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Author: Vuolo, Mike
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Kelly, Brian
Vuolo, Mike
Marijuana Use Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Social and Occupational Outcomes
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Life Course; Occupational Attainment; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Marijuana use is common as adolescent's transition into young adulthood; a majority of young Americans report lifetime use of marijuana by age 25. Yet, patterns of use vary considerably among youth as they make these life course transitions. We aim to identify types of marijuana use trajectories as well as assess the relationship of such trajectories to social and occupational outcomes at age 26. We utilize the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, an annual nationally representative survey of adolescents aged 12-16 during 1997 (n=8,984). We use data assessing each individual through age 26. Latent trajectory analyses identified 5 primary types of marijuana use across this period: non-users, occasional dabblers, consistent users, persistent heavy users, and early heavy users who quit.
Bibliography Citation
Kelly, Brian and Mike Vuolo. "Marijuana Use Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Social and Occupational Outcomes." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
2. Kelly, Brian
Vuolo, Mike
Trajectories of Marijuana Use and the Transition to Adulthood
Social Science Research 73 (July 2018): 175-188.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.3658
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Transition, Adulthood

Alongside the rise of emerging adulthood, policy contexts for marijuana have rapidly changed, with increases in availability and the number of daily users. We identify heterogeneous pathways of marijuana use from age 16 to 26, and examine how these pathways differentiate adult role transitions by age 28. Latent class analyses identified five trajectories: abstainers, dabblers, consistent users, early heavy quitters, and persistent heavy users. Dabblers are no different from abstainers on educational and labor market outcomes, and both have higher odds of adult role transitions relative to heavier use classes. Dabblers differ from abstainers on certain family transitions, yet remain distinct from the heavier use classes. Besides parenthood, early heavy quitters and persistent heavy users are similar, suggesting that heavy use is particularly detrimental early during transitions to adulthood. Distinct trajectories of marijuana use may differentiate young people into divergent pathways of transitions to adulthood, which may have long-term implications.
Bibliography Citation
Kelly, Brian and Mike Vuolo. "Trajectories of Marijuana Use and the Transition to Adulthood." Social Science Research 73 (July 2018): 175-188.
3. Kelly, Brian
Vuolo, Mike
Frizzell, Laura C.
Hernandez, Elaine M.
Denormalization, Smoke-free Air Policy, and Tobacco Use among Young Adults
Social Science and Medicine 211 (August 2018): 70-77.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953618302946
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Geocoded Data; Legislation; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Smoke-free air laws and the denormalization of smoking are important contributors to reductions in smoking during the 21st century. Yet, tobacco policy and denormalization may intersect in numerous ways to affect smoking. We merge data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey, American Nonsmokers’ Right Foundation, and Census to produce a unique examination of the intersection of smoking bans and denormalization and their influence on any smoking and heavy smoking among young adults. Operationalizing denormalization as complete unacceptability of smoking within nightlife venues, we examine 1) whether smoking bans and denormalization have independent effects on smoking, 2) whether denormalization mediates the influence of smoking bans on smoking, and 3) whether denormalization moderates the impact of smoking bans on smoking. For any smoking, denormalization has a significant independent effect beyond the influence of smoking bans. For heavy smoking, denormalization mediates the relationship between smoking bans and habitual smoking. Denormalization does not moderate the relationship of smoking bans with either pattern of smoking. This research identifies that the intersection of denormalization and smoking bans plays an important role in lowering smoking, yet they remain distinct in their influences. Notably, smoking bans are efficacious even in locales with lower levels of denormalization, particularly for social smoking.
Bibliography Citation
Kelly, Brian, Mike Vuolo, Laura C. Frizzell and Elaine M. Hernandez. "Denormalization, Smoke-free Air Policy, and Tobacco Use among Young Adults." Social Science and Medicine 211 (August 2018): 70-77.
4. Vuolo, Mike
Copula Models for Sociology: Measures of Dependence and Probabilities for Joint Distributions
Sociological Methods and Research 46,3 (August 2017): 604-648.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/smra/46/3
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Modeling; Statistical Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Often in sociology, researchers are confronted with nonnormal variables whose joint distribution they wish to explore. Yet, assumptions of common measures of dependence can fail or estimating such dependence is computationally intensive. This article presents the copula method for modeling the joint distribution of two random variables, including descriptions of the method, the most common copula distributions, and the nonparametric measures of association derived from the models. Copula models, which are estimated by standard maximum likelihood techniques, make no assumption about the form of the marginal distributions, allowing consideration of a variety of models and distributions in the margins and various shapes for the joint distribution. The modeling procedure is demonstrated via a simulated example of spousal mortality and empirical examples of (1) the association between unemployment and suicide rates with time series models and (2) the dependence between a count variable (days drinking alcohol) and a skewed, continuous variable (grade point average) while controlling for predictors of each using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Other uses for copulas in sociology are also described.
Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike. "Copula Models for Sociology: Measures of Dependence and Probabilities for Joint Distributions." Sociological Methods and Research 46,3 (August 2017): 604-648.
5. Vuolo, Mike
Kadowaki, Joy
Kelly, Brian
A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 57,3 (September 2016): 351-372.
Also: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/57/3/351.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Legislation; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts--including policy, community, and work/family--in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences.
Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Joy Kadowaki and Brian Kelly. "A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 57,3 (September 2016): 351-372.
6. Vuolo, Mike
Kelly, Brian
Kadowaki, Joy
Impact of Total Vending Machine Restrictions on U.S. Young Adult Smoking
Nicotine and Tobacco Research 18,11 (2016): 2092-2099.
Also: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/11/2092
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Legislation; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Introduction: In an analysis of smoking using a longitudinal sample of U.S. young adults, we extend research on tobacco vending machine restrictions beyond its prior focus on minors by examining the influence of total vending machine restrictions, which apply to adult-only facilities and represents the only remaining vending machine exemption since the enactment of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We identify whether the passage of a restriction influences an individual's smoking on repeated observations, and if the propensity is lower among those who live in locations with a restriction.

Methods: Combining a repository of U.S. tobacco policies at all geographic levels with the nationally-representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and Census data, we use multilevel logistic regression to examine the impact of total vending machine restrictions on any past 30 day smoking and past 30 day smoking of one pack per day among young adults (ages 19-31), while accounting for other tobacco control policy, community, and individual covariates.

Results: We find that total vending machine restrictions decrease any recent smoking (OR=0.451; p<.01), net of other covariates. Though the passage of a restriction does not alter an individual’s smoking over time, living longer in an area that has a restriction lowers the propensity that an individual will smoke at all (OR=0.442; p<.05). We find no effect of total vending machine restrictions on smoking a pack daily.

Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Brian Kelly and Joy Kadowaki. "Impact of Total Vending Machine Restrictions on U.S. Young Adult Smoking." Nicotine and Tobacco Research 18,11 (2016): 2092-2099.
7. Vuolo, Mike
Kelly, Brian
Kadowaki, Joy
Independent and Interactive Effects of Smoking Bans and Tobacco Taxes on a Cohort of US Young Adults
American Journal of Public Health 106,2 (February 2016): 374-380.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302968
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We examined the mutual effects of smoking bans and taxes on smoking among a longitudinal cohort of young adults.

Methods: We combined a repository of US tobacco policies at the state and local level with the nationally representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (2004–2011) from ages 19 to 31 years and Census data, to examine the impact of tobacco policies on any current and daily pack smoking. The analytic sample amounts to 19,668 observations among 4341 individuals within 487 cities.

Results: For current smoking, we found significant effects for comprehensive smoking bans, but not excise taxes. We also found an interaction effect, with bans being most effective in locales with no or low taxes. For daily pack smoking, we found significant effects for taxes, but limited support for bans.

Conclusions: Social smoking among young adults is primarily inhibited by smoking bans, but excise taxes only deter such smoking in the absence of a ban. Heavy smokers are primarily deterred by taxes. Although both policies have an impact on young adult smoking behaviors, their dual presence does not intensify each policy's efficacy.

Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Brian Kelly and Joy Kadowaki. "Independent and Interactive Effects of Smoking Bans and Tobacco Taxes on a Cohort of US Young Adults." American Journal of Public Health 106,2 (February 2016): 374-380.
8. Vuolo, Mike
Kelly, Brian
Kadowaki, Joy
The Impact of Clean Air Policies on Smoking Among a National Longitudinal Panel of U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Life Course; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Restrictions on smoking in public places has become a major global public health initiative over the past decade. To assess their impact, we examine the effect of comprehensive clean air policies on the prob ability of young adult cigarette use from ages 19-32 across the U.S. We combine a database of every tobacco policy among states and cities with the geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, an annual nationally representative survey of adolescents aged 12-16 during 1997 (n=8,984). In this respect, we trace the impact of these clean-air policies from adolescence through young adulthood. Using a multilevel panel model, we find that comprehensive clean air policies lower the odds of any smoking (OR=0.788, p<.05) and smoking a pack per day (OR=0.652, p<.01) during the past 30 days, while controlling for numerous other factors at both the city and individual levels. Taking advantage of longitudinal policy data, we decompose policy into within-and between-person effects, finding that the effect on any smoking has a within-person effect; that is, a clean air policy affects a given person's odds of any smoking over time (OR=0.774, p<.05). By contrast, we see a between-person effect on daily pack smoking, such that policies distinguish between individuals who smoke at this level (OR=0.428, p<.01), but do not affect a specific person's use. We situate these findings within Bird and Rieker’s (2008) Constrained Choices framework, which states that decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts, including policy, community, and work and family, in which they are formulated. We demonstrate that policies restricting public smoking influence tobacco use over time even in the face of proximal constraints. Further, the results underscore the efficacy of clean air policies on young adult smoking behaviors throughout a critical point in the life course.
Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Brian Kelly and Joy Kadowaki. "The Impact of Clean Air Policies on Smoking Among a National Longitudinal Panel of U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.