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Author: Lerman, Robert I.
Resulting in 16 citations.
1. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
How Do Marital Status, Work Effort, and Wage Rates Interact?
Demography 44,3 (August 2007): 623-647.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/hh5267335207k735/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Labor Market Outcomes; Marital Status; Marriage; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How marital status interacts with men's earnings is an important analytic and policy issue, especially in the context of debates in the United States over programs that encourage healthy marriage. This paper generates new findings about the earnings-marriage relationship by estimating the linkages among flows into and out of marriage, work effort, and wage rates. The estimates are based on National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel data, covering 23 years of marital and labor market outcomes, and control for unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate marriage effects on hours worked (our proxy for work effort) and on wage rates for all men and for black and low-skilled men separately. The estimates reveal that entering marriage raises hours worked quickly and substantially but that marriage's effect on wage rates takes place more slowly while men continue in marriage. Together, the stimulus to hours worked and wage rates generates an 18%-19% increase in earnings, with about one-third to one-half of the marriage earnings premium attributable to higher work effort. At the same time, higher wage rates and hours worked encourage men to marry and to stay married. Thus, being married and having high earnings reinforce each other over time. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "How Do Marital Status, Work Effort, and Wage Rates Interact?" Demography 44,3 (August 2007): 623-647.
2. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
Job Stability, Earnings, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Job Turnover; Life Course; Male Sample; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the interactions between job stability, earnings, and marital instability. We analyze the sequence of jobs, marriages, divorces, and remarriages among young men and ask: 1) Do job stability, high wages, and the career advancement of young men promote marriage and marital stability? 2) What are the consequences of marriage and marital stability for achieving high levels of job stability and occupational success? We use a Dynamic Selection Control model to estimate how young men make sequential choices about work and family. The maximum likelihood (ML) approach takes account of self-selection, simultaneity and heterogeneity. The data come from the 1979-1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). The initial results show causal impacts in both directions: job stability promotes higher earnings and marital stability, while marital stability increases job stability and earnings. Simulation results showing impacts of economic shocks on pathways will appear in the revised paper.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "Job Stability, Earnings, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?" Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
3. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?
Working Paper, Urban Institute, Washington DC, November 2004.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/411148.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Patterns; Marital Instability; Marital Status; Wage Rates

This study examines the interplay between job stability, wage rates, and marital instability. We use a Dynamic Selection Control model in which young men make sequential choices about work and family. Our empirical estimates derived from the model account for self-selection, simultaneity and unobserved heterogeneity. The results capture how job stability affects earnings, how both affect marital status, and how marital status affects earnings and job stability. The study reveals robust evidence that job instability lowers wages and the likelihood of getting and remaining married. At the same time, marriage raises wages and job stability. To project the sequential effects linking job stability, marital status, and earnings, we simulate the impacts of shocks that raise preferences for marriage and that increase education. Feedback effects cause the simulated wage gains from marriage to cumulate over time, indicating that long-run marriage wage premiums exceed conventional short-run estimates.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?" Working Paper, Urban Institute, Washington DC, November 2004.
4. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?
Review of Economics of the Household 9,2 (June 2011): 221-249.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/r5x6v43k45102h8q/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Turnover; Marital Stability; Marriage; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the interplay between job stability, wage rates, and marital stability. We use a Dynamic Selection Control model in which young men make sequential choices about work and family and estimate the model using an approach that takes account of self-selection, simultaneity and unobserved heterogeneity. The results quantify how job stability affects wage rates, how both affect marital status, and how marital status affects earnings and job stability. The study reveals robust evidence that job changes lower wages and the likelihood of getting married and remaining married. At the same time, marriage raises wage rates and job stability. To project the sequential effects linking job change, marital status, and earnings, we simulate the impacts of shocks that raise preferences for marriage and that increase education. Feedback effects cause the simulated wage gains from marriage to cumulate over time, indicating that long-run marriage wage premiums exceed conventional short-run estimates.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related? ." Review of Economics of the Household 9,2 (June 2011): 221-249.
5. Lerman, Robert I.
A National Profile of Young Unwed Fathers: Who Are They and How Are They Parenting?
Presented: Washington, DC, Catholic University, Conference on Unwed Fathers, October 1986
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Catholic University of America Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Children; Educational Attainment; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; High School Dropouts; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Sexual Experiences/Virginity; Substance Use; Work Attachment

Using data from the 1979-1985 NLSY, this report profiles the characteristics of young men who are unwed fathers. Young unwed fathers were found to be generally less educated with lower academic abilities, to have engaged in sexual intercourse at an earlier age, and to be more involved in criminal activities than other young men. Family background factors such as low family income and having lived in a welfare household increased the probability that a young man would become an unwed father. Significant race differences in unwed fatherhood remained even after taking account of family background and other personal differences.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. "A National Profile of Young Unwed Fathers: Who Are They and How Are They Parenting?" Presented: Washington, DC, Catholic University, Conference on Unwed Fathers, October 1986.
6. Lerman, Robert I.
A National Profile of Young Unwed Fathers: Who Are They and How Are They Parenting?
In: Young Unwed Fathers: Research Review, Policy Dilemmas, and Options, Volume II. J Smollar and T Ooms, eds. Washington, DC: Catholic University, 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Commerce
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Children; Educational Attainment; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; High School Dropouts; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Substance Use; Work Attachment

Lerman's research on young unwed fathers provides some evidence that white mothers may exit the never-married (i.e., marry out of the population) at a faster rate than black mothers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, he found that unlike blacks, the majority of white and Hispanic young unwed fathers in 1979 had married the mother of their children and were living with all of their children by 1984.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. "A National Profile of Young Unwed Fathers: Who Are They and How Are They Parenting?" In: Young Unwed Fathers: Research Review, Policy Dilemmas, and Options, Volume II. J Smollar and T Ooms, eds. Washington, DC: Catholic University, 1987
7. Lerman, Robert I.
Do the Earnings Deficiencies of Unwed Fathers Account for Their Low Child Support Payments?
In: Paternity Establishment: A Public Policy Conference, Volume 2: Studies of the Circumstances of Mothers and Fathers. Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, 1992: pp. 191-218.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/sr/pdfs/sr56b.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Child Support; Children; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: Special Report #SR 56B, IRP, Madison WI, 1992: pp. 191-218. http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/sr/pdfs/sr56b.pdf

Fatherhood brings new financial responsibilities so that, due the added cost of supporting a child, parents must increase their earnings or reduce their own material living standards. This paper asks about the linkages between earnings and child support payments. We begin by examining the job market success of unwed fathers. Do young unwed fathers earn significantly less than other young men? If so, what accounts for their disadvantages? Are the differences between unwed fathers and married fathers caused by differences in worker capabilities, such as low education and limited work experience, or differences in worker effort? Do young unwed fathers eventually experience rapid earnings growth or do their earnings stagnate? The child support payment record of unwed fathers is examined as well as the relationship between increased earnings and added support payments. A common assumption guiding public policy is that increased earnings among unwed fathers will generate increased support payments. Findings bear on questions concerning the appropriate government role in dealing with earnings deficiencies of unwed fathers. Should public programs provide targeted employment and training assistance to these young men? How should programs link the fulfillment of child support obligations with job-related services? Do adjustments in government benefit programs make sense? The paper concludes by reporting on demonstration projects.

Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. "Do the Earnings Deficiencies of Unwed Fathers Account for Their Low Child Support Payments?" In: Paternity Establishment: A Public Policy Conference, Volume 2: Studies of the Circumstances of Mothers and Fathers. Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, 1992: pp. 191-218.
8. Lerman, Robert I.
Do Welfare Programs Affect Schooling and Work Patterns of Young Black Men and Women?
Presented: Cambridge, MA, Conference on Inner City Black Youth Unemployment, August 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Family Income; Family Influences; Inner-City; Parents, Single; Poverty; Racial Differences; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Public; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper discusses the role of income transfer programs in searching for explanations of the poor labor market outcomes for black and low income youth. For young black men, the significant predicted welfare effects indicated that much of the negative outcomes are actually due to the welfare experience. However, the larger and more systematically significant effects of actual as opposed to predicted welfare suggests that some negative youth outcomes are attributable to unmeasured attitudes and other characteristics associated both with welfare participation and low employment related capacities of the youths' family. Young black women interact with welfare programs in a much larger and more direct way than do young black men. Effects on young men are found to take place mainly as a result of benefits received by parents or other relatives. In contrast, young women seem to be affected both indirectly as a result of a parent's or relative's benefit and directly when they become an unmarried mother and head of their own welfare family at the time of normal entry into the labor market. The empirical results show clear negative effects from welfare programs on the employment and earnings of young black women. Unlike the case of young men, it is possible to identify mechanisms through which welfare programs influence young women. The evidence goes beyond welfare's influence on young women to become unmarried mothers. Even among unmarried mothers, the receipt of welfare benefits tends to reduce employment and earnings. A measure of the young women's employability, predicted welfare, exerted a substantial negative impact on the labor market performance of unmarried mothers. Racial differentials in the share of young living with a family on welfare appear quite large. With 20-30 percent of black youth and only 5 percent of white youth interacting with the welfare system, any welfare effects on youth employment could account for a significant part of the overall and surprisingly high racial differentials in employment levels.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. "Do Welfare Programs Affect Schooling and Work Patterns of Young Black Men and Women?" Presented: Cambridge, MA, Conference on Inner City Black Youth Unemployment, August 1983.
9. Lerman, Robert I.
Employment Opportunities of Young Men and Family Formation
Proceedings, American Economic Association (May 1989): 62-66
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Family Formation; Labor Force Participation; Marital Disruption; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the issue of male joblessness and its relationship to family formation, particularly the recent growth of black female-headed families. Using data from the NLSY, the author tested the effects of local labor market unemployment rates and young men's previous job experience on the likelihood that they would remain childless, become absent fathers, or become fathers living with their children. It was found that neither the measure of local labor market conditions nor prior joblessness of the young men studied affected fatherhood outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. "Employment Opportunities of Young Men and Family Formation." Proceedings, American Economic Association (May 1989): 62-66.
10. Lerman, Robert I.
Married and Unmarried Parenthood and Economic Wellbeing: A Dynamic Analysis of a Recent Cohort
Report to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, July 2002.
Also: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410540_Parenthood.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cohabitation; Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Family Structure; Fertility; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Poverty; Propensity Scores

This paper examines the dynamics of marriage and family patterns and their relationship to living standards of a recent cohort of mothers. It is not obvious that married mothers should perform economically better than mother in cohabiting relationships or single mother living with at least one other adult. But marriage is likely to raise living standards if it is associated with family and income stability. Using a significantly raise both the level and stability of living standards experienced by mothers and their children.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. "Married and Unmarried Parenthood and Economic Wellbeing: A Dynamic Analysis of a Recent Cohort." Report to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, July 2002.
11. Lerman, Robert I.
The Nature of the Youth Unemployment Problem: A Review Paper
Technical Analysis Paper No 69. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, 1980.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED201826&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED201826
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; Employment, In-School; Family Influences; Job Turnover; Military Enlistment; Racial Differences; Seasonality; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition Rates, Activity to Work; Work Experience

This paper provides an overview of the nature and severity of youth unemployment utilizing data from both the NLS and CPS. The author investigates youth unemployment from the classical position that there are two types of reasons for the large difference between youth unemployment and adult unemployment--first, that youths are less desirable to potential employers than older, more experienced and perhaps better-trained adults; and second, that youth unemployment is natural and inevitable due to the high turnover, seasonality and school-to-work transition inherent to teen-age labor force participation. It is found, however, that the seasonal pattern of youth labor force entry has no effect upon the unemployment rate, and that the high turnover rate of youth accounts for only 30 percent of the youth/adult differential. Family status differences, such as leaving school and becoming financially independent, can account for up to 75 percent of the employment/population ratio of white youths. Limited work experience and education also are found to affect the level of youth employment. Although it is concluded that, ceteris paribus, a black youth has ten points lower employment possibilities than a white youth, many of the large racial differences in employment status seem to be somehow related to Armed Forces enrollment patterns--apparently more blacks than whites enter the military, for whatever reasons. For males, the racial differential in crime rates and arrest records is also a potential factor, as employers still use this data in hiring decisions, even though the practice is illegal. For females, family status differences appear to account for half the racial differences in employment status. Finally, for both sexes and races, although more pronounced for blacks, the difference in family economic status is also a major determinate of unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. The Nature of the Youth Unemployment Problem: A Review Paper. Technical Analysis Paper No 69. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, 1980..
12. Lerman, Robert I.
Who are the Young Absent Fathers?
Youth and Society 18,1 (September 1986): 3-27.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/18/1/3
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Children; Fathers, Influence; Hispanics; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Characteristics of young absent fathers in the United States are investigated using data from the NLSY (number of cases = 12,686 individuals aged 14-21 in 1979); follow-up interviews were conducted with 90% of the initial sample each year from 1980 to 1985. Tabulations of the data reveal that 1 in 3 young fathers live apart from at least 1 of their children. Although most absent fathers are white, young black males are more likely to become absent fathers than are whites or Hispanics. Of young black fathers, 70% are absent, and their absence or presence does not necessarily correspond with their marital status. Absent fathers, particularly whites and Hispanics, grew up in lower-income families than did other youth, and had less favorable employment and educational backgrounds. Directions for future research are discussed. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. "Who are the Young Absent Fathers?" Youth and Society 18,1 (September 1986): 3-27.
13. Lerman, Robert I.
Price, Joseph P.
Wilcox, W. Bradford
Family Structure and Economic Success across the Life Course
Marriage and Family Review 53,8 (2017): 744-758.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01494929.2017.1316810
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Family Income; Family Structure; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Life Course; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the role that family structure plays in long-run economic outcomes across the life course. Using nearly 30 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we find that youths who grow up with both biological parents earn more income, work more hours each week, and are more likely to be married themselves as adults, compared to children raised in single-parent families. Many of these differences continue to be statistically significant even after we control for family income experienced as an adolescent. In addition, the implied size of the income transfer that children growing up with a single parent to equalize lifetime economic outcomes would need – about $42,000 – is markedly larger than the income transfers now available to families in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I., Joseph P. Price and W. Bradford Wilcox. "Family Structure and Economic Success across the Life Course." Marriage and Family Review 53,8 (2017): 744-758.
14. Lerman, Robert I.
Sorensen, Elaine
Father Involvement with Their Nonmarital Children Patterns, Determinants, and Effects on Their Earnings
Marriage and Family Review 29,2-3 (2000): 137-158.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J002v29n02_09
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Earnings; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Fertility; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Single; Work Hours

Conference: Population Association of America Annual Meetings (Mar 1997). This paper examines two sets of questions relevant to policy initiatives related to increasing father involvement: (1) the patterns of involvement between fathers and children born outside of marriage, and (2) whether father involvement leads to increased earnings. The paper defines father involvement as a continuum ranging from no visitation, to frequent visitation, to co-residence with the child, and to co-residence along with marrying the mother. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and examines this involvement in specific years and over time. One key finding is that most fathers of nonmarital children in their late 20s and early 30s are highly involved with at least one of their nonmarital children. In addition, it was found that cohabiting relationships and frequent visitation are often unstable, sometimes changing toward lower involvement, while in other cases changing toward higher degrees of involvement. A positive relationship between increased involvement of fathers and their subsequent hours of work and earnings. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved. Note(s): Previous version presented at the Population Association of America Meetings and the NICHD Conference on Father Involvement, Oct, 1996.; Special Issue: Fatherhood: Research, interventions and policies. Part I.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. and Elaine Sorensen. "Father Involvement with Their Nonmarital Children Patterns, Determinants, and Effects on Their Earnings." Marriage and Family Review 29,2-3 (2000): 137-158.
15. Lerman, Robert I.
Sorensen, Elaine
Father Involvement with Their Nonmarital Children: Patterns, Determinants and Effects on Their Earnings
Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Child Support; Coresidence; Earnings; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Fertility; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Ensuring that nonresident fathers are financially responsible for their children vial a major theme of the recent welfare reform legislation enacted into law this summer. One segment of that population--fathers who had their children outside of marriage--has been particularly difficult to incorporate into the formal child support enforcement system. Many practitioners who work with unwed fathers argue that this population can be reached, however, by connecting them to their children. The purpose of this research project is to ascertain whether we can identify a causal link between father involvement with their nonmarital children and increased earnings in a national survey of young men. This paper describes our preliminary findings. We define father involvement somewhat differently than previous research, by including co-residence as well as visitation in our measure of father involvement. We find that most fathers of nonmarital children in their late twenties and early thirties are highly involved with at least one of their nonmarital children. We also find that cohabiting relationships and frequent visitation are often unstable, sometimes changing toward lower and higher degrees of involvement. Our preliminary findings with regard to earnings and father involvement suggest that visitation by itself, is unlikely to generate the earnings gains that living with the child seems to accomplish.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. and Elaine Sorensen. "Father Involvement with Their Nonmarital Children: Patterns, Determinants and Effects on Their Earnings." Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996.
16. Lerman, Robert I.
Wilcox, W. Bradford
For Richer, for Poorer: How Family Structures Economic Success in America
Report, American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and Institute for Family Studies, October 2014.
Also: https://www.aei.org/publication/for-richer-for-poorer-how-family-structures-economic-success-in-america/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
Keyword(s): Childhood; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Household Structure; Marriage; Socioeconomic Factors; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

PART 2: The Role of Childhood Family Structure in Future Economic Success
PART 3: A Marriage Premium for Men and Women
PART 4: The Family Premium
Parts 2, 3, and 4 based on the NLSY97 and NLSY79
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. and W. Bradford Wilcox. "For Richer, for Poorer: How Family Structures Economic Success in America." Report, American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and Institute for Family Studies, October 2014.