Search Results

Author: Kaestner, Robert
Resulting in 34 citations.
1. Grossman, Michael
Kaestner, Robert
Markowitz, Sara
Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior
NBER Working Paper No. 9216, National Bureau of Economic Research, September 2002.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w9216
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use; Teenagers

Numerous studies have documented a strong correlation between substance use and teen sexual behavior, and this empirical relationship has given rise to a widespread belief that substance use causes teens to engage in risky sex. This causal link is often used by advocates to justify policies targeted at reducing substance use. Here, we argue that previous research has not produced sufficient evidence to substantiate a causal relationship between substance use and teen sexual behavior. Accordingly, we attempt to estimate causal effects using two complementary research approaches. Our findings suggest that substance use is not causally related to teen sexual behavior, although we cannot definitely rule out that possibility.
Bibliography Citation
Grossman, Michael, Robert Kaestner and Sara Markowitz. "Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior." NBER Working Paper No. 9216, National Bureau of Economic Research, September 2002.
2. Grossman, Michael
Kaestner, Robert
Markowitz, Sara
Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior
Review of Economics of the Household 2, 4 (2004): 413-441.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h3841721727h2tp5/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Numerous studies have documented a strong correlation between substance use and teen sexual behavior, and this empirical relationship has given rise to a widespread belief that substance use causes teens to engage in risky sex. This causal link is often used by advocates to justify policies targeted at reducing substance use. Here, we argue that previous research has not produced sufficient evidence to substantiate a causal relationship between substance use and teen sexual behavior. Accordingly, we attempt to estimate causal effects using two complementary research approaches. Our findings suggest that substance use is not causally related to teen sexual behavior, although we cannot definitively rule out that possibility.
Bibliography Citation
Grossman, Michael, Robert Kaestner and Sara Markowitz. "Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior." Review of Economics of the Household 2, 4 (2004): 413-441.
3. Joyce, Theodore J.
Kaestner, Robert
Korenman, Sanders D.
On the Validity of Retrospective Assessments of Pregnancy Intention
NBER Working Paper, Baruch College, New York, NY and National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics and Finance, Baruch College, CUNY
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Childbearing; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Fertility; Methods/Methodology; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Information on pregnancy intention is often gathered retrospectively (after the birth of the child). This paper investigated whether retrospective assessment of pregnancy intention leads to biased estimates of the consequences or extent of unintended fertility. Comparison is made between pregnancy intentions ascertained during pregnancy or after birth in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Such comparisons are found to be biased by selective recognition or acknowledgement or pregnancy. The longitudinal feature of the data is used to determine actual pregnancy status at interview, which in turn is used as an instrumental variable for prospective (versus retrospective) reporting of pregnancy intention. After correction for selective pregnancy recognition, there is no evidence that retrospective assessment of pregnancy intention produces misleading estimates of either the number of the consequences of unintended births. This finding is supported by additional analysis of a small subsample for which pregnancy intention information was collected both during pregnancy and after delivery.
Bibliography Citation
Joyce, Theodore J., Robert Kaestner and Sanders D. Korenman. "On the Validity of Retrospective Assessments of Pregnancy Intention." NBER Working Paper, Baruch College, New York, NY and National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2000.
4. Joyce, Theodore J.
Kaestner, Robert
Korenman, Sanders D.
On the Validity of Retrospective Assessments of Pregnancy Intention
Demography 39,1 (February 2002): 199-213.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v039/39.1joyce.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Childbearing; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Fertility; Infants; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Information on pregnancy intention is often gathered retrospectively (after the birth of a child). This article investigates whether the retrospective assessment of pregnancy intention leads to biased estimates of the extent or consequences of unintended fertility. Comparisons are made between pregnancy intentions ascertained during pregnancy and after birth using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. To address the bias caused by selective recognition or acknowledgment of pregnancy, we used the longitudinal feature of the data to determine actual pregnancy status at the time of interviews, which, in turn, was used as an instrumental variable for the retrospective (versus prospective) reporting of pregnancy intention. After correction for selective pregnancy recognition, we found no evidence that the retrospective assessment of pregnancy intention produces misleading estimates of either the number or the consequences of unintended births. This finding is supported by additional analyses of a small subsample of women for whom information on pregnancy intention was collected both during pregnancy and after birth.
Bibliography Citation
Joyce, Theodore J., Robert Kaestner and Sanders D. Korenman. "On the Validity of Retrospective Assessments of Pregnancy Intention." Demography 39,1 (February 2002): 199-213.
5. Joyce, Theodore J.
Kaestner, Robert
Korenman, Sanders D.
Stability of Pregnancy Intentions and Pregnancy-Related Maternal Behaviors
Maternal and Child Health Journal 4,3 (September 2000): 171-178.
Also: http://www-us.ebsco.com/online/direct.asp?ArticleID=K1FLUG8TF79MGQBYVFV2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAMA: Journals of the American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Fertility; Infants; Marital Status; Mothers, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: Our objectives were to characterize the stability of pregnancy intention and to examine whether stability is associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation, smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Methods: We use a sample of women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) for whom information on pregnancy intention was collected both during pregnancy and after delivery. In bivariate analyses we compare outcomes and characteristics of women whose pregnancy intention changed between the prenatal and postpartum periods. With multivariate methods, we analyze the correlates of switching pregnancy intention as well as the association between switching and maternal behaviors. Results: Women whose pregnancy intention changes between the two assessments are similar in marital status and socioeconomic background to those who report both during pregnancy and after delivery that the pregnancy is unintended. Disagreement during pregnancy between the parents' pregnancy intentions is the most important predictor of instability in the mother's pregnancy intention. Effects of unintended pregnancy on the timing of initiation of prenatal care, smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding based on reports after delivery are smaller than those based on reports during pregnancy, although differences are not statistically significant. Adverse effects of unintended pregnancy are greater when pregnancies reported by the mother to be unintended at either assessment are combined into a single category for unintended pregnancy. Conclusion: Unstable pregnancy intention may be a marker for adverse maternal behaviors related to infant health.
Bibliography Citation
Joyce, Theodore J., Robert Kaestner and Sanders D. Korenman. "Stability of Pregnancy Intentions and Pregnancy-Related Maternal Behaviors." Maternal and Child Health Journal 4,3 (September 2000): 171-178.
6. Joyce, Theodore J.
Kaestner, Robert
Korenman, Sanders D.
The Effect of Pregnancy Intention on Child Development
Demography 37,1 (February 2000): 83-94.
Also: https://zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/faculty/profiles/papers/joyce1.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Health; Fertility; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Siblings; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate the empirical link between unintended pregnancy and child health and development. An important contribution of our study is the use of information on siblings to control for unmeasured factors that may confound estimates of the effect of pregnancy intentions on infant and child outcomes. Results from our study indicate that unwanted pregnancy is associated with prenatal and postpartum maternal behaviors that adversely affect infant and child health, but that unwanted pregnancy has little association with birth weight and child cognitive outcomes. Estimates of the association between unwanted pregnancy and maternal behaviors were greatly reduced after controls for unmeasured family background were included in the model. Our results also indicate that there are no significant differences in maternal behaviors or child outcomes between mistimed and wanted pregnancies.
Bibliography Citation
Joyce, Theodore J., Robert Kaestner and Sanders D. Korenman. "The Effect of Pregnancy Intention on Child Development." Demography 37,1 (February 2000): 83-94.
7. Kaestner, Robert
A Note on the Effect of Minimum Drinking Age Laws on Youth Alcohol Consumption
Contemporary Economic Policy 18,3 (July 2000): 315-325.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7287.2000.tb00028.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Gender Differences; Youth Problems

This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate the effect of minimum drinking age laws (MDALs) on youth alcohol consumption. Two considerations motivated the analysis. First, results from previous studies provide conflicting evidence of the effect of MDALs on alcohol consumption. Second, all previous studies of the effects of MDALs on alcohol consumption have failed to control for unmeasured time-varying state effects. This study addresses this latter issue by using a difference-in-differences-in-differences (DDD) methodology. The results of this study were mixed. On the one hand, a preponderance of estimates of the effect of MDALs on alcohol consumption are negative, although many are not significantly different from zero. On the other hand, estimates of the effect of MDALs differ by gender and exhibit some variation across samples and methods. In the end, I believe the estimates presented in this article are not sufficient to draw a definitive conclusion and suggest the need for additional research. (JEL 118, 112)
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "A Note on the Effect of Minimum Drinking Age Laws on Youth Alcohol Consumption." Contemporary Economic Policy 18,3 (July 2000): 315-325.
8. Kaestner, Robert
Adolescent Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Correlates of Adult Health
NBER Working Paper 14924, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2009.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14924
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Childhood; Cognitive Ability; Family Environment; Family Income; Family Structure; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Environment; Self-Esteem; Well-Being

While it is widely acknowledged that the family and childhood environments affect adult well being, why they matter is still an area of significant debate. Previous research concerned with this issue has focused on the influence of family income, family structure, and cognitive ability. Much of this research has focused on economic and social outcomes. Notably, the influence of childhood environments on adult health has not received as much attention as other outcomes, and when health has been the focus, interest has been mainly on childhood health. Here, I present a descriptive analysis of the associations between cognitive and non-cognitive traits measured at the end of childhood (age 14) and mental and physical health at age 41. Results suggest that, on average, adolescent cognitive ability and self esteem have a significant association with health at age 41. Other non-cognitive factors such as locus of control and adolescent substance use do not have significant associations with adult health. Net of adolescent influences, completed education has a significant association with adult health.

The data for my analysis is drawn from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79).

Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "Adolescent Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Correlates of Adult Health." NBER Working Paper 14924, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2009.
9. Kaestner, Robert
Are Brothers Really Better? Sibling Sex Composition and Educational Achievement Revisited
Journal of Human Resources 32,2 (Spring 1997): 250-284.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146215
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Brothers; Educational Attainment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Siblings

In this paper, I examine the relationship between sibling sex composition and educational achievement. First, I replicate the study of Butcher and Case (1994) using data on a more recent birth cohort. Contrary to the findings of that study, I find basically no effect of sibling sex composition on the educational attainment of white males or females, although among black adults, those who grew up with a sister, or who had relatively more sisters, had greater levels of educational attainment than black adults with no or fewer sisters. Second, I broaden the analysis by examining the educational outcomes of children and teenagers. This extension is important because it provides an additional opportunity to test for sibling sex composition effects, and it helps differentiate between potential causes of a sibling sex composition effect. The results obtained from the analysis of child and teen outcomes suggest that sibling sex composition had little effect on educational achievement. The only group to be affected was black teens between the ages of 15 and 18. Those who grew up with sisters had higher educational achievement levels than those who grew up with brothers. (Copyright Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System 1997) Full-text available on-line: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W5521
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "Are Brothers Really Better? Sibling Sex Composition and Educational Achievement Revisited." Journal of Human Resources 32,2 (Spring 1997): 250-284.
10. Kaestner, Robert
Are Brothers Really Better? Sibling Sex Composition and Educational Achievement Revisited
NBER Working Paper No. 5521, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 1996.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W5521
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Black Youth; Educational Attainment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Psychological Effects; Racial Differences; Siblings

In this paper, I examine the relationship between sibling sex composition and educational achievement. First, I replicate the study of Butcher and Case (1994) using data on a more recent birth cohort Contrary to the findings of that study, I find basically no effect of sibling sex composition on the educational attainment of white males or females, although among black adults, those who grew up with a sister, or who had relatively more sisters, had greater levels of educational attainment than persons with no or fewer sisters. Second, I broaden the analysis by examining the educational outcomes of children and teenagers. This extension is important because it provides an additional opportunity to test for sibling sex composition effects, and it helps differentiate between potential causes of a sibling sex composition effect. The results obtained from the analysis of child and teen outcomes suggest that sibling sex composition had little effect on educational achievement. The only group to be affected was black teens between the ages of 15 and 18. Those who grew up with sisters had higher educational achievement levels than those who grew up with brothers. Full-text available on-line: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W5521
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "Are Brothers Really Better? Sibling Sex Composition and Educational Achievement Revisited." NBER Working Paper No. 5521, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 1996.
11. Kaestner, Robert
Does Drug Use Cause Poverty?
NBER Working Paper No. 6406, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 1998.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W6406
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Poverty

In this study, I examine the effect of drug use on poverty. The main objective of the paper is to provide descriptive empirical information about the relationship between drug use and poverty, and to explore, in a preliminary fashion, the question of whether drug use causes poverty. Toward this end, I present the results of both descriptive and multivariate analyses of the relationship between drug use and poverty for two national samples of young adults. One sample is drawn from the National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA), and the other from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The results of the analysis indicate that for both samples, drug use is associated with greater poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "Does Drug Use Cause Poverty?" NBER Working Paper No. 6406, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 1998.
12. Kaestner, Robert
Effects of Cocaine and Marijuana Use on Marriage and Marital Stability
NBER Working Paper No. 5038, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 1995.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W5038
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Drug Use; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Marriage; Racial Differences; Substance Use

This paper examines the relationship between illicit drug use and marital status. The paper starts with an overview of the relevant economic theory for this problem. Then, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experiences, the paper presents both cross sectional and longitudinal estimates of the effect of marijuana and cocaine use on marital status, time until first marriage, and duration of first marriage. The results indicate that in general, drug users are more likely to be unmarried due to a delay in the age at first marriage, and shorter marriage durations. The findings are not uniform, however, and differ according to the gender, race and age of the sample. (COPYRIGHT: This record is part of the Abstracts of Working Papers in Economics (AWPE) Database, copyright (c) 1995 Cambridge University Press.) Full-text available on-line: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W5038
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "Effects of Cocaine and Marijuana Use on Marriage and Marital Stability." NBER Working Paper No. 5038, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 1995.
13. Kaestner, Robert
New Estimates of the Effect of Marijuana and Cocaine Use on Wages
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47,3 (April 1994): 454-470.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524977
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Heterogeneity; Illegal Activities; Wage Effects

Using the 1984 and 1988 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study provides an update of several previous cross-sectional estimates of the effect of illicit drug use on wages, as well as the first longitudinal estimates of that effect. The cross-sectional results, which are generally consistent with the surprising findings of previous research, suggest that illicit drug use has a large, positive effect on wages. The longitudinal estimates, which control for unobserved heterogeneity in the sample, are mixed: among men, the estimated wage effects of both marijuana and cocaine use are negative, but among women, the effect of cocaine use remains positive and large. Because the longitudinal model is imprecisely estimated, however, those results are inconclusive. (Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1994)
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "New Estimates of the Effect of Marijuana and Cocaine Use on Wages." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47,3 (April 1994): 454-470.
14. Kaestner, Robert
The Effect of Illicit Drug Use on the Labor Supply of Young Adults
Journal of Human Resources 29,1 (Winter 1994): 126-155.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146059
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Employment, Youth; Illegal Activities; Labor Supply

This paper analyzes the effects of illicit drug use on the labor supply of young adults using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The paper investigates whether the frequency and timing of marijuana and cocaine use are systematically related to the labor supply, and presents both cross-sectional and panel data estimates. The cross-sectional results are consistent with those of previous researchers, and suggest that illicit drug use has large, negative effects on labor supply. The longitudinal results, however, suggest that illicit drug use does not have a significant adverse impact on labor supply. (Reprinted by permission of the publisher.)
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "The Effect of Illicit Drug Use on the Labor Supply of Young Adults." Journal of Human Resources 29,1 (Winter 1994): 126-155.
15. Kaestner, Robert
The Effect of Illicit Drug Use on the Wages of Young Adults
Journal of Labor Economics 9,4 (October 1991): 381-412.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2535076
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Substance Use; Wages, Adult

This paper examines the effects of cocaine and marijuana use on the wages of a sample of young adults drawn from the NLSY. The results suggest that, for this sample, increased use of marijuana and cocaine is associated with higher wages. The positive relationship between drug use and wages does not diminish with age, but remains substantially positive. The author also investigates whether systematic differences in the return to measures of investments in human capital can explain the observed positive relationship between drug use and wages. The results do not support that hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "The Effect of Illicit Drug Use on the Wages of Young Adults." Journal of Labor Economics 9,4 (October 1991): 381-412.
16. Kaestner, Robert
Callison, Kevin
Adolescent Cognitive and Noncognitive Correlates of Adult Health
Journal of Human Capital 5,1 (Spring 2011): 29-69.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/660082
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Childhood; Cognitive Ability; Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Noncognitive Skills; Self-Esteem

We present an analysis of the associations between cognitive and noncognitive traits measured at the end of childhood and mental and physical health at age 41. Results suggest that adolescent cognitive ability and self-esteem have a significant association with health at age 41. Most noncognitive factors do not have significant associations with adult health, although in some analyses an internal locus of control was associated with better adult health. Net of adolescent influences, completed education has a significant association with adult health. Finally, differences in cognitive and noncognitive factors are not important explanations of gender or racial differences in health.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert and Kevin Callison. "Adolescent Cognitive and Noncognitive Correlates of Adult Health." Journal of Human Capital 5,1 (Spring 2011): 29-69.
17. Kaestner, Robert
Corman, Hope
The Impact of Child Health and Family Inputs on Child Cognitive Development
NBER Working Paper No. 5257, National Bureau Economic Research, September 1995.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w5257
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Cognitive Development; Family Characteristics; Illnesses; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

In this paper we extensively analyze the impact of child health and other family characteristics on the cognitive achievement of children between the ages of five and nine. We estimate both cross sectional and fixed effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Several of our results challenge the conclusions found in the existing literature. First, we find only a weak relationship between several measures of child health and child cognitive development. Second, we find that additional maternal schooling does not improve child cognitive achievement. Finally, our estimates of the effect of mother's labor force participation suggest that working has a positive impact on child cognitive achievement.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert and Hope Corman. "The Impact of Child Health and Family Inputs on Child Cognitive Development." NBER Working Paper No. 5257, National Bureau Economic Research, September 1995.
18. Kaestner, Robert
Grossman, Michael
Effects of Weight on Adolescent Educational Attainment
Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
Also: http://harrisschool.uchicago.edu/Research/conferences/NLSYConf/pdf/kaestner.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Modeling; Obesity; Weight

In this paper, we investigate the association between weight and adolescent's educational attainment, as measured by highest grade attended, highest grade completed, and drop out status. Data for the study came from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which contains a large, national sample of teens between the ages of 14 and 18. We obtained estimates of the association between weight and educational attainment using several regression model specifications that controlled for a variety of observed characteristics. Our results suggest that, in general, teens that are overweight or obese have levels of attainment that are about the same as teens with average weight.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert and Michael Grossman. "Effects of Weight on Adolescent Educational Attainment." Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
19. Kaestner, Robert
Grossman, Michael
Effects of Weight on Children's Educational Achievement
Economics of Education Review 28,6 (December 2009): 651–661.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775709000557
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Achievement; Body Mass Index (BMI); Children, Academic Development; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Progress; Weight

In this paper, we investigate the association between weight and children's educational achievement, as measured by scores on Peabody Individual Achievement Tests in math and reading, and grade attainment. Data for the study came from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which contains a large, national sample of children between the ages of 5 and 12 between 1986 and 2004.We obtained estimates of the association between weight and achievement using several regression model specifications that controlled for a variety of observed characteristics of the child and his or her mother, and time-invariant characteristics of the child. Our results suggest that, in general, children who are overweight or obese have achievement test scores that are about the same as children with average weight.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert and Michael Grossman. "Effects of Weight on Children's Educational Achievement ." Economics of Education Review 28,6 (December 2009): 651–661. A.
20. Kaestner, Robert
Grossman, Michael
Effects of Weight on Children's Educational Achievement
NBER Working Paper No. 13764, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2008.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w13764
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Achievement; Children, Academic Development; Educational Attainment; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Progress; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Weight; Younger Adult Worker Study

In this paper, we investigate the association between weight and children's educational achievement, as measured by scores on Peabody Individual Achievement Tests in math and reading, and grade attainment. Data for the study came from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which contains a large, national sample of children between the ages of 5 and 12. We obtained estimates of the association between weight and achievement using several regression model specifications that controlled for a variety of observed characteristics of the child and his or her mother, and time-invariant characteristics of the child. Our results suggest that, in general, children who are overweight or obese have achievement test scores that are about the same as children with average weight.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert and Michael Grossman. "Effects of Weight on Children's Educational Achievement." NBER Working Paper No. 13764, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2008.
21. Kaestner, Robert
Grossman, Michael
Yarnoff, Benjamin
Effects of Weight on Adolescent Educational Attainment
NBER Working Paper No. 14994, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2009 (Revised September 2009).
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14994
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Obesity; Weight

In this paper, we investigate the association between weight and adolescent's educational attainment, as measured by highest grade attended, highest grade completed, and drop out status. Data for the study came from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which contains a large, national sample of teens between the ages of 14 and 18. We obtained estimates of the association between weight and educational attainment using several regression model specifications that controlled for a variety of observed characteristics. Our results suggest that, in general, teens that are overweight or obese have levels of attainment that are about the same as teens with average weight.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert, Michael Grossman and Benjamin Yarnoff. "Effects of Weight on Adolescent Educational Attainment." NBER Working Paper No. 14994, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2009 (Revised September 2009).
22. Kaestner, Robert
Korenman, Sanders D.
O'Neill, June E.
Has Welfare Reform Changed Teenage Behaviors?
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 22,2 (Spring 2003): 225-248.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pam.10115/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior; Family Background; Fertility; Welfare; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts were used to compare welfare use, fertility, educational attainment, and marriage among teenage women in the years before and immediately following welfare reform. The first objective was to document differences between these cohorts in welfare use and outcomes and behavior correlated with entry into welfare and with future economic and social well-being. The second objective was to investigate the causal role of welfare reform in behavioral change. Significant differences were found between cohorts in welfare use and in outcomes related to welfare use. Furthermore, difference-in-differences estimates suggest that welfare reform has been associated with reduced welfare receipt, reduced fertility, and reduced marriage among young women who, because of a disadvantaged family background, are at high risk of welfare receipt. Finally, in the post-welfare reform era, teenage mothers are less likely to receive welfare and are more likely to live with at least one parent than in the pre-reform era. Establishing more definitively that welfare reform is responsible for these changes will require further investigation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright: 2003 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert, Sanders D. Korenman and June E. O'Neill. "Has Welfare Reform Changed Teenage Behaviors?" Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 22,2 (Spring 2003): 225-248.
23. Kaestner, Robert
Lo Sasso, Anthony
Callison, Kevin
Yarnoff, Benjamin
Youth Employment and Substance Use
Social Science Research 42,1 (January 2013): 169-185.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X12001585
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment, In-School; High School Employment; Minimum Wage; Monitoring the Future (MTF); Substance Use; Unemployment; Work Hours

A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert, Anthony Lo Sasso, Kevin Callison and Benjamin Yarnoff. "Youth Employment and Substance Use." Social Science Research 42,1 (January 2013): 169-185.
24. Kaestner, Robert
O'Neill, June E.
Has Welfare Reform Changed Teenage Behaviors?
NBER Working Paper No. 8932, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2002.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8932
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Educational Attainment; Marital Status; Program Participation/Evaluation; Welfare

We use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts to compare welfare use, fertility rates, educational attainment, and marriage rates among teenage women in the years before and the years immediately following welfare reform. Our first objective is to document differences between these cohorts in welfare use and outcomes and behaviors correlated with 'entry' into welfare, and with future economic and social well-being. Our second objective is to investigate the causal role of welfare reform in behavioral change. We find significant differences between cohorts in welfare use and in outcomes related to welfare use. Further, difference-in-differences estimates suggest that welfare reform has been associated with reduced welfare receipt, reduced fertility, reduced marriage, and lower school drop-out among young women who, because of a disadvantaged family background, are at high risk of welfare receipt (relative to those at lower risk). Finally, in the post-welfare reform era, teenage mothers are less likely to receive welfare and are more likely to live with a spouse or to live with at least one parent than in the pre-reform era. Establishing definitively that welfare reform is responsible for these changes among teenagers will require further investigation.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert and June E. O'Neill. "Has Welfare Reform Changed Teenage Behaviors?" NBER Working Paper No. 8932, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2002.
25. Korenman, Sanders D.
Kaestner, Robert
Work-Family Mismatch and Child Health and Well-Being: A Review of the Economics Research
In: Work, Family, Health, and Well-being. S. M. Bianchi, L. M. Casper, and R. B. King, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005: pp. 297-312
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Child Health; Childbearing; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Korenman, Sanders D. and Robert Kaestner. "Work-Family Mismatch and Child Health and Well-Being: A Review of the Economics Research" In: Work, Family, Health, and Well-being. S. M. Bianchi, L. M. Casper, and R. B. King, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005: pp. 297-312
26. Korenman, Sanders D.
Kaestner, Robert
Work/Family Mismatch and Family Health: Some Comments on the Economics Literature
Presented: Washington, DC, NICHD Conference on Work/Family Mismatch, June 2003.
Also: http://www.popcenter.umd.edu/events/nichd/papers/korenman.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Child Health; Childbearing; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Work History

Introduction
How does the economics literature treat the consequences of work/family mismatches? Economists, especially health and labor economists, have long studied the trade-offs that families face and the decisions they make about childbearing and market labor supply. Economists are, therefore, quite used to thinking about workfamily "mismatch", the theme of the conference, as work-family trade-offs.
Bibliography Citation
Korenman, Sanders D. and Robert Kaestner. "Work/Family Mismatch and Family Health: Some Comments on the Economics Literature." Presented: Washington, DC, NICHD Conference on Work/Family Mismatch, June 2003.
27. Korenman, Sanders D.
Kaestner, Robert
Joyce, Theodore J.
Consequences for Infants of Parental Disagreement in Pregnancy Intention
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34,4 (July-August 2002): 198-205.
Also: https://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3419802.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Composition; Infants; Marital Status; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Health; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Despite the well-established literature on couples' pregnancy intention and on the consequences of unintended pregnancy, the effects of parents' disagreement in fertility intentions has not been explored. Parental disagreement in pregnancy intention,as well as a father's pregnancy intention, may affect infant health.

RESULTS: Infants whose conception was intended by their mother but not their father are at elevated risk of adverse health events. When a pregnancy was not intended by the mother, the risks are higher than they are if both parents intended the pregnancy, but they differ little according to the father's intention. Thus, it may be useful to classify pregnancies as intended by both parents or not intended by at least one. In comparisons of siblings, unintended fertility (so defined) is associated with delayed prenatal care and reduced initiation of breastfeeding.

CONCLUSION: Information on both parent's fertility intentions is needed to identify infants at risk of adverse health and developmental outcomes.

Bibliography Citation
Korenman, Sanders D., Robert Kaestner and Theodore J. Joyce. "Consequences for Infants of Parental Disagreement in Pregnancy Intention." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34,4 (July-August 2002): 198-205.
28. Korenman, Sanders D.
Kaestner, Robert
Joyce, Theodore J.
Unintended Pregnancy and the Consequences of Non-Marital Childbearing
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Abortion; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Child Development; Child Support; Childbearing; Marital Status; Modeling; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We estimate consequences of non-marital childbearing for infant health and child development, including the first estimates of these effects based on comparisons of siblings or first cousins. We also estimate effects of non-marital births by treating non-martial births that result from unintended pregnancies as exogenously determined. To bolster the case for exogeneity, in some models we use information on the availability of abortion services and indicators of state child support policies and enforcement as instrumental variables for pregnancy intention and marital status. Estimates from models with standard controls for mother's family background suggest that non-marital childbearing delays prenatal care initiation, lowers birth weight, increases smoking during pregnancy, reduces breastfeeding, and, according to several indicators, adversely affects child development. However, comparisons of siblings and first cousins suggest that these estimates exaggerate the adverse consequences of non-marital childbearing for children. Evidence of substantial adverse effects remains in comparisons of siblings and first cousins in two cases: elevated risks of smoking during pregnancy among divorced mothers, and reduced breastfeeding among never married mothers. Evidence for an effect of non-marital childbearing on child development is weaker.
Bibliography Citation
Korenman, Sanders D., Robert Kaestner and Theodore J. Joyce. "Unintended Pregnancy and the Consequences of Non-Marital Childbearing." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
29. Lubotsky, Darren
Kaestner, Robert
Do 'Skills Beget Skills'? Evidence on the Effect of Kindergarten Entrance Age on the Evolution of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skill Gaps in Childhood
Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 194-206.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775716301753
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Age at School Entry; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childhood Education, Early; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Noncognitive Skills; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

We use exogenous variation in the skills that children have at the beginning of kindergarten to measure the extent to which "skills beget skills" in this context. Children who are relatively older when they begin kindergarten score higher on measures of cognitive and non-cognitive achievement at the beginning of kindergarten. Their scores on cognitive assessments grow faster during kindergarten and first grade. However, after first grade the scores of younger entrants catch up. We find no evidence that the growth in non-cognitive measures differs between older and younger entrants. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting that schools are not the cause of the younger students' faster growth after first grade.
Bibliography Citation
Lubotsky, Darren and Robert Kaestner. "Do 'Skills Beget Skills'? Evidence on the Effect of Kindergarten Entrance Age on the Evolution of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skill Gaps in Childhood." Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 194-206.
30. Lubotsky, Darren
Kaestner, Robert
Effects of Age at School Entry on Child Cognitive and Behavioral Development
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Age at School Entry; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use exogenous variation in the skills that children have at the beginning of kindergarten to measure the extent to which "skills beget skills". Children who are relatively older when they begin kindergarten score higher on measures of cognitive and non-cognitive achievement at the beginning of kindergarten. Their scores on cognitive assessments grow faster during kindergarten and first grade, consistent with complementarities between existing stocks of skills and the acquisition of additional skills. However, after first grade the scores of younger entrants catch up. We show that this catch up is due to the influence of schools. After controlling for this influence, we observe a net increase in the skill gap between older and younger school entrants between kindergarten and eighth grade, although growth in the skill gap is not consistent over time.
Bibliography Citation
Lubotsky, Darren and Robert Kaestner. "Effects of Age at School Entry on Child Cognitive and Behavioral Development." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
31. Rashad, Inas
Kaestner, Robert
Teenage Sex, Drugs and Alcohol Use: Problems Identifying the Cause of Risky Behaviors
Journal of Health Economics 23,3 (May 2004): 493-504.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629604000244
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use

The relationship between substance use and adolescent sexual activity is an important one, and extensive literature has shown that substance use is positively associated with adolescent sexual behaviors. While this is true, causality from substance use to risky sexual behaviors is difficult to establish, as it is likely that an adolescent's sexual behavior and substance use depend on a set of personal and social behaviors, many of which are unmeasured. Researchers must thus devise a credible empirical strategy in order to overcome this omitted variable bias. Using the first waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health and the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we call into question recent methods used to determine causality. Despite attempts to determine the causal relationship between substance use and sexual behavior, the nature of the relationship remains unknown. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Rashad, Inas and Robert Kaestner. "Teenage Sex, Drugs and Alcohol Use: Problems Identifying the Cause of Risky Behaviors." Journal of Health Economics 23,3 (May 2004): 493-504.
32. Simon, Kosali Ilayperuma
Kaestner, Robert
Do Minimum Wages Affect Non-Wage Job Attributes? Evidence on Fringe Benefits and Working Conditions
NBER Working Paper No. 9688, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2003.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w9688.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Minimum Wage; Wage Effects; Wage Levels; Wages

Neoclassical labor market theories imply that employers will react to binding minimum wages by changing the level of employment. A multitude of studies consider this aspect of minimum wages, yet fail to reach a consensus as to its employment effects. While the employment effects of the minimum wage are certainly important, the empirical literature has not adequately explored the possibility that employers may also adjust non-wage components of the job such as fringe benefits, job safety, and access to training opportunities. We study the effect of minimum wage legislation on fringe benefits (employer provision of health insurance, pension coverage, dental insurance, vacation pay, and training/educational benefits) and working conditions (shift work, irregular shifts, and workplace safety) doing the period of 1979 to 2000 using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Current Population Survey. We examine effects of state and federal variation in the minimum wages on groups unlikely to be affected by minimum wage. These effects are compared to estimates found for groups unlikely to be affected by minimum wages. Our results indicate no discernible effect of the minimum wage on fringe benefit generosity for low-skilled workers. This conclusion is unchanged whether we use only state level variations or federal and state variation in minimum wages.
Bibliography Citation
Simon, Kosali Ilayperuma and Robert Kaestner. "Do Minimum Wages Affect Non-Wage Job Attributes? Evidence on Fringe Benefits and Working Conditions." NBER Working Paper No. 9688, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2003.
33. Yazici, Esel Y.
Kaestner, Robert
Medicaid Expansions and the Crowding Out of Private Health
Inquiry 37,1 (2000): 23-32
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Child Health; Children, Health Care; Health Care; Medicaid/Medicare; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper re-examines the magnitude of crowd out among children. We use longitudinal data that allow us to identify and differentiate groups of children based on whether their eligibility for Medicaid was affected by the program's eligibility expansions. We investigate whether changes in insurance coverage of children affected by the expansions differed from changes in insurance coverage of children unaffected by the expansions. For example, we directly measure whether there was a greater decrease in private insurance coverage among children who became eligible for Medicaid than among children whose eligibility was unaffected. Our results suggest that there was relatively little crowd out among children. We estimate that 18.9% of the recent increase in Medicaid enrollment came from private insurance.
Bibliography Citation
Yazici, Esel Y. and Robert Kaestner. "Medicaid Expansions and the Crowding Out of Private Health." Inquiry 37,1 (2000): 23-32.
34. Yazici, Esel Y.
Kaestner, Robert
Medicaid Expansions and the Crowding Out of Private Health Insurance
NBER Working Paper No. 6527, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 1998.
Also: http://papers.nber.org/papers/w6527.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Children, Health Care; Health Care; Medicaid/Medicare; Poverty

In this paper, we re-examine the question of crowd out among children. Our primary contribution is the use of longitudinal data. These data allow us to identify several groups of children depending on whether their eligibility for Medicaid was affected by the eligibility expansions, and to investigate whether changes in insurance coverage of children affected by the expansions differed from changes in insurance coverage of children unaffected by the expansions. For example, we directly measure whether children who became eligible for Medicaid due to the expansions decreased their enrollment in private insurance plans faster than children whose eligibility for Medicaid was unaffected by the expansions. Our results suggest that there was relatively little crowd out among children. We estimate that 14.5 percent of the recent increase in Medicaid enrollment came from private insurance.
Bibliography Citation
Yazici, Esel Y. and Robert Kaestner. "Medicaid Expansions and the Crowding Out of Private Health Insurance." NBER Working Paper No. 6527, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 1998.