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Author: Yu, Wei-hsin
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Yu, Wei-hsin
Duan, Haoshu
Does School Learning Shape Gender Ideology? Academic Performance and Adolescents' Attitudes toward Gender Practices
Social Science Research published online (9 January 2021): 102524.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X21000016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Despite research linking education to values, our understanding of the effects of academic learning on gender attitudes is still limited. Using sibling data collected over time, we investigate how learning in school, measured by achievement test scores, affects adolescents' views on gender issues both with and without direct implications for women's economic mobility. With fixed-effects models accounting for unobserved heterogeneity between high and low achievers, we show that the relationship between academic achievement and gender ideology is not spurious, but learning does not enlighten adolescents on all gender-related beliefs, either. Rather, school learning socializes both boys and girls into more liberal views on issues clearly related to women's economic opportunities. For views concerning dating practices or boy-girl interactions, which are irrelevant to the meritocracy-based mainstream values, academic performance has less consistent effects, with higher achievement scores sometimes associated with more conservative views among boys.
Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Haoshu Duan. "Does School Learning Shape Gender Ideology? Academic Performance and Adolescents' Attitudes toward Gender Practices." Social Science Research published online (9 January 2021): 102524.
2. Yu, Wei-hsin
Hara, Yuko
Motherhood Penalties and Fatherhood Premiums: Effects of Parenthood on Earnings Growth Within and Across Firms
Demography 58,1 (2021): 247-272.
Also: https://read.dukeupress.edu/demography/article/58/1/247/167586/Motherhood-Penalties-and-Fatherhood-Premiums
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Fatherhood; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Parenthood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite much interest in how parenthood contributes to the gender pay gap, prior research has rarely explored firms' roles in shaping the parenthood pay penalty or premium. The handful of studies that investigated parenthood's effects within and across firms generally compared parents and their childless peers at a given time and failed to account for unobserved heterogeneity between the two groups. Such comparisons also cannot inform how having children may alter individuals' earnings trajectories within and across firms. Using 26 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and fixed-effects models, we examine how being a mother or father is linked to earnings growth within and across firms. We find that women's pay decreases as they become mothers and that the across-employer motherhood penalty is larger than the within-employer penalty. By contrast, fatherhood is associated with a pay premium, and the within-employer fatherhood premium is considerably greater than the across-employer one. We argue that these results are consistent with the discrimination explanation of the motherhood penalty and fatherhood premium. Because employers are likely to trust women who become mothers while working for them more than new recruits who are mothers, their negative bias against mothers would be more salient when evaluating the latter, which could result in a larger between-organizational motherhood penalty. Conversely, employers' likely greater trust in existing workers who become fathers than fathers they hire from elsewhere may amplify their positive bias favoring fathers in assessing the former, which could explain the greater within-firm fatherhood premium.
Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Yuko Hara. "Motherhood Penalties and Fatherhood Premiums: Effects of Parenthood on Earnings Growth Within and Across Firms." Demography 58,1 (2021): 247-272.
3. Yu, Wei-hsin
Hara, Yuko
Parenthood and Earnings Changes Within and Across Organizations: How Do Women's and Men's Experiences Differ?
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Gender Differences; Parenthood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Men; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite much interest in the effect of parenthood on the gender inequality in pay, research rarely compares how having children contributes to wage changes within and across firms for women and men. Using 26 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and fixed-effects models, we examine how women's and men's starting pay across organizations vary according to parenthood status and whether parenthood alters their earnings within each employer spell. We find a motherhood penalty across employing organizations, but not within organizations. Conversely, the transition to fatherhood increases earnings within organizations, but not across organizations. We argue that these results are most consistent with the discrimination perspective, because a negative bias against mothers is likely to be more salient when employers set wages for new recruits than for existing employees, whereas a positive bias favoring fathers should be more prominent when employers judge existing employees than they do new workers.
Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Yuko Hara. "Parenthood and Earnings Changes Within and Across Organizations: How Do Women's and Men's Experiences Differ?" Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
4. Yu, Wei-hsin
Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan
Occupational Gender Composition and Union Dissolution: Exploring the Relationship and Mechanisms
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Gender; Marital Instability; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Occupations, Non-Traditional; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Janet Chen-Lan Kuo. "Occupational Gender Composition and Union Dissolution: Exploring the Relationship and Mechanisms." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
5. Yu, Wei-hsin
Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan
The Motherhood Wage Penalty by Work Conditions: How Do Occupational Characteristics Hinder or Empower Mothers?
American Sociological Review 82,4 (August 2017): 744-769.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0003122417712729
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Job Hazards; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Occupations; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Mothers are shown to receive lower wages than childless women across industrial countries. Although research on mothers' wage disadvantage has noted that the extent of this disadvantage is not universal among mothers, it has paid relatively little attention to how the structural characteristics of jobs moderate the price women pay for motherhood. Using data from 16 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth that began in 1997, we examine how the pay gap between mothers and non-mothers varies by occupational characteristics. Deriving hypotheses from three prominent explanations for the motherhood wage penalty--stressing work-family conflict and job performance, compensating differentials, and employer discrimination, respectively--we test whether this penalty changes with an occupation's exposure to hazardous conditions, schedule regularity, required on-the-job training, competitiveness, level of autonomy, and emphasis on teamwork. Results from fixed-effects models show that the wage reduction for each child is less in occupations with greater autonomy and lower teamwork requirements. Moreover, mothers encounter a smaller penalty when their occupations impose less competitive pressure. On the whole, these findings are consistent with the model focusing on job strain and work-family conflict, adding evidence to the importance of improving job conditions to alleviate work-family conflict.
Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Janet Chen-Lan Kuo. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty by Work Conditions: How Do Occupational Characteristics Hinder or Empower Mothers?" American Sociological Review 82,4 (August 2017): 744-769.
6. Yu, Wei-hsin
Sun, Shengwei
Fertility Responses to Individual and Contextual Unemployment: Differences by Socioeconomic Background
Demographic Research 39 (25 October 2018): 927-962.
Also: https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol39/35/default.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Geocoded Data; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Unemployment; Unemployment Rate, Regional

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: In this study we specifically ask whether fertility timings in the United States are more sensitive to the unemployment rates of individuals' immediate surroundings or to their own unemployment. Moreover, we investigate whether young adults with different educational levels and parental resources may adjust their childbearing timing differently in response to their own employment status and local unemployment rates.

Methods: Using 17 rounds of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we fit discrete-time event history models predicting men's and women's pace of childbearing.

Results: The analysis indicates that relatively disadvantaged young adults, such as those with low education or parents with low education, tend to delay childbirth in response to high local unemployment rates but are less likely than the more advantaged to defer childbearing when facing their own unemployment.

Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Shengwei Sun. "Fertility Responses to Individual and Contextual Unemployment: Differences by Socioeconomic Background." Demographic Research 39 (25 October 2018): 927-962.
7. Yu, Wei-hsin
Sun, Shengwei
Race-Ethnicity, Class, and Unemployment Dynamics: Do Macroeconomic Shifts Alter Existing Disadvantages?
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 63 (October 2019): DOI: 10.1016/j.rssm.2019.100422.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562418301999
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Geocoded Data; Local Area Unemployment; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment Rate; Unemployment Rate, Regional

Research indicates that individuals of different races, ethnic backgrounds, and class origins differ in their unemployment rates. We know less, however, about whether these differences result from the differing groups' unequal hazards of entering or exiting unemployment and even less about how economic fluctuations moderate the ethnoracial and class-origin gaps in the long-term risks of transitioning into and out of unemployment. Using Rounds 1–17 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and event history models, we show that non-Hispanic blacks become more similar to non-Hispanic whites in their paces of entering unemployment as their local unemployment rate rises, perhaps because jobs largely closed to the former are eliminated in a greater proportion during recessions. Nonetheless, blacks’ relatively slow pace of transitioning from unemployment to having a job decelerates further with economic downturns. By contrast, Hispanics' paces of entering and exiting unemployment relative to non-Hispanic whites hardly change with local unemployment rates, despite unemployed Hispanics’ slower rate of transitioning to having a job. With respect to class origin, we find that the advantages in both unemployment entry and recovery of young men with relatively educated parents diminish with economic deterioration.
Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Shengwei Sun. "Race-Ethnicity, Class, and Unemployment Dynamics: Do Macroeconomic Shifts Alter Existing Disadvantages?" Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 63 (October 2019): DOI: 10.1016/j.rssm.2019.100422.
8. Yu, Wei-hsin
Sun, Shengwei
Unemployment and Childbearing: Whose Unemployment Matters and to Whom Does It Matter?
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Fertility; Geocoded Data; Unemployment; Unemployment Rate, Regional

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Few studies distinguish the effects of individuals' own unemployment and their surroundings' unemployment levels on their fertility, and even fewer examine how different social groups may react to individual- and aggregate-level unemployment differently. Using data from the NLSY97 and an improved measure of local unemployment rates, we investigate how men's and women's paces of childbearing correspond to their own unemployment status and unemployment incidents around them. The analysis indicates that individuals, especially women, with more labor market disadvantages, such as having low education or parents with low education, tend to delay childbirths in response to high local unemployment rates, but they are less likely than the more advantaged to deter childbearing when facing their own unemployment. We argue that these differences reflect the fact that the disadvantaged tend to suffer more from unemployment in times of economic turmoil, while having lower prospects of economic improvement once having become unemployed.
Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Shengwei Sun. "Unemployment and Childbearing: Whose Unemployment Matters and to Whom Does It Matter?" Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
9. Yu, Wei-hsin
Xu Yan, Hope
Maternal Age, Early Childhood Temperament, and Youth Outcomes
Demography published online (26 October 2022): DOI: 10.1215/00703370-10293348.
Also: https://read.dukeupress.edu/demography/article/doi/10.1215/00703370-10293348/319572/Maternal-Age-Early-Childhood-Temperament-and-Youth
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Educational Attainment; Health, Mental; Mothers; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Demographers and family researchers have long debated whether early childbearing has negative consequences on the offspring, but few have considered that the benefits of delayed childbearing (or the lack thereof) may not be universal. Using sibling data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults, we investigate how the relevance of mothers' age at childbirth to youth outcomes (academic performance, years of education completed, and psychological distress) may differ for youth whose early-childhood behavioral disposition (i.e., temperament) indicated varying degrees of insecure attachment. Results from family fixed-effects models, which take into account much of the unobserved heterogeneity among families, show that having an older mother is associated with improved educational and psychological outcomes for youth with a rather insecure early temperament. In contrast, mothers' age at childbirth hardly matters for children with a secure disposition. Further analysis indicates that the moderating effect of maternal age cannot be explained by the mother's first-birth timing, education, work status, income, or family stability. Older mothers' higher likelihood of prior child-rearing experience explains part of the older-mother advantage for temperamentally insecure children. However, the aging process, which equips older mothers with enhanced maturity, more calmness, and therefore greater capacity to overcome adversities, seems to account for the smaller detrimental effects of an insecure disposition on their children.
Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Hope Xu Yan. "Maternal Age, Early Childhood Temperament, and Youth Outcomes." Demography published online (26 October 2022): DOI: 10.1215/00703370-10293348.