Search Results

Author: Shapiro, David
Resulting in 31 citations.
1. Anderson, Deborah J.
Shapiro, David
Racial Differences in Access to High-Paying Jobs and the Wage Gap Between Black and White Women
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,2 (January 1996): 273-286.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524943
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Educational Returns; Human Capital; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Women

A study examines the role that racial differences in access to high-paying occupations played in determining the racial wage gap in the 1980s. Analyzing data on black and white women aged 34-44 from the National Longitudinal Surveys for 1968-1988, the study estimates the effects of human capital characteristics and discrimination on segregation into high- and low-wage jobs by race. It is found that differences in workers' measured characteristics explain little of either the observed occupational segregation by race or the racial wage gap in 1988. Further analysis suggests that several changes in the wage structure for women during the 1980s, notably a widening of occupational wage differentials and an increase in the returns on education, abetted direct discrimination in enlarging the racial wage gap among women. (Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1996)
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Deborah J. and David Shapiro. "Racial Differences in Access to High-Paying Jobs and the Wage Gap Between Black and White Women." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,2 (January 1996): 273-286.
2. Biddle, Gary C.
Shapiro, David
Pay Differentials by Class of Worker: A Comparison of Hourly Earnings in the Public and Private Sectors
Working Paper, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Department of Economics, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Occupations; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions; Wage Differentials; Wages; White Collar Jobs

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLS of Older Men, this paper examines wage differentials by class of worker, occupational group, and race for 1966 and 1971. These differentials vary both across groups and over time. Making use of data on unionization from the 1971 survey, the study compares union wage effects in the public sector to those in the private sector. In general, it appears that the union wage effect in the public sector is comparable to or somewhat smaller than that in the private sector. Implications are drawn for public policy regarding unionization and strikes in the public sector.
Bibliography Citation
Biddle, Gary C. and David Shapiro. "Pay Differentials by Class of Worker: A Comparison of Hourly Earnings in the Public and Private Sectors." Working Paper, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1975.
3. Borus, Michael E.
Crowley, Joan E.
Kim, Choongsoo
Pollard, Tom K.
Rumberger, Russell W.
Santos, Richard
Shapiro, David
Pathways to the Future: A Report on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1979
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): College Education; Discrimination, Age; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School; Job Aspirations; Job Search; Schooling; Teenagers; Vocational Education; Work Attitudes; Youth Services

The report is the first on a nationally representative sample of young people who were ages 14 to 21 on December 31, 1978. It is a descriptive presentation of the status of youth in the spring of 1979--their position and problems in the labor market; their reactions to school and the factors influencing their schooling decisions; their training, both the government sponsored and other vocational training which they receive; their health status; and their attitudes, both towards their present situations and the future. Eleven additional chapters define topics on labor force participation and employment status of the youth for the week in which they were interviewed in 1979; examine the employment conditions for those youth who were employed at the time of the survey; present the work experience of the youth for the preceding year, 1978, and analyze the determinants of weeks worked and unemployed during the year; discuss job search motives and techniques of youth and their willingness to accept specific jobs at various wages; study the attitudes of young people toward high school, its programs, and their reasons for not completing school or for attending college; examines participants in government sponsored training programs, the types of services received, and their attitudes toward these programs; deal with the post-high school training provided outside of regular schools, government programs, and the military; study the health status of young people at the time they were interviewed; detail the extend of age, race, sex discrimination felt by young people as well as their perception of the difficulties they have in the labor market; examine the educational, occupational, and fertility aspirations of the young people and their desire for further training; and present a summary of the major findings.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Joan E. Crowley, Choongsoo Kim, Tom K. Pollard, Russell W. Rumberger, Richard Santos and David Shapiro. Pathways to the Future: A Report on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1979. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981.
4. Borus, Michael E.
Crowley, Joan E.
Rumberger, Russell W.
Santos, Richard
Shapiro, David
Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans. Preliminary Report: Youth and the Labor Market - 1979
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Discrimination; Discrimination, Job; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Employment, Youth; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Search; Job Training; Job Turnover; Unemployment, Youth

This is the first report on a nationally representative sample of the 32.9 million civilian young people who were ages 14-21 on January 1, 1979. This first survey shows that young Americans are very much interested in work; more than half of these young persons were either working or looking for work. Many young persons carry both school and work responsibilities. Race and sex discrimination in the labor market continued to cause problems for youth. Minorities had equal aspirations for education, were more willing to work, and were seeking employment as conscientiously as white youth. The difference appeared to be that employers discounted their contribution as employees because of their race or ethnic background. Many young persons drop out of school and begin immediately to have employment problems. About 2.6 million young men and women had participated in government training programs between the first day of 1978 and their interview date in 1979. In this report further details are provided about the employment and unemployment status of these young persons, their reactions to school, their assessment of Federal Government training programs, their vocational training, their attitudes toward work and their aspirations and expectations for the future.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Joan E. Crowley, Russell W. Rumberger, Richard Santos and David Shapiro. Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans. Preliminary Report: Youth and the Labor Market - 1979. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980.
5. Crowley, Joan E.
Shapiro, David
Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the United States: Part 1. Education and Fertility
Youth and Society 13,4 (June 1982): 391-422.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/13/4/391
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Children; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Fertility; Occupational Aspirations; Racial Differences; Sex Roles; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Training, Occupational; Vocational Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the first wave of the NLSY are presented and young people's plans for education and for parenthood are examined. All analyses look at variation by race and sex. Half of the youth aspire to complete college, and almost all expect to complete at least high school. Two thirds express a desire for occupational training in addition to regular schooling. Analysis of expected fertility shows a strong preference for a two child family. A multivariate model was developed, using both socialization and human capital perspectives in the specification. Family background is highly significant in explaining plans for both education and fertility. Sex role traditionality was a highly significant predictor of the outcome variables for both men and women. With background factors controlled, black youth aspire to higher levels of education than do whites. Among young women, the expected inverse relationship between expected fertility and expected education was very weak, suggesting that these women do not expect their families to prevent their attainment of their educational goals.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. and David Shapiro. "Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the United States: Part 1. Education and Fertility." Youth and Society 13,4 (June 1982): 391-422.
6. Crowley, Joan E.
Shapiro, David
Occupational Aspirations And Sex Segregation: Trends And Predictions
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Psychological Association, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Occupational Aspirations; Sex Roles

This paper uses two approaches to understanding occupational aspirations and their impact on sex segregation in the labor force: comparisons of occupational aspirations from two cohorts measured over a decade apart, and multivariate analysis of occupational aspirations from the younger of the two cohorts. The data rely primarily on the 1979 interview of the NLSY, with comparisons drawn from the 1967 NLS of Young Men and the 1968 NLS of Young Women. Youth in the 1979 cohort showed a strong preference for careers in professional and managerial occupations. Compared with the earlier cohorts, young women shifted out of lower-skilled to higher-skilled occupations, although still showing the traditional concentration in clerical positions. Over the decade, young men were more likely to aspire to skilled trades in 1979 than in 1967. Women in 1979 were only half as likely as women in 1968 to say that they expected to be housewives not in the paid labor force at age 35. The multivariate analysis showed that sex-role traditionality was associated with lower aspirations both for men and women, even with social background controlled. The result for men was not expected, since none of the sex-role measures directly assessed men's roles. Sex role traditionality may serve to limit the range of occupations considered appropriate, both by men and by women.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. and David Shapiro. "Occupational Aspirations And Sex Segregation: Trends And Predictions." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Psychological Association, 1981.
7. Hills, Stephen M.
D'Amico, Ronald
Ball, David E.
Golon, Jeff
Jackson, John L.
Latack, Janina C.
Lynch, Lisa M.
Mangum, Stephen L.
Shapiro, David
The Changing Market: A Longitudinal Study of Fifteen Years of Labor Market Experience of Young Men
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Labor Market Demographics; Military Service; Mobility, Job; Unemployment

Chapter 1: The Changing Market
Chapter 2: The Displaced Worker
Chapter 3: Adujusting to Recession
Chapter 4: Adjusting to the Structure of Jobs
Chapter 5: The Household Costs of Unemployment
Chapter 6: Career Mobility
Chapter 7: Long Run Effects of Military Service
Chapter 8: Skill Transfer
Chapter 9: How Fluid is the U.S. Labor Market?
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M., Ronald D'Amico, David E. Ball, Jeff Golon, John L. Jackson, Janina C. Latack, Lisa M. Lynch, Stephen L. Mangum and David Shapiro. "The Changing Market: A Longitudinal Study of Fifteen Years of Labor Market Experience of Young Men." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984.
8. Hills, Stephen M.
D'Amico, Ronald
Shapiro, David
Lynch, Lisa M.
The Changing Labor Market: A Longitudinal Study of Young Men
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Displaced Workers; Industrial Sector; Local Labor Market; Military Service; Mobility; Mobility, Occupational; Transfers, Skill

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In a review of the 1966-1981 data from the Young Men's cohort, this book discusses the consequences of job dislocation on the careers of young men, and focuses on displacement within the construction, automobile, and steel industries. Also examined are the household costs of unemployment, the factors influencing career mobility patterns, the long-run effects of military service, and the extent of skill transfer between military and civilian occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M., Ronald D'Amico, David Shapiro and Lisa M. Lynch. The Changing Labor Market: A Longitudinal Study of Young Men. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986.
9. Mott, Frank L.
Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
Brito, Patricia K.
Years for Decision, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational, Labor Market and Family Experiences of Young Women, 1968 to 1973
R and D Monograph 24, Volume 4. Washington, DC: US GPO, 1978.
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; College Education; Educational Attainment; Job Training; Marital Disruption; Migration; Occupational Aspirations; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment

Also published as: Published as: Women, Work, and Family. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1978. This monograph describes the changes both in the attitudes of women toward working outside the home and in their actual participation in the work force. It is based on a five-year longitudinal study of more than 5, 000 women aged 14 to 24 when first interviewed. Based on a comprehensive set of data obtained through personal interviews with a national sample of young women over the period 1968 to 1973, these studies focus either on aspects of the labor market experience of the current generation of young women or on facets of their lives that have substantial relationships to their labor market activity. Included are: preparation for the world of work-college attendance; labor force dynamics associated with withdrawal from and reentry into the labor force due to childbirth; the characteristics of young women that are associated with the choice of an "atypical," or "male" occupation; whether investment in on-the-job training is related to an expectation of long-term attachment to the labor force; some of the causes as well as the consequences of migration for the economic welfare of young women and their families; some of the determinants of marital disruption, and also the short- run economic consequences for women and children.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Steven H. Sandell, David Shapiro and Patricia K. Brito. Years for Decision, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational, Labor Market and Family Experiences of Young Women, 1968 to 1973. R and D Monograph 24, Volume 4. Washington, DC: US GPO, 1978..
10. Mott, Frank L.
Shapiro, David
Complementarity of Work and Fertility Among Young American Mothers
Population Studies 37,2 (July 1983): 239-252
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Investigation Committee
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Employment; Fertility; Life Cycle Research; Mothers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research uses data from the Young Women's cohort of the NLS to examine the extent to which women maintain a continuity of work attachment during their early childbearing years, the years when they traditionally were most likely to withdraw from the work force. The results indicate that women who maintain closer ties to the work force immediately before and after their first birth are also more likely to be employed in l978--between five and ten years after the first birth-- independent of intervening fertility events and other labor supply factors considered to be important predictors of work. The research supports the notion that work and fertility are increasingly becoming complementary activities for American women.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and David Shapiro. "Complementarity of Work and Fertility Among Young American Mothers." Population Studies 37,2 (July 1983): 239-252.
11. Mott, Frank L.
Shapiro, David
Some Dimensions of Work-Fertility Analysis from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience
Presented: Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Eastern North American Region Joint Meetings of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and The American Statistical Association, April 1977
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Fertility

This paper represents, in essence, a program report on our work-fertility research which represents a major and continuing thrust of our research program at the center for Human Resource Research.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and David Shapiro. "Some Dimensions of Work-Fertility Analysis from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience." Presented: Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Eastern North American Region Joint Meetings of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and The American Statistical Association, April 1977.
12. Mott, Frank L.
Shapiro, David
Trends in the Employment of Young Women: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Children; Demography; Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Income; Labor Force Participation; Women; Work History

This paper uses data from the 1968-1978 Young Women's cohort. Recent increases in the work participation of young adult women reflect the greater likelihood of women with children to be employed, particularly women who are better educated. While young mothers are not so likely to be working as women without children, the employment gap between the two groups is rapidly narrowing.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and David Shapiro. "Trends in the Employment of Young Women: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
13. Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
An Exchange: Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women: A Reexamination of the Evidence
Journal of Human Resources 13,1 (Winter 1978): 103-117.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145304
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Fertility; Human Capital Theory; Life Cycle Research; Simultaneity

This study examines both the empirical specification of human capital models of earnings in the presence of discontinuous work experience over the life cycle and simultaneous-equations models of wage determination and labor supply. Compared to the previous period, no evidence is found of greater investment in general training in the interval of labor force participation after the birth of the first child. The effect of depreciation of human capital on women's earnings appears to be approximately one-half of one percent per year out of the labor force. In addition, the contribution of differences in work experience between men and women in explaining wage differences by sex is about half of that indicated by Mincer and Polachek.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and David Shapiro. "An Exchange: Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women: A Reexamination of the Evidence." Journal of Human Resources 13,1 (Winter 1978): 103-117.
14. Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
The Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women: A Re-examination of the Evidence
Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Earnings; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Wage Gap; Women

This paper discusses specification and interpretation of human capital models of women's earnings when data on actual work experience are available. It uses the segmented earnings function framework developed by Jacob Mincer and Solomon Polachek and considers the effects of data errors, issues involving data interpretation, consequences of model mis-specification, and the simultaneity problem. The paper also re-examines the male-female wage gap in light of our criticisms.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and David Shapiro. "The Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women: A Re-examination of the Evidence." Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976.
15. Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
Women's Incorrect Expectations and Their Labor Market Consequences
Presented: Anaheim, CA, Western Economic Association Meeting, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Training; Life Cycle Research; Occupational Aspirations; Schooling; Wages; Work History

Analysis of the early labor force years in the lives of young women indicates that the women with stronger expected lifetime attachment to the labor force do indeed invest more heavily in on-the-job training. Data is presented showing that young women seemed to consistently underestimate their future labor market participation, and that this underestimation results in lower investments in on-the-job training and lower wages. However, more recent evidence from the NLS indicates these young women seem to be revising their labor market participation expectations upwards as time passes. In addition, the data show that the more recent labor market entrants have higher expectations of being in the labor force at age thirty-five than their slightly older counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and David Shapiro. "Women's Incorrect Expectations and Their Labor Market Consequences." Presented: Anaheim, CA, Western Economic Association Meeting, 1977.
16. Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
Work Expectations, Human Capital Accumulation and the Wages of Young Women
Journal of Human Resources 15,3 (Summer 1980): 335-353.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145287
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Job Training; Occupational Aspirations; Public Sector; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training, Post-School; Unions; Wages, Young Women

This study analyzes young women's ex ante preferences for future labor force attachment by estimating their human capital accumulation and pay. The evidence supports the human capital hypothesis that receipt of on-the-job training is positively related to expectations of future labor force participation. The study also presents empirical estimates of the effects on wages of general and specific on-the-job training as well as maturation. Finally, the results show that postschool investments in training are a major determinant of wages and wage growth among young women. Note: An earlier version of this paper was prepared in April 1979 as a report from the Center For Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and David Shapiro. "Work Expectations, Human Capital Accumulation and the Wages of Young Women." Journal of Human Resources 15,3 (Summer 1980): 335-353.
17. Shapiro, David
Earnings Differentials Among Unionized Workers in the Public & Private Sectors
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Private Sector; Public Sector; Racial Differences; Simultaneity; Unions; Wages

Using data from the 1971 NLS of Older Men, this study simultaneously examines wage differentials in unionized and non-unionized employment in both the public and private sectors. Within a human capital framework, separate differentials are estimated for both white-collar and blue-collar workers, and for whites and blacks. The data indicate that public sector unions have not been successful in raising the earnings of white-collar workers within government, ceteris paribus, but that they have raised the earnings of blue-collar workers. However, comparison of union wage effects in the public sector with those in the private sector indicates that public sector union wage effects are generally comparable to or smaller than union wage effects in the private sector.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David. "Earnings Differentials Among Unionized Workers in the Public & Private Sectors." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976.
18. Shapiro, David
Relative Wage Effects of Unions in the Public and Private Sectors
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 31,2 (January 1978): 193-203.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522387
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions; Wage Effects; White Collar Jobs

This study focuses on wage differentials in unionized and non-unionized employment, in both the government and private sectors. One important aspect of this analysis is that it considers workers across a wide range of occupations and for all levels of government. The author concludes that public sector unions have not been successful in raising the earnings of white-collar workers but that they have raised the earnings of blue-collar workers. The author finds, however, that union wage effects in the public sector are generally comparable to or smaller than union wage effects in the private sector.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David. "Relative Wage Effects of Unions in the Public and Private Sectors." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 31,2 (January 1978): 193-203.
19. Shapiro, David
Wage Differentials Among Black, Hispanic, and White Male Youth
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37,4 (July 1984): 570-581.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2523673
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Hispanics; Job Tenure; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wages, Youth; Work Experience

This paper uses the 1979 NLSY to examine the hypothesis that racial wage differences have vanished from the labor market for male youths. In addition, the relationship between racial differences in youth wages and accumulation of work experience as well as the extent to which adjustment for sample selection bias affects measured racial differentials in wage rates and also analyzed. The empirical evidence indicates that there is a significant black white difference in hourly wage rates among non-enrolled male youth, ceteris paribus. Among students, race is not associated with wage rates. Hispanic white wage differences are not significant among either students or nonstudents. Accumulation of job tenure contributes to significantly higher wage rates among nonenrolled whites, white tenure wage profiles for nonenrolled blacks are essentially flat. Further, the magnitude of the estimated wage premium of whites over blacks among nonenrolled male youths increases by more than 40 percent (from 7-10 percent to 11-15 percent) once sample selection bias is taken into account.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David. "Wage Differentials Among Black, Hispanic, and White Male Youth." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37,4 (July 1984): 570-581.
20. Shapiro, David
Crowley, Joan E.
Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the United States. Part 2. Employment Activity
Youth and Society 14,1 (September 1982): 33-58.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/13/4/449
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Duncan Index; Family Influences; Hispanics; Occupational Aspirations; Religious Influences; Role Models; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers; White Collar Jobs

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The occupational aspirations of respondents on the first wave of the NLSY are described. Respondents were asked what they would like to be doing at age 35. Almost 90 percent of the youth had specific occupational goals. For both men and women, over one-third of the respondents aspire to professional or technical employment. The existing segregation of the labor market is reflected in the aspirations of youth, with females predominating among those aspiring to clerical positions and males predominating among those aspiring to skilled trades. About one-quarter of the young women expect to be housewives, although this aspiration was almost twice as prevalent among whites and Hispanics than among blacks. Looking only at those youth with specific occupational aspirations, it is clear that the proportion of youth expecting to be in professional occupations is much larger than the proportion of such jobs in the general labor market. In a multivariate analysis, family background and sex role attitudes were important predictors of the prestige of the desired occupation for both young men and young women. When the aspirations of women in the youth cohort were compared with the aspirations of women of the same age a decade earlier (using the NLS of Young Women), clear shifts away from housework to paid employment, and from lower skill to higher skill occupations were shown. For young women, a multivariate analysis of aspirations for sex- role atypical jobs showed that family background and maternal role modeling were significantly related to such aspirations.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Joan E. Crowley. "Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the United States. Part 2. Employment Activity." Youth and Society 14,1 (September 1982): 33-58.
21. Shapiro, David
Mott, Frank L.
Effects of Selected Variables on Work Hours of Young Women
Monthly Labor Review 106,7 (July 1983): 31-34.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1983/07/rpt1full.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Fertility; Labor Supply; Work Hours

This research summary reports on estimates of the determinants of hours of work among women in their twenties for the two periods, 1968-73 and 1973-78. Educational attainment and fertility status are key determinants of hours worked among both blacks and whites, and husband's earnings are significantly associated with the hours of work of white wives. Over the course of the decade, there is a pattern among both whites and blacks of reduced impact on labor supply of being married and of husband's earnings, lesser effect of educational attainment among non-mothers and larger effects of schooling among mothers. There is a clear trend toward greater work activity among mothers, and it is the better- educated (high-wage) mothers who are leading the way.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Frank L. Mott. "Effects of Selected Variables on Work Hours of Young Women." Monthly Labor Review 106,7 (July 1983): 31-34.
22. Shapiro, David
Mott, Frank L.
Labor Force Attachment during the Early Childbearing Years: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women
Annales de l'INSEE 30-31 (April-September 1978): 565-598.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20075304
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Fertility

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper presents unique data on labor force attachment of young American women during the periods immediately surrounding the first and second births. In the context of neoclassical labor-supply theory and utilizing both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets, factors contributing to variations in labor force attachment among these women are examined. The researchers find that the empirical results from the cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets are generally consistent with each other and for the most part supportive of neoclassical labor supply theory.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Frank L. Mott. "Labor Force Attachment during the Early Childbearing Years: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women." Annales de l'INSEE 30-31 (April-September 1978): 565-598.
23. Shapiro, David
Mott, Frank L.
Labor Supply Behavior of Prospective and New Mothers
Demography 16,2 (May 1979): 199-208.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/97g24103133w4u2q/
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Income; First Birth; Life Cycle Research; Mothers; Vocational Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing unique data generated from the NLS of Young Women, this paper examines the labor force participation of young mothers in the months immediately preceding and following the birth of the first child. Labor supply behavior at this point in the life cycle is described in greater detail than has hitherto been available. In addition, the independent effect of several factors of interest on the probability that a young woman will be in the labor force during various intervals surrounding the first birth is analyzed.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Frank L. Mott. "Labor Supply Behavior of Prospective and New Mothers." Demography 16,2 (May 1979): 199-208.
24. Shapiro, David
Mott, Frank L.
Long-Term Employment and Earnings of Women in Relation to Employment Behavior Surrounding the First Birth
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Donner Foundation - University of Minnesota Industrial Relations Center Workshop on the Economic Well-Being of Women and Children, 1991
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Racial Differences; Wages; Well-Being; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the extent to which the employment activities of women overtime are linked to their work behavior during the period immediately before and after the birth of their first child. Utilizing data from the NLS of Young Women 1968-1987, the authors find that, for the women studied, employment behavior at first birth tends to be a significant independent predictor of lifetime work experience. Differences in current and recent work behavior according to first-birth employment status were found to persist but diminish over time. However, such differences were still evident 14-19 years after the first birth particularly for women who returned to work shortly after the child's birth. These differences in employment behavior translate into improved economic well-being, although somewhat differently for whites and blacks. Other things being equal, the greater lifetime work experience of whites who worked both just before and just after the first birth is associated with an average wage premium of nearly 18 percent compared to those who were not employed during this period of time. The corresponding wage premium for the most strongly attached whites as compared to those who worked just before the birth but not immediately after was approximately 13 percent. Among the blacks studied, there was a distinctly smaller wage premium, amounting to 6 percent at the most, associated with greater lifetime work experience. The authors conclude that policies aimed at facilitating retention of employment at the outset of childbearing might not only contribute to a greater supply of female workers but could eventually lead to demand-side changes that would enhance women's opportunities for advancement in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Frank L. Mott. "Long-Term Employment and Earnings of Women in Relation to Employment Behavior Surrounding the First Birth." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Donner Foundation - University of Minnesota Industrial Relations Center Workshop on the Economic Well-Being of Women and Children, 1991.
25. Shapiro, David
Sandell, Steven H.
Age Discrimination and Labor Market Problems of Displaced Older Male Workers
Presented: Washington, DC, National Commission for Employment Policy Conference on Employment Policy and Older Americans, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: National Commission for Employment Policy
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Discrimination, Age; Displaced Workers; Layoffs; Mobility, Job; Retirement; Unemployment; Wages

Using data from the first twelve years of the NLS of Older Men (aged 45- 59 in l966), this paper focuses on the postdisplacement wages of older male workers who involuntarily lose their jobs. The wage change associated with displacement and subsequent employment is examined, after adjusting for the possibility of sample selection bias arising from early retirement on the part of some displaced workers. Preliminary findings indicate that: (1) Based on the pattern of earnings of displaced workers prior to job loss, there is no net relationship between age and wage changes among those under age 65. Workers over age 65 suffer wage penalties compared to other re- employed displaced workers. (2) Loss of firm-specific human capital accounts for a major portion of the observed average wage loss of 4 percent. Workers who change occupations and/or shift to part- time work following displacement experience significantly greater wage losses. (3) Workers who lost their jobs during the good economic times of the late l960s were able to maintain their average wage in subsequent employment, while those displaced during the l970s--a period of higher unemployment-- experienced an average wage loss of 6 percent.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Steven H. Sandell. "Age Discrimination and Labor Market Problems of Displaced Older Male Workers." Presented: Washington, DC, National Commission for Employment Policy Conference on Employment Policy and Older Americans, 1983.
26. Shapiro, David
Sandell, Steven H.
Age Discrimination in Wages and Displaced Older Men
Southern Economic Journal 52,1 (July 1985): 90-102.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/1058907
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Discrimination, Age; Displaced Workers; Job Search; Job Training; Wage Differentials; Wages, Men

This paper analyzes the age/wage relationship among male workers 45 years and older who were displaced and subsequently found new jobs between 1966 and 1978. The study is designed to increase our knowledge of age discrimination in the labor market. Our strategy is to examine the relationship between age and wages and possible age discrimination using a sample of older workers who are forced to look for new jobs, since older workers who do not change jobs may be protected from potential age discrimination by factors such as seniority provisions and across-the-board annual wage increases.[2] Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Mature Men,[3] we control for factors determining wage rates at the pre-displacement jobs, and then use this analysis as a benchmark for purposes of evaluating the age/wage pattern on post-displacement jobs. In addition, we also consider the effects of national economic conditions on the loss in earnings due to displacement.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Steven H. Sandell. "Age Discrimination in Wages and Displaced Older Men." Southern Economic Journal 52,1 (July 1985): 90-102.
27. Shapiro, David
Sandell, Steven H.
Effects of Economic Conditions on the Labor Market Status and Experience of Displaced Older Male Workers
Presented: New York, NY, Eastern Economic Association Meetings, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Eastern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Business Cycles; Displaced Workers; Labor Force Participation; Retirement; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study, using data from the Older Men's cohort 1966-1978, provides quantitative evidence bearing on five questions related to the labor market status and experiences of displaced older male workers: (1) How do workers displaced during the relatively good times of the late 1960s differ from those displaced during the relative bad times of the 1970s? (2) What are the determinants of job displacement? (3) How do age and economic conditions influence the propensity of displaced older men to opt for early retirement? (4) How do age and economic conditions influence the duration of employment experienced by displaced older men? (5) How do economic conditions influence the post-displacement wage rates of displaced older men who find new jobs? Comparison of workers displaced during the 1970s with those displaced during the late 1960s reveals that as the economy worsened, the average schooling of those displaced rose, as did the fraction of displaced men who had previously been employed in manufacturing, wholesale trade, and retail trade. Average tenure on the previous job also increased as the economy deteriorated.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Steven H. Sandell. "Effects of Economic Conditions on the Labor Market Status and Experience of Displaced Older Male Workers." Presented: New York, NY, Eastern Economic Association Meetings, 1984.
28. Shapiro, David
Shaw, Lois B.
Growth in the Labor Force Attachment of Married Women: Accounting for Changes in the 1970s
Southern Economic Journal 50,2 (October 1983): 461-473.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1058219
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Husbands, Income; Schooling; Unemployment; Wages; Wives; Work Attitudes

Our purpose is to determine to what extent this growth can be attributed to changes in characteristics of women in this age range, and to what extent important behavioral changes have occurred. The data and methods of analysis are described in section II, while empirical estimates of the determinants of married women's work activity are presented in section III. Analysis of the importance of the past decade's changes in these determinants/characteristics in accounting for the observed growth in labor supply is provided in section IV. Concluding observations, along with some speculation concerning the future course of married women's labor force attachment, are in section V. This study has examined the labor force participation and hours worked in the preceding year of 30-34 year old white married women in 1967 and in 1978, using NLS data on two panels of women. Consistent with previous research, we find that work attachment is highly significantly related to a woman's own wage and educational attainment, the presence of preschool children in the household, and husband's earnings. Marital history and (in 1978) local labor market conditions also influence labor-supply behavior. Between 1967 and 1978, the impact on work attachment of both the market wage and educational attainment increased, while the impact of husband's earnings declined somewhat.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Lois B. Shaw. "Growth in the Labor Force Attachment of Married Women: Accounting for Changes in the 1970s." Southern Economic Journal 50,2 (October 1983): 461-473.
29. Shapiro, David
Shaw, Lois B.
Labor Force Attachment of Married Women Age 30 to 34: an Intercohort Comparison
In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Labor Force Participation; Sex Roles; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The most important factors contributing to recent increases in labor force attachment of white married women in their early thirties were their increasing levels of education, decreasing family size, and more favorable attitudes toward working outside the home. Increases in husband's earnings and an unfavorable economic climate had a depressing effect; increases in labor force participation and weeks worked might have been even larger in a different economic environment. Educational attainment became a stronger influence on the labor force participation of both white and black women. The authors did not find evidence for any decrease in the importance of husband's earnings or family structure in affecting white women's labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Lois B. Shaw. "Labor Force Attachment of Married Women Age 30 to 34: an Intercohort Comparison" In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
30. Shaw, Lois B.
Shapiro, David
Early Work Plans, Actual Work Behavior, and Wages of Young Women
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009872114
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Occupational Aspirations; Wages, Young Women; Work History

Data from the NLS were used to examine how young women's work plans affect their subsequent work experiences and earnings. Results indicate that over 80 percent of women who consistently planned to work in the early interview years were in the labor force in 1980, but about half of the women who had not planned to work were also in the labor force. Women who had not planned to work appear to have changed their plans because of divorce, low earnings of their husbands, or because their own earnings potential was high. Women who had planned to work failed to realize their plans if they had large families or more children than they had expected. After controlling for education and actual work experience, wages of women who consistently planned to work were about 30 percent higher than those of women who never planned to work.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and David Shapiro. "Early Work Plans, Actual Work Behavior, and Wages of Young Women." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
31. Shaw, Lois B.
Shapiro, David
Women's Work Plans: Contrasting Expectations and Actual Work Experience
Monthly Labor Review 110,11 (November 1987): 7-13.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1987/11/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Labor Force Participation; Wages; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Utilizing data from the Young Women's cohort, this paper examines how young women's work plans affect their subsequent work experiences and earnings. It was found that those young women who planned to be in the labor market at age 35 were more likely to be employed when they reached that age. Planning to work, in fact, yielded a significant net wage advantage. Women in their mid-thirties who had, throughout their twenties, consistently planned to work had wages that were nearly thirty percent higher than those of women who had never planned to work even after controlling for work experience and other determinants of wage rates. This wage advantage was even greater for those women who were employed in occupations in which they had expected to be employed.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and David Shapiro. "Women's Work Plans: Contrasting Expectations and Actual Work Experience." Monthly Labor Review 110,11 (November 1987): 7-13.