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Author: Lundberg, Ian
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Killewald, Alexandra
Lundberg, Ian
How Do Married Men Get Ahead? A Process-Based Examination of the Male Marriage Premium
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment, History; Husbands; Marriage; Work Experience; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The wage premium for married men is well-documented. Prior research has concentrated on understanding why this might be so, focusing on the role of household specialization. Largely absent from this research is attention to the job processes by which married men realize wage gains. We propose three possible pathways: (1) increased work experience, (2) improved employment histories, including longer job tenure and better job match, and (3) moves to higher-paying job types. We find that each of these processes contributes to the male marriage premium, although work experience is the most important. We further find that increases in work experience benefit married men about equally, regardless of wives’ labor supply, casting doubt on a pure specialization explanation. Lastly, we demonstrate the importance of flexibly specifying mediating variables: Conventional measures of work experience substantially understate the share of the marriage premium attributable to changes in work hours.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Ian Lundberg. "How Do Married Men Get Ahead? A Process-Based Examination of the Male Marriage Premium." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
2. Killewald, Alexandra
Lundberg, Ian
New Evidence against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Husbands, Income; Marriage; Transition, Adulthood; Wage Dynamics; Wages; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Marriage is associated with increases in men's wages. Recent research claims the long-term wage benefits of marriage for men are as high as 20 percent and begin prior to marriage, as men anticipate marriage or experience wage benefits of unmarried partnership. We argue instead that marriage has no causal effect on men's wages in either the short or long term and that research on the marriage wage premium has overlooked literature in other subfields suggesting that marriage occurs when wages are already rising unusually rapidly. A vast literature documents that entrance into marriage depends on economic circumstances, suggesting that effects may flow from wages to marriage, rather than the reverse. Furthermore, the demographic literature on the transition to adulthood suggests that emerging adulthood is a time of both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes. Using data from the NLSY79, we evaluate these perspectives, considering both the effects of getting married and remaining married. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying at a time that their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Ian Lundberg. "New Evidence against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
3. Killewald, Alexandra
Lundberg, Ian
New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium
Demography 54,3 (June 2017): 1007-1028.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-017-0566-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Husbands, Income; Marriage; Wage Dynamics; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men’s economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives. We show that wage declines predate rather than follow divorce, indicating no evidence that staying married benefits men's wages. We find that older grooms experience no unusual wage patterns at marriage, suggesting that the observed marriage premium may simply reflect co-occurrence with the transition to adulthood for younger grooms. We show that men entering shotgun marriages experience similar premarital wage gains as other grooms, casting doubt on the claim that anticipation of marriage drives wage increases. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying when their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Ian Lundberg. "New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium." Demography 54,3 (June 2017): 1007-1028.
4. Lundberg, Ian
Do Attitudes Matter? Understanding Regional Variation in the Motherhood Wage Penalty in the United States
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): General Social Survey (GSS); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Mothers, Income; Regions; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children have a negative effect on women's wages. Could this effect depend on cultural context? This paper investigates whether cultural values affect the size of the motherhood wage penalty in the United States. Analyzing longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979 and 1997 cohorts, I find a wage penalty of 3.6% per child. Mothers are nested in 4 regions and 2 cohorts, yielding 8 region-cohort combinations. Person fixed-effects models show variation between region-cohorts in the size of the motherhood wage penalty. I use a multilevel model to investigate this variation. General Social Survey (GSS) data on attitudes toward working mothers in each region-cohort serves as a group-level predictor for the effect of the number of children on women's wages. Results suggest that the motherhood wage penalty is significantly smaller in region-cohorts with cultural values which support mothers' employment.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Ian. "Do Attitudes Matter? Understanding Regional Variation in the Motherhood Wage Penalty in the United States." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
5. Lundberg, Ian
Has the Motherhood Penalty Changed? The Declining Effect of Children on Young Women’s Wages
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Job Tenure; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While men’s wages increase when they have children, the presence of children at home is negatively associated with women’s wages. Gender differences in the effect of children on wages are partially responsible for continuing gender wage inequality. Previous research shows that the size of the motherhood wage penalty did not decline between 1975 and 1998 (Avellar and Smock 2003). However, several changes suggest that the penalty may have declined in more recent years. Gender role attitudes have become more egalitarian, the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 increased the availability of maternity leave, and the structure of employment has shifted away from long careers with a single employer toward temporary and contingent work, which may allow mothers to catch up after taking time off work. Using panel data, this study compares the motherhood penalty in two cohorts: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY-79) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY-97). From the NLSY-79 to the NLSY-97, there is a significant decline in the magnitude of the motherhood wage penalty. Motherhood has a more negative influence on job tenure and work experience in the early cohort than the later cohort, and these variables are stronger predictors of wages in the early cohort than in the later cohort. Although these changes demonstrate that mothers are increasingly attached to the labor force, they cannot explain the decline in the motherhood wage penalty.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Ian. "Has the Motherhood Penalty Changed? The Declining Effect of Children on Young Women’s Wages." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
6. Lundberg, Ian
The Influence of Fatherhood on Time Spent at Work: Job Characteristics as a Moderating Factor
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Fatherhood; First Birth; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does fatherhood affect men’s work hours? Men might work more hours when they have children in order to provide for the family. However, previous evidence is mixed. Using panel data, I summarize fathers’ employment hours before and after the first birth. I find no evidence that men’s work hours change with the birth of their first child, besides occurring during a period when employment hours are already increasing.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Ian. "The Influence of Fatherhood on Time Spent at Work: Job Characteristics as a Moderating Factor." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.