoned; (3) inequality in the risk of parental imprisonment between white children of college-educated parents and all other children is growing; and (4) by age 14, 50.5% of black children born in 1990 to high school dropouts had a father imprisoned. These estimates, robustness checks, and extensions to longitudinal data indicate that parental imprisonment has emerged as a novel—and distinctively American—childhood risk that is concentrated among black children and children of low-education parents
Bibliography Citation
Wildeman, Christopher. "Parental Imprisonment, the Prison Boom, and the Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage." Demography 46,2 (May 2009): 265-280.
105. Wojtkiewicz, Roger A.
Simplicity and Complexity in the Effects of Parental Structure on High School Graduation
Demography 30,4 (November 1993): 701-717.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/l5m5214095007u42/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): High School Completion/Graduates; Marital Disruption; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As more and more children experience nonintact families because of nonmarital birth or parental marital disruption, researchers have paid more attention to whether nonintact family experiences have negative effects on later life. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to consider how experiences of parental structure affect chances of high school graduation. The study shows that the negative effects of parental structure are simpler than theoretical notions might suggest.
Bibliography Citation
Wojtkiewicz, Roger A. "Simplicity and Complexity in the Effects of Parental Structure on High School Graduation." Demography 30,4 (November 1993): 701-717.
106. Zuberi, Tukufu
One Step Back in Understanding Racial Differences in Birth Weight
Demography 38,4 (November 2001): 569-571.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/e8p311j210386q72/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Genetics; Infants; Mothers, Race; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In recognition of the biological and social connections in demographic processes, demographers have integrated biological factors into their models of population variation. This new effort has tended to focus on the analysis of fertility and mortality. Edwin J.C.G. van den Oord and David C. Rowe's article, "Racial Differences in Birth Health Risk: A Quantitative Genetic Approach," published in the August 2000 issue of Demography, is part of this effort. These authors use race as a proxy for genetic variation, which subverts even the most positive attempts to understand the impact of genetic variation on demographic processes. The authors' statistical results restate their anachronistic theory of race using latent variables that are not open to empirical testing. Although new data increase the opportunities for the examination of the relationship between biology and demographic processes researchers must be vigilant not to commit the errors of the past by misusing race as a variable.
Bibliography Citation
Zuberi, Tukufu. "One Step Back in Understanding Racial Differences in Birth Weight." Demography 38,4 (November 2001): 569-571.