Search Results

Author: Hayward, Mark D.
Resulting in 30 citations.
1. Hayward, Mark D.
The Effects of the Work Role on Early Retirement
Presented: San Antonio, TX, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Health Factors; Pensions; Retirement; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The influence of the occupational work role on the early retirement transition of older men is examined. Attention is focused both on the independent effects of work characteristics and on the extent to which these characteristics account for the effects of certain traditional determinants of early retirement. Using data from the NLS of Older Men and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a model of early retirement is specified in which two labor force continuation ratios reflecting dichotomous contrasts between early and late retirement are a function of major dimensions of the occupational work role (cognitive skill, manipulative skill, social skill, and physical and environmental demands), other job attributes (union membership, wage compulsory retirement regulations, and job tenure), and certain traditional explanatory factors (health, pension coverage). The results indicate that aspects of the occupational work role are major determinants of early retirement. Moreover, the findings suggest that when the nature of work is controlled, the influence of health increases while the effects of pension coverage decline. Past research may have overestimated the actual pecuniary influence of pension benefits while underestimating the influence of health limitations.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. "The Effects of the Work Role on Early Retirement." Presented: San Antonio, TX, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, 1984.
2. Hayward, Mark D.
The Influence of Occupational Characteristics on Men's Early Retirement
Social Forces 64,4 (June 1986): 1032-1045.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578793
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Early Retirement; Occupations; Pensions; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the influence of occupational characteristics on the early retirement of men, using data derived from the 1973-1981 interview waves of the NLS of Older Men. The results indicate that there is some age- grading of occupational "attractiveness" such that occupational characteristics gain or lose their direct salience for retirement depending on the age of incumbents. In addition, when the nature of work is controlled, the influence of pension coverage declines, suggesting that past research may have overestimated the pecuniary influence of pension benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. "The Influence of Occupational Characteristics on Men's Early Retirement." Social Forces 64,4 (June 1986): 1032-1045.
3. Hayward, Mark D.
Chen, Hsinmu
Friedman, Samantha
Race Differences in Retirement Life Cycle Experiences and Labor Force Participation Rates
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Markov chain / Markov model; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Racial Differences; Retirement; Statistical Analysis; Transition Rates, Activity to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A Markov-based, multistate life-table model is used to examine how race differences in older men's labor force participation rates (LFPRs) are influenced by differences in labor force status transition rates, mortality, and population composition. Key missing information in the scientific literature is how the retirement life cycle experiences of blacks and whites determine race differences in LFPRs. In light of these results, the utility of labor force participation rates to assess race differences in retirement behavior is evaluated. Transition rates are derived from multivariate hazards models based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men. Race-specific multistate working life tables are estimated, showing the relationship between LFPRs and retirement life cycle experiences for a life table population. Simulations are used to examine changes in LFPRs and retirement life cycle experiences for a given race group produced by substituting transition rates from the other race group.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Hsinmu Chen and Samantha Friedman. "Race Differences in Retirement Life Cycle Experiences and Labor Force Participation Rates." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
4. Hayward, Mark D.
Friedman, Samantha
Chen, Hsinmu
Career Trajectories and Older Men's Retirement
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 53B,2 (March 1998): S91-S103.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/53B/2/S91.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Labor Market; Occupational Status; Retirement

The idea of a long and stable career rewarded by retirement is a fixture of the American social ethos and political economy. The paradox is that many Americans' careers do not fit this image. Here, we examined how the structure of the career, as compared to only those circumstances proximate to retirement, is important for understanding career endings. Based on labor force histories drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, we observed that the occupational roles held through the mid and late career combine additively to influence retirement and disability experiences, with different conditions of work coming into play depending on the career stage. Occupational roles in the mid career also have long-term, indirect effects, operating through the onset of health problems and the adequacy of pension benefits. Although retirement and disability are not hinged to occupational mobility per se, these career endings are sensitive to major discontinuities in the career and work role in terms of unemployment and labor force mobility. (AUTHOR)
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Samantha Friedman and Hsinmu Chen. "Career Trajectories and Older Men's Retirement." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 53B,2 (March 1998): S91-S103.
5. Hayward, Mark D.
Friedman, Samantha
Chen, Hsinmu
Race Inequities in Men's Retirement
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,1 (January 1996): S1-S10.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/51B/1/S1.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Disability; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Male Sample; Mortality; Racial Differences; Retirement

Assessed inequities of retirement access for black and white older men. Cohort-based prospective analysis of mid- and late-career labor force behavior was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (NLS). The NLS is a nationally representative sample of 5,020 men, aged 45-59 in 1966, who were followed for 17 years. A multistate life table model was used to identify how labor force experiences and mortality determined the labor force participation rates (LFPRs) and the qualities of the retirement life cycle for blacks and whites. Results showed that black men's lower LFPRs were a function of disability. Despite lower LFPRs than whites, however, blacks spent a greater portion of their lives both working and disabled, reducing the retirement period. Race differences in the retirement life cycle were also highly sensitive to mortality. Although race did not affect the risk of reentry, retirement reversals were more common among whites than blacks due to differential exposure. The combination of higher disability and mortality rates among blacks suggests that health is a key determinant of retirement inequity. It is concluded that reducing black mortality to that of whites would substantially narrow the life cycle difference, although mortality is not generally thought to be policy manipulable. (AR) (AgeLine Database, copyright 1996 AARP, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Samantha Friedman and Hsinmu Chen. "Race Inequities in Men's Retirement." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,1 (January 1996): S1-S10.
6. Hayward, Mark D.
Gorman, Bridget K.
Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early-Life Social Conditions on Men's Mortality
Demography 41,1 (February 2004): 87-108.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=12618581&db=aph
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Education; Family Income; Family Studies; Household Income; Income; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Mortality; Occupational Choice; Parental Influences; Rural/Urban Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Increasingly, social scientists are turning to childhood to gain a better understanding of the fundamental social causes of adult mortality. However, evidence of the link between childhood and the mortality of adults is fragmentary, and the intervening mechanisms remain unclear. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, our analysis shows that men's mortality is associated with an array of childhood conditions, including socioeconomic status, family living arrangements, mother's work status, rural residence, and parents' nativity. With the exception of parental nativity, socioeconomic-achievement processes in adulthood and lifestyle factors mediated these associations. Education, family income, household wealth, and occupation mediated the influence of socioeconomic status in childhood. Adult lifestyle factors, particularly body mass, mediated the effects of family living arrangements in childhood, mother's work status, and rural residence. Our findings bring into sharp focus the idea that economic and educational policies that are targeted at children's well-being are implicitly health policies with effects that reach far into the adult life course. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. and Bridget K. Gorman. "Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early-Life Social Conditions on Men's Mortality." Demography 41,1 (February 2004): 87-108.
7. Hayward, Mark D.
Gorman, Bridget K.
Robinson, Kristen Noelle
Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early Life Social Conditions on Men's Mortality
Working Paper 01-04, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, March 2001.
Also: http://www.pop.psu.edu/general/pubs/working_papers/psu-pri/wp0104.pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Children; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mortality; Rural/Urban Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was also presented at Population Association of America Annual Meetings, Washington, DC 2001.

Our study contributes to understanding the basic associations between childhood circumstances and adult health in several ways. First, we take advantage of a nationally representative survey of American men aged 45-59 years in 1966 -- the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (NLS). These men are followed for a 24-year period, providing us with biographical information on socioeconomic achievement processes, lifestyle behaviors, and the timing and primary cause of death. Second, the survey contains measures of childhood circumstances that encompass theoretically important social origins of adult mortality -- the family of origin's socioeconomic circumstances, family status, residence in rural and urban communities, and nativity of both the respondent and his parents. The richness of information about both childhood and adulthood provides a sound base to examine the nature of the associations between childhood circumstances, adult circumstances, and adult mortality. To this end, we examine whether childhood circumstances have long-term associations with adult mortality, net of adult socioeconomic achievement and lifestyle. We also investigate the possible over-estimation of effects of adult socioeconomic factors in mortality research for which information on childhood circumstances was not available.

Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Bridget K. Gorman and Kristen Noelle Robinson. "Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early Life Social Conditions on Men's Mortality." Working Paper 01-04, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, March 2001.
8. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Work and Retirement Among a Cohort of Older Men in the United States, 1966-1983
Demography 27,3 (August 1990): 337-356.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a4031v28172234n7/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Disabled Workers; Labor Force Participation; Mobility; Modeling; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement; Simultaneity; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Attachment; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multivariate increment-decrement working life tables are estimated for a cohort of older men in the United States for the period 1966-1983. The approach taken allows multiple processes to be simultaneously incorporated into a single model, resulting in a more realistic portrayal of a cohort's labor force behavior. In addition, because the life table model is developed from multivariate hazard equations, we identify the net effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the potentially complex process by which the labor force career is ended. In contrast to the assumed homogeneity of previous working life table analyses, the present study shows marked differences in labor force mobility, and working the nonworking life expectancy according to occupation, class of worker, education, race, and marital status. Policy and substantive implications of these patterns are briefly discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. and William R. Grady. "Work and Retirement Among a Cohort of Older Men in the United States, 1966-1983." Demography 27,3 (August 1990): 337-356.
9. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Occupational Consequences for Men's Early Retirement
report, Seattle WA: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Early Retirement; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Tenure; Occupations; Retirement

This study examines the consequences of the occupational work context for men's early retirement. The project consists of three major stages. The first stage focuses on the relationship between the nature of work in the occupation and the occupationally-based opportunity structure for older men's labor force participation. The intent is to identify those features of the occupational context that help define older men's opportunity structure. In the second stage of the project, the analysis focuses on the direct contributions of the occupational context to early retirement relative to traditional retirement determinants. The results indicate that while occupational characteristics are not the dominant force directly influencing early retirement, there is some age-grading of occupational effects such that both task and non-task occupational characteristics gain or lose their direct salience for retirement depending on the age of incumbents. Finally, in the third stage of the study, the analyses address whether the impact of traditional retirement determinants is shaped by the nature of the work. The analyses indicate that the occupation serves to structure the influence of several key determinants of early retirement--particularly the effects of health status and job tenure. In general, the results of this study substantiate the importance of considering the occupational context in analyses of men's early retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., William R. Grady and Melissa A. Hardy. "Occupational Consequences for Men's Early Retirement." report, Seattle WA: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, 1985.
10. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Sommers, David Gerard
Occupational Influences on Retirement, Disability and Death
Demography 26,3 (August 1989): 393-409.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/92n1655360080128/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines the alternative mechanisms by which occupations influence the nature and timing of older men's labor force withdrawal. In particular, the authors assess the extent to which occupational factors operate directly and indirectly on exiting events and whether occupations augment or constrain traditional determinants of labor force participation. Based on a discrete-time hazards modeling approach, the results substantiate that the occupational task activities, substantive complexity and physical demands, are key elements of the work environment that are evaluated against the set of non-work alternatives. In the case of retirement, these aspects of occupational attractiveness function as a dominant and direct force in retirement decision-making. With regard to disability, the occupational attribute of substantive complexity operates as an indirect advantage (through higher wage rates) by reducing the risk of a disability exit. Indicators of career continuity also determine the rate of retirement among older workers. Finally, results suggest that financial characteristics and health problems are central to the distribution of older workers across the alternative destination statuses of retirement, disability and death.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., William R. Grady, Melissa A. Hardy and David Gerard Sommers. "Occupational Influences on Retirement, Disability and Death." Demography 26,3 (August 1989): 393-409.
11. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Sommers, David Gerard
Retirement, Disability and Death Among Older Men in the U.S.: The Influence of Occupation
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1987
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Labor Force Participation; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

This research examines the alternative mechanisms by which occupations influence the nature and timing of older men's labor force withdrawal. In particular, this research assesses the extent to which occupational factors operate directly and indirectly on exiting events and whether occupations augment or constrain traditional determinants of labor force participation. Based on a discrete-time hazards modeling approach, the results substantiate that the occupational task activities, substantive complexity and physical demands, are key elements of the work environment that are evaluated against the set of non-work alternatives. In the case of retirement, these aspects of occupational attractiveness function as a dominant and direct force in the retirement decision- making calculus. With regard to disability, these factors operate directly by defining vocational opportunities. Other occupational attributes such as mandatory retirement regulations and measures of career continuity also are key and direct determinants of the retirement decision.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., William R. Grady, Melissa A. Hardy and David Gerard Sommers. "Retirement, Disability and Death Among Older Men in the U.S.: The Influence of Occupation." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1987.
12. Hayward, Mark D.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Early Retirement Processes Among Older Men: Occupational Differences
Research on Aging 7,4 (December 1985): 491-515.
Also: http://roa.sagepub.com/content/7/4/491.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Job Requirements; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the influence of the occupational context on early retirement, focusing on the ways in which the nature of work constrains early retirement processes. Using data from the NLS Older Men and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a model of early retirement is estimated within occupational job families where a job family is a cluster of occupations grouped according to major task dimensions. The findings indicate that the effects of certain traditional determinants of early retirement vary substantially across occupations, demonstrating that the labor force opportunities of older men are defined within an occupational context, and that the impact of individual and job characteristics relevant to the early retirement decision are shaped by the nature of work.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. and Melissa A. Hardy. "Early Retirement Processes Among Older Men: Occupational Differences." Research on Aging 7,4 (December 1985): 491-515.
13. Hayward, Mark D.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Grady, William R.
Career Relinquishment Patterns Among Older Men in the United States
Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, 1986
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the influence of the occupational context and other sociodemographic characteristics on men's rates of retirement, disability, and death in the U.S. The intent is to identify career relinquishment processes for major subgroups in the labor market to more firmly ground current theory building attempts. Using a hazards model approach, the authors estimate a dynamic model of career relinquishment and identify the effects of occupations and sociodemographic factors on the three events marking the termination of the labor force career. Estimates from the hazards models were used to construct multi-decrement working life tables. The results allow quantification of, for a cohort of older men, the implications of the occupational context and sociodemographic factors in terms of the relative frequency of retirement, disability, and death, the pace of labor force withdrawal, and the number of years workers of a given age can anticipate being in the labor force. To provide substantive direction for future research, possible mechanisms which may explain the observed subgroup differences in withdrawal patterns are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Melissa A. Hardy and William R. Grady. "Career Relinquishment Patterns Among Older Men in the United States." Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, 1986.
14. Hayward, Mark D.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Grady, William R.
Labor Force Withdrawal Patterns Among Older Men in the United States
Social Science Quarterly 70,2 (June 1989): 425-448
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Disabled Workers; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Melissa A. Hardy and William R. Grady. "Labor Force Withdrawal Patterns Among Older Men in the United States." Social Science Quarterly 70,2 (June 1989): 425-448.
15. Hayward, Mark D.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Liu, Mei-Chun
Work After Retirement: The Experiences of Older Men in the United States
Social Science Research 23,1 (March 1994): 82-107.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X84710040
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Retirees; Retirement; Work Reentry

The permeability of the work/retirement boundary is examined by investigating the labor force reentry process among a group of male retirees. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, hazards models are estimated to identify the determinants of postretirement work. Reentry is distinguished according to part-time and full-time work to capture potentially important sources of diversity. The results show that reentry occurs quickly--typically within the first year or two after a labor force exit. Despite career interruption, several work career factors significantly alter the overall chances of reentry. Comparing reentry determinants of full-time versus part-time work suggests that postretirement, part-time work is a distinct state referencing partial retirement; it is not a middle ground on a continuum between career work and complete retirement. In addition, characteristics positively linked to an initial early retirement negatively affect reentry into full-time (although not part-time) work. The determinants governing moves into and out of the labor force, and into and out of partial retirement are quite different. Overall, the results demonstrate that the transition from work to retirement is neither uniform nor irreversible.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Melissa A. Hardy and Mei-Chun Liu. "Work After Retirement: The Experiences of Older Men in the United States." Social Science Research 23,1 (March 1994): 82-107.
16. Hayward, Mark D.
Lichter, Daniel T.
A Life Cycle Model of Labor Force Inequality: Extending Clogg's Life Table Approach
Sociological Methods and Research 26,4 (May 1998): 487-510.
Also: http://smr.sagepub.com/content/26/4/487.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Education; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Markov chain / Markov model; Statistical Analysis; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Develops explicit life-cycle measures of inequality that summarize the divergent stochastic processes defining group differences in labor force behavior, focusing on educational differences in individuals' work & retirement experiences over the latter part of the career cycle. The analytic approach is a Markov-based multistate life-table, directly extending Clifford C. Clogg's (1979) life-table model of labor force inequality. Analyses are based on 1966-1983 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (initial N = 5,020 men, ages 45-59). The approach demonstrates how both prevalence measures of inequality and measures of life-cycle inequality are generated by the underlying stochastic processes. Comparisons of the life-cycle and prevalence measures illustrate the potentially divergent pictures of labor force inequality conveyed by the alternative measures. 5 Tables, 2 Figures, 20 References. Adapted from the source document
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D. and Daniel T. Lichter. "A Life Cycle Model of Labor Force Inequality: Extending Clogg's Life Table Approach." Sociological Methods and Research 26,4 (May 1998): 487-510.
17. Hayward, Mark D.
McLaughlin, Diane K.
Handcock, Mark S.
A Distributional Approach to Examining Differences in Life Expectancy
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Life Cycle Research; Modeling; Mortality; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Population heterogeneity in mortality is typically illustrated using group-specific life tables or covariate effects in statistical models. These approaches ignore group differences in the distributions of mortality risks. Here, we use methods of interdistributional comparisons to examine group differences in the distributions of life chances. Using data from the NLS-Older Men Survey, we derive an empirically determined distribution of life expectancy for middle-aged men. The distribution has a long frail tail with the curve becoming convex after life expectancy reaches the mode. This distribution is treated as a baseline distribution of population heterogeneity in mortality We compare other distributions derived from simulations to assess how the effects of improving individuals' life circumstances would alter the distribution of life chances in the population.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Diane K. McLaughlin and Mark S. Handcock. "A Distributional Approach to Examining Differences in Life Expectancy." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
18. Hayward, Mark D.
McLaughlin, Diane K.
Pienta, Amy M.
Does Money Always Buy Health? The SES Gradient Across Geographic Context
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Education; Geographical Variation; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Rural/Urban Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This analysis assesses geographic differences in older men's mortality. Two issues are considered. First, to what extent do SES differences across urban and rural contexts account for the geographic gap in morality'? Second is the SES gradient equally pervasive across geographic contexts'? In examining these issues, measures of SES are created to evaluate both proximal and distal effects as well as the multifaceted effects arising from education, income, and wealth. Lifestyle mechanisms are also considered. Employing the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, hazard models are estimated of both overall and cause-specific mortality. Our findings document a persistent contextual gap in mortality with rural men having lower mortality. The gap is exacerbated, not diminished, when SES characteristics are controlled. The SES gradient across rural/urban contexts is highly sensitive to whether proximal or distal measures of SES are modeled.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Diane K. McLaughlin and Amy M. Pienta. "Does Money Always Buy Health? The SES Gradient Across Geographic Context." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
19. Hayward, Mark D.
Pienta, Amy M.
McLaughlin, Diane K.
Inequality in Men's Mortality: The Socioeconomic Status Gradient and Geographic Context
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38,4 (December 1997): 313-330.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2955428
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Epidemiology; Health Care; Life Cycle Research; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Rural Areas; Rural/Urban Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Lower mortality for older rural Americans, compared to urban residents, runs counter to rural-urban disparities in health care services and residents' socioeconomic resources. This paradox calls into question the ways in which community conditions influence mortality and contextualized the relationship between individuals' socioeconomic status and health. Drawing on 24 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, we observe that rural older men's life expectancy advantages occur even after controlling for residential differences in social class and lifestyle factors. Our results also show that rural advantages in mortality coincide with a more equitable distribution of life chances across the social classes. The association between social class and mortality is strongest among urban men, arising from socioeconomic conditions throughout the life cycle.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Amy M. Pienta and Diane K. McLaughlin. "Inequality in Men's Mortality: The Socioeconomic Status Gradient and Geographic Context." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38,4 (December 1997): 313-330.
20. Heron, Melonie
Kozimor-King, Michele Lee
Hayward, Mark D.
The Effects of Race on Men's Mid- and Late-Career Occupational Mobility
Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Career Patterns; Data Quality/Consistency; Education; Geographical Variation; Job Status; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Racial Differences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Examines the mid- & late-career mobility experiences for black & white men ages 45-64, drawing on data derived from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, to assess the extent to which differences in achievement processes persist into mid- & late career, & to examine whether blacks & whites differ in terms of age vulnerability of careers. Contrary to these hypotheses, controlling for individual & job characteristics, race is significant only for upward within-employer mobility. Moreover, everything else being equal, blacks demonstrate high rates of upward mobility. Other factors, e.g., job sector, wealth, education, & geographical location, were more important than race for between-employer moves & within-employer downward mobility. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Heron, Melonie, Michele Lee Kozimor-King and Mark D. Hayward. "The Effects of Race on Men's Mid- and Late-Career Occupational Mobility." Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996.
21. Hudis, Paula M.
Statham, Anne
Hayward, Mark D.
A Longitudinal Model of Sex-Role Attitudes, Labor Force Participation and Childbearing
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Fertility; Husbands, Influence; Sex Roles

This study analyzes the over time interrelationships among sex role attitudes, women's labor force participation, and fertility. Sex-role attitudes and employment have a positive effect on the work decision. However, prior sex-role orientations have no significant subsequent influence on childbearing. Since there is a correlation between labor force participation and fertility, an indirect relationship between sex-role attitudes and fertility may be inferred. The husband's perception concerning the work decision is a significant factor which influences childbearing.
Bibliography Citation
Hudis, Paula M., Anne Statham and Mark D. Hayward. "A Longitudinal Model of Sex-Role Attitudes, Labor Force Participation and Childbearing." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981.
22. Lichter, Daniel T.
Anderson, Robert N.
Hayward, Mark D.
Marriage Markets and Marital Choice
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Assortative Mating; Census of Population; Marriage; Racial Studies; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wages, Reservation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the relationship between marriage market conditions and marital choice (i.e., assortative mating). The guiding hypothesis is that shortages of attractive mates not only lower the probability of marriage, but in the event of marriage, also alter never-married women's "reservation-quality spouse" (i.e., akin to reservation wage in job search theory). To the extent that marital pros never-married women are more likely to: (1) marry men with characteristics to their own as they expand the pool of eligible mates; and (2) marry socioeconomic status. We test this hypothesis using data from the National Survey of Youth. Our discrete-time competing risk hazards models pit micro explanations that emphasize women's personal resources against structural explanations that emphasize local marriage market constraints in the mate selection process.
Bibliography Citation
Lichter, Daniel T., Robert N. Anderson and Mark D. Hayward. "Marriage Markets and Marital Choice." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
23. Lichter, Daniel T.
Anderson, Robert N.
Hayward, Mark D.
Marriage Markets and Marital Choice
Journal of Family Issues 16,4 (July 1995): 412-431.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/16/4/412.refs
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Assortative Mating; Census of Population; Demography; Family Characteristics; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Racial Studies; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wages, Reservation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the relationship between marriage market conditions and marital choice (i.e., assortative mating). The guiding hypothesis is that shortages of attractive mates not only lower the probability of marriage, but in the event of marriage, also alter never-married women's "reservation-quality spouse" (i.e., akin to reservation wage in job search theory). To the extent that marital pros never-married women are more likely to: (1) marry men with characteristics to their own as they expand the pool of eligible mates; and (2) marry socioeconomic status. We test this hypothesis using data from the National Survey of Youth. Our discrete-time competing risk hazards models pit micro explanations that emphasize women's personal resources against structural explanations that emphasize local marriage market constraints in the mate selection process.
Bibliography Citation
Lichter, Daniel T., Robert N. Anderson and Mark D. Hayward. "Marriage Markets and Marital Choice." Journal of Family Issues 16,4 (July 1995): 412-431.
24. Moore, David Eugene
Hayward, Mark D.
Mortality Among a Cohort of Older Men
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1988
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Job; Mortality; Occupational Choice; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper presents findings from an analysis of occupational differentials in mortality among a cohort of older men ages 55 years and older in the United States for the period 1966-1983. The dynamics which characterize socioeconomic differentials in mortality are analyzed by tracking the changes in status that occur throughout the mature worker's occupational career. We find that the mortality of current or last occupation differs from that of the longest occupation, controlling for education, income, health status, and other factors. These differences are consistent with the notion that individuals in physically demanding or debilitating occupations attempt to avoid the health risks associated with these jobs by changing occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, David Eugene and Mark D. Hayward. "Mortality Among a Cohort of Older Men." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1988.
25. Moore, David Eugene
Hayward, Mark D.
Occupational Careers and Mortality of Elderly Men
Demography 27,1 (February 1990): 31-53.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/x1j16803835p7539/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Occupational; Mortality; Occupations; Work Histories; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study examined occupational differentials in mortality among a cohort of men aged 55 and older in the US for the period 1966-1983. Using data from the NLS of Older Men, event histories were constructed for 3,080 respondents who reached the exact age of 55. The dynamics that characterize the socioeconomic differentials in mortality were examined by evaluating the differential effects of occupation over the career cycle. The maximum likelihood estimates of hazard-model parameters showed that the mortality of current or last occupation differed substantially from that of longest occupation, controlling for education, income, health status, and other sociodemographic factors. The rate of mortality was reduced by the substantive complexity of the longest occupation, while social skills and physical and environmental demands of the latest occupation lowered mortality. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Moore, David Eugene and Mark D. Hayward. "Occupational Careers and Mortality of Elderly Men." Demography 27,1 (February 1990): 31-53.
26. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Hummer, Robert A.
Hayward, Mark D.
Educational Pathways and the Smoking and Binge Drinking Behavior of U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; College Education; College Enrollment; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a life course perspective, we investigate whether and why different educational pathways are associated with smoking and binge drinking among US young adults. This is important because educational heterogeneity is infrequently studied in the education-health literature. We use 14 waves (1997-2011) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n=7,359). Young adults who delayed college enrollment or who did not attain their bachelor's degree within 4 years were more likely to smoke whereas young adults who delayed college enrollment were less likely to binge drink than young adults who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Marital and occupational statuses in young adulthood explained a portion of the relationships between educational pathways and health behavior. These findings strongly suggest that heterogeneity in educational pathways is important for understanding young adult health behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Robert A. Hummer and Mark D. Hayward. "Educational Pathways and the Smoking and Binge Drinking Behavior of U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
27. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Hummer, Robert A.
Hayward, Mark D.
Heterogeneity in Educational Pathways and the Health Behavior of U.S. Young Adults
Population Research and Policy Review 37,3 (June 2018): 343-366.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-018-9463-7
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Heterogeneity; Life Course; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An increasing number of U.S. adults are progressing through college in decidedly more complex ways. Little is known, however, about how this growing heterogeneity may be associated with the health behaviors and ultimately health of young adults. Using a life course perspective, we investigate whether and why different educational pathways--that is, variation in when people attend and complete school--are associated with daily smoking and binge drinking among U.S. young adults. We use 14 waves (1997-2011) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (n = 7359) that enable us to identify the most common educational pathways, as well as their association with young adult health behaviors. Bachelor's degree recipients who enrolled immediately after high school but did not attain their degree within 4 years were more likely to smoke daily in early adulthood (i.e., ages 26-32) than those who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Conversely, bachelor's degree recipients who delayed college enrollment were less likely to binge drink in early adulthood than individuals who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Marital status and household income in young adulthood accounted for some of the relationships between educational pathways and health behavior. These findings highlight the complexity of education's relationship to health behavior and strongly suggest that heterogeneity in educational pathways should be explicitly examined in population health research.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Robert A. Hummer and Mark D. Hayward. "Heterogeneity in Educational Pathways and the Health Behavior of U.S. Young Adults." Population Research and Policy Review 37,3 (June 2018): 343-366.
28. Warner, David F.
Hayward, Mark D.
A Life Course Model of Race Disparities in Men's Mortality: The Role of Childhood Social Conditions
Working Paper, Population Research Center and Department of Sociology, The Pennsylvania State University, August 2003.
Also: http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/course/occupational_envHealth/bamick/home/TPSH%20Seminar%20Series%20Materials/Hayward%20December%202003/warner&hayward_jhsbsubmission.pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Childhood; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drawing on the life course perspective, we examine the childhood social and economic origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we use nested hazard models to evaluate the mechanisms by which childhood and adult conditions differentiate the life chances of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that childhood (social) conditions explain a substantial part of the race gap in men's mortality, operating indirectly through adult socioeconomic achievement. Lifestyle factors do not explain the race gap in men's all-cause mortality, although childhood conditions predict adult lifestyle behaviors. While omitting childhood conditions in modeling race disparities in mortality does not substantially alter the contributions of adult socioeconomic conditions, ignoring the role of childhood conditions is problematic for public policy given our results.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, David F. and Mark D. Hayward. "A Life Course Model of Race Disparities in Men's Mortality: The Role of Childhood Social Conditions." Working Paper, Population Research Center and Department of Sociology, The Pennsylvania State University, August 2003.
29. Warner, David F.
Hayward, Mark D.
Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 47,3 (September 2006): 209-226.
Also: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/47/3/209.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Life Course; Mortality; Occupational Status; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966–1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life socioeconomic conditions, particularly parental occupation and family structure, explain part of the race gap in mortality. Black men's higher rates of death are associated with lower socioeconomic standing in early life and living in homes lacking both biological parents. However, these effects operate indirectly through adult socioeconomic achievement processes, as education, family income, wealth, and occupational complexity statistically account for the race gap in men's mortality. Our findings suggest that policy interventions to eliminate race disparities in mortality and health should address both childhood and adult socioeconomic conditions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Warner, David F. and Mark D. Hayward. "Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 47,3 (September 2006): 209-226.
30. Warner, David F.
Hayward, Mark D.
Racial Disparities in Men's Mortality: The Role of Childhood Social Conditions in a Process of Cumulative Disadvantage
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Health Care; Family Environment; Family History; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Life Cycle Research; Male Sample; Mortality; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Black American men live fewer years than whites and, moreover, the onset of chronic illness occurs earlier in the life cycle for Blacks. This results in Blacks living more years with chronic health problems and a higher prevalence of functional disability beginning in mid-life. Recent research suggests that these different health experiences result from socioeconomic disparities, rather than behavioral effects or discrimination, per se. Applying a life course perspective, we use the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990) to investigate the childhood origins of these divergent health trajectories. We use discrete-time hazard models to estimate racial differences in men's risk of mortality as a function of childhood living arrangements and family of origin socioeconomic status, net of adult socioeconomic indicators, marriage and health related behaviors. The findings suggest that childhood socioeconomic conditions explain a substantial part of the race gap in adult men's mortality, consistent with a process of cumulative disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, David F. and Mark D. Hayward. "Racial Disparities in Men's Mortality: The Role of Childhood Social Conditions in a Process of Cumulative Disadvantage." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.