Search Results

Author: Grady, William R.
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Baydar, Nazli
Grady, William R.
Predictors of Birth Planning Status and Its Consequences for Children
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Childbearing; Children; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Fertility; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the predictors of having a wanted, mistimed or unwanted birth, and the consequences of birth planning status on children's developmental status. Whether an unintended birth is "unwanted" or "mistimed" is determined by: 1) the costs of the birth; and, 2) whether those costs are fixed or transitory. When the costs of a birth are high and fixed, all future births would be "unwanted". The analysis is based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Since 1982, pregnancy history and planning status information was obtained from all NLSY women on an annual basis. Planning status questions were asked of the mothers on the average at the fifth month of the pregnancy, and the status of 84% of children were recorded before their birth. Our target group of children consists of all children born between 1982 and 1984 NLSY surveys. Two child developmental outcomes are considered: Behavioral-emotional development and cognitive development.
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli and William R. Grady. "Predictors of Birth Planning Status and Its Consequences for Children." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
2. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Work and Retirement Among a Cohort of Older Men in the United States, 1966-1983
Demography 27,3 (August 1990): 337-356.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a4031v28172234n7/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Disabled Workers; Labor Force Participation; Mobility; Modeling; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement; Simultaneity; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Attachment; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multivariate increment-decrement working life tables are estimated for a cohort of older men in the United States for the period 1966-1983. The approach taken allows multiple processes to be simultaneously incorporated into a single model, resulting in a more realistic portrayal of a cohort's labor force behavior. In addition, because the life table model is developed from multivariate hazard equations, we identify the net effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the potentially complex process by which the labor force career is ended. In contrast to the assumed homogeneity of previous working life table analyses, the present study shows marked differences in labor force mobility, and working the nonworking life expectancy according to occupation, class of worker, education, race, and marital status. Policy and substantive implications of these patterns are briefly discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. and William R. Grady. "Work and Retirement Among a Cohort of Older Men in the United States, 1966-1983." Demography 27,3 (August 1990): 337-356.
3. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Occupational Consequences for Men's Early Retirement
report, Seattle WA: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Early Retirement; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Tenure; Occupations; Retirement

This study examines the consequences of the occupational work context for men's early retirement. The project consists of three major stages. The first stage focuses on the relationship between the nature of work in the occupation and the occupationally-based opportunity structure for older men's labor force participation. The intent is to identify those features of the occupational context that help define older men's opportunity structure. In the second stage of the project, the analysis focuses on the direct contributions of the occupational context to early retirement relative to traditional retirement determinants. The results indicate that while occupational characteristics are not the dominant force directly influencing early retirement, there is some age-grading of occupational effects such that both task and non-task occupational characteristics gain or lose their direct salience for retirement depending on the age of incumbents. Finally, in the third stage of the study, the analyses address whether the impact of traditional retirement determinants is shaped by the nature of the work. The analyses indicate that the occupation serves to structure the influence of several key determinants of early retirement--particularly the effects of health status and job tenure. In general, the results of this study substantiate the importance of considering the occupational context in analyses of men's early retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., William R. Grady and Melissa A. Hardy. "Occupational Consequences for Men's Early Retirement." report, Seattle WA: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, 1985.
4. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Sommers, David Gerard
Occupational Influences on Retirement, Disability and Death
Demography 26,3 (August 1989): 393-409.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/92n1655360080128/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines the alternative mechanisms by which occupations influence the nature and timing of older men's labor force withdrawal. In particular, the authors assess the extent to which occupational factors operate directly and indirectly on exiting events and whether occupations augment or constrain traditional determinants of labor force participation. Based on a discrete-time hazards modeling approach, the results substantiate that the occupational task activities, substantive complexity and physical demands, are key elements of the work environment that are evaluated against the set of non-work alternatives. In the case of retirement, these aspects of occupational attractiveness function as a dominant and direct force in retirement decision-making. With regard to disability, the occupational attribute of substantive complexity operates as an indirect advantage (through higher wage rates) by reducing the risk of a disability exit. Indicators of career continuity also determine the rate of retirement among older workers. Finally, results suggest that financial characteristics and health problems are central to the distribution of older workers across the alternative destination statuses of retirement, disability and death.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., William R. Grady, Melissa A. Hardy and David Gerard Sommers. "Occupational Influences on Retirement, Disability and Death." Demography 26,3 (August 1989): 393-409.
5. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Sommers, David Gerard
Retirement, Disability and Death Among Older Men in the U.S.: The Influence of Occupation
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1987
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Labor Force Participation; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

This research examines the alternative mechanisms by which occupations influence the nature and timing of older men's labor force withdrawal. In particular, this research assesses the extent to which occupational factors operate directly and indirectly on exiting events and whether occupations augment or constrain traditional determinants of labor force participation. Based on a discrete-time hazards modeling approach, the results substantiate that the occupational task activities, substantive complexity and physical demands, are key elements of the work environment that are evaluated against the set of non-work alternatives. In the case of retirement, these aspects of occupational attractiveness function as a dominant and direct force in the retirement decision- making calculus. With regard to disability, these factors operate directly by defining vocational opportunities. Other occupational attributes such as mandatory retirement regulations and measures of career continuity also are key and direct determinants of the retirement decision.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., William R. Grady, Melissa A. Hardy and David Gerard Sommers. "Retirement, Disability and Death Among Older Men in the U.S.: The Influence of Occupation." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1987.
6. Hayward, Mark D.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Grady, William R.
Career Relinquishment Patterns Among Older Men in the United States
Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, 1986
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the influence of the occupational context and other sociodemographic characteristics on men's rates of retirement, disability, and death in the U.S. The intent is to identify career relinquishment processes for major subgroups in the labor market to more firmly ground current theory building attempts. Using a hazards model approach, the authors estimate a dynamic model of career relinquishment and identify the effects of occupations and sociodemographic factors on the three events marking the termination of the labor force career. Estimates from the hazards models were used to construct multi-decrement working life tables. The results allow quantification of, for a cohort of older men, the implications of the occupational context and sociodemographic factors in terms of the relative frequency of retirement, disability, and death, the pace of labor force withdrawal, and the number of years workers of a given age can anticipate being in the labor force. To provide substantive direction for future research, possible mechanisms which may explain the observed subgroup differences in withdrawal patterns are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Melissa A. Hardy and William R. Grady. "Career Relinquishment Patterns Among Older Men in the United States." Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, 1986.
7. Hayward, Mark D.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Grady, William R.
Labor Force Withdrawal Patterns Among Older Men in the United States
Social Science Quarterly 70,2 (June 1989): 425-448
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Disabled Workers; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Melissa A. Hardy and William R. Grady. "Labor Force Withdrawal Patterns Among Older Men in the United States." Social Science Quarterly 70,2 (June 1989): 425-448.
8. McLaughlin, Steven D.
Grady, William R.
Billy, John O. G.
Lansdale, Nancy S.
The Effects of the Sequencing of Marriage and First Birth During Adolescence
Family Planning Perspectives 18,1 (January-February 1986): 12-18.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135194
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Birthweight; Educational Attainment; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Status; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Racial Differences; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Whether or not they marry, black adolescent mothers are more likely than whites to attend school following the birth of their first child. Marrying to legitimate a birth reduces the likelihood that a teenager will return to school after childbearing; this impact of marriage is much stronger among black than among white teenagers. The timing of marriage appears to affect school enrollment among white teenagers through its impact on living arrangements. However, the negative impact of marriage on educational achievement does not seem to be a consequence of earlier differences in educational expectations among the teenagers. The timing of marriage and the likelihood of separation from their husbands in later years if they marry before the birth is also discussed in terms of black and white mothers. Intervals between first birth and second for those who marry either before or during the pregnancy or after birth are examined in terms of the two races. In addition, low-birth-weights for the various marital situations are examined.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Steven D., William R. Grady, John O. G. Billy and Nancy S. Lansdale. "The Effects of the Sequencing of Marriage and First Birth During Adolescence." Family Planning Perspectives 18,1 (January-February 1986): 12-18.
9. McLaughlin, Steven D.
Grady, William R.
Billy, John O. G.
Winges, Linda D.
The Effects of the Decision to Marry on the Consequences of Adolescent Pregnancy
Final Report, Seattle WA: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Office of Adolescent Programs, Department of Health and Human Services, 1984
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Breastfeeding; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Stability; Marital Status; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Racial Differences

Teenage parenthood has been linked to reduced education, marital instability, rapid subsequent childbearing, and health problems for the child. This research compares individuals who had a first live birth before age 20 for three marital status groups: those who married before becoming pregnant, those who married during the pregnancy and those who did not marry before the birth. The four outcomes considered are: education acquired after the birth, marital disruption, the timing of the second child, and the health of the infant. Black adolescent mothers are more likely to attend school after the birth than white adolescent mothers. Marriage before birth, either before pregnancy or while pregnant, reduces the probability of attaining more education after birth, and this negative impact of marriage is much stronger for blacks. Remaining unmarried at the birth increases the likelihood of the white teenager being with her family which, in turn, increases the likelihood of additional education. The timing of marriage and the likelihood of separation from their husbands in later years if they marry before the birth is also discussed in terms of black and white mothers. Intervals between first birth and second for those who marry either before or during the pregnancy or after birth are examined in terms of the two races. Baby birthweight and breastfeeding characteristics are examined. Birth outcomes and marriage timing are discussed in terms of the effects of marital status at first birth and how they vary by race. Because the proportion of all adolescent births that occur before marriage is increasing, these results have important implications for policy planners and program administrators. Additional data comes from Cycle 3 of the National Survey of Faculty Growth.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Steven D., William R. Grady, John O. G. Billy and Linda D. Winges. "The Effects of the Decision to Marry on the Consequences of Adolescent Pregnancy." Final Report, Seattle WA: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Office of Adolescent Programs, Department of Health and Human Services, 1984.
10. McLaughlin, Steven D.
Grady, William R.
Herting, Jerald R.
Florey, Francesca A.
The Effects of the Decision to Marry on the Consequences of Adolescent Childbearing: Education, Income and Subsequent Fertility
Final Report, Seattle WA: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, 1986
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Wantedness; Well-Being

This report extends an earlier analysis of the consequences of adolescent childbearing (McLaughlin, et. al., 1985). It examines three primary issues: (1) how family and public sector support affected the completion of education; (2) how the economic well-being of teenage mothers is affected by the timing of marriage; and (3) the effect of marriage timing on the spacing and wantedness of the third birth. Using data from the 1979-1982 NLSY, this analysis found that while less than half of all adolescent mothers who became pregnant before completing high school were able to achieve a diploma within two years after the birth, those who remarried in the household of their parents after the birth were more likely to obtain their diploma than adolescent mothers who established separate living arrangements. Secondly, almost 40% of all white adolescent mothers and over two-thirds of all black adolescent mothers were in poverty one year after the birth. When the poverty status of those who marry prior to the birth is compared to the status of those not marrying before the birth, there appears to be an economic gain associated with marriage. However after controlling for the other factors affecting economic well- being, there is no remaining effect of marriage but the effects of living arrangements remain large and significant. Finally, marital status at first birth was found to significantly affect the timing of the third birth only among black women.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Steven D., William R. Grady, Jerald R. Herting and Francesca A. Florey. "The Effects of the Decision to Marry on the Consequences of Adolescent Childbearing: Education, Income and Subsequent Fertility." Final Report, Seattle WA: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, 1986.