Search Results

Source: Ph.D. Dissertation - pre 2005
Resulting in 290 citations.
1. Acs, Gregory P.
Welfare, Work, and Dependence: Analyzing the Potential Effects of Work-Related Welfare Reform
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1990. DAI-A 51/07, p. 2477, January 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavioral Differences; Educational Returns; Employment; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Training; Wages; Women; Work Experience

This dissertation explores the impact of one welfare program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), on (1) young women's work and training decisions, referred to as investments in human capital, and (2) their wages, known as returns to human capital. As such, it holds implications for the potential success of work-related welfare reforms. Unobservable differences between women, like attitudes, may both reduce work effort and increase welfare use. The presence of such an unobservable fixed effect, as it is called, could induce an overestimate of welfare's negative impact on work. By using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I can detect such fixed effect and obtain unbiased estimates. In the presence of a fixed effect, the Least Squares Dummy Variable (LSDV) technique generates unbiased estimates because it exploits changes in women's behavior over time and ignores the variation between women. However, if the unobserved differences between women are random--not correlated with both work and welfare decisions--then they do not induce a bias, and a Generalized Least Squares (GLS) technique, which exploits both sources of variation, provides more precise estimates. If the true effect is random, then the LSDV and GLS estimators should yield similar results, and GLS should be used. If the two estimates differ, then a fixed effect is probably present and the LSDV technique is preferred. The Hausman Specification test formally makes this comparison. I cannot reject the random effects model--the coefficients are remarkably similar--and hence use the GLS technique. Using several different specifications and using both predicted and actual measures of AFDC use, I find that historical AFDC receipt has small, negative impact on women's work decisions. I also find that women who received AFDC enjoy substantially less wage growth over time than women who avoided the dole. However, this appears to be caused by lower levels of investment rather than lower rates of return on such investments. AFDC recipients experience slower wage growth because they acquire less experience, education, and training than other women. I conclude that since AFDC recipients can benefit from investments in human capital and the program seems to inhibit investments, work-related welfare reforms could reduce dependence on government aid. But the effects are likely to be quite small.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. Welfare, Work, and Dependence: Analyzing the Potential Effects of Work-Related Welfare Reform. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1990. DAI-A 51/07, p. 2477, January 1991.
2. Adams, Michelle Janssen
Youth in Crisis: An Examination of Adverse Risk Factors Affecting Children's Cognitive and Behavioral/Emotional Development, Children Ages 10-16
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Dallas, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children, Poverty; Cognitive Development; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Hispanics; Intelligence; Parents, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Welfare

This longitudinal study investigates the effects of adverse risk factors, such as childhood poverty or poor parenting, on the cognitive and behavioral/emotional development of children between the ages of 10-16 in 1990. This study incorporates theories generated in the study of welfare, delinquency, and developmental psychology and uses the Mother-Child linked National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). A cross-lagged model is used to control for any intervening influences children's prior scores may have had on key parenting measures. Ordinary Least Squares multiple regression is used to estimate five separate, block-recursive models measuring 1992 children's reading and math comprehension, behavioral problems index scores, along with global and scholastic self-esteem scores. Through our research, we found a number of risk and protective factors exist which influence children's development. First, children were adversely affected the longer they lived in poverty/marginal poverty, even after controlling for individual parenting styles. Second, both Hispanic and black children were more negatively influenced by the detrimental effects of adverse risk factors. Third, a mother's own intellectual ability, in addition to her self-esteem, served as protective factors for children. Fourth, children with higher lagged global self-esteem also had higher cognitive aptitudes. Lastly, different parenting behavior, such as a more authoritative parenting style, affected children's outcomes. Parents who used a non-harsh form of discipline as opposed to spanking had children with higher global self-esteem scores. Additionally, direct parental interaction, such as doing one-on-one activities with children, increased children's cognitive and behavioral/emotional development. The results suggest a number of protective factors can be developed by parents, educators, and policy makers to reduce the many adversities children currently face. Successful interventions, such as parenting classes focusing on the importance of non-harsh methods of discipline and developing a child's cognitive abilities and self-esteem, should be implemented to enhance children's full development.
Bibliography Citation
Adams, Michelle Janssen. Youth in Crisis: An Examination of Adverse Risk Factors Affecting Children's Cognitive and Behavioral/Emotional Development, Children Ages 10-16. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Dallas, 1995.
3. Adamson, Dwight W.
Labor Unions and Racial Wage Differentials: A Longitudinal Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1988. DAI-A 49/11, p. 3458, May 1989
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Mobility; Mobility, Job; Racial Differences; Unions; Wage Differentials; Wage Levels

This paper investigates the intertemporal change in racial union wage differentials. Specifically investigated are reported longitudinal wage change results where black union joiners demonstrate a negligible wage gain from entering the union sector relative to a significantly larger wage gain for white union joiners. Also investigated are reported cross-sectional wage level results where the union wage differentials for white and black union stayers are virtually equal. The longitudinal results contradict the findings of the traditional cross-sectional studies which demonstrate consistently larger union wage differentials for black workers relative to white workers. Two longitudinal models are used to estimate the racial union differentials. The first model, which replicates the original longitudinal study, separates mobility into (and out of) the union sector from union sector stationarity. The second model incorporates employer mobility into the variables measuring change in union status, and provides a more accurate assessment of racial union effects since it isolates workers searching for new jobs from those who change union status but retain their original employer. Both models are tested using the National Longitudinal Survey data set for young men over the 1969-71, 1971-76, 1976-78, 1978-80, 1980-81 longitudinal periods. The results are mixed. The first model generally supports the original longitudinal study's finding of greater wage change effects for white union joiners, but also finds larger cross-sectional wage differentials for black union stayers. The second model also supports the findings of larger union joiner effects for whites. However, it demonstrates larger wage level differentials for black union joiners and union stayers, implying that blacks receive greater union benefits relative to respective nonunion stayer reference groups. The results indicate that whites receive a larger union effect because white union joiners, while in the nonunion sector, are less productive than black union joiners relative to their nonunion reference group--hence the white wage change is much larger when entering the union sector. Blacks union joiners, in general, maintain a positive productivity differential over black nonunion stayers, while white union joiners demonstrate a negative productivity differential relative to white nonunion stayers.
Bibliography Citation
Adamson, Dwight W. Labor Unions and Racial Wage Differentials: A Longitudinal Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1988. DAI-A 49/11, p. 3458, May 1989.
4. Aedo, Mario C.
Schooling Decision: A Dynamic Model
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Attainment; Schooling

The theoretical literature has long recognized the sequential nature of the educational decision problem faced by individuals. However, applied research has always assumed that individuals face static optimization problems. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the relative importance of the main economic factors which affect the educational choices of individuals within a dynamic framework. To this purpose, the educational choices of individuals are modeled as a finite horizon, discrete time, dynamic programming problem. At each time period the individual makes a decision on whether to continue in school or not. This decision is conditional upon the individual choices up to the current period and upon the individual's forecast about the future. The structural parameters of the model are estimated by using the 1979 NLSY. Two samples, one of white males and another of black males, are used in the empirical analysis with estimation carried out separately for each. The analytical framework draws upon recent work on the estimation of discrete stochastic dynamic programming models. The estimation procedure involves the backward solution of a dynamic programming problem and the maximization of a nonlinear likelihood function. For each alternative value of the parameters of the model the dynamic programming problem must be solved and the maximization routine applied. [UMI ADG91-07412]
Bibliography Citation
Aedo, Mario C. Schooling Decision: A Dynamic Model. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1990.
5. Afxentiou, Diamando
Teenage Childbearing and AFDC Duration
Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; First Birth; Modeling, Probit; Mothers; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Teenagers; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Welfare

A theoretical background concerning teenage birth is developed based on the New Home Economics Model. An empirical investigation, using the probit model, is performed on the likelihood of a teenage birth as a function of a large set of independent variables for the year 1982. The dependent and independent variables are extracted from NLSY data. The probability of teenage birth depends on the teenager's sexual activity, thus a recursive model is estimated as well. The factors affecting teenage and nonteenage birth were examined and found to be different. A cross-sectional study concerning teenage birth is applied to the state of West Virginia. Data are extracted from the Statistical Abstract Supplement, County and City Data Book, 1983 and 1988. The dependent variable is the rate of teen birth by county. The regression analysis shows that educational attainment is the only significant variable with a negative effect on teenage birth. The AFDC duration for women who had their first child as teenagers is measured using NLSY data from 1979-85. Descriptive statistics and a hazard function model show that most individuals have short AFDC spells. Black and never married mothers have lower exit probabilities than non-black and ever-married mothers. Exit probabilities are estimated using Cox's Proportional Hazard Regression Model. Race, education, work experience, and age affect significantly the probability of exiting the AFDC rolls. This study suggests that the teenager's personal and family background characteristics, as well as the probability of sexual engagement are the factors that significantly affect childbearing. Never married and black mothers are the ones that stay longer on AFDC. Nonblack, ever married women with educational and previous work experience are likely to have shorter welfare spells. These findings suggest that in order to reduce the welfare duration, the focus should be on unmarried mothers and on mothers without previous work experience.
Bibliography Citation
Afxentiou, Diamando. Teenage Childbearing and AFDC Duration. Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1990.
6. Albers, Alison Burke
Poverty, Social Context and Children's Mental Health Across the Early Life Course
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2001.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Poverty; Life Course; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty

The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the processes that explain the relation between long-term poverty and mental health among early adolescents. Combining Elder's life-span principles, Bronfenbrenner's ecological model and Coleman's theory of social capital, an analytical model of how poverty influences children's mental health was proposed. Each chapter provided an analysis that included the same set of measures in ordinary least square (OLS) regression models predicting outcomes outlined in the heuristic model. New to work in this area is the use of a change model approach. This allowed for the examination of the influence of poverty, its temporal conditions and family structure on change in children's mental health as measured by internalizing, externalizing and depressive symptoms. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I found that economic deprivation was associated with maternal psychological distress, neighborhood disorder, residential instability, and peer pressure. For the most part, longitudinal poverty and income did not have particularly strong or consistently negative effects on parenting practices. In the full models, the income and poverty measures generally were not predictive of the mental health outcomes. However, current debt had a significant main effect on externalizing symptoms for females. In sum, the final analyses identified significant contributors to mental health for boys and girls during early adolescence. Female adolescents were particularly vulnerable to the effects of parenting practices and neighborhood disorder, whereas male adolescents were susceptible to peer pressure and family disruption. Maternal education significantly contributed to psychological functioning of both poor boys and girls. The results support the notion that income's correlates, such as maternal education, neighborhood disorder, and punitive parenting, have true effects on children's mental health . In general, the merging of developmentally sensitive concepts with the study of poverty and children's mental health offers promise for a better understanding of the features that produce poor mental health outcomes among children and adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Albers, Alison Burke. Poverty, Social Context and Children's Mental Health Across the Early Life Course. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2001..
7. Anderson, Carolyn S.
Psychosocial Correlates of Women's Attachment to the Labor Force
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1991
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Size; Internal-External Attitude; Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Wages; Women's Roles; Work Attachment

This study explores women's attachment to the labor force in term of three major subjective factors: powerlessness, or locus of control; attitudes toward the work role; and intrinsic engagement in work. These are shown to complement the influence of objective factors associated with attachment. Attachment is dependent upon involuntary factors such as those inherent in the structure of part- and full-time labor markets, as well as on individuals' other objective characteristics, including human capital and fertility. Subjective characteristics of workers are grounded in these objective realities, but independently influence labor market behavior under certain conditions. The data are taken from the NLS Mature Women Cohort of the NLS 1967-1984. Methodologies used include anova and stepwise regression procedures, which are performed separately for the white and black cohorts. The most important influence on attachment among black workers is the constraint by education level on entry into jobs which ensure ongoing attachment. Normative belief in the work role, which predicts attachment for both racial cohorts, is relative to socioeconomic status and family characteristics: those with lower wages and more children lack such beliefs. Among white workers, those who perceive that work is economically necessary are more likely to remain attached. For those who lack an economic rationale, attachment has a voluntary aspect. For those who need to work but are unable to secure jobs in industries which ensure attachment, ongoing participation is not always at the worker's own volition. Intrinsic engagement in work is not related to attachment. Other forces, principally the economic needs of many women to support their families, are hypothesized to override lack of intrinsic motivation.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Carolyn S. Psychosocial Correlates of Women's Attachment to the Labor Force. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1991.
8. Anderson, George Edward
The Effect of Affirmative Action Programs on Female Employment and Earnings
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1988
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Earnings; Employment; Income Distribution; Simultaneity

Affirmative action programs, as promoted by the Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC) and the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP), have aroused much controversy since their inception in the mid-1960s. The programs sought wide-ranging changes in the occupational representation of women and an elevated income distribution relative to white males. Using data from 1966-1982, I test whether affirmative action programs (AAPs) have realized these goals for white and black female workers. An efficient, general equilibrium model showed that the programs give rise to simultaneous wage and employment effects by sex, while generating an inefficient level of output. The model assumes AAPs are directed only toward a subset of firms (consistent with current laws affecting only firms of more than 50 employees) and that male and females workers are mobile between 'covered' and 'non-covered' employment. Because public datasets do not identify 'covered' employees, for hypothesis testing industry-specific coverage probabilities were generated, and these were appended to an individual's records. March Current Population Surveys (CPS), spanning 1968-82, and data from the EEOC, showed that the programs have led to very significant movements by the early 1980s of black females, and a more modest movement of white females, toward covered employment. However, Mann-Whitney tests on within-race/sex occupational movements, and a modified Theil Entropy measure failed to detect significant covered-employment occupational shifts. Among black female workers, a decomposition of CPS average weekly wages showed that approximately 11% of the 1970-80 increase could be attributed to AAPs. Among white females, the effects were negligible. Using National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) data, no significant covered-employment differentials were isolated over the period 1967-1982 for either race of women. Thus, while AAPs have induced a female shift from non-covered to covered employment since the mid-1960s, significant occupational and relative wage gains have not been realized.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, George Edward. The Effect of Affirmative Action Programs on Female Employment and Earnings. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1988.
9. Angerer, Xiaohong W.
Empirical Studies on Risk Management of Investers and Banks
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Human Capital; Income Risk; Labor Economics; Risk Perception; Risk-Taking

This dissertation is composed of two empirical studies on risk management. The first part focuses on investors' risk management; it is an empirical study of how investors' labor income risk affects their investment in risky assets. The second part of the study focuses on banks' interest rate risk management and also investigates how their interest rate risk management strategy affects their risk and return in the stock market.

Recent theoretical work has shown that uninsurable labor income risk likely reduces the share of risky assets in an investor's portfolio. Little empirical work has been done to examine this effect. The first study of this dissertation fills the void by investigating the relationship between portfolio shares and labor income risk in the NLSY79 data. The work has three novel features. First, the long labor income history in NLSY79 is used to estimate the labor income risk. Second, the study distinguishes between permanent labor income risk and transitory labor income risk, and estimates them for each individual rather than for groups. Third, I explicitly consider human capital as a component of an individual's portfolio. Human capital is treated as a risk-free asset and estimated by applying signal extraction techniques to individual labor income data. The study finds strong empirical support for the theory that labor income risk indeed significantly reduces the share of risky assets in an investor's portfolio. Furthermore, as economic theory suggests, permanent income risk has a significant effect on portfolio choice while transitory income risk has little effect. By implication, empirical work that does not distinguish between permanent income risk and transitory income risk will underestimate the effect of labor income risk on portfolio choice.

The second part of the dissertation is to fill the gap in the empirical literature on banks' interest rate risk management. Using a rolling sample of bank holding companies from 1986 to 2002, the study investigates how banks adjust their balance sheet maturity structure according to their perception of current and future interest rate changes. Banks tend to lengthen the maturity of net assets when the yield curve is steeply sloped and shorten it when they expect the interest rate to increase in the future. To account for the off-balance-sheet activity effect on banks' interest rate risk exposure, the sample is divided into those with high and low interest rate derivative activities. For banks with little off-balance-sheet interest rate derivative activities, the cross-sectional variation in responsiveness of maturity structure to interest rate changes explains the stock market risk and returns of banks' common equities. The interest rate risk management strategies reflect the extent of risk taking and are priced in the stock market. This finding contributes to the asset pricing literature by linking banks' stock market characteristics to their interest rate risk management strategies.

Bibliography Citation
Angerer, Xiaohong W. Empirical Studies on Risk Management of Investers and Banks. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2004.
10. Anne, Zooyob
Part-Time Work and the Structure of Youth Labor Market Entry
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Employment; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Markov chain / Markov model; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Part-Time Work

Despite its negative characteristics such as low wages, limited fringe benefits, and deficient job security, part-time work has grown from fifteen percent of total employment in 1969 to eighteen percent in 1993. Two distinct hypotheses of worker demand for part-time work have emerged: the equilibrium hypothesis, which views part-time work as an alternative to nonwork or full-time work, and the stepping-stone hypothesis, which has a more dynamic flavor, that part-time work is a stepping-stone to full-time work. This study focuses on the role of part-time work in the labor market entry process as youths end their formal schooling. For youths who are new entrants in the labor market and ineligible for unemployment compensation, part-time work might be a compromise between the need to perform intensive search and the need to eat. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-1993, the youth labor market entry process is analyzed by employing two models: a competing risks model of nonemployment duration to the first post-school part-time or full-time job based on weekly data; and a Markov chain model of the evolution of annual work states early in the career. The duration model of nonemployment is the more standard of the two. Nonparametric estimation of the competing risks model with semiparametric baseline hazards, observed heterogeneity, and unobserved heterogeneity reveals that the baseline hazards are significantly distinctive; unobserved heterogeneity is positively correlated; the full-time baseline hazard shows no duration dependence for males (for females, negative duration dependence is observed until a turning point) while the part-time baseline hazard demonstrates no monotonicity; effects of observed heterogeneity differ among destinations and demographic groups; and there exist significant racial differences in the hazard functions. The two-year transition probability matrices indicate a great deal of work state stability and a considerable dissimila rity among demographic groups. The evolution of work status reveals that, for youths experiencing long-term part-time work, the sequence of work states more frequently supports the stepping-stone hypothesis. The findings suggest that, to avoid unnecessarily long nonemployment duration and to help youths move smoothly into permanent career jobs, labor market policies adversely affecting part-time work should be loosened.
Bibliography Citation
Anne, Zooyob. Part-Time Work and the Structure of Youth Labor Market Entry. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997.
11. Antel, John J.
Job Change of Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1983. DAI-A 44/05, p. 1530, November 1983
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Firm Size; Job Productivity; Job Search; Job Turnover; Layoffs; Mobility; Quits; Simultaneity; Wage Levels; Wages

This paper examines the job changing behavior of young men in the time period immediately following graduation or completion of formal schooling. The paper comprises a theoretical model of quits and permanent layoffs along with empirical results using a sample of recent labor market starters derived from the national Longitudinal Survey of Young Men. The discussion commences with a theoretical model of job matching. The model assumes that workers are endowed with firm-specific skills which vary in value with firm assignment and are imprecisely known to either worker or firm prior to some trial period on the job. These assumptions imply that workers must search, often while employed, to find their highest paying job. Further, since workers differ in their comparative advantage or job-specific abilities, firms must screen prospective employees prior to hire and then monitor worker productivity during the intial period of employment. Quits and layoffs follow as outcomes of these two simultaneous firms and worker learning processes; workers quit when they find a more lucrative job, and firms initiate layoffs when worker productivity is found far below initial expectations. In contrast to other models of job matching, transactions or negotiation costs influence quit and layoff decisions in our model. Mobility in the presence of transactions cost is distinguished from the zero transactions cost situation in two important respects. First, transactions costs imply that quits and layoffs are different. Much of the empirical work that follows is an attempt to document this difference. Second, with transactions costs, the welfare implications of job change are not, in general, positive as suggested by the zero transactions cost model of mobility. Transactions costs imply that mobility decisions are made on the basis of each decision makers rent share rather than for the purpose of maximizing total job-match productivity. Thus, some quits and layoffs may imply an actual decline in productivity. The empirical implications of the job-matching model with negotiations costs were for the most part consistent with the data. Quits and layoffs were found to be different both in terms of how they are predicted by wages, and also distinguished with respect to how wages are affected by mobility. The results indicated that while quits are negatively related to the wage level, layoffs were not predicted at all by wages. Further, although we found only weak positive effects of quitting on wage growth, layoffs generally implied a significant deline in wages. Neither of these patterns of contrast between quits and layoffs could be accounted for by costless negotiation or zero transactions cost models of job-matching. Although results on the determination of quits and the wage growth experience of non-repeat job changers suggested a central role for wages in the explanation of turnover, other factors affected mobility decisions also. Firm size, demand shocks, union membership, and non-pecuniary aspects of job value all played some role in the explanation of job change.
Bibliography Citation
Antel, John J. Job Change of Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1983. DAI-A 44/05, p. 1530, November 1983.
12. Archambeau, Lindy
Structure of Opportunity: A Multilevel Analysis of Interfirm Job Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2002. DAI-A 63/09, p. 3250, Mar 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Occupational; Small Business (Owner/Employer); Socioeconomic Factors; Work History

The work presented in this dissertation focuses on interorganizational mobility in an attempt to untangle the roles social institutions play in structuring individual job mobility. This dissertation represents an empirical analysis of job mobility that takes ecological and structural factors into account in determining the effects of changes in the opportunity structure on patterns of individual mobility between firms. The main argument is that organizational dynamics drive alterations in the opportunity structures individuals face. Employees manage their careers as opportunity structures change and in doing so produce individual mobility events. Examining mobility patterns reveals how structural factors associated with labor markets either hinder or facilitate the socioeconomic achievement of individuals. My aim is to examine what the impact of industrial growth on individual mobility between firms given the individual's labor market context. My goal is to extend prior analyses of interfirm mobility by embedding the individual within the larger social context. This is accomplished by including industrial, occupational and organizational characteristics as determinants of individual mobility patterns. Two types of outcomes were investigated: the rate of interfirm mobility and socioeconomic outcome of such mobility. The impact of labor market institutions on these two outcomes was tested using individual job history data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and establishment level longitudinal data provided in the Business Information Tracking Service of the Small Business Administration in conjunction with the Census Bureau. The findings suggest that social institutions do play a role in structuring individual mobility outcomes. The two main sources of variability in mobility are industry structure and organizational size. The impact of the type of organizational growth, the birth of new establishments or the expansion of existing establishments varies by type of industry structure. In addition, organizational size interacts with the type of industry growth to create a differential impact on individual mobility given one's gender.
Bibliography Citation
Archambeau, Lindy. Structure of Opportunity: A Multilevel Analysis of Interfirm Job Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2002. DAI-A 63/09, p. 3250, Mar 2003.
13. Arnold, Ruth Margaret
Constrained Choices: Contingent Work Among Youth and Young Adults During the 1980s and Early 1990s
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Connecticut, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Income; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Industrial Relations; Labor Economics; Labor Supply; Marital Status; Part-Time Work; Racial Differences

This dissertation investigates the contingent work arrangements of youths and young adults during the 1980s and early 1990s. The research question is why young people held contingent work positions during this time period. The two competing explanations addressed in this dissertation for why people worked in contingent positions are the supply- side theory and the demand-side theory. The supply-side theory posits that workers hold contingent positions because these jobs offer preferred work conditions, while the demand- side theory contends that employers use contingent work positions for the flexibility these jobs offer in terms of reduced labor costs and obligations. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 females and males, is utilized to test these explanations. Event history procedures are used. Both the supply- and demand-side theories were useful in explaining why young people during the 1980s and early 1990s worked in co ntingent positions. Women were more likely to work in contingent employment and being married and having children increased the likelihood. Black women were surprisingly more likely than non-Hispanic women to hold contingent jobs, but this was at least partly explained by interactions of family income levels with marital status and having young children. The effect of marital status on the odds that men worked in contingent positions varied with age, and the effect of school enrollment varied by age for the full sample. These age interactions revealed that the direction of the marital status effect among men and enrollment status effect for the sample changed direction, contrary to hypotheses. There was also some support for the demand-side explanation for contingent work. Support for the dual labor market demand-side theory was that black males and females were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to make transitions from contingent jobs to unemployment, blacks and females had lower pay in contingent and non-contingent positions, and that all females, regardless of marital status, were more likely to hold contingent employment relative to men. The insignificance of the Hispanic coefficient in most of the analyses and the occasional insignificance of education level in predicting contingent work suggested that non- contingent positions were not necessarily reserved for non- Hispanic whites with higher education levels, providing possible support for the flexibility demand-side theory.
Bibliography Citation
Arnold, Ruth Margaret. Constrained Choices: Contingent Work Among Youth and Young Adults During the 1980s and Early 1990s. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Connecticut, 1997.
14. Aronowitz, Teri B.
The Impact of Time Perspective on Resilience in at-Risk African American Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rochester School of Nursing, 2002. DAI-B 63/03, p. 1263, Sep 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Inner-City; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Morbidity; Mortality; Racial Studies; Resilience/Developmental Assets; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior; Social Roles; Substance Use

American society struggles to find solutions to the multiple risk behaviors in youth including violence, substance abuse, school failure and sexual risk-taking (Hawkins, Castalano, & Hawkins, 1992a; Reiss, Richters, Radke-Yarrow, & Scharff, 1993; Sampson and Laub, 1993). Research has shown that these phenomena are highly interrelated (Jessor, 1991; Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992), are on the rise in young adolescents (Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman, 1995), and are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in youth (Irwin, 1993). Klumpfer (1996) has speculated that the increase in these risk behaviors is related to increased numbers of children being raised in poverty. Although it has been shown that youngsters in impoverished neighborhoods are more likely to participate in risk behaviors (Garbarino, 1995), some youth remain resilient in these environments (Rutter, Maugham, Mortimore, & Ouston, 1979; Werner & Smith, 1992). Researchers have shown that one important correlate of resilience among at-risk youth is a sense of connection to at least one caring, competent, reliable adult (Resnick, et al, 1998; Werner & Smith, 1992). This connectedness has been found to influence individual development, shaping attitudes and expectations within and beyond the family (Cooper, Grotevant, Condon, 1983; Grotevant & Cooper, 1985, 1986). It is hypothesized that the interactions within this connection foster a future time perspective, and that this future time perspective instills resilience in at-risk youth. Within a social-contextual framework, this study tested the relationship between future time perspective among youth living in economically disadvantaged areas and positive child outcomes. This longitudinal study applied secondary analysis employing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (Add Health) to test the study hypotheses. Latent Variable Structural Equation Modeling was used to explore the association of connectedness, feeling about self, time perspective and resilience in early adolescents. The sample consisted of 1069 African American, impoverished, inner-city adolescents 11–15 years old. A cross-validation approach was used, randomly dividing the sample into two groups, a calibration group and a validation group. A model of factors that contribute to the future time perspective of at-risk youth was proposed based on concepts from the Cultural Ecology Model and the Multiple Selves/Multiple Worlds Model. The measurement model indicated that connectedness and time perspective accounted for a significant variance in resilience. There was no direct effect of connectedness on resilience; suggesting time perspective plays a key role in mediating the relationship between connectedness and resilience. In addition, among boys the path between connectedness and time perspective was also not significant. Time perspective did play a significant role in resilience for both genders. All findings were supported in the cross validation model.
Bibliography Citation
Aronowitz, Teri B. The Impact of Time Perspective on Resilience in at-Risk African American Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rochester School of Nursing, 2002. DAI-B 63/03, p. 1263, Sep 2002.
15. Ay, Unal
Labor Force Attachment of American Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Work Attitudes

The purpose of this study was to develop a model measuring the labor force attachment of American youth. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Surveys, Labor Market Experience of Youth (NLS) in which youth 14 to 21 years old were first interviewed in 1979. Two questions included in this study were: (1) Can acceptable models of labor force attachment of American youth be created from observed measures of youth commitment to work, willingness to engage in paid employment, and work experience? (2) Are models of labor force attachment of American youth equally appropriate for sex, race, and age groups? Two and three latent variable models of youth labor force attachment were developed through confirmatory factor analysis of observed measures. Results of the analysis showed that both models fit the data fairly well, but measures of fit were higher in the three latent variable model, indicating that it was a slightly better model than the two latent variable model. Measures of fit of the model to the data across the sex-race-age groups were about the same; that is, while some observed variables highly correlated with the same latent variable in all groups, there we some that were weakly correlated in all groups. The model with three latent variables did not fit the category by race, because the T matrix was not positive definite for Whites.
Bibliography Citation
Ay, Unal. Labor Force Attachment of American Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1985.
16. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Essays on Teacher Supply and Quality, and School Quality: Evidence from the United States and the Philippines
Ph.D. Dissertation University of California - Los Angeles, 2002. DAI-A 63/07, p. 2645, Jan 2003
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): School Quality; Teachers/Faculty; Women's Education; Women's Studies

The dissertation is comprised of two loosely related essays in the economics of education. An extensive literature of education production function studies offers mixed evidence on the effects of school inputs on student performance in both developed and developing countries. The first chapter addresses two aspects in this literature. Quantile regressions are applied to Philippine data to estimate the differential impact of inputs on students at various points on the conditional achievement distribution, that is, at points other than the mean. Variation in the students who attend public schools outside their barangay (district) of residence, students who do not attend the nearest school, and students who transferred schools are used to identify these differential impacts and control for selection. Results suggest that a policy of reducing student to teacher ratios will have a positive effect on raising students' math achievement, but may also benefit high achievers more than the average or low achievers. In contrast, the impact of class size reductions on English achievement may impact the average or median student more relative to the tails. Given that teachers constitute a major input in education production, the second chapter explores the impact of the expansion in professional opportunities that American women faced on teacher supply and teacher quality. Data for the analyses include one-percent census samples from 1940 to 1990, three National Longitudinal Surveys, and the CIRP Freshman Surveys. Using standardized test scores, undergraduate institution selectivity, and positive assortative mating characteristics as measures of quality, evidence of a marked decline in the quality of young women going into teaching is documented. In contrast, the quality of young women becoming professionals increased. The more teachers are paid relative to professionals, the more likely educated women are to choose to teach. When wage opportunities in teaching become relatively less attractive, the quality of teachers and prospective teachers declines. These results are robust to fixed effects and difference strategies, as well as to the use of instrumental variables. Results suggest that the driving force leading to these changes are demand-side shocks, including industrial shocks that favored skilled individuals and women.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla. Essays on Teacher Supply and Quality, and School Quality: Evidence from the United States and the Philippines. Ph.D. Dissertation University of California - Los Angeles, 2002. DAI-A 63/07, p. 2645, Jan 2003.
17. Bamba, Hiroya
Relationship Between the Structure of the Labor Market and Demand for Education by Young Black and White Males
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1977.
Also: http://www.cceerc.net/ICPSR/biblio/series/129/resources/2778?sortBy=1&paging.startRow=1&publicationYear=1977
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Resources; High School; High School Curriculum; I.Q.; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The difference in educational attainment between young black and white males is largely due to the difference in the returns from education between them. The maintained hypotheses of this study are: (1) there exists a low educational-level trap against young black males at one-to-three years of college education where the present value of marginal returns from additional education is negative; (2) young black males who are intellectually as capable as young white males are discouraged from attaining beyond four years of high school education because of the trap; (3) their educational attainment does not increase even when their family income increases until it reaches a certain high level; (4) differences in taste and preferences for education between black and white males varies by the local labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Bamba, Hiroya. Relationship Between the Structure of the Labor Market and Demand for Education by Young Black and White Males. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1977..
18. Barrow, Lisa
Empirical Analyses of Household Decision-Making: Location Choice, Property Values, and Women's Labor Force Participation
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Child Care; Education; Family Income; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; School Quality; Women's Studies

This dissertation contains three essays investigating the indirect effects of children on economic decisions and outcomes. The first two analyze school choice and education efficiency driven by households voting with their feet while the third focuses on child care costs and women's labor force participation. In the first essay I show how the monetary value parents place on school quality may be inferred from residential location choices. I implement the method with data from the U.S. Census for Washington, D.C. using residential location decisions in 1990. For whites I find school quality is an important determinant of residential choices and, households with children in the top income quintile are willing to pay $3,300 for schools generating a 100 SAT point advantage. The evidence does not indicate that the choices of African Americans are influenced by school quality, which suggests this group may be constrained in their location choices. The second essay utilizes a "market-based" approach to evaluate public school efficiency. Using data collected from state departments of education and taxation and the U.S. Censuses of Population and Governments for 1980 and 1990, the study examines the effect of changes in state aid for education on school district property values. Property values are expected to increase in states for which school districts on average spend money efficiently. From the subset of nine states analyzed, the results indicate that the majority of states are inefficient with only one state approximately efficient on average and one state under spending on average. Finally, the third essay moves away from education and looks at the effect of child care cost on women's labor force participation following first-birth. Using the relatively detailed information available in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper explores women's decisions to return to work within one year of the birth of their first child, focusing particularly on the effect of child care costs. Consistent with economic theory, women who face lower child care costs are more likely to return to work after giving birth as are women with higher potential wages and lower family income from other sources.
Bibliography Citation
Barrow, Lisa. Empirical Analyses of Household Decision-Making: Location Choice, Property Values, and Women's Labor Force Participation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1999.
19. Baum, Charles L., II
The Effects of Maternity Leave Legislation on Mothers' Labor Supply After Childbirth
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits; Endogeneity; Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA); Fertility; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Wages, Women; Work Experience

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, ten states and the District of Columbia passed maternity leave legislation (MLL) allowing a mother a period of leave from work after childbirth and guaranteeing that she can return to her old job. In 1993, President Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), the first piece of federal MLL. Similar to state legislation, the FMLA guarantees 12 weeks of unpaid leave for eligible mothers. However, federal leave mandates have not met with universal approval. President Bush twice vetoed such legislation because of the costs he feared it would impose on business. Others said leave legislation was unnecessary and would have no effect since many firms already offered leave. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I evaluate the effect of MLL on the timing of a mother's return to work, on whether she returns to work for her pre-childbirth employer or at a new job, and on the number of hours she chooses to work. I also examine the effect of leave mandates on wages and on the amount of leave allowed by employers. I estimate both a semi-structural and a reduced-form empirical model, both of which account for the endogeneity of fertility, wages, and previous labor force experience. My results indicate MLL has virtually no effect on the length of leave allowed by employers. The semi-structural specification indicates MLL slightly increases the hazard rate for returning to work at the pre-childbirth job in the first 6 weeks after childbirth by affecting informal arrangements that determine whether the pre-childbirth job is made available by employers. Additionally, MLL has a negative effect on the wage rate paid to mothers who start new jobs. My findings will help determine whether MLL achieves its goals and whether proposed extensions to existing MLL will be beneficial.
Bibliography Citation
Baum, Charles L., II. The Effects of Maternity Leave Legislation on Mothers' Labor Supply After Childbirth. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill, 1999.
20. Beattie, Irenee Rose
Tracking Women's Transition to Adulthood: High School Experiences, Race/Ethnicity, and the Early Life Course Outcomes of Schooling
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Arizona, 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3496, Mar 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Ethnic Studies; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Life Course; Mothers, Adolescent; Racial Studies; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Welfare

High schools are key settings for adolescent development, yet life course scholars have not fully examined how schools shape transitions to adulthood. Schools are important for socializing youth, but most education research examines cognitive outcomes, like test scores, rather than behavioral outcomes, like welfare receipt. Theories about transitions to adulthood and the role of curricular tracking each focus on racial/ethnic differences, but there is little connection between the two areas of inquiry. This study explores racial/ethnic variation in the effect of curricular tracking on women's risk of young welfare receipt, and on behavioral outcomes I term the proximate causes of welfare --dropping out of high school, teenage motherhood, limited work experience, poverty, and single motherhood. In three distinct but theoretically connected essays, I study these relationships using a sample of black, Latina, and white women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Chapter 2 examines racial/ethnic differences in the effect of college and vocational tracks on behavioral outcomes of schooling. College tracks reduce women's risk of experiencing the proximate causes of receipt, but these effects are much stronger for white women than for black and Latina women. Women of color have lower risks of each of the proximate causes in vocational tracks and racial/ethnic inequality is greatest in college tracks. Chapter 3 considers whether racial variation in the effects of tracking influences pathways to welfare receipt. Tracking shapes welfare dynamics, and racial inequality in these effects is greatest in the college track. Whites benefit more from college track placement while women of color benefit more from vocational track coursework. Tracking influences welfare risks primarily through effects on teen motherhood and dropping out of school. Chapter 4 explores a mechanism through which racial/ethnic differences in the effect of tracking might operate: an "attitude-achievement paradox'; Women with high educational expectations and limited preparation for college (as indicated by test scores) are extremely likely to become teen mothers. African American women are most buffered from teen motherhood risks in the vocational rather than the general or college tracks. In each section, I discuss the important theoretical and policy implications derived from these results.
Bibliography Citation
Beattie, Irenee Rose. Tracking Women's Transition to Adulthood: High School Experiences, Race/Ethnicity, and the Early Life Course Outcomes of Schooling. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Arizona, 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3496, Mar 2004.
21. Bell, Lorraine R.
Schooling Trajectories: Patterns of Women's Education and Training in Early Mid-Life
Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 1998. DAI-A 59/11, p. 4028, May 1999
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Education, Adult; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Status; Technology/Technological Changes; Training, Occupational; Training, Post-School; Unemployment Rate, Regional

The traditional conceptualization of the transition to adulthood suggests that schooling ends when full time labor force participation begins. However, recent data suggest that there is a large population of adult students enrolled in both formal educational and occupational training. Despite this, little research exists which examines why workers return to school. This study examines the factors which influence whether working women enroll in adult schooling during early mid-life (ages 30–50). Of particular interest is understanding whether adult schooling is used to compensate for negative occupational characteristics or to maintain relative occupational status. Further, this study examines how changing technology in the 1980's influenced the likelihood of re-training. The data for this study come primarily from the Young Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience, 1968–1991, with additional information derived from the Current Population Surveys and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The general findings of the logistic regressions suggest that adult schooling is a much more common educational trajectory than expected and that both formal education and occupational attainment seem to be status maintenance mechanisms. However, results of these analyses also suggest that adult schooling is neither delayed post-secondary education or an individually sponsored form of on-the-job training. Initial educational attainment and aspirations are the most powerful factors that influence whether adults participate in adult schooling and the type of schooling that is pursued. Women with some post-secondary education have particularly distinctive patterns of adult schooling, especially in the face of technological change. While adult formal education and adult occupational training result from different processes, there is little evidence that the status distinction between education and training found at the secondary level exists for adult schooling. Adult formal education is the product of occupational aspirations and relative position in an occupational hierarchy. Occupational training, on the other hand, seems to be a characteristic of individual occupations. Further, only occupational training is influenced by changes associated with increases in technology. Despite these differences in processes, higher status workers are more likely to return to both types of schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Bell, Lorraine R. Schooling Trajectories: Patterns of Women's Education and Training in Early Mid-Life. Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 1998. DAI-A 59/11, p. 4028, May 1999.
22. Benner, Christopher C.
Navigating Flexibility: Labor Markets and Intermediaries in Silicon Valley
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2000. DAI-A 61/08, p. 3384, Feb 2001.
Also: http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~cbenner/Benner_dissertation_final.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Patterns; Job Tenure; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Surveys; Labor Turnover

This study of the transformation of labor markets, employment, and job tenure in the information/technology industry cites Bernhardt's study of NLSY79 and Young Men data that found that individuals entering the job market in 1979 were 34% more likely to experience job change than those who entered the market in 1966.

The abstract of this paper is as follows:
This dissertation examines labor markets in Silicon Valley in order to contribute to our understanding of the transformation of work and employment in the information economy. The relative newness of the region's economic structure, the dominance of information technology industries in the regional economy, and its role as the global center of innovation and production in these industries, make especially visible patterns of work and employment associated with the rise of information technology. Silicon Valley labor markets are characterized by high levels of flexibility, which is best understood by making a distinction between flexible work and flexibleemployment. The activities that workers perform on the job, the skills required, and the relationships they enter into to perform those activities are changing rapidly in unpredictable ways. Contractual relationships between employer and employee are increasingly characterized by high levels of turnover, short periods of employment, and employment contracts mediated by a set of institutions external to the firm. These dynamics are integrally linked with the character of competition in industries with a high dependence on information and knowledge, in which rapid innovation is critical for competitive success. Firms also pursue flexible employment, however, in an effort to cut costs and shift economic risk. In this environment, employers and workers are turning to a variety of third party intermediaries to help them navigate through an increasingly complex and shifting labor market. Three types of intermediaries are identified and described: 1) private-s ector, including temporary agencies, contractor brokers, professional employer organizations and web-based job search sites; 2) membership-based, including professional associations and union-based initiatives; and 3) public-sector, including employment placement programs and education-based initiatives. These intermediaries have contradictory influences on the labor market, in some cases undermining career opportunities for workers, and in other cases building improved career outcomes. Regardless of their impact, intermediaries have now become integral components of the region's labor markets, shaping the structure and dynamics of work and employment in fundamental ways. The prevalence of intermediaries in Silicon Valley suggests that they will become increasingly central to the structure and dynamics of contemporary labor markets in many regions.

Bibliography Citation
Benner, Christopher C. Navigating Flexibility: Labor Markets and Intermediaries in Silicon Valley. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2000. DAI-A 61/08, p. 3384, Feb 2001..
23. Berger, Jacqueline Eve
Essays In Labor Economics and Public Finance
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Earnings; Economics of Gender; Endogeneity; Gender Differences; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Labor Supply; Social Security; Variables, Instrumental; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap

The first essay investigates how a worker's labor market outcomes are related to the gender of the person who refers the worker to his or her job. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that information networks are highly segregated by sex. In addition, it is found that women who use male contacts have significantly higher wages than those who do not use contacts, and that women who use female contacts have significantly lower wages than those who do not use contacts. Both an instrumental variables technique and a three equation maximum likelihood method are used to address the concern that contacts are endogenous. The second essay examines the Social Security Earnings Test. Prior to 1990, individuals aged 62 to 69 lost one dollar of Social Security for every two dollars earned over the threshold. Starting in 1990, older workers aged 65 to 69 lost only one dollar of Social Security for every three dollars earned over the limit. A differences-in-differences analysis is used, with the 62 to 64 year-olds serving as a control. The results indicate that the reduction in the earnings test penalty leads to a reduction in labor supply for men, consistent with an income effect which dominates the substitution effect. Among single women, there is an increase in labor supply. Changes in marginal tax rates are calculated in order to estimate labor supply elasticities. The third essay examines the effect of an increase in the Earned Income Tax Credit on participation in the Aid to Families With Dependent Children program. In 1990 families received a 14 percent credit, up to a maximum of $953. In 1994 the credit was 26.3 percent up to a maximum of $2038 for families with one child and 30 percent up to a maximum of $2528 for families with more than one child. Using a differences-in-differences analysis with one child families as a control group, I find that the increase in the EITC led to a 3.5 percentage point decrease in AFDC participation for single mothers with more than one child under the age of 18.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Jacqueline Eve. Essays In Labor Economics and Public Finance. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1996.
24. Berger, Mark Charles
Effects of Labor Force Composition on Earnings and Earnings Growth
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1981. DAI-A 42/07, p. 3229, January 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Wages

Two major changes in the structure of male earnings in the U.S. occurred in the early seventies: (1) the earnings of college graduates declined relative to high school graduates, and (2) the earnings of young workers declined relative to older, more experienced workers. At the same time, the labor market entry of the peak baby-boom birth cohorts significantly altered the demographic composition of the labor force. This dissertation examines whether the changes in the demographic composition of the labor force can explain the observed shifts in earnings among male workers. In addition, the impact of cohort size on age-earnings profiles is evaluated. Models of the production process, earnings, and earnings growth are constructed and estimated with data from the March Current Population Surveys and the National Longitudinal Survey. The production function specified employs a finer breakdown of the labor force than is used by other researchers, thus enabling the examination of both of the recently observed major earnings changes within a single, consistent framework. In particular, the model yields estimates of elasticities of complementarity between schooling, experience and sex groups, which are needed to fully evaluate the earnings effects of changes in factor proportions. Shifts in labor force composition apparently explain a substantial amount of the recent earnings changes among male workers. Long run predictions based on the estimated model indicate considerable persistence of lower earnings of college graduates relative to other groups and a lifetime depression in earnings for the members of the large baby-boom cohorts. The analyses of earnings and earnings growth models illustrate that earnings may grow at slower rates in large cohorts. Empirical tests suggest that this is the case for males with at least twelve years of schooling and for female college graduates. For these groups of workers, the earnings depression due to cohort size increases with age, implying that earnings profiles are steeper in small cohorts. The cohort size effects are, moreover, stronger for workers with more schooling, suggesting a continued deterioration over time in the earning power of recent college graduates relative to other workers.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Mark Charles. Effects of Labor Force Composition on Earnings and Earnings Growth. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1981. DAI-A 42/07, p. 3229, January 1982.
25. Berman, Madeline Carol
Educational and Affective Results of Divorce on Adolescent School Age Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers University, State University of New Jersey, 1983. DAI-B 45/02, p. 718, August 1984
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Divorce; Educational Attainment; Marital Disruption; Parents, Single; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This study is designed to determine the effects of divorce on mother custody adolescents on the areas of academic achievement, social performance, attitudes, and a future decision to marry. Models were constructed in accordance with Bronfenbrenner's social dyad and the Becker-Leibowitz economic theories of human development. Major concerns addressed are whether (a) divorce negatively affects these children's performance and (b) whether the variables under examination provide an adequate fit for the Bronfenbrenner and/or Becker-Leibowitz models. The National Longitudinal Survey provides the data base for this study. A subsample of 424 females and 476 males (equal numbers of divorced and nondivorced groups) ages 14-18 was selected. For the Bronfenbrenner model, 'divorce,' 'mother's work' and 'mother's encouragement' were selected as independent variables while 'family income,' 'mother's education,' child's 'IQ' or 'divorce' were examined to test the Becker model. Multiple regression analysis based on path diagrams is used to evaluate the models and to interpret direct and indirect relationships among variables. For both models, children's performance is negatively affected by divorced with greatest impact on the variables 'social deviance,' and 'future marriage' (for girls). For the Bronfenbrenner model, 'years of school completed' is strongly affected by divorce. Although Becker's economic approach yields a greater understanding of the relationships among the variables than does the Bronfenbrenner psycho-social model, the analysis of the data precludes support of either model as a strong predictor of the outcomes of divorce on the child. To effectively assist in the development of children of divorce, educators must understand the effects of the component parts of the models in this study.
Bibliography Citation
Berman, Madeline Carol. Educational and Affective Results of Divorce on Adolescent School Age Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers University, State University of New Jersey, 1983. DAI-B 45/02, p. 718, August 1984.
26. Bitler, Marianne Parcella
Microeconomics of the Family: Three Essays
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998.
Also: http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/9827
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Support; Crime; Family Studies; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Absence; Medicaid/Medicare; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Variables, Instrumental

In this dissertation, I examine the effects of several different government programs on families. The first two chapters focus on different effects of the United States child support enforcement system. The third chapter considers the effects of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children on both pregnancy outcomes for women and developmental outcomes for children.
In chapter one, I examine the effects of the child support enforcement system on absent fathers' allocations of time and money to their children. Children's outcomes in later life are related to a variety of inputs that come from within the family. These inputs increasingly come from absent fathers who can contribute both money and time to their children. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I find that more aggressive enforcement at the state level reduces father-child contact as measured by number of visits and physical distance. Instrumental variables estimates suggest that time and money are substitutes for fathers affected by these child support enforcement mechanisms. In chapter two, I examine the effects of the child support enforcement system on non-custodial fathers' labor supply. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and instrumental variable techniques, I find evidence of both a positive effect of paying any child support on hours of work and of each additional dollar of child support paid on hours of work. These results are consistent with my findings in chapter one--namely that sate (sic) efforts to collect missing child support reduce the time fathers spend with their children.
Chapter two suggests that fathers instead may be working more to comply with child support order.
Chapter three, co-authored with Janet Currie and Duncan Thomas of the University of California at Los Angeles, examines the effects of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), on both pregnancy outcomes for women and developmental outcomes for children. Previous studies have found extensive evidence of positive effects of WIC on a variety of pregnancy outcomes, but few have found any long-lasting evidence of WIC's effects on young children. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that WIC has positive but small effects on some pregnancy outcomes and on some cognitive test scores and on Medicaid and Food Stamp use in family fixed-effect specifications. However, instrumental variables estimates suggest that WIC has a negative effect on one motor skill test score and no effect on other test scores. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries)
Bibliography Citation
Bitler, Marianne Parcella. Microeconomics of the Family: Three Essays. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998..
27. Boudett, Kathryn Parker
In Search of a Second Chance: The Consequences of GED Certification, Education and Training for Young Women Without High School Diplomas
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Education; Continuing Education; Education, Adult; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; High School Diploma; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Skilled Workers; Skills; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Growth; Women's Education; Women's Studies

In an economy which increasingly values skills, can young women without a high school diploma get a second chance? This thesis is comprised of three essays that explore the effects of participating in a variety of education and credentialing programs available to dropouts. The first two essays focus on the impact of the General Educational Development (GED) certificate, college and training on labor market outcomes of female dropouts in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). In these essays, I explore how a dropout's labor market outcomes change in the first decade after leaving school. I predict that upon GED receipt a woman's rate of growth of annual earned income increases more than it otherwise would have, partly due to increased employment probabilities and partly to higher hourly wages. I also show that off-job training provided by proprietary institutions and government agencies (obtained by nearly half of GED holders and one quarter of other dropouts in this sample) is associated with increased hours worked. Effects of college and on-job training, activities which are less common in this population, are more difficult to estimate accurately. The third essay illustrates the practical challenge of using these findings to make policy recommendations. In particular, should public assistance programs make participation in education programs leading toward GED certification mandatory? I investigate whether individuals who participated in basic education as part of California's Greater Avenues to Independence (GAIN) program improved their scores on a test of basic reading and math skills. Using a variety of methods to control for selection, I find that the confidence interval for the effect of basic education is quite wide. The average education participant was scheduled for 500 hours of classes; for the given sample size I can reject neither the hypothesis of no impact nor the hypothesis that education had the same impact on scores that a similar number of hours of education would have had on the scores of students in traditional high schools. I confirm test score impacts for one county which employed innovative education practices, and identify further uncertainty regarding test impacts for individuals with lower initial skills.
Bibliography Citation
Boudett, Kathryn Parker. In Search of a Second Chance: The Consequences of GED Certification, Education and Training for Young Women Without High School Diplomas. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1998.
28. Braatz, Margaret Jay
Achievement and Attitude: the Role of Cognitive Skills and Affective Traits in the Determination of Labor Market Outcomes for Young Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Education, Secondary; Hispanics; Labor Force Participation; Self-Esteem; Wages, Women; Women's Studies

Changes in the economy-the rapid restructuring of US industry, competitive pressures, and technological innovation-have forced the upgrading of occupational skill requirements and increased the role of skills in determining labor force outcomes. Since 1979, two economic trends-a sharp rise in the wage advantage associated with education and the growing wage inequality among workers with the same schooling-have been explained, in part, as an increase in the demand for more skilled workers. However, almost all of the research attention has focused on males and few studies have explored the role of different dimensions of skills unmeasured on traditional tests of academic competencies, despite increasing belief in their importance in the marketplace. Concurrent with the significant economic changes in the labor market as a whole, there have been broad shifts in women's economic status. Over the last twenty-five years women's labor force participation has risen steeply. Today, across all races and ethnicities and across all educational levels and ages, women who work are the rule, rather than the exception. This thesis is comprised of two essays that explore the effects of cognitive skills and affective traits, measured during the high school years, on the subsequent labor market success of young women. The first essay focuses on the impact of skills and traits on the probability of employment and, for those women who are employed, the number of hours worked annually. The second essay focuses on the role these same skills and traits play in the determination of a woman's log wages, for those who do work for pay. Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NYSY) 1979-1994 interviews. The results show that cognitive skills are a major determinant of labor market outcomes for young women, whether they are White, Black or Hispanic, and regardless of educational level. The effect of affective traits is less important, however: while self-esteem has an impact on whether a women works and how many hours she works in 1994, there is no evidence that affective traits impact wages for my sample.
Bibliography Citation
Braatz, Margaret Jay. Achievement and Attitude: the Role of Cognitive Skills and Affective Traits in the Determination of Labor Market Outcomes for Young Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1999.
29. Brown-Peterside, Pamela Gogo Iyabo
The Timing of a First Birth Do Economic, Social and Cultural Capital Matter?
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, April 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Event History; Family Background; Fertility; First Birth; Hispanics; Human Capital; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Motherhood; Racial Differences

Using the National Longitudinal Survey on Youth, this dissertation examines the influence of family background characteristics on the timing of a first birth. A cohort of 14 and 15 year old girls is followed from 1979 to 1990. An adaptation of a framework of capital developed by Patricia Fernandez Kelly with input from the work of James Coleman is empirically tested. A young woman's resources are organized into three interrelated types of capital: economic, social and cultural. Economic capital refers to the financial and educational resources one's family has, social capital signals the resources that exist in the relationships between people, and cultural capital taps into the meanings attached to a birth and motherhood. Several hypotheses are tested using a model with measures of economic, social and cultural capital. The first hypothesis is that the more capital a young woman has, the more likely she is to delay her first birth. The second hypothesis suggests that economic capital will be more predictive than social capital, and social capital will be more predictive than cultural capital in the timing of a first birth. Event history analysis using proportional hazards models is used to test the hypotheses. Racial differences in the risk of a first birth are evident. Both blacks and Hispanics are more likely than whites to experience a birth and to do so at an earlier age. Support is found for both hypotheses. Those young women who not only have more capital, but who also have different kinds of capital are more likely than others to delay their first birth. Economic capital is found to have a greater effect than social capital, and social capital is found to be more predictive of first birth timing than cultural capital. Several intervening events, age at first sexual intercourse and leaving school, are also examined. Both explain the effect of cultural capital, though the significance of economic and social capital remains. Racial differences become more pronounced. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Brown-Peterside, Pamela Gogo Iyabo. The Timing of a First Birth Do Economic, Social and Cultural Capital Matter? Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, April 1997.
30. Brown, Sarah Ann
Potential Effect of Welfare Reform Policies on Promoting Responsible Young Fatherhood
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 1995.
Also: http://osu.worldcat.org/title/potential-effect-of-welfare-reform-policies-on-promoting-responsible-young-fatherhood/oclc/041272021
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Support; Fatherhood; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Mothers, Adolescent; Simultaneity; Welfare; Well-Being

Every social policy has its stockholders. Not the least of these stockholders are the individuals which the policy is intended to serve or affect. Yet all too often policies are implemented without being grounded in a theoretical understanding of the target population Research findings rarely seem to influence the process of policy development. As a result, these policies can have unintended consequences. While social policy is intended to promote well-being, uninformed policy can actually disrupt the lives of those it affects. This study employs a two-tiered, prospective approach to policy analysis which addresses the potential effect of recent child support policies on young unwed fathers of children born to teenage mothers. The analysis makes use of both theory and empirical research and is prospective insofar as it examines the potential effects of a policy not yet fully implemented. A review of the literature of developmental theory elucidates the developmental "double blind" created by the simultaneous transitions to parenthood and adulthood. which may affect young fathers' abilities to meet the responsibility of parenthood. Then, an analysis of the predictors of young unwed fathers' social and financial involvement with their children beyond two years, when many fathers' involvement begins to wane, is carried out using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). This analysis examines the inter-relationship between the payment of child support and visitation at two points in time (shortly following birth and two years later). Statistical analysis was conducted using probit and tobit methods. Results indicate that young fathers who are involved with their children voluntarily sustain both their visitation and child support provision over time. In the concluding analysis, the efficacy of the policies and implementation strategies being used by the states to bring child support enforcement programs into compliance with the F SA and 1993 ORRA is considered. Recommendations are made for making paternity establishment and child support enforcement policies more supportive to the needs of this younger population. Policies need to support responsible young fatherhood in the broadest sense, both social and financial responsibility, and should offer young men an opportunity to be successful in their role as fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Sarah Ann. Potential Effect of Welfare Reform Policies on Promoting Responsible Young Fatherhood. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 1995..
31. Brownfield, David Lee, Father
Return On Cognitive Ability in the Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Iowa, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Intelligence Tests; Tests and Testing; Wage Theory

Cognitive ability affects the wages workers receive for their labor. Cognitive ability is a person's aptitude in thinking, learning and applying knowledge. Many instruments purport to measure cognitive ability, such as Intelligence tests (IQ), The American College Testing Program (ACT) scores, The College Entrance Examination Board's Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), The Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) exam and the Army Service Vocational Battery (ASVB) exam. The instruments found in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) were used to demonstrate that cognitive ability is a significant determinant of the expected logarithm of wages. The term cognitive ability is used as opposed to intelligence deliberately to leave open the possibility that it can be improved with education. Intelligence, which traditionally is measured by IQ scores, is part of cognitive ability. In the analysis, cognitive ability determination is only important for an individual prior to entering the labor market. Cognitive ability, regardless of when and how a person receives it, is a significant determinate of a worker's wages. I demonstrated ASVB, ACT, SAT and PSAT, as found in the NLSY79, are similar measures of cognitive ability valued by employers and further, that it measures something that is not measured by IQ testing. Although IQ is highly correlated with cognitive ability and is a major part of it, it is not a similar measure to ASVB as a measure of cognitive ability. Thus, cognitive ability, as valued in the labor market, is more than just intelligence. Three steps were used to proceed: first, a review of the current literature and trends in the Current Populations Survey (CPS) data; second, a comparison and contrast the ASVB to IQ, ACT, SAT and PSAT; finally, the application of the method of moment to the wage equation using ASVB data and data from ACT, SAT, PSAT or IQ to demonstrate that cognitive ability is a significant determinate of the wage equation and its inclusion affects the premium for educational and racial wage gap.
Bibliography Citation
Brownfield, David Lee, Father. Return On Cognitive Ability in the Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Iowa, 1998.
32. Burrell, Linell
Male Workers' Attitudinal Perceptions of Their Jobs and Their Characteristics: A Two-Cohort Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Analysis; Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Employed Workers

The purpose of this study was to determine if there were job-related attitudinal changes between younger and older male workers and to explore the relationships associated with their job attitude and the differences between the cohorts. The data on the cohorts were part of a data base collected by the NLS. The cohorts used in this study were males between the ages of 20 to 30 and 50 to 64, in the year surveyed. Statistical treatments used were frequency analysis, chi-square analysis, multiple regression analysis and a comparison of means analysis (using program t-test). Significant relationships were found between the cohorts' job attitude and age, class of worker (wage, salary, self-employed and other), income, race and self-esteem measurements (Rotter Scales). Nonsignificant relationships were found between job attitude and the number of dependents (excluding wife), industry (worker was associated with), health and physical limitations, education, marital status and self-esteem measurements (Rotter Scales). It was concluded that: (1) cohort differences related to job attitude were more significant for older workers than for the younger workers; (2) racial differences were diverse between the cohorts; (3) cohort differences measuring self-esteem of the workers were more intrinsic and extrinsic for the older workers than for the younger workers; (4) health-related man hours loss from job was significantly higher for older workers although minority workers of both cohorts had less health-related time loss from employment than their white counterparts; (5) job attitudes and marital status were associated with one another and provided information that was interpreted.
Bibliography Citation
Burrell, Linell. Male Workers' Attitudinal Perceptions of Their Jobs and Their Characteristics: A Two-Cohort Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980.
33. Buster, Maury Allen
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Alcohol Use: DF Analysis of NLSY Kinship Data
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 1997. DAI-B 58/02, p. 1019, August 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adoption; Alcohol Use; Behavior; Family Studies; Gender; Genetics; Hispanics; Kinship; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

Alcohol use and abuse are topics that have been studied for many years. The research, including twin studies, adoption studies, and family history/high risk studies have focused primarily on the genetic or familial ties as related to these topics. Accordingly, results have consistently implied a genetic factor in the determination of alcohol abuse. However, little research has been conducted in search of environmental factors in the determination of alcohol use and abuse. Additionally, recent publications from other areas have documented the importance of 'nonshared' genetic and environmental influences in accounting for the variability in personality measures. This study uses the NLSY dataset and a biosocial modeling approach called DeFries-Fulker (DF) Analysis to estimate the extent of the shared genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use. Additional analyses using an extended version of the DF model are conducted to identify nonshared genetic and environmental effects on alcohol use. DF analyses were conducted for the entire set of kinship pairs in the NLSY dataset, with additional analyses by race and by gender pair. The estimates of heritability (h$/sp2$) and shared environment (c$/sp2$) were small to moderate for the entire dataset for both light drinking and heavy drinking behavior. The h$/sp2$ estimate was slightly higher in each case. Nonshared genetic measures of self-esteem and locus of control accounted for a significant portion of the remaining variance in heavy drinking behavior. DF analyses by race produced interesting findings. Each of the groups--Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics--differed from each other in some form. In each case, the c$/sp2$ and h$/sp2$ estimates were small to moderate for both light and heavy drinking behavior. Significantly nonshared effects were found for the White group for heavy drinking behavior. The gender pair analyses were similar to those by race. Each of the gender pairs--female-female, male-male, and opposite-sex--differed from each other in some form, and the c$/sp2$ and h$/sp2$ estimates were again small to moderate for light and heavy drinking. Significant nonshared effects were found for male pairs for both heavy and light drinking behavior. The results are presented in relation to earlier research findings. Additionally, implications and future directions are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Buster, Maury Allen. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Alcohol Use: DF Analysis of NLSY Kinship Data. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 1997. DAI-B 58/02, p. 1019, August 1997.
34. Cameron, A. Colin
Youth Earnings and Work Experience
Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment; Mobility; Mobility, Occupational; Schooling; Unemployment, Youth; Work Experience

Using data from the NLSY, the annual work experience and the annual earnings of youth are analyzed. Unlike previously available data sets, the NLSY provide data on every job held by youth, and monthly data on school attendance. In the first study, annual work experience is investigated at the level of the individual jobs held by each youth in the sample. In-school and out-of-school youth experiences are separately analyzed. NLSY data for 1978-84 highlight the extent to which employment and schooling are not mutually exclusive. Youth not only exhibit great job mobility, but there is great variation in the hours and wages of the different jobs held. Some jobs may be held simultaneously. In standard economic analyses that use annual earnings, the potential contamination of results because of measurement error in earnings is acknowledged. Without additional information it is impossible to either gauge the magnitude of the measurement error or take corrective action. Such additional information is available from the NLSY, since for each individual in each year, two separate measures of annual earnings are available. In the second study, multiple indicator models are fitted to these two measures of earnings. NLSY data for 1980-84 for out-of-school youth indicate that measurement error accounts for approximately 20 to 30 percent of the variance of the logarithm of earnings, and even more of the variance in the change in the logarithm of earnings. Measurement error is serially uncorrelated. Controlling for measurement error, true earnings need not be differenced, but may follow a process more complex than a simple AR(1) process.
Bibliography Citation
Cameron, A. Colin. Youth Earnings and Work Experience. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1987.
35. Candido, Alberto Da Costa
First Job: Its Determinants and Impact on Early Career
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1983. DAI-A 45/01, p. 145, Jul y1984
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Occupational Status; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition, School to Work

This work focused on the experience of young men and young women as they enter into the labor force. As the entry process is a crucial element within the overall process of social stratification, it was examined in the context of stratification research. Such research has drawn upon three theoretical perspectives to guide data collection and analysis. These are functionalism, neo-Weberian conflict perspective, and neo-Marxism. Each perspective leads to distinctive hypotheses regarding the stratification process, and therefore suggests equally distinctive hypotheses regarding entry into the labor force. These hypotheses were tested with sub-samples from the National Longitudinal Studies (NLS) of Labor Market Experience, conducted by the Center for Human Resource Research of the Ohio State University and the U.S. Department of Labor. These sub-samples were composed of young men and women who reported the occupation of their first job defined as that on which they worked at least a month after having left school full-time. The sub-samples were drawn from two samples representative of the national civilian non-institutionalized population aged 14 through 24. The results showed that the assumptions embodied in the functionalist model of determinants of occupational status and earnings are closer to the facts than the assumptions based upon correspondence theory, a neo-Marxist perspective. The basic Blau-Duncan model was successfully replicated. In comparison with the other perspectives, the assumption that the neo-Weberian model would more adequately account for variation in occupational and earnings attainment of respondents was demonstrated. This model further indicated the relevance of factors such as sex, race, and industrial sector in predicting occupational status and earnings. Results suggested that rather than pursuing analysis of status attainment from diverse theoretical perspectives, the appropriate approach is eclectic. Each perspective identified relevant predictors, and these could readily be combined in an eclectic model. However, even such an eclectic model would not be likely to explain more than one half of the variance in occupational status and earnings. There is need for further research directed at both identifying additional predictors and developing more adequate measures of the predictors now in use.
Bibliography Citation
Candido, Alberto Da Costa. First Job: Its Determinants and Impact on Early Career. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1983. DAI-A 45/01, p. 145, Jul y1984.
36. Carlson, Marcia Jeanne
Family Structure, Father Involvement and Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, August 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavioral Problems; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Divorce; Family Structure; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Presence; Marriage; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Suspension/Expulsion; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Recent changes in the demographics of American families have led to a striking increase in the number of families headed by a single parent. As fewer children spend most or all of their childhood living with two biological parents, concern has risen about the consequences of various family structures for children's development and well-being. This dissertation examines the effects of family structure on adolescent behavioral outcomes and the mechanisms by which those effects operate. Regression analyses are conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for adolescents ages 10 to 14 in 1996. Dependent variables include measures of externalizing and internalizing behaviors such as delinquency, substance use, school suspension and negative feelings. A range of mediating factors is assessed, with emphasis on the role of father involvement. Consistent with previous research, results from this dissertation show significant deleterious effects of single-parent families for children and adolescents. The findings also indicate that most of the effects of family structure can be accounted for by a range of intervening factors and background characteristics. Family structure operates through mediating factors which include the father-child relationship, economic status, and negative peer influence. Father involvement is a particularly important mediator that partially "explains" the greater behavioral problems observed among adolescents in single-parent families. Variations with respect to the effects of father involvement are explored. Involvement by biological fathers is associated with improved behavioral scores for all adolescents regardless of living arrangements, although involvement by residential fathers appears to have a greater effect than involvement by non-residential fathers; these conclusions, however, are tentative and require further analysis using a larger sample of adolescents. Initial evidence indicates that involvement by step fathe rs does not improve adolescent behavior, although the small number of cases living in step families prevents definitive conclusions from being drawn. The level of biological father involvement is strongly associated with the quality of relationship between the mother and the father, particularly for adolescents who live with their biological, married parents.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Marcia Jeanne. Family Structure, Father Involvement and Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, August 2000.
37. Cascio, Elizabeth Ulrich
Quasi-Experimental Analyses of Early Schooling Investments
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2003. DAI-B 64/10, p. 4752, Apr 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at School Entry; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childhood Education, Early; Education; Educational Returns; Labor Market Demographics; Preschool Children; Racial Differences; School Entry/Readiness; Schooling; State-Level Data/Policy

This dissertation draws quasi-experiments from the history of American education to estimate the returns to public investments in the formal schooling of young children. The first chapter analyzes the returns to preschool provision. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, most states in the American South began funding public school kindergartens for the first time, contributing to sizable and rapid increases in kindergarten attendance in the region. Using variation in the timing of state funding initiatives, I find large reductions in grade retention rates among southern blacks aged five near the time of the reform. Similar analyses show a smaller effect on grade progression for southern whites, and little, if any, effect on early high school dropout rates for children of either race. Effects on black grade progression are similar to those observed for targeted, high quality early interventions, though not large enough to justify universal access to the program. The second chapter, co-authored with Ethan Lewis, uses school entry legislation to estimate the effect of a year of schooling on standardized test performance during high school. Because entry laws specify an exact date, they generate sharp differences in average age at school entry, and therefore in average completed schooling among enrolled students of nearly the same chronological age. Constructing comparisons using this regression discontinuity and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that a year of schooling during late adolescence yields small gains to performance on the Armed Forces Qualifying Test. Effects are sufficiently small to argue that age-adjusted scores yield an unbiased measure of skill upon labor market entry and that a year of schooling has a larger effect on attainment when a child is young. The third and final chapter estimates the reliability of the standard proxy for grade repetition, whether a child is enrolled below grade given his age. I find that roughly 80 percent of students are correctly classified by the proxy. School entry legislation plays a key role in misclassification, which will impart severe attenuation bias on regression coefficients in applications where below grade is used as an outcome or explanatory variable.
Bibliography Citation
Cascio, Elizabeth Ulrich. Quasi-Experimental Analyses of Early Schooling Investments. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2003. DAI-B 64/10, p. 4752, Apr 2004.
38. Caughy, Margaret O'Brien
Influence of Early Health Morbidity and Environmental Risk Factors on the Cognitive Functioning of Young School Age Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Health; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Morbidity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care

The purpose of this project was to examine the independent and interactive effects of early health morbidity and environmental risk factors on the cognitive functioning of children as they entered school. A large national sample of 867 children was drawn from the NLSY of five- and six-year olds who completed the 1986 NLSY assessment battery. Data available included reported maternal substance use during pregnancy, length of gestation, birthweight, length of hospitalization after birth, infant health status, daycare participation, Head Start participation, family income, household composition, level of maternal education, quality of the home environment and current child health. The dependent measure included 3 subtests of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT): Mathematics, Reading Recognition, and Reading Comprehension. Analysis techniques included correlation analysis, analysis of variance, and hierarchical multiple linear regression. The results of multivariate modelling was confirmed twice, once on half of the sample that was reserved from multivariate analyses and once on the cohort of children that completed the 1988 NLSY assessment. Results of the analyses indicated that environmental factors had the most significant impact on child outcome. The quality of the home environment mediated most of the effect of the environment although level of maternal education appeared to have some independent effect on reading abilities. There was little impact of health factors on child performance 1986. However, there was a suggestion of some influence of early health morbidity on the change in performance over time. A robust interaction between daycare and income emerged wherein daycare participation appeared to reduce the gap between low income children and their higher income peers.
Bibliography Citation
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien. Influence of Early Health Morbidity and Environmental Risk Factors on the Cognitive Functioning of Young School Age Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1992.
39. Chang, Fang-Hui (Tracy)
A Social Psychological Model of Women's Gender-Typed Occupational Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Iowa, 1998. DAI-A 59/05, p. 1793, Nov 1998
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Ethnic Studies; LISREL; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Segregation; Racial Studies

Jacobs (1989) uses the 'revolving door' metaphor to describe women's gender-typed occupational mobility. He finds that while at the aggregate level occupational gender segregation persists, individual women move between female-dominated, sex-neutral, and male-dominated occupations. This study develops a social psychological model to account for women's gender-typed occupational mobility. The model includes three social psychological processes: experience of sex discrimination, self-efficacy, and gender role ideology. I argue that compared to women in female-dominated occupations, women in male-dominated occupations are more likely to experience sex discrimination, perceive a lower level of self-efficacy, and become more traditional in their gender role ideology because of their lack of resource and definitional power in these occupations. These negative social psychological experiences then drive them out of the male-dominated occupations. The model also specifies the relationships between the experience of sex discrimination, self-efficacy, and gender role ideology. It is argued that experience of sex discrimination reduces self-efficacy and a lower level of self-efficacy in turn leads to a more traditional gender role ideology. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Young Women and LISREL analysis, the study found evidence of two of the hypothesized relationships. First, women in male-dominated occupations report more experience of sex discrimination; second, their lower level of self-efficacy leads to a more traditional gender role ideology. The other arguments, however, are not supported by the data. The study suggests both theoretical and methodological improvements for future research. On theoretical grounds, future studies may consider reconceptualizing the experience of sex discrimination (occupational vs interactional discrimination), self-efficacy (e.g., occupational vs interactional self-efficacy) and gender role ideology (e.g., oc cupational vs interactional gender role ideology) and identifying other social psychological factors (e.g., expectations and aspirations for male-dominated, sex-neutral, or female-dominated occupations). On methodological grounds, future studies need to obtain measures of resource and definitional power, improve the measurement of the social psychological concepts discussed above, and observe the social psychological processes and occupational mobility in a shorter interval.
Bibliography Citation
Chang, Fang-Hui (Tracy). A Social Psychological Model of Women's Gender-Typed Occupational Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Iowa, 1998. DAI-A 59/05, p. 1793, Nov 1998.
40. Chatterji, Pinka
Effects of Adolescent Substance Use on Educational Attainment, Adult Substance Use, and the Adult Wage Rate
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Health Factors; Modeling, Multilevel; Modeling, Probit; Substance Use; Variables, Instrumental; Wages, Adult

The objective of the dissertation is to use three samples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the causal relationship between adolescent use of alcohol and illicit drugs and the following subsequent outcomes: (1) educational attainment; (2) adult binge drinking, marijuana use and cocaine use; and (3) the adult hourly wage. A recursive, four-equation empirical model is developed and estimated using a variety of methods to account for possible endogeneity problems in the substance use measures. The relationship between adolescent substance use and educational attainment is estimated using benchmark ordinary least squares models, two stage instrumental variables methods, bivariate probits, and sibling difference models. The adult substance use models are estimated using benchmark probits, benchmark tobits, and two stage instrumental variables methods involving limited dependent variables. Finally, the wage equation is estimated using benchmark log-linear models and two stage instrumental variable Heckman models. These results indicate that the prevention of adolescent drug use may prevent a range of important, future economic costs associated with negative adult outcomes. Benchmark results indicate that adolescent substance use has a negative impact on educational attainment and a positive effect on adult substance use. After accounting for endogeneity, adolescent substance use has a strong, positive effect on some forms of adult substance use, and adult binge drinking has a significant, negative impact on wages. Surprisingly, when endogeneity is addressed, adolescent substance use no longer has a consistent, negative effect on schooling. All the results provide evidence that parental alcoholism has a strong, positive effect on adolescent substance use and a strong, negative effect on educational attainment. The dissertation findings indicate that substance use prevention programs may prevent future economic costs. Furthermore, the importance of parental alcoholism in the dissertation results supports the idea that substance abuse preventive interventions should be aimed at families in addition to individual adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Chatterji, Pinka. Effects of Adolescent Substance Use on Educational Attainment, Adult Substance Use, and the Adult Wage Rate. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, 1998.
41. Chen, Yu-Hsia
Youth Labor Supply and the Minimum Hours Constraint
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1986
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Income; Labor Supply; Legislation; Minimum Wage; Rural/Urban Migration; Wages

The purpose of this study is to test whether employers offer minimum hours of work, H('d), because of the fixed costs of hiring new workers and minimum wage law. If they do, the standard approach of estimating labor supply functions, which assumes that an individual can always choose his desired hours of work, will result in biased estimation, and in misleading policy implications, as the data of actual hours of work are treated as desired hours of work, while they might simply be the minimum working hours required by employers. The sample, from the 1982 NLSY, contains 194 individuals who are male, single, and high school terminal graduates in 1978 or 1979. The model with the minimum hours constraint (MWMHC) started with a linear labor supply function and a linear minimum hours (H('d)) function. The model without the minimum hours constraint (MOMHC) can be obtained from MWMHC by setting H('d) = 0. The parameters in both models were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. The likelihood ratio test was then used to test the hypothesis that there is no minimum hours constraint, which was rejected. Thus, one will get biased estimates of labor supply functions, at least for youth, if the minimum hours constraint is not taken into consideration. It was shown in MOMHC that the wage and income coefficients estimates are underestimated. As wage rates increase, the increase in minimum hours offered is less than that of desired hours of work. For those individuals working at H('d) hours, the increase in wage rate will increase their actual hours of work less than that of H('s) through the increase in H('d). Consequently, the wage coefficient estimate obtained in MOMHC will be in general underestimated. Similarly, for those individuals working H('d) hours, their actual hours of work stay intact when their nonlabor income changes. This implies underestimation of the income coefficient.
Bibliography Citation
Chen, Yu-Hsia. Youth Labor Supply and the Minimum Hours Constraint. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1986.
42. Chenoweth, Lillian Cochran
Career Patterns and Intragenerational Mobility Processes for Mature American Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A and M University, 1980. DAI-A 41/04, p. 1781, October 1980
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Mobility, Social; Sex Roles; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Work Experience, this research assesses three major life career patterns for mature American women: home, labor force, and mixed careers. The research then evaluates five general propositions and fourteen derived hypotheses concerning: (1) variability in the career patterns of mature American women; (2) differences in the intragenerational mobility of women with mixed and labor force careers; and (3) variations in the frequency of occupational change among women with labor force careers. In the first phase of the research, three general propositions and nine derived hypotheses are tested pertaining to the relationship between women's career patterns and their familial investments, human capital investments, and characteristics of the job and market. The findings provide support for the general propositions. All nine independent variables: marriage, children, mother's employment, husband's income, husband's attitude, health, education, earnings and demand for female labor are significantly related to overall variability in women's career patterns. More specifically, low human capital investments in health and education, as well as high familial investment in a conservative marriage (as reflected by husband's attitude) are associated with disproportionate representation of women with home careers. However, other attributes of familial investments and the job and market are not consistently associated with home careers. These findings suggest that mature American women are likely to experience substantial involvement in the labor force, i.e., mixed careers, regardless of their familial investments, human capital investments, or job characteristics. The second phase of the research assesses differences in intragenerational mobility between women with mixed and labor force career patterns. The findings do not suggest significantly different mobility processes for women with mixed or labor force careers. The three hypotheses regarding differences in the fact, frequency and type of mobility are not supported by the data. Women with these two dissimilar career patterns appear to evidence similar intragenerational mobility processes. The third phase of the research investigates the frequency of occupational change for women with labor force careers. The findings indicate that variables reflecting familial investments, human capital investments, and structural opportunities are correlated with the frequency of mobility. This phase of the research develops a five-variable summary model which explains six percent of individual level variation in the frequency of occupational change for white women and twenty percent for black women.
Bibliography Citation
Chenoweth, Lillian Cochran. Career Patterns and Intragenerational Mobility Processes for Mature American Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A and M University, 1980. DAI-A 41/04, p. 1781, October 1980.
43. Cho, Yin-Nei
The Effect of Tangible Assets and Human Capital on the Economic Well-Being of Women After Marital Disruption
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University, 2001. DAI-A 62/12, p. 4331, Jun 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Economic Well-Being; Endogeneity; Family Income; Family Studies; Human Capital; Marital Disruption; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Women's Studies

Research on the post-disruption economic well-being of women often emphasizes the role of human capital. Asset theories suggest that ownership of tangible assets should affect the economic well-being of women after disruption, but the role of tangible assets has been ignored in the empirical literature. This raises the possible issue of omitted variable bias. This research examines the consequence of omitting tangible asset variables by incorporating tangible asset variables, in conjunction with human capital variables, into a study of the economic well-being of women one year after marital disruption. Tangible asset variables include financial assets, home equity, business or real property, and motor vehicle. Endogenous switching regressions and censored regression are used to analyze the sample of 443 women, who were first divorced or separated in 1985 through 1989, from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. The sample includes 346 women who remained single and 97 women who remarried or cohabited after disruption. Results show that coefficients of human capital variables, for both single and remarried/cohabited women, are consistently higher in models excluding tangible asset variables than in models including tangible asset variables. This confirms the omitted variable bias hypothesis. Specifically, financial assets and vehicle ownership increased both family income and per capita family income for both single and remarried/cohabited women after disruption. Financial assets and vehicle ownership appear to have affected incomes by increasing work hours. Consistent with prior research, however, human capital remains a significant factor of post-disruption incomes of women. Education and work experience increased family income and per capita family income of single women and per capita family income of remarried/cohabited women. Implications for research and policy, including the inclusion of tangible asset variables in similar research and employing tangible asset building as an anti-poverty strategy, are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Cho, Yin-Nei. The Effect of Tangible Assets and Human Capital on the Economic Well-Being of Women After Marital Disruption. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University, 2001. DAI-A 62/12, p. 4331, Jun 2002.
44. Choi, Yoo-Jin
Handgun Carrying Among Young United States Adolescents
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2003. DAI-A 64/01, p. 104, Jul 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Behavioral Problems; Demography; Drug Use; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Handguns, carrying or using; Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Racial Differences; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which handgun carrying is affected by adolescents' demographic characteristics, problem behaviors, experience with violence, sibling influence, peer influence, and social bonding. This research was guided by five questions: (a) To what extent do demographic characteristics predict young adolescent gun carrying? (b) To what extent does the problem behavior theory predict young adolescent gun carrying? (c) To what extent does the self-protection theory predict young adolescent gun carrying? (d) To what extent does social learning theory predict young adolescent gun carrying? and (e) To what extent does social control theory predict young adolescent gun carrying? The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 dataset was used. Four thousand six hundred and forty-nine adolescents aged 12 to 14 were included in this study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the effects of the demographic and predictor variables on handgun carrying. The findings indicate that the strongest predictor of gun carrying is gender. Young males were significantly more likely to carry a handgun than young females. Further, the strongest predictor of handgun carrying was selling or helping sell drugs for male adolescents and gang involvement for female adolescents. Young adolescents were more likely to carry a handgun if they engaged in drinking alcohol, sold or helped sell drugs, became involved in serious fights or assaults, belonged to a gang, witnessed a shooting before age 12, and heard gunshots. Factors associated with an increase in the probability of carrying a handgun, for both male and female adolescents, included gang involvement and witnessing a shooting before age 12. There were no protective factors for female adolescents, while being black and monitored by mother were protective factors for male adolescents. Findings of this study indicated that handgun carrying among U.S. adolescents is related to multiple factors which include family, peers, schools, and neighborhoods. Thus, prevention and intervention programs and family education programs should make an effort to address the risk factors across these multiple contexts. Findings from this study also can provide information that can inform U.S. policy and, in turn, prevent adolescent gun carrying.
Bibliography Citation
Choi, Yoo-Jin. Handgun Carrying Among Young United States Adolescents. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2003. DAI-A 64/01, p. 104, Jul 2003.
45. Chudzinski, James
The Value of Veteran Status in the Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Tech University, 1988. DAI-A 49/08, p. 2337, May 1988.
Also: http://thinktech.lib.ttu.edu/ttu-ir/bitstream/handle/2346/15721/31295005341176.pdf?sequence=1
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Market Outcomes; Military Service; Racial Differences; Veterans; Wages

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of military service on civilian labor market performance. Labor market success was measured by wage rates and occupational status. The data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Men and Young Men for the period 1966 through 1981. The mature men are representative of the World War II generation and the young men depict the Vietnam-era. Labor market outcomes were modeled using ordinary least squares estimation. The decomposition of regression results was used to identify sources of the differential between veterans and non-veterans. The results of the study are (1) veterans of both generations consistently outperform non-veterans, (2) the premium of the World War II veteran appears to be large and permanent, (3) the premium of the Vietnam-era veteran declines in size and significance over time, (4) minority veterans fare better than white veterans, (5) the principal source of the premium among World War II veterans is a superior endowment of characteristics, and (6) Vietnam-era veterans also gain from endowments, but to a smaller degree than the previous generation. Implications of the study are: (1) civilian employers apparently do not use military service as a screening device to sort prospective employees, (2) future military recruitment may be hampered by the perceived position of recent veterans, and (3) current assistance programs for veterans may be inefficient and inequitable as compared to previous programs.
Bibliography Citation
Chudzinski, James. The Value of Veteran Status in the Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Tech University, 1988. DAI-A 49/08, p. 2337, May 1988..
46. Clemans-Cope, Lisa Hilari
Children's Mental Health Service Use in the Community: Static and Dynamic Panel Data Models of the Treatment Effect
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, 2004. DAI-A 65/04, p. 1459, Oct 2004.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=765937561&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; CESD (Depression Scale); Children; Children, Behavioral Development; Endogeneity; Health, Mental; Modeling; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Statement of the problem. The objective of this dissertation is to implement and compare new approaches to measuring the effectiveness of children's mental health treatments in a community setting, especially with respect to the particular problems encountered in non-randomized studies. Static and dynamic models are proposed to address two problems associated with estimating the treatment effect. The first issue is the potential endogeneity of the treatment variables; the second is the possibility of significant dynamics in the structural model to permit certain forms of intertemporal correlation.

Study data sources. The data set for this study is the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 for Children and Young Adults (NLSY79-CHILDYA), which includes 8 biennial waves of data from children who were between the ages of 0 and 14 during the first interview in 1986. Data collected on the children's mothers collected in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) is also used.

Study methods. Static and dynamic empirical models are formulated and estimated. Several approaches to estimation of the static model are presented, including ordinary least squares, fixed effects, and random effects using traditional instrumental variables estimators and the Hausman and Taylor (1981) estimator. Consistent estimation of the dynamic panel data models involves first-differencing combined with instrumental variables methods. Results are shown from the estimation of a mental health production function for children using dynamic panel data modeling techniques including the Arellano and Bond (1991) first-differenced GMM estimator and the Blundell and Bond (1998) system GMM approach.

Results. Treatment variables are found to be endogenous in the mental health production function. Some dynamics are found to be significant and important to estimation. Evidence of treatment effectiveness of community mental health treatments is found in dynamic panel data estimation of antisocial problems. Results indicate that combining counseling or psychotherapy with psychopharmacological treatment may be effective, especially for children with mean antisocial scores in the normal range. Psychopharmacological treatment without counseling or psychotherapy appears to be an effective treatment for children with mean antisocial scores in the dysfunctional range. Conclusion. Dynamic panel data estimation techniques provide a useful new technique for estimating the effectiveness of children's mental health treatments in a community setting. Evidence is found that dynamics in the model are significant. Using the dynamic model with first-differenced GMM estimators, evidence is found that community mental health treatments are effective in reducing antisocial behaviors among youths.

Bibliography Citation
Clemans-Cope, Lisa Hilari. Children's Mental Health Service Use in the Community: Static and Dynamic Panel Data Models of the Treatment Effect. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, 2004. DAI-A 65/04, p. 1459, Oct 2004..
47. Cohen, Patrice Karr
An Alternative Household Welfare Function: An Analysis of Labor Supply Behavior of Married Households
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1983. DAI-A 44/12, p. 3763, June 1984
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Collective Bargaining; Earnings; Marital Status; Slutsky Matrix; Wages

In the dissertation, I develop a household utility function which attempts to capture the insights from the bargaining framework but at the same time is sufficiently simple that closed form solutions for demand equations can be derived. I hypothesize a Stone-Geary utility function for the household in which the subsistence level commodities are interpreted as marriage existence levels of commodities. I then derive comparative statics and analyze the restrictions imposed by traditional household utility analyses. Like others who have worked with price dependent preferences, I find that the comparative statics, and restrictions on demand equations differ depending on the assumptions made about the relationship between prices in the utility function and prices in the budget constraint. I find that if prices in the utility function are the same as prices in the budget constraint, then symmetry of the Slutsky matrix does not hold. Some cross compensated price effects are equal, but others are not. After analyzing the theoretical implications of this utility function, I then estimate the demand equations derived from the theory. The system of equations I estimate is a linear expenditure system, similar to that usually derived from the Stone-Geary utility function. The major difference is that the marriage existence levels are unique to each family, not constant as the subsistence levels usually are. Thus, before estimating the linear expenditure system, the marriage existence levels are estimated. These levels are interpreted as the amount of a commodity the individual would consume if he or she were divorced. In estimating these marriage existence commodities, some assumption must be made about the relationship between the price vector an individual faces when married, and the price vector an individual faces when divorced. I estimate the model under both of these assumptions with regard to women's wages. I find that there does seem to be a significant difference in the structure of wage compensation faced by married and divorced women. After estimating the marriage existence levels, I then estimate the system of earnings functions using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. In order to obtain an indication of the implications of my model, I also estimate a system of earnings functions derived from the linear expenditure system in which commodities are interpreted as subsistence level commodities, and are estimated as constants. The labor supply elasticities derived from these two different models are surprisingly similar. However, to get a better indication of the difference between the two specifications of the linear expenditure system, I use the estimates of both models, obtained with 1968 data, and calculate a predicted labor supply for 1972, using 1972 values for the variables. I find that the predictions of the models in which the barred terms are interpreted as marriage existence levels are closer to actual values than the predictions of the models in which the barred commodities are interpreted as subsistence levels.
Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Patrice Karr. An Alternative Household Welfare Function: An Analysis of Labor Supply Behavior of Married Households. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1983. DAI-A 44/12, p. 3763, June 1984.
48. Cook, Eric William
A Variable Coefficients Analysis of Young Men's Labor Supply Using the National Longitudinal Survey
Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, 1983. DAI-A 44/06, p. 1855, December 1983
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Endogeneity; Heterogeneity; Labor Supply; Monte Carlo; Research Methodology; Statistical Analysis

This study measured the determinants of men's labor supply behavior by integrating the use of high quality labor market data with the best of both empirical and theoretical labor supply modeling. The ten year histories of men's labor market behavior associated with the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men permitted the use of the random coefficients regression (RCR) model which relaxed the usual assumption of homogeneity of individuals' labor supply behavior. This innovation was combined with the best econometric and theoretical features from previous empirical research in order to assess men's labor supply behavior more accurately. There were several important findings of this study. First, when individuals' coefficients were different, a Monte Carlo experiment proved that the RCR estimator was substantially more accurate than both the OLSP and OLSA estimators. Second, the degree of heterogeneity in individuals' labor supply coefficients and variances was found to be so large as to require recognition. This indicated that the OLSP, OLSA, and GLSH estimators were not efficient. Third, the final results were sensitive to: (1) the omission of education from the labor supply equation; (2) the use of a non-random sample; and (3) not adjusting the estimation method to account for the endogenous explanatory variables in the labor supply equation. Fourth, the coefficient and elasticity estimates indicated individuals' responsiveness to changes in both the wage rate and income was extremely low. This estimated inelasticity was even more pronounced than the inelastic labor supply estimates obtained in previous empirical research. Finally, it was found that the variations in individuals' labor supply coefficient responses were significantly explained by a number of background variables. The emphasis upon individuals' heterogeneity in labor supply behavior was an important contribution of this study for empirical modeling in this area. Since the theory of labor supply begins at the individual level, empirically modeling individual differences represents a coalescence of theory with the econometric application which heretofore has not been attempted.
Bibliography Citation
Cook, Eric William. A Variable Coefficients Analysis of Young Men's Labor Supply Using the National Longitudinal Survey. Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, 1983. DAI-A 44/06, p. 1855, December 1983.
49. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Outcome of Adolescent First Premarital Pregnancies: The Influence of Family Background
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Background; First Birth; Household Composition; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Simultaneity; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This research focuses upon how aspects of family background influence how adolescents in the United States resolve a first premarital pregnancy. Comparatively sparse attention has been paid to adolescent premarital pregnancy resolution, and previous studies that have addressed the issue have been flawed by a number of common problems. Often all three choices (abortion, out-of-wedlock parenthood, or marriage to legitimate the birth) have not been modelled as separate outcomes, and when thvis has been done, the data used have not been from a national sample precluding nationwide generalizability of results. In this research, data from the NLSY are utilized which provide a sufficiently large case base, and a diversity of racial/ethnic, religious and family structure backgrounds. Most importantly, these data reflect a conscious effort to collect quality abortion reports and thus enable the three pregnancy outcome choices to be segregated from one another, but simultaneously modelled. Pregnancies occurring between February 1973 and March 1982 are included in the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression is performed to analyze these data since the dependent variable of pregnancy outcome is comprised of three categories. The independent variables utilized (age at first conception, religious affiliation, race/ethnicity, parental education, family structure, and number of siblings), measure a number of family background characteristics hypothesized to effect how the adolescent resolves her first premarital pregnancy. All of the predictor variables (excluding religious affiliation when not modelled as part of an interaction term with race/ethnicity) were found to be significant predictors of adolescent premarital pregnancy resolution. Some, for example, race/ethnicity, parental education and number of siblings, were found to be especially powerful. The findings of this study may be put to good use in helping to pinpoint areas where services such as counselling to aborters, and provision of advice, and material goods to adolescent parents may be best provided. [UMI ADG88-22487]
Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C. Outcome of Adolescent First Premarital Pregnancies: The Influence of Family Background. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 1988.
50. Cordero-Guzman, Hector Ruben
Educational Attainment, Labor Force Participation and the Wages of White, African-American, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic Young Males During the 1980's
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Ethnic Studies; Hispanics; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Minorities, Youth; Racial Studies; Wage Determination; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth

This dissertation is intended as a theoretical and empirical contribution to the social science literature on education, employment, and wage determination. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) I analyze patterns of educational attainment, labor force participation and wages for a cohort of white, African-American, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic young males and I estimate the relative importance of individual, family, school, community, and labor market level factors on each of these outcomes. I examine the process of educational attainment as a function of various individual, family, and school level characteristics and find that ethnic disparities in educational attainment are partly attributable to differences in family and school level resources. I then explore patterns of entry into the labor force and find that racial/ethnic/ national origin differences are attributable not only to disparities in education but also to differences in the effects of labor market and community level characteristics. My analysis of wages reveals that ethnic differences are attributable not only to disparities in educational attainment but also to divergence in the process of entry into the labor force and in the characteristics of the labor markets where minorities concentrate. The central theoretical point of this thesis is that to account for and explain differences in educational attainment, labor force participation, and wage growth, social science research on stratification needs to analyze not only individual level attributes but also social disparities in material and cultural resources, differences in institutional practices, and differences in the structural level conditions that set the parameters under which individuals operate. From a public policy perspective our approach suggests that solutions to the unique disadvantages of minority youth must be anchored in a detailed analysis of the connection between the individual, structural, and temporal dimensions of stratification. Solutions that reduce the nature of the educational and labor market difficulties of minority youth to putative individual inadequacies, inefficiencies, attitudes, and cultural deficits are bound to fail because
Bibliography Citation
Cordero-Guzman, Hector Ruben. Educational Attainment, Labor Force Participation and the Wages of White, African-American, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic Young Males During the 1980's. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1995.
51. Cowell, Alexander Jonathon
The Role of Schooling in Binge Drinking and Smoking
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999.
Also: http://webcat.lib.unc.edu/record=b3440691~S1
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); College Graduates; Education Indicators; Endogeneity; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Labor Economics; Taxes

Although researchers agree that the higher educated engage in healthier behaviors, they have not yet uncovered the reason for this empirical regularity. This dissertation directly addresses this question in order to determine appropriate policy interventions that may lead to healthier behavior. It investigates the role of schooling in binge drinking and smoking. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I find that detailed semi-parametric controls for the endogeneity of schooling eliminate much of the effect of education on binge drinking. The effect of education on smoking, however, remains after controlling for endogeneity. The literature suggests two distinct theoretical explanations for the negative relationship between schooling and smoking, but it contains no practical guidelines for distinguishing between the competing explanations.

This dissertation develops a testable hypothesis that isolates the reason for the estimated relationship. The competing explanations are an efficiency mechanism and future opportunity costs. The efficiency explanation is that the more educated will allocate resources away from unhealthy behaviors into healthier behaviors, and so are less likely to smoke (allocative efficiency), and/or they are better producers of health and so are less likely to smoke (productive efficiency). The alternative explanation of future opportunity costs asserts that the more educated have higher expected future income and so have more to lose from smoking. To develop a testable hypothesis, I make use of degree effects--the phenomenon of a discontinuous jump in earnings once a person gets a degree. Only future opportunity costs will lead to degree effects appearing in the health behavior equations. Neither efficiency mechanism could cause such degree effects.

Several simulations are run to examine the effects of policies that operate via future opportunity costs on the health behaviors. These simulations show that the policies considered here do little to deter binge drinking. Moreover, despite the evidence that future opportunity costs deter smoking, only the extreme policy of forcing high school completion seems to have any impact on smoking. By comparison, raising cigarette taxes seems to have a relatively large effect on deterring both smoking and binge drinking.

Bibliography Citation
Cowell, Alexander Jonathon. The Role of Schooling in Binge Drinking and Smoking. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999..
52. Cox, Amy Gabrielle
Demand For Labor And The Dynamics Of Women's Poverty In The United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Ethnic Differences; Family Background; Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Labor Economics; Racial Differences; Schooling, Post-secondary; Welfare; Women's Studies

Recent welfare reform assumes that the number of jobs is adequate to keep women employed and out of poverty. Focusing on the quantity of jobs, I ask whether women who live in areas with high labor demand are less likely to fall into and more likely to climb out of poverty than women who live in areas with lower demand.

I answer this question with an analysis that links macro- and micro-level data to assess the effect of labor demand on women's movement into and out of poverty. Labor markets are highly segregated, and general measures of labor demand tend to obscure differential demands for specific race-gender groups. I create an annual measure of labor demand by standardizing the occupational distributions of counties by the national gender and racial-ethnic compositions of individual occupations. I use event history techniques and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1994, and the U.S. Census, 1980 and 1990, to conduct the analysis.

Comparing women by race-ethnicity, I demonstrate the prevalence of poverty entrance and exit among women aged 19 to 36 and the influence of local labor demand on changes in their poverty status. I find that the demand for labor affects women's movement into and out of poverty, although not always in expected directions nor for all women. In addition, labor demand influences women's poverty exit more than it influences their poverty entrance. These results maintain when controlling for family, individual, and background characteristics.

The findings shed light on factors that policy makers need to address to lower poverty among women. My focus on the demand for labor has special policy relevance in light of recent welfare reform, and I discuss implications of the results for research and public policy that relate to women's poverty.

Bibliography Citation
Cox, Amy Gabrielle. Demand For Labor And The Dynamics Of Women's Poverty In The United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1997.
53. Crawley, Brenda
Determinants of Labor Force Participation during the Retirement Decade: An Analysis of Aged Black Males and Aged White Males
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, 1981. DAI-A 42/02, p. 857, August 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Retirement

The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of labor force participation during the retirement decade ages 60 to 69 for black males and white males. Not only the present crisis in retirement income maintenance programs but impending demographic trends for the aged make much more important the question of work force attachment for this group. Additionally, research findings suggest contradictory factors affecting labor force participation for white aged and for black aged. Logic would indicate that white workers have higher incomes and better jobs and therefore white workers would have less need to work during the retirement decade. Given higher income levels and more past labor force participation then there should be higher pension benefits, greater savings, and more security as one faces retirement. The aging white might be expected to gain by retirement and withdrawal from the labor force. Black workers, on the other hand, will have had less pension entitlement, lower incomes and less savings. Therefore, black workers will be forced to continue labor force participation in greater numbers. A body of research supports this common sense observation. There is, however, a second common sense proposition which is drawn from the literature and is equally attractive and which reflects the opposite observation noted above. Due to structural inequalities of several kinds one can assume that white workers have more attractive and interesting jobs and better health and in general more opportunity to continue employment. Other factors being equal, one might expect that white workers would more often remain in the labor force and would earn higher income as they did so. This study investigated socio-economic factors which impact on aged participation during the retirement decade. While the primary focus of the study was descriptive, the following hypothesis based on available but limited research was tested: Older white males are more likely than older black males to have higher labor force participation rates during the retirement decade when income, education, and age are held constant. Labor force participation during the retirement decade was the dependent variable, race was the independent variable, and income education, and age were the control variables. The basis unit of study was a cohort of 2,111 men aged 60 to 69 in 1976. The study sample and data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys, a joint project of Ohio State University Center for Human Resource Research and the United States Bureau of the Census. The hypothesis of higher white labor force participation rates relative to blacks was rejected. Under the light conditions of control, the dominant pattern was higher rates for blacks. This finding held for upper and lower income status, well and less well educated, and 'young' and 'old' aged blacks. Further research is recommended to determine if these findings are indicative of new patterns of aged labor force participation, i.e. patterns which will result in greater labor force attachment by blacks over time. If future research confirms such a pattern, national manpower legislation and policy will need to be adjusted to be more responsive to aged worker needs.
Bibliography Citation
Crawley, Brenda. Determinants of Labor Force Participation during the Retirement Decade: An Analysis of Aged Black Males and Aged White Males. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, 1981. DAI-A 42/02, p. 857, August 1981.
54. Cunningham, Susan Mary
Shift-Work Patterns Among Youth: A Three-Year Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1986. DAI-A 47/09, p. 3577, March 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Gender Differences; Income; Industrial Sector; Private Schools; Racial Differences; Shift Workers; Unemployment, Youth; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This dissertation examines shift work (day versus nonday work hours) from a sociological perspective, applying some concepts rooted in the dual/segmented labor-market literature to an analysis of shift distribution at one point in time and patterns of shift changes over a three-year period. The operationalizations derived from this literature are sector, labor market (high/low capacity jobs), race, and gender as predictor variables. Marital status, income last year (a proxy for experience in the labor force), college student status, full-time/part-time employment status, and age were added as control variables. The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort for 1980, 1981, and 1982. The method employed is log-linear analysis of multi-dimensional contingency tables. Both the bivariate and multivariate hypotheses reflect a general theme, the proposed negative-impact principle. For bivariate associations, this principle states that position in or possession of the more negative category or trait (with respect to the labor force) of the respective independent variables will increase the likelihood of a person's working nonday hours. For higher-order interactions, this principle suggests that, for the more negative level of a conditioning variable, the effect of an independent variable on shift is greater, such that a combination of negative characteristics of two independent variables significantly increases the probability of a worker's location on a nonday shift. The results support the application of this principle: For both analyses, the sector/shift relationship is stronger for workers who hold low-capacity jobs and who report lower incomes. For shift pattern, the sector/shift relationship is stronger for students and for unmarried respondents. For shift distribution, a student/shift and employment-status/shift association is stronger among lower-income respondents. The gender variable conforms to the negative-impact principle but not in the predicted manner. Race shows no association with shift work in terms of either a main effect or higher-order interactions with other variables. The age variable is similarly unrelated at the bivariate level and appears only weakly in a higher-order interaction in both analyses.
Bibliography Citation
Cunningham, Susan Mary. Shift-Work Patterns Among Youth: A Three-Year Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1986. DAI-A 47/09, p. 3577, March 1987.
55. Dar, Amit
The Dynamic Behavior of Job Mobility: A Specific Human Capital Approach
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Economics; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Occupational; Modeling; Socioeconomic Factors; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth; Work History

Individual inter-firm mobility has recently become a topic of growing interest. Different strands of the literature have attempted to explain the underlying causes of mobility. Here we focus on the relationship between human capital accumulation, wage growth and mobility and attempt to address some previously unanswered questions. This study investigates the effect of contemporaneous and future wage differentials on mobility and how these relate to the competitiveness of the labor markets. We also study the effect of human capital accumulation and individual socio-economic characteristics on individual mobility decisions. The behavior of mobility over time is also examined. A structural dynamic model of job mobility is constructed and estimated. Individuals maximize their utility while deciding whether to stay on the contemporary job or to move to an alternative occupation. Individual mobility decisions are shown to be guided not only by the current utility levels, but also by the effect of current decisions on future choices. The model is estimated on a subsample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set. The NLSY contains detailed information on individual socio-economic as well as workhistory characteristics. Due to the panel nature of the data, unobservable, time invariant, individual specific effects are introduced in the form of random effects. The reduced form parameters of the model are estimated using dynamic programming maximum likelihood techniques in conjunction with a Gaussian quadrature procedure to integrate out the individual effects. The structural estimates are recovered by a minimum distance estimation method which involves using reduced form parameters along with the estimates of the wage equations. The results show that wages on the current and alternative wages have a significant impact on mobility. No evidence is found to support the existence of racial or gender barriers to mobility. These results suggest that t he U.S. labor markets are competitive. Accumulation of specific capital is shown to lead to a decline in mobility. The data shows that, over time, mobility does not follow any trend and this is predicted quite well by the model.
Bibliography Citation
Dar, Amit. The Dynamic Behavior of Job Mobility: A Specific Human Capital Approach. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 1993.
56. Dethlefs, William W.
Employment and Welfare Reform: The Relationship Between Occupational Welfare and Job Tenure of Former Welfare Recipients
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, December 2002. DAI-A 63/07, p. 2693, Jan 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Benefits, Fringe; Education; Employment; Job Tenure; Job Training; Training; Welfare

In 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 was passed. This act replaced AFDC with TANF, imposed lifetime limits on continued eligibility, and required employment for all participants. Despite the high profile of welfare-to-work, direct employer involvement and outreach was overlooked in this legislation. This exclusion continued a deleterious effect on the low job tenure (less than six months) of former welfare recipients, which is about one-tenth that of the overall population of working women in the United States. This research was initiated to investigate the various occupational welfare roles that employers have in prolonging job tenure of former welfare recipients. Organizational socialization theory provided the framework for the research. It includes the pre-entry phase, where job preparation and pre-employment training are addressed. It also includes the encounter phase, a period encompassing the first six months of employment, when the employer first offers fringe benefits. Using 1998 employment data from the 1979-1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, access to fringe benefits, among other variables, were analyzed for their effect on job tenure using a post-welfare sample and a comparative sample of women without a welfare history. The findings suggest access to employer provided fringe benefits does prolong job tenure, particularly through the availability of health and life insurance, retirement, and parental leave. Of non-employment variables, education had the greatest effect on job tenure. These data suggest higher levels of educational attainment have a significant and causal relationship with longer job tenure. As a means of ensuring welfare reform's success and in light of lifetime limits on welfare eligibility, several recommendations are made based on this research. Employer partnerships should be encouraged with all state and local governments. The private sector, particularly the small employer, employs the majority of former welfare recipients; as such they too stand to gain significantly from such a relationship. Provision of pre-employment training and post-high school education should also be supported. Together these strategies can contribute to an overall increase in wage levels, fringe benefit availability, job security, and permanent, instead of serial employment, for former welfare recipients.
Bibliography Citation
Dethlefs, William W. Employment and Welfare Reform: The Relationship Between Occupational Welfare and Job Tenure of Former Welfare Recipients. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, December 2002. DAI-A 63/07, p. 2693, Jan 2003.
57. Dexter, Emily R.
Literacy Development in United States Families: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Effects of Maternal Literacy, Maternal Schooling, Family Income, and Home Literacy Supports on Children's Growth in Reading
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Ethnic Differences; Family Income; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

This thesis presents a secondary analysis of data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (C-NLSY), a federally funded study of U.S. mothers and children. Using data from an analytic sample of 1,537 children and their 677 mothers, multi-level modeling is used to analyze longitudinal data on children's literacy development and the literacy supports available in their home environments. The sample overrepresents mothers who had their children as teenagers or young adults. The thesis addresses four set of research questions: (1) What are the patterns of literacy development amongst U.S. children? How much variation is there within and across families? Are there differences in the estimated average trajectories of children in White, African-American, and Latino families? (2) Do maternal literacy, maternal schooling, and family income predict children's rates of growth in reading? To what extent do these variables explain differences between the average trajectories of White, African-American, and Latino children? (3) How do mothers change their provision of literacy support as their children age? Do maternal literacy, maternal schooling, and family income predict the level of literacy support that children receive at home? (4) Does the level of literacy support that children receive at home predict their rates of growth in reading? The results suggest that the majority of U.S. children make substantial progress in reading during the primary school years, but there is wide variation within and across families in the rate at which children acquire reading and in their achieved adolescent reading abilities. The results also suggest that African-American and Latino children show growth rates in reading that are, on average, slower than the rates of White children. Maternal literacy, maternal schooling, and family income are positively associated with children's developmental trajectories, and these variables explain some of the differences between the trajectories of White, African-American, and Latino children. Furthermore, maternal variables and ethnic group predict the amount of literacy support that children receive at home. The amount of home literacy support children receive is positively but weakly associated with reading trajectories, controlling for maternal literacy and schooling and family income.
Bibliography Citation
Dexter, Emily R. Literacy Development in United States Families: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Effects of Maternal Literacy, Maternal Schooling, Family Income, and Home Literacy Supports on Children's Growth in Reading. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2000.
58. Dickerson, Niki Tanya
Race/Gender Economic Inequality: The Confluence of Residential and Occupational Segregation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan 2003. DAI-A 64/06, p. 2267, Dec 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Studies; Gender; Industrial Relations; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Studies; Residence

The labor market is one of the most critical sites in which race, gender, and class inequality converge. I argue that racial stratification in the labor market is shaped by the social organization of the surrounding local labor market, which is manifest in patterns of residential segregation. Residential segregation is hypothesized to influence labor market outcomes in two ways: indirectly, via its effect on educational attainment, a critical determinant of labor market outcomes, and directly, independent of the effect of education. This study utilizes a longitudinal design, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and Census Microdata to map the level of residential segregation experienced during an individual's youth onto two adult labor market outcomes, employment status and occupational segregation. This study examines: (1) the indirect effect of residential segregation on blacks' and whites' labor market outcomes in logistic and ordinary least squares regression models by assessing its influence on educational attainment. (2) the direct effect of residential segregation on labor market outcomes in logistic and ordinary least squares regression models while controlling for education. Race/gender interactions were added in the employment status analyses to assess the differential impact of residential segregation by race/gender. The results revealed that blacks and whites from metropolitan areas with lower levels of residential segregation attained more education and were more likely to be employed. Interaction effects revealed that the effect of residential segregation on employment status differed by race/gender status. With regard to occupational segregation, black workers from metropolitan areas with lower residential segregation scores were less likely to work in occupations overrepresented by blacks: occupations which tend to be lower in occupational prestige and consequently pay. This effect is strongest when black women and men are compared separately against white men. Residential segregation had no effect on occupational segregation for white workers.
Bibliography Citation
Dickerson, Niki Tanya. Race/Gender Economic Inequality: The Confluence of Residential and Occupational Segregation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan 2003. DAI-A 64/06, p. 2267, Dec 2003.
59. Dickey, Bret Michael
Participation Dynamics in Low-Income Housing Assistance Programs
Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits; Exits; Geographical Variation; Household Composition; Income; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Welfare

In 1998, President Clinton signed the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act into law. Like the welfare reform law that preceded it, a major goal of housing reform is to help residents of assisted housing make the transition from welfare to work. Despite the fact that low-income housing assistance is one of the largest U.S. welfare programs, we know little about the dynamics of participation in these programs. This dissertation analyzes how housing benefits affect housing assistance participation by young women, addressing two important challenges that have hampered previous studies. First, I use an empirical model that accounts for the fundamental characteristic of housing assistance--it is rationed. Second, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (including a special geographic supplement), I am able to correctly match local housing benefits to individuals. To allow for the effects of rationing, I estimate a dynamic rather than static model of housing assistance participation. Using a hurdle negative binomial model, I analyze the time spent in assisted housing by women during the 11 years between ages 18 and 28. I find that housing benefits (measured by the local Fair Market Rent) have a large and statistically significant effect on participation. Single mothers living in high-benefit areas stay substantially longer in assisted housing than do those in low-benefit areas. Consequently, assisted units in high-benefit areas turn over less frequently, resulting in fewer single mothers receiving any housing assistance in these areas. Supplementing the NLSY with administrative data on the composition of assisted housing, I extend this model to allow for separate effects of tenant-based and project-based housing assistance. While the results have the expected sign, I do not find statistically significant differences between the two types of assistance. Finally, I expand this analysis by examining exits from assisted housing using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. I find that few exits are consistent with the standard welfare-to-work story. In fact, the majority of household heads have relatively little change in their own economic circumstances surrounding exits, whereas changes in family and household composition seem to be very important.
Bibliography Citation
Dickey, Bret Michael. Participation Dynamics in Low-Income Housing Assistance Programs. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1999.
60. Donohue, John Joseph, III
A Continuous-Time Stochastic Model of Job Mobility: A Comparison of Male-Female Hazard Rates of Young Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1986. DAI-A 48/10, p. 2694, April 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Earnings; Gender Differences; Heterogeneity; Job Tenure; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits; Wage Gap; Work Attachment

This study examines male and female hazard rates in the periods 1968-1971 and 1979-1982 using data for young workers from the various samples of the National Longitudinal Surveys. Contrary to a number of previous micro-data studies, I demonstrate that for the period 1968-1971 female workers quit their initial full-time jobs at substantially higher rates than male workers. Moreover, while male hazard rates show a monotonic decline, female rates show a nonmonotonic u-shaped pattern, which I attribute to a 'birth effect'--young women leaving the labor force to have children. For the period 1979-1982, however, young women had become almost indistinguishable from young men in terms of job tenure, attachment to the labor force, and percentage of workers who are professional, managerial, and technical. The finding of the equality in hazard rates between male and female workers in the later period was invariant to different parametric assumptions about the nature of duration dependence and the existence of unobserved heterogeneity. Two factors contributed to the elimination of the first-job 'tenure gap' between young men and women: (1) women's increased commitment to the paid workforce, and (2) their increasing age at the time of first marriage and/or first pregnancy. Evidence from examining the last job held during the sample period suggests that these factors delay, but do not entirely eradicate, the point at which women begin to leave their jobs at a higher rate than men. In the period 1968-1971 the female-male ratio of expected tenure on initial full-time jobs was 59% and the corresponding ratio of earnings was roughly 73%. By 1979-1982, the tenure gap closed and the earnings gap had narrowed to almost 90%. Since the narrowing of the wage gap seems to lag the narrowing of the tenure gap, the direction of the causation may be from lower tenure to lower wages. [UMI ADG8728124]
Bibliography Citation
Donohue, John Joseph, III. A Continuous-Time Stochastic Model of Job Mobility: A Comparison of Male-Female Hazard Rates of Young Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1986. DAI-A 48/10, p. 2694, April 1988.
61. Duncan, Kevin Craig
The Impact of Structural Change on Human Capital and Dual Market Theories of Racial Earnings Disparity
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Utah, 1987. DAI-A 48/08, p. 2129, Feb 1988.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_impact_of_structural_change_on_human.html?id=FIHdNwAACAAJ
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Earnings; Educational Returns; Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; School Quality; Schooling

The human capital approach to racial earnings disparity suggests that the distribution of earnings may be altered by altering the distribution of skills among members of the work force. Early human capital theorists placed emphasis on increasing the quantity of schooling as a means of increasing skills; however, the theory has been modified to recognize the importance of the quality of schooling in improving the skills of labor. Empirical studies on the quality of schooling have suggested that as racial differences in educational quality have narrowed so have differences in earnings between black and white males. The literature on school quality suggests that differences in earnings can be explained by the quality of training undertaken by blacks and whites before they enter the labor market. My research has found that there is little evidence to support the orthodox hypothesis regarding the relationship between school quality and earnings. Using an index of school quality from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Young Men, regression results indicated that increases in educational quality were associated with reduced earnings for whites, but did not significantly contribute to the earnings of blacks. The significant and negative school quality coefficient may indicate that higher educational quality induces young white males to attain higher schooling levels and postpone their entrance into the labor market. However, increases in school quality do not perform the same function for young blacks. In addition, the results of the human capital regression model were sensitive to the period in which the model was estimated. In 1968, black and white males were rewarded with higher earnings for higher levels of labor market experience. However, in 1978, only white males continued to be rewarded for their labor market experience. These results suggest that racial differences in earnings cannot solely be attributed to differences in the quality of training undertaken before blacks and whites enter the labor market.[UMI ADG8724278]
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig. The Impact of Structural Change on Human Capital and Dual Market Theories of Racial Earnings Disparity. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Utah, 1987. DAI-A 48/08, p. 2129, Feb 1988..
62. Dunn, Thomas Albert
Essays on the Economic Linkages Among Family Members
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University 1993
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Family Background; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Market Outcomes; Pairs (also see Siblings); Racial Differences; Transfers, Financial; Wage Equations; Wage Rates; Work Hours

Four essays examine the links between the labor market experiences and economic outcomes of individuals who are related by blood or by marriage using panel data on family member pairs from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience. The first chapter provides estimates of inter- and intragenerational correlations for a broad set of labor market outcomes. The second chapter estimates a factor model of earnings hours and wages and investigates the extent to which the parental and family characteristics that drive wage rates and work hours independently of wage rates are responsible for similarities among family members in labor market outcomes. The third chapter studies the extent to which the education and experience slopes of wage equations are influenced by parental characteristics and family background variables that predict years of education completed. The fourth chapter investigates the influences of family structure and the earnings of parents and children on the flow of inter vivos cash transfers.
Bibliography Citation
Dunn, Thomas Albert. Essays on the Economic Linkages Among Family Members. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University 1993.
63. Edwards, Debra Ann
Social Class and Racial Differences in the Antecedents of Unwed Adolescent Childbearing
Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Black Studies; Childbearing, Adolescent; Ethnic Studies; Family Studies; Fertility; Parents, Single; Poverty; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Work Knowledge

Although the number of births to unwed teen mothers has been declining over the past two decades, the social and economic consequences of unwed teenage motherhood are quite high. The adolescent mother suffers from long-term lowered educational and occupational attainment. By some estimates, she is expected to lose seventy-five percent of her lifetime income compared to women who postpone childbearing until their twenties. The adolescent mother is also more likely to be in poverty and receive public assistance. The social costs of adolescent motherhood include welfare and AFDC payments and neonatal medical expenses and are estimated at over 16 billion dollars annually. Previous research has discovered higher rates of pregnancy for minorities and lower class youths and have found many predictors of adolescent motherhood. Some researchers have found that these predictors vary by race, while others have focused on social class but, to date, no one has looked at the combined effects of race and social class in determining differences in predictors of teen motherhood. It is expected that there are different factors motivating black lower class teens to choose unwed motherhood than those that motivate Black middle class or White lower class teens. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study found several differences as well as similarities in predictors of teenage motherhood across race, social class and ethnic class.
Bibliography Citation
Edwards, Debra Ann. Social Class and Racial Differences in the Antecedents of Unwed Adolescent Childbearing. Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University, 1993.
64. Emberson, Heather V.
A Longitudinal Analysis of Single, Female Labor Force Participants' Net Worth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University, 1988. DAI-B 49/10, p. 4259, Apr 1989
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Assets; Employment; Income; Occupations; Retirement; Women

Being old and female in America often means being alone and poor. To offset this outcome financial preparation for retirement should begin in the pre-retirement years. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the financial preparedness of mature, single women as they approach retirement by examining the relationships of economic, demographic and attitudinal variables to net worth. Data were drawn from the NLS of Mature Women for a sample of white and black women who were single during the 15 year period and who were in the labor force in 1967. Analysis of Variance, t-tests, simple linear and segmented, step-wise multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Race was a significant factor throughout the study. For regression analyses, previous income, education, attitude toward women working if it is necessary to make ends meet, and the respondent's job category were all significant variables. The findings indicate that this mature female sample does not accumulate assets at a rate that would suggest economic self-sufficiency in retirement. Recommendations include educational programs that address women's attitudes toward working and saving. [UMI ADG89-00146]
Bibliography Citation
Emberson, Heather V. A Longitudinal Analysis of Single, Female Labor Force Participants' Net Worth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University, 1988. DAI-B 49/10, p. 4259, Apr 1989.
65. Febbo-Hunt, Maria
The Other Side of the Track: Curriculum Tracking and the Pathway to Delinquency
Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2003. DAI-A 64/02, p. 668, Aug 2003.
Also: http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/handle/1840.16/3004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Education; Modeling, Multilevel; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

This dissertation examines whether school track location contributes to involvement in juvenile delinquency. First, I hypothesized both a direct and an indirect effect of track location on involvement in juvenile delinquency. Second, I hypothesized grade point average (GPA) would be negatively related to involvement in delinquency. Lastly, I hypothesized peer exposure would affect involvement in delinquency. Specifically, youth located in a non-academic track, with lower grades, and higher levels of negative peer exposure will be more likely to engage in delinquency. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and employing Poisson and Negative Binomial regression techniques, I found the following. There are no significant direct effects of tracking on delinquency for the multivariate models. Further analyses show there are indirect, negative effects, via GPA, of being in the general/college-prep and the combination track versus the vocational track on rates of committing additional types of property offending. Youth in the general/college-prep track earn higher grades relative to students in the vocational track, who, in turn, have lower rates of engaging in additional property offenses. For the remaining three delinquency models, there appear to be no indirect effects of tracking via grade point average. For status, violent and overall offending, exposure to negative peers results in higher rates of committing additional types of offending. For property offending, there is only an indirect effect of negative peers on offending. What does this study have to say about schooling and delinquency? First, academic achievement matters with respect to involvement in delinquency. Second, there is evidence that track location has an indirect effect on the commission of additional types of property offenses. Combined other research findings illustrating other undesirable outcomes of tracking, we must ask, "is this structuring of students worth the cost relative to the pedagogical benefits?" Further research is warranted to fully answer this question, thus I advocate bringing tracking 'back in' to comprehensive studies of juvenile delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Febbo-Hunt, Maria. The Other Side of the Track: Curriculum Tracking and the Pathway to Delinquency. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2003. DAI-A 64/02, p. 668, Aug 2003..
66. Finer, Hampton Sequoia Carlos
Wage Determination and Firm Performance in the Presence of Individual and Firm Heterogeneity
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Firm Size; Firms; Heterogeneity; Mobility; Unemployment Insurance; Wage Determination

The first chapter examines mobility and wage determination patterns in the presence of firm and worker heterogeneity. The data comes from a confidential but non-proprietary quarterly wage sample gathered by the Washington State Unemployment Insurance System. The data contain wage and hours data, along with firm and worker identifiers. Wage components are estimated using a regression-based approach that exploits the presence of repeated observations on several mobile workers in each firm. These estimates are aggregated into employer size and industry groups to examine the components of industry and firm-size wage variation. It is found that both individual and firm heterogeneity is important with individual heterogeneity being somewhat more important. The second chapter is an analysis of the relationship between unobserved firm and worker wage components and broad market-based and financial performance of the firm. This essay exploits a brand-new data source I have built with John Abowd under a joint agreement between the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Center for Human Resources Research and the National Opinion Research Center. The project matches the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth respondents' self-reported employer names with sources of company information on publicly and privately held firms. The data covers the survey years from 1986- 1994 and includes annual data for roughly 10,000 respondents and 200,000 employer-years. Firm and individual effects are estimated using a variety of statistical techniques. These components are then related to financial and market data for the publicly held sub-sample of employers. The third and final chapter of my thesis is an investigation of firm investment behavior and collective bargaining outcomes. Wage data is taken from a sample of contracts collected by the Bureau of National Affairs. The contracts are linked to balance sheet information on firm performance and investment behavior for firms in each contract. A simultaneous system of equations for realized bargaining power and investment demand is estimated under an assumption of efficient contracts and Nash-bargaining over enterprise quasi-rents. There is a small but significant disincentive to invest as union bargaining power increases, but the effect is smaller than previous studies have suggested.
Bibliography Citation
Finer, Hampton Sequoia Carlos. Wage Determination and Firm Performance in the Presence of Individual and Firm Heterogeneity. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998.
67. Firestone, Juanita M.
The All Volunteer Force and American Youth: An Attitudinal and Demographic Comparison
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1984. DAI-A 46/04, p. 1105, Oct 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Military Personnel; Military Recruitment; Sex Roles; Well-Being

The primary focus of this research is on the variabilities in attitudes among civilian and military youth in America. Under conscription, military service was seen as an act of citizenship and contribution to the collective well-being. The emerging all-volunteer structure replaces this sense of duty with motivations based on labor market considerations: pay, benefits, alternative employment opportunities, etc. Data for analysis were obtained from the youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of the Youth Labor Market Experience conducted by the Center for Human Resource Research of Ohio State University. A comparison of the demographic profiles of civilian and military youth revealed several important differences. As expected, blacks are overrepresented and women are severely underrepresented. The Military group is somewhat older than the civilian group. Individuals in the military with the exception of white males are more likely to have completed high school but less likely to continue their education beyond a high school degree. The military group is also underrepresentative of white males with at least a high school diploma. Next we compare attitudes about job satisfaction and sex appropriate roles using multivariate analysis. We found that overall job satisfaction was lower in the military sample, and that interaction patterns for each group were different. The analyses of attitudes towards sex roles revealed that military status itself did not directly affect perceptions of sex appropriate roles. However, being in the military interacted with the other control variables to reinforce and intensify present attitudes. Thus, women in the military held less traditional sex role attitudes than civilian women, while military men had more traditional sex role attitudes than civilian men. Our conclusions are that criteria affecting the attitudinal dimensions inherent in choosing a job or occupation are not universal constants (ie., always guided by market place standards), but are specific to the organizational environment. In other words, the present format for recruitment and retention in the All Volunteer Force--economic incentives--may not be the best means of insuring a representative and voluntary military.
Bibliography Citation
Firestone, Juanita M. The All Volunteer Force and American Youth: An Attitudinal and Demographic Comparison. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1984. DAI-A 46/04, p. 1105, Oct 1985.
68. Flinn, Christopher Jay
Behavioral Models of Wage Growth and Job Change over the Life Cycle
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1985
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Job Turnover; Labor Economics; Life Cycle Research; Wage Growth; Work Histories

Bibliography Citation
Flinn, Christopher Jay. Behavioral Models of Wage Growth and Job Change over the Life Cycle. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1985.
69. Flood, Mary Fran
Does Chronic Illness Increase Children's Risk for Impaired Peer Relationships? A Longitudinal Exploration of the Relationship Between Childhood Asthma and Social Vulnerability
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Nebraska - Lincoln, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Asthma; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Home Environment; Children, Illness; Family Income; Gender Differences; Health Factors; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

This study investigated the social vulnerability of children with asthma in a large, longitudinal, national sample. Data from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample (NLSY-C) were analyzed to identify differences in the quality of peer relationships between children with asthma and a comparison group of healthy peers. The 1994 NLSY-C sample consists of 6,974 children younger than 15 years old who were available for interview and assessment in 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, or 1994. In the current study, 262 children with asthma and a matched comparison group of healthy peers between the ages of 4 years and 14 years in 1994 were selected from the 1994 NLSY-C. The study explored ways in which specific child (gender), family (financial status and emotional support), and illness (degree of medical limitation) characteristics were related to social vulnerability, and described those relationships over a four-year time period between 1990 and 1994. In addition, it examined the degree of congruence between mother and child reports of social vulnerability. Results suggest that children with chronic illness, in general, are at no greater social risk than their healthy peers. Factors associated with social risk appear to differ for children with asthma and their peers, and the extent of medical limitation may be related to chronically-ill children's vulnerability. Increased family support and economic opportunity may function as protective factors for children, whether or not they have a chronic illness. In addition, the current findings indicate that, despite moderate stability, there are significant changes in social vulnerability over time. Results augment recent evidence that mothers and their children view the quality of the children's social relationships differently, and provide substantial support for the growing belief among pediatric psychologists that multi-method, longitudinal studies are needed to improve understanding of how children cope successfully with illness. Copyright: Dissertation Abstracts.
Bibliography Citation
Flood, Mary Fran. Does Chronic Illness Increase Children's Risk for Impaired Peer Relationships? A Longitudinal Exploration of the Relationship Between Childhood Asthma and Social Vulnerability. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Nebraska - Lincoln, 1998.
70. Frazis, Harley Jay
Diploma Effect
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1988. DAI-A 49/12, p. 3825, Jun 1989
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Bayesian; College Education; College Graduates; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

This dissertation deals with the college diploma effect on earnings. A "diploma effect"--a particularly large return to completing the final year of college compared to earlier years of college--has been found in some studies but not in others. The major part of the dissertation examines the existence of the diploma effect. Most of the analysis is performed using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the NLS of Young Men. OLS analysis of earnings reveals that neither the addition of IQ, allowance for different time paths of earnings for different educational levels, or interaction of schooling with other characteristics accounts for the diploma effect. To correct for selection bias, a model of choice of level of educational attainment and earnings is developed. The results of correcting for selection bias indicate that selection bias does not account for the diploma effect in either data set. A sensitivity analysis (performed using a Bayesian technique developed by Leamer) shows that the results are not sensitive to the exclusion of family background variables from the earnings equation. Estimated diploma effects are not consistently statistically significant in the NLS or in the PSID. Increasing the sample size by combining the NLS or the PSID with the 1970 Census--treating IQ and selection bias correction terms as missing observations in the Census--the estimated diploma effects greatly increase in magnitude, and the effects are consistently statistically significant. The final part of the thesis examines explanations of the diploma effect. A version of the Spence screening model where family background variables affecting the cost of schooling are observable to both the employer and the analyst implies that selection bias correction should account for the diploma effect. A version where family background variables observable to the analyst are not observable to the employer is not supported by the data. A model is developed where workers signal that they know the degree is expected by obtaining the degree. If such knowledge is correlated with productivity, and under certain conditions, an earnings differential for the diploma above that reflecting the acquisition of human capital can be sustained as one of multiple equilibria. [UMI ADG89-03016]
Bibliography Citation
Frazis, Harley Jay. Diploma Effect. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1988. DAI-A 49/12, p. 3825, Jun 1989.
71. Fung, Lily Chia-Ning
The Minimum Wage and Gender Differences in the Employment of Young Adults
M.A. Thesis, California State University - Fullerton, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Industrial Relations; Minimum Wage; Wages, Women

This study analyzes the possible differences in the effects of minimum wage increases on the probabilities of continued employment for young female and male adults. The study is conducted by using panel data on individuals collected from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The findings show that the effects of increased federal minimum wages in 1990 and 1991 on the probability of continued employment were statistically insignificant and small for young female adults who were earning near the current minimum wage. However, minimum wage increases had small but sometimes positive and statistically significant effects on employment probabilities of young male workers. Employment probabilities of low-wage young adult female workers were reduced when the federal minimum wage increased in 1990 and 1991. Meanwhile, employment probabilities of young adult male workers showed a slight improvement when the minimum wage increased in 1990 and 1991.
Bibliography Citation
Fung, Lily Chia-Ning. The Minimum Wage and Gender Differences in the Employment of Young Adults. M.A. Thesis, California State University - Fullerton, 1997.
72. Garcia, Federico
Determinants of Drug and Alcohol Use at Work: A Test of the Efficiency Wage Theory
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Illegal Activities; Training; Work Reentry

Use of alcohol and illicit drugs at work costs American business and industry billions of dollars each year in productivity losses. These losses result from work errors, wasted materials and supplies, as well as tardiness and "on-the-job absenteeism". They also result from the poor decision making at all levels of management. These productivity losses are compounded by the increased re-hiring and training costs. Browne Miller (1991) classifies the effects of employee drug use on productivity in three: (1) Poor job performance. (2) Increased absenteeism. (3) Poor interpersonal relationships on the job. In this paper I will analyze the determinants of the use of illicit drugs and alcohol at work. I use a sample of youth cohort drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of the Work Experience of Youth in the year 1984.
Bibliography Citation
Garcia, Federico. Determinants of Drug and Alcohol Use at Work: A Test of the Efficiency Wage Theory. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 1993.
73. Gardner, Nicole P.
Linking Parental Work Experiences to Adolescents' Future Orientation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2004. DAI-B 65/02, p. 1050, Aug 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Income; Occupational Attainment; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parental Influences; Transition, School to Work; Work Experience; Work Hours

For many young people, the experiences that parents have with work carry implications for their outlook on the future, and possibly for their educational achievement and occupational attainment. Despite the potential for parents' jobs to influence adolescents' future orientation, there have been few investigations of how parents' work experiences relate to adolescents' orientation to future education or employment. This dissertation uses three studies to explore how the characteristics of parents' jobs and their work experiences relate to adolescents' thoughts, plans, and outlooks on the future. The first study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine how mothers' work hours, wages, and occupational complexity predict adolescents' educational aspirations and expectations. Using data from a local sample of adolescents, the second study examines how adolescents' perceptions of parents' jobs predict their optimism about educational and employment prospects. The third study continues the investigation using qualitative interviews with adolescents to explore themes reflective of the link between parents' jobs and adolescents' future orientation. Results from these three studies indicate that parents' work experiences matter for how adolescents think about their educational and occupational futures. The more favorable parents' experiences with work, the more optimistic adolescents are about their futures. For adolescents whose parents have unfavorable experiences with work, parental support and adolescents' mastery appear to buffer any negative effects of parents' jobs on adolescents' future orientation. These findings suggest implications for interventions and policies aimed at fostering successful transitions from school to work for all adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Gardner, Nicole P. Linking Parental Work Experiences to Adolescents' Future Orientation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2004. DAI-B 65/02, p. 1050, Aug 2004.
74. Garen, John Edward
The Effect of Firm Size on Wage Rates
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1982. DAI-A 43/01, p. 229, Jul 1982.
Also: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1269533065
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Control; Firm Size; I.Q.; Industrial Classification; Modeling; Skilled Workers; Wage Rates

A substantial amount of empirical work in the economics literature has verified the correlation between firm size and wage rates is positive and significant, even after controlling for standard measures of worker quality. However, little theoretical work has been done to explain this regularity. In addition, the empirical analysis presented here rejects a number of simple explanations for the firm size effect on wages, including the union threat model. A model of wage rate determination is developed which yields implications about wage structure in large and small firms. The model focuses on the desire of firms to evaluate the abilities of their workers. It is assumed that self-selection devices do not sort workers perfectly, thus a substantial variation in ability remains for a given set of observable characteristics. The firm can insure the retention of its highest ability workers, as well as those of lower ability, by paying everyone the opportunity wage of the most able. Alternatively, it can save on its wage bill by attempting to evaluate workers' abilities and paying each his opportunity wage. It is shown that the wage required to maintain the quality of the firm's labor force is smaller, the more accurate the firm's evaluation is. Due to hierarchical 'loss of control,' large firms encounter higher costs of evaluating workers, thus rely more on paying wage premiums. The model is consistent with the observed correlation between firm size and wages, but it also is supported by other evidence. It is shown that larger firms' less accurate evaluations lead to a smaller return to measured ability for workers in large firms. Results using the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men indicate this is the case, where IQ is used as a measure of ability. Furthermore, wage dispersion should be smaller among workers in large firms because large firms, having inaccurate evaluations, cannot differentiate well among workers. Again, the data support this. The model is a lso consistent with findings regarding the educational attainment and productivity of workers in large firms. Thus, the model is well supported by the data.
Bibliography Citation
Garen, John Edward. The Effect of Firm Size on Wage Rates. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1982. DAI-A 43/01, p. 229, Jul 1982..
75. Gebregziabhair, Tegegne
A Comparative Study of Migration: Depressed and Non-Depressed Regions
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Migration; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Regions; Regions, Depressed; Rural/Urban Differences

This study examines differences in migration behavior between depressed and non-depressed regions. The analysis is motivated by the literature which reported a lower propensity of mobility for the people from depressed regions and by the failure of migration to endure that income converges between regions over time. The study uses individual data from the youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) and develops a synthesis model of migration. The central premise of the models is a systematic differentiation between the people of depressed and non-depressed region to location specific and non-location specific human capital location preference, contextual factors, and overall behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Gebregziabhair, Tegegne. A Comparative Study of Migration: Depressed and Non-Depressed Regions. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1993.
76. Geddes, Lori Ann
Incentives, Teams and the Organization of Work: Evidence from the United States and Australia
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, 2002. DAI-A 63/08, p. 2965, Feb 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Australia, Australian; Benefits, Fringe; Cross-national Analysis; Gender Differences; Job Tenure; Labor Force Participation; Simultaneity

Firms that want to increase worker productivity can choose between many human resource management (HRM) practices. The key is knowing which schemes fit best with the type of workers employed by the firm. Since the workforce is not homogeneous, responses to HRM practices will not be the same for all firms. The best HRM practice will depend on many factors, including but not limited to, labor force attachment, expected tenure, and the organization of the firm. While establishments with higher proportions of females are more likely to use piece rates, individual data show that women are, if anything, less likely to receive individual based incentive pay. Analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in the first chapter shows that both results are simultaneously correct because women are much less likely to be paid commissions and bonuses. The hypothesized model demonstrates that lower expected tenure and labor force attachment are positively associated with piece rates but are negatively associated with other types of individual incentive pay, such as commissions. Detailed analysis of commissions among sales workers and piece rates among craft and operative workers supports this hypothesis. Using data from the 1995 wave of the Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey (AWIRS), chapter two estimates the determinants of four different types of employee involvement (EI) teams; autonomous groups, quality circles, joint consultative committees, and task forces. EI gives the worker more control over their working environment. The results confirm that team production, as proxied by workers with long expected tenure and high labor force attachment, is associated with an increased likelihood of using EI. Yet, women, often thought less likely to be in team production processes, are no less likely to be in establishments using EI. Previous studies on the effects of HRM schemes on firms' productivity generated mixed results. This leaves one searching for an alternative measure that captures the benefits of adopting such schemes, like absenteeism. In chapter three, evidence from the AWIRS indicates that absenteeism is lower in firms using various types of HRM schemes, like, flexible scheduling, incentive pay, and EI teams. However, the results for incentive pay and employee involvement teams are not as robust as the results for flexible scheduling, implying that workers are absent more for sociological reasons, like illnesses and transportation problems, than for economic or psychological reasons.
Bibliography Citation
Geddes, Lori Ann. Incentives, Teams and the Organization of Work: Evidence from the United States and Australia. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, 2002. DAI-A 63/08, p. 2965, Feb 2003.
77. Geer, Edward Marshall
Relationship Between Participation in Vocational Education, Pay, and Employment of 16- to 21-Year-Olds in the Continental United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1984. DAI-A 46/01, p. 134, Jul 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Labor Force Participation; Rural Sociology; Self-Reporting; Urban and Regional Planning; Vocational Education; Vocational Training

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between participation in vocational education and pay and employment of civilian 16- to 21-year-olds in the continental United States. Data for this research were obtained from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience for the years 1979, 1980 and 1981. Data were collected from 11,406 civilian non-institutionalized youth who were not enrolled in school at the time of the interview. Three criterion variables were used in this study: labor force status, employment status, and hourly rate of pay. The following variables were used: age, race, gender, marital status, responsibility for the support of dependents, high school diploma (or GED), location of current residence (Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area - SMSA), whether residence is urban or rural, collective bargaining, local unemployment rate, and participation in vocational education. This study utilized the self-reported method of participation in vocational education as well as transcript data contained on the NLS computer tapes. Three methods of analysis were applied to the data. Cross-tabulation was utilized to determine the relationship between participation in vocational education and labor force status. Least squares regression was used to determine the relationship between the variates and the criterion variable hourly rate of pay. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the variates and employment status. The findings were of two types: variates that showed a distinct relationship with the criterion variable; and those which were significant because they did not show any relationship with the criterion variables. Of the former, only the year 1979 and utilizing transcript data, did the total for males and females show a positive relationship for each additional Carnegie Unit earned in vocational education when regressed on labor force participation. Also, for 1979, males and the total for males and females showed a positive relationship for each additional Carnegie Unit earned when regressed on employment. Males, for 1980, who gave self-reports for participation in vocational education, showed a negative relationship when regressed on employment. No relationship exists between the other variates and the criterion variables.
Bibliography Citation
Geer, Edward Marshall. Relationship Between Participation in Vocational Education, Pay, and Employment of 16- to 21-Year-Olds in the Continental United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1984. DAI-A 46/01, p. 134, Jul 1985.
78. Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Resource Allocation to Children in Families: A Comparative Analysis Using Stepfamilies
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Bargaining Model; Families, Two-Parent; Family Structure; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Stepfamilies

In this dissertation I compare stepfamilies (as one type of two parent family structure) with intact families (as another type of two parent family structure) to empirically examine hypotheses about resource allocation within families. Specifically I examine the hypotheses that (1) biological preferences affect resource allocation within the household, and, in turn, may account for documented differences in child outcomes between children in two biological parent families and stepchildren in stepfamilies; and (2) with biological preferences the impact of each parent's resources on child outcomes may significantly differ and thus, some types of married couple households may allocate resources through household bargaining. The empirical work is implemented using a sample of children aged 5 through 10 from 1986 to 1994 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Female/Child data. The child well-being measures include the PIAT achievement test score and the HOME Cognitive Subscore. If biological ties motivate the allocation of resources, then stepchildren, who have only one biological parent in the family, may be considered private goods within remarriage. Empirically, this hypothesis leads to testable implications about the effect of the presence of halfsiblings, stepsiblings and the effect of family income. I find some evidence of biological preferences and that, relative to children living in nonblended families, having a halfsibling or stepsibling has a negative impact on child outcomes for all children. My results also suggest that for young children there are benefits (via stepfather income) associated with a social environment that differs from that which existed while in single mother families. These benefits slightly mitigate the detrimental effects of resource allocation or of living in a blended family. With the basis of preferences being tied to biological membership and children as private goods within marriage, stepfamilies provide an alternative to t esting against the unitary model of household decision-making with respect to child outcomes. I test the income pooling hypothesis and the significance of other measures of bargaining power on child outcomes for children with two biological parents and stepchild outcomes. I reject the income pooling hypothesis in stepfamilies and fail to reject this hypothesis in families with two biological parents. These results suggest the appropriateness of a bargaining framework for modeling resource allocation within a stepfamily.
Bibliography Citation
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush. Resource Allocation to Children in Families: A Comparative Analysis Using Stepfamilies. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998.
79. Georges, Annie
Racial and Ethnic Differences of the Effect of the GED Test on Entry into and Exit Out of Poverty Among Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1998.
Also: http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/ER/detail/hkul/2687946
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): First Birth; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Gender Differences; High School Diploma; Hispanics; Mothers, Adolescent; Poverty; Racial Differences; Teenagers; Women's Studies

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) policy requires women and teenage mothers to earn a high school diploma or pass the general educational development (GED) test in exchange for temporary benefits. This basic requirement is in place to assist these women in finding employment that will reduce poverty. The objective of this thesis is to assess the effect of the GED test on entry into and exit out of poverty among women. It also evaluates the effects of employment and teen childbearing. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this study finds that women who pass the GED test have a higher probability of entry into and a lower probability of exit out of poverty than high school graduates. However, investing in the GED test offers some benefits because relative to high school dropouts GED holders have a lower probability of entry into and a higher probability of exit out of poverty. Moreover, GED holders who continue on to college are equivalent to those with only a high school diploma. Although education matters for all women, blacks and Hispanics have a higher probability of entry into and a lower probability of exit out of poverty than whites. This suggests lower returns to education may be due to discrimination and occupational segregation that restrict blacks' and Hispanics' access to high-paying jobs. The analysis shows that it is the presence of additional children that significantly affects poverty, and not so much the timing of the first birth. It suggests that teenage mothers who have few subsequent births have the same probability of entry into and exit out of poverty as women who postpone birth. That is, as labor force participation is limited due to the presence of additional children the family's available resources are reduced while at the same time their needs are increasing. These factors combined increase the probability of poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Georges, Annie. Racial and Ethnic Differences of the Effect of the GED Test on Entry into and Exit Out of Poverty Among Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1998..
80. Geschwender, Laura Ellen
The Consequences of Job Loss for the Likelihood, Extent, and Stability of Later Employment
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling, Probit; Part-Time Work; Racial Differences; Sex Equality; Transition, Job to Job; Unemployment

The risk of job loss threatens workers across occupations and industries and alters the quality of life of those who experience it. The purpose of this research is to examine the long-term consequences of job loss for several labor market outcomes, including becoming reemployed, leaving the labor force, working part-time involuntarily and voluntarily, and the likelihood of experiencing subsequent job loss or making other job transitions. I compare the effect of job loss not leaving one's job as well as to other voluntary and involuntary job transitions. Finally, I determine whether the effect of job loss differs by sex, race, and age, thereby exacerbating race and sex inequality in the employment outcomes. Using pooled cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) from 1987 to 1994, I look at each of these outcomes up to five years after the year when I measure whether a job loss or other transition took place. I estimate random-effects probit models to determine the lagged effect of experiencing a job loss or making other job transitions on the employment outcomes for each of the subsequent five years. My research demonstrated that experiencing a job loss did in fact decrease the likelihood of being employed up to four years later and increased the likelihood of leaving the labor force up to five years later, net of control variables and of subsequent job transitions, relative to not leaving one's job. I also found that experiencing a job loss increased the likelihood of working part-time and part-time involuntarily up to five years later. Finally, my research indicated that experiencing a job loss increased the likelihood of experiencing a subsequent job loss and making other subsequent job transitions. The effect of experiencing a job loss did not differ significantly from the effect of making other job transitions. The effect of job loss on the employment outcomes I examined did not differ by sex, race, or age. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that job loss had negative consequences for the likelihood, extent, and stability of later employment for up to five years later.
Bibliography Citation
Geschwender, Laura Ellen. The Consequences of Job Loss for the Likelihood, Extent, and Stability of Later Employment. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1998.
81. Ghosh, Mistu
A Longitudinal Analysis of Welfare Use and Educational Attainment Among Teenage Parents: Comparing the Effects of Socioeconomic Background with Age and Marital Status at Childbirth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University, 2002. DAI-A 63/03, p. 1145, Sep 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Attainment; Family Studies; Mobility, Economic; Parents, Single; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers; Welfare

Between the 1960s and early 1990s, unprecedented numbers of unwed teenage women gave birth and then used public assistance to support themselves and their children. To outraged conservatives, this trend proved that teenagers were abusing the welfare system by having children outside marriage and then using welfare money to support their indolent lifestyles. The liberals counter-argued that since an overwhelming majority of single teenage mothers were poor and socially disadvantaged, they would have received welfare irrespective of whether they had postponed childbirth. The liberals therefore believed that poverty and lack of opportunity for upward social and economic mobility were the underlying causes of single teenage births and welfare use. Set against the backdrop of this debate and using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths data, in this study I follow the life experiences of 225 single teenage parents between 1979 and 1993 in order to examine how parenthood affected their educational or welfare status. I also examine how their experiences differed from their peers, who were of the same age but had children either after they were married or after they were relatively older. Furthermore. I study the influence of childhood socio-economic status on men and women's later life chances, regardless of their marital and fertility status. Lastly, I compare the educational attainment of single teenage mothers with that of single teenage fathers. My findings show that irrespective of their socio-economic backgrounds, having children as teenagers increased single women's chances of receiving welfare for longer periods. However, their childhood socio-economic status had a much larger impact on men and women's later educational status than their age and marital status at childbirth. Finally, even though single teenage mothers experienced greater day to day child-care responsibilities, their educational attainment was at par with that of single teenage fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Ghosh, Mistu. A Longitudinal Analysis of Welfare Use and Educational Attainment Among Teenage Parents: Comparing the Effects of Socioeconomic Background with Age and Marital Status at Childbirth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University, 2002. DAI-A 63/03, p. 1145, Sep 2002.
82. Gifford, Kirk D.
Signaling in the Market for GED Graduates: Empirical Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Continuing Education; Education, Secondary; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Human Capital; Labor Market Outcomes; Quits; Retirement; Self-Employed Workers; Tests and Testing; Training, On-the-Job

The General Educational Development (GED) is becoming increasingly popular as a means to high school certification. As sponsor of the GED, the American Council on Education markets a GED credential as equivalent to a diploma obtained through the traditional high school route. The council suggests that GED graduates are comparable to high school graduates in terms of higher educational and vocational success. Recent economic research has generated considerable controversy over this claimed equivalency. This dissertation develops a game theoretical, signaling model that describes the market for high school credentials and empirically tests the model to investigate the differences between the labor market outcomes of traditional high school students and the labor market outcomes of GED credentialed individuals. The data for the empirical analysis come from 1979-93 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Standard regression analysis is used, with corrections for existing selection biases. I find evidence to suggest that GED test takers are a heterogenous group. Those who take the exam shortly after dropping out of high school, signal high ability to the market and are paid a high wage, while those who take the exam later in life are paid a lower wage. Specifically, examining a sample of NLSY females, I find that those who take the GED early have comparable wages and work slightly more than those who graduate from a traditional high school. A sample of NLSY males suggests that early GED test takers do not fare as well as their high school counterparts, but do better than dropouts who don't take the exam. For males, these age-at-examination-date effects are eliminated when I correct for selection bias, suggesting that the GED is not an investment in human capital, but acts purely as a signal of ability and motivation. Conversely, the distinction between signaling and human capital development is not as clear for females.
Bibliography Citation
Gifford, Kirk D. Signaling in the Market for GED Graduates: Empirical Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1996.
83. Gonzalez-Martinez, Claudia Alejandra
Racial Discrimination And Costs of Labor Force Participation
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2003. DAI-A 64/11, p. 4153, May 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Employer; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Hispanics; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Modeling; Skills; Wage Determination; Wage Differentials; Wage Models

Most explanations for persistent discrimination rely on the observability of productive characteristics. It has been assumed that constructing accurate ability assessments is harder when employer and employee belong to different groups. Thus, if employers are dominated by one demographic type, a different wage schedule for each group results. Previous studies have failed to consider costs of labor force participation. The introduction of these costs leads to a fall in the mean productivity of workers as their signals become noisier. My dissertation develops and tests a statistical discrimination model that internalizes these costs. The first chapter develops a static model of statistical discrimination where, as the result of an outside alternative and a sunk investment in education, minorities are paid lower wages. The second chapter presents four extensions to the model. The first two consider costs of participation that are a function of ability. The third considers several levels of education. The fourth recognizes that the discriminatory outcome is the result of informational disparities because employers belong to a single group. Hence, I endogenize the decision of becoming a firm. If the presence of minorities in the population is large enough, discrimination disappears. However, since complete segregation is not sustainable, if minorities are a small proportion of the population, this group may exhibit lower average productivity than the dominant type in the labor force. The empirical predictions are that, conditional on facing the same costs, minorities are more likely to graduate from high school and are paid lower and flatter wage schedules. The third chapter explores these predictions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). Evidence that low ability blacks and Hispanics are more likely to complete high school than comparable whites is found. Regressions of the logarithm of wages conditional on skills, shown that blacks receive lower wages than the other two groups. Hispanics are paid flatter wages than whites, but the Hispanic-white wage gap is totally accounted for by skill differences. These findings are consistent with a model of statistical discrimination with costly labor market entry.
Bibliography Citation
Gonzalez-Martinez, Claudia Alejandra. Racial Discrimination And Costs of Labor Force Participation. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2003. DAI-A 64/11, p. 4153, May 2004.
84. Goosby, Bridget J.
The Impact of Poverty Duration on Youth Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3500, Mar 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Home Environment; Children, Well-Being; Demography; Depression (see also CESD); Family Studies; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Life Course; Marital Status; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Health; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Welfare

Drawing upon the life course perspective and a theoretical framework synthesizing human capital and cultural capital perspectives, this study tests the effects of poverty experiences on the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of young adolescents. This study addresses several questions: (1) What is the effect of poverty experiences on adolescents' cognitive and behavioral outcomes, and how do these outcomes vary by race? (2) Does maternal mental health, maternal behavior, and home context mediate the effect of poverty experiences on adolescent outcomes? (3) Do prior behavioral problems and test scores affect behavioral problems and test scores of adolescents? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the effects of poverty experiences on adolescent behavioral problems and test scores is examined for 1824 African American and white adolescents aged 10 to 14. The explanatory measures used to predict adolescent behavioral and cognitive outcomes included: poverty experience (poverty duration and welfare receipt duration), maternal psychological resources (mastery, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem), and parenting and context in 1994 and 1996 (cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and physical context). The analyses also include child background characteristics (age, race, and sex) and maternal background characteristics (years of education, AFQT scores, age at child's birth, and marital status). I employ ordinary least squares regression to examine the impact of the explanatory variables on adolescent behavioral problems and test scores. An intervening model is used to test the mediating influence of maternal psychological resources, parenting behavior, and physical context on the relationship between poverty experiences and adolescent outcomes. I found that poverty duration significantly increases adolescent internalized and externalized behavioral problems, and significantly reduces Reading and Math test scores. The detrimental impact of poverty is stronger for white adolescents than for African American adolescents. I also found that maternal psychological resources, parenting, and physical context mediate poverty's effect on adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest the desirability of continued efforts to alleviate the effects of economic strain on poor families. Also, the strong effects of maternal mental health suggests that more emphasis on improvements to maternal and child psychological well-being should be addressed.
Bibliography Citation
Goosby, Bridget J. The Impact of Poverty Duration on Youth Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University 2003. DAI-A 64/09, p. 3500, Mar 2004.
85. Gordon, Hogan
The Role of Part-time Jobs in the Labor Supply Choices of Young Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1987
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children; Job Patterns; Labor Force Participation; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Choice; Part-Time Work; Wages; Women

This dissertation examines young women's weekly hours choices with models in which part-time jobs may pay lower wages than full-time jobs for someone with equal qualifications, using data from the NLS of Young Women. In part one, data on a cross-section of married women from the 1973 survey are used to estimate the determinants of the choice between part-time work, full-time work and not working, and the full-time/part-time wage differential. All three models predict that the part-time wage available to the average married woman is much lower than the full-time wage. Blacks and Southerners have especially poor part-time opportunities. In part two, event history analysis is used to analyze the determinants of transitions between full-time jobs, part-time jobs, and spells of nonwork for a sample of women just entering the labor market, followed for up to two years. Controlling for observed characteristics, the rate of exit from part-time jobs is twice as high as the rate of exit from full-time jobs. The exit rate from full-time work to nonwork declines steadily with spell duration, while the exit rate from part-time work to nonwork falls and then rises. These results support the hypothesis that part-time jobs offer lower wages, and less wage growth. While part-time jobs more easily accommodate the care of young children, there is only modest evidence that full-time workers move to part-time jobs after a birth. Full-time workers leave their jobs at a much higher rate close to childbirth, but almost always exit to nonwork.
Bibliography Citation
Gordon, Hogan. The Role of Part-time Jobs in the Labor Supply Choices of Young Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1987.
86. Grasso, John T.
Contributions of Vocational Education, Training, and Work Experience to the Early Career Achievements of Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Education, Secondary; Educational Returns; Family Influences; High School Completion/Graduates; Job Satisfaction; Vocational Education; Vocational Preparation; Work Attitudes; Work Knowledge

The study of non-college-attending, male high school graduates examines vocational, general and college preparatory high school curricula and certain post-school training opportunities to uncover differences in their effectiveness, either alone or in conjunction with post-school programs, in preparing youth for careers. Based on data from the NLS of Young Men 1966-69, the following serve as criterion measures in a multivariate framework: a general occupational information test, attitudes toward adequacy of preparation, participation in post-school training, skill level of jobs, wages, measures of career potential, overall job satisfaction, and unemployment experience. Multiple regression is used to identify and measure the net effects of educational and training variables by controlling statistically for other influences, with separate analyses conducted for white and black youth. The empirical findings reported and discussed for each criterion measure are summarized and provide the basis for specific conclusions which do not support the view that vocational education at the secondary level is superior preparation for the world of work. Four major implications for secondary education are drawn from the findings. A 14-page bibliography, a discussion of statistical tests of the significance of intergroup differences in regression, and tabulated regression results are appended.
Bibliography Citation
Grasso, John T. Contributions of Vocational Education, Training, and Work Experience to the Early Career Achievements of Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975.
87. Grawe, Nathan D.
Intergenerational Mobility in the United States and Abroad: Quantile and Mean Regression Measures
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2001. DAI-A 62/07, p. 2514, January 2002.
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Earnings; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Germany, German; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Pakistan, Pakistani; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Poverty; Variables, Instrumental

This paper provides an international comparison of rates of intergenerational income mobility. Age-dependence of income persistence estimates (explained and quantified in this work) suggests that comparisons of multiple studies using different selection rules will result in erroneous conclusions. While little difference is found in the rate of mean regression between industrialized countries, mobility among exceptional sons is found to be much faster in the US and Canada than in Germany or the UK. I also provide a first look at mobility in five developing and underdeveloped countries: Ecuador, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Peru. In general, it appears that mobility is slower in these countries. All of these findings are similar to results found in the occupational mobility literature. In addition to these empirical findings the thesis develops a new test for binding intergenerational credit constraints based on quantile regression. And a method is created to correct quantile regression estimates for the bias resulting from measurement error. A variation of this method allows for a quantile regression analogy to the two-sample instrumental variables estimator.
Bibliography Citation
Grawe, Nathan D. Intergenerational Mobility in the United States and Abroad: Quantile and Mean Regression Measures. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2001. DAI-A 62/07, p. 2514, January 2002..
88. Gu, Yanmin
Labor Unions and Career Mobility of American Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Mobility; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Social Influences; Socioeconomic Factors; Unions

This study first estimates the union effects on various mobility rates including overall mobility rate, rates of job shifts with and without interruption, and inter- and intra-firm mobility rates. It then examines union effects on the destinations of corresponding moves. This study employs a longitudinal sample of 548 American young workers drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) from 1979 to 1993. Moreover, it draws its information on occupational prestige score from the 1990 prestige scale file of General Social Survey (GSS) and the union density information from the 1983 to 1993 Current Population Survey (CPS). By linking these two sources of information to that of the NLSY sample, it is able to estimate the union effects on the mobility rates and their socioeconomic consequences. Event history analysis is used to estimate the union effects on the five mobility rates. After that, GEE logistic marginal models are used to investigate the socioeconomic consequences of each mobility regime. The results show that (1) unions in general reduce occupation mobility and increase job stability. Since the early years of employment for American workers are characterized by job insecurity and interruptions, unions play a positive role for American young workers' steady job transitions; (2) unions' impact on the socioeconomic consequences of job mobility varies. They apparently increase organized workers' social standing. On the other hand, unions reduce their members' earnings associated with job mobility; (3) the threat effect of organizing varies depending on whether it is occupation based or industry based. Occupational based union threat effect has a negative impact on the social standing of job mobility but a positive effect on the earnings associated with job shifts. On the other hand, industrial based union threat effect, in contrast, has a positive effect on the social prestige of job shifts while a negative impact on the earnings of job shifts. Nevertheless, both types of threat effect reduce job mobility and increase labor market stability.
Bibliography Citation
Gu, Yanmin. Labor Unions and Career Mobility of American Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998.
89. Gupta, Nabanita Datta
The Role of Preferences and Constraints as Determinants of Male-Female Occupational Differences
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1992. DAI-A 53/07, p. 2492, Jan 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Occupational Choice; Occupations, Female; Simultaneity

An important policy issue concerning the U.S. labor market is whether the observed clustering of women in a few low-paid occupations is indicative of discrimination against them. An alternative hypothesis is that such differences reflect gender differences in preferences for occupations. This thesis attempts to empirically distinguish between these two hypotheses by determining which hypothesis better fits the data available and by separating the effect of heterogeneous preferences from the effect of wage and hiring discrimination on the observed occupational distributions. Two distinct modelling strategies are pursued. The first is a hedonic model of constrained occupational choice which assumes that workers choose their preferred consumption-leisure-job attribute package subject to a market locus of wage-attribute packages. The parameters of specific functional forms for preferences and the market locus are derived using a three-stages non-linear least squares simultaneous equations estimator. Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort (NLSY) and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). A Wald test indicates that the observed asymmetry in occupational distributions by gender is due more to gender differences in constraints than to gender differences in preferences. The second model considers occupational attainment as the outcome of two discrete choice processes. The worker chooses an occupation from a set of discrete occupations with exogenously determined levels of job attributes. The employer chooses whether or not to accept that worker for that occupation. This allows the possibility of job queues and hiring discrimination. Non-linear iterative methods are used to maximize the likelihood function. Using data from NLSY and DOT the existence of such queues are tested in three non-female-dominated occupations: Professional/Managerial, Crafts/Laborers and Services. The results show significant evidence that job-queues are important for both women and men in each of the three non-female occupations. Likelihood ratio tests show that gender differences in occupational distributions are due both to gender differences in worker preferences for occupations and to gender differences in employer selection of workers. F-tests and t-tests indicate that women are more likely to choose the female-dominated and Service occupations and less likely to choose the Crafts/Labor occupation while employers are less likely to hire women in the Professional/Managerial and Service occupations. The two models yield slightly different conclusions regarding the importance of preferences relative to constraints in part due to methodological differences in approach. However, both approaches conclude that constraints are important and that women face different labor market opportunities than men.
Bibliography Citation
Gupta, Nabanita Datta. The Role of Preferences and Constraints as Determinants of Male-Female Occupational Differences. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1992. DAI-A 53/07, p. 2492, Jan 1993.
90. Gustafson, Cynthia Karen
Effects of Job Displacement on Younger Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Divorce; Earnings; Family Structure; Family Studies; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Fixed Effects

This dissertation explores the effects of job displacement on younger workers. A job displacement is commonly defined as a job separation that results from no fault of the worker. Workers, for example, are displaced if their plant closes or if they are laid off without recall; displaced workers are not workers who were fired.

Chapter 2 explores the long-term effects of job displacement on labor market outcomes and how these effects depend on post-displacement mobility across location, industry, and occupation. Chapter 3 explores the effects of displacement on marriage, divorce, and separation rates, along with fertility.

I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a dataset rarely used in research on displacement, to construct a group of displaced workers and a comparison group containing non-displaced workers. Using a generalized difference-in-differences model that includes individual fixed effects, I estimate what displaced workers labor market outcomes and family structure would have been had they not been displaced.

I find that displacement has a large, negative effect on employment, earnings, and hours worked even six years after displacement. Six years after displacement, nonemployment is 8 percent higher among displaced workers than among their non-displaced counterparts. Among individuals who return to work, displacement decreases long-term earnings and hours worked by 8 and 4 percent, respectively. The long-term earnings and hours worked reductions for displaced workers who had at least two years of tenure when they were displaced are 15 and 8 percent, respectively. Long-term earnings reductions are 8 percent for immobile workers but only 4 percent for workers who change locations. Displaced workers who switch either industry or occupation suffer larger short-term earnings losses from displacement, yet contrary to previous findings the switchers and stayers have similar long-term costs.

The effects of displacement on women's family structure are unclear. For men, however, displacement permanently decreases their flow into marriage, while largely increasing their flow out of marriage. Both the probabilities of divorce and separation double post-displacement, yet these effects appear to only be temporary. Displacement is estimated to permanently decrease male's probability of having a child by about 20 percent.

Bibliography Citation
Gustafson, Cynthia Karen. Effects of Job Displacement on Younger Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 1999.
91. Gustafson, Thomas Alton
Retirement Decision of Older Men: An Empirical Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1982. DAI-A 43/05, p. 1614, Nov 1982
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Retirement; Sample Selection; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This study explores the sensitivity of estimates of the probability of retirement to variations in empirical specifications. An evaluation of the recent microeconomic literature relating to the retirement decision and to the labor supply of older workers stresses the wide divergence of results from different studies, including a controversy about the relative roles of bad health and retirement benefits in explaining the decision to retire. This study uses a simple theoretical and empirical model of the retirement decision, viewed as a binary choice. Various possible definitions of both dependent and independent variables are explored in detail. The model is estimated with a number of variations in the empirical specification, using the sample of mature men from the National Longitudinal Survey. These variations include different formulations of the key variables, corrections for selectivity bias, and use of sub-samples of different demographic groups. The study concludes that both bad health and retirement benefits affect the retirement decision; this result is robust in the face of changes in specification. In contrast, a number of other variables hypothesized to be important, including the wage rate, do not consistently have much explanatory power.
Bibliography Citation
Gustafson, Thomas Alton. Retirement Decision of Older Men: An Empirical Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1982. DAI-A 43/05, p. 1614, Nov 1982.
92. Guttmannova, Katarina
Development of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems During Middle Childhood: Risk and Protective Factors
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Montana, 2004. DAI-B 66/02, p. 1197, Aug 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Childhood; Gender Differences; Internal-External Attitude; Risk-Taking; Scale Construction; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

The three studies presented here used data on a cohort of six-year old children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to develop and test models of risk and protection in the etiology of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Study 1 evaluated the factor structure and measurement invariance of the behavior problem measure that was used as a dependent variable in subsequent studies via a series of longitudinal factor analyses. The two-factor (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) structure of the measure as well as its measurement invariance across gender and the age groups were confirmed. Study 2 examined developmental trajectories and gender differences with respect to the occurrence and stability of behavior problems in 6- to 12-year-olds via the use of latent growth curve modeling. Overall, there was substantial variability in the amounts of internalizing and externalizing problems among children at the beginning of middle childhood. Boys had higher levels of both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age six than girls. Although there was extensive variability in the rate of change of externalizing problems over time, internalizing problems did not display any systematic changes over the course of middle childhood. In Study 3, growth curve modeling was used to examine the effects of ethnicity, poverty persistence, maternal age and parenting on the development of behavior problems in boys and girls. For boys, being White, living in persistent poverty and receiving less emotional support from parents were risk factors for higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Furthermore, being born to a teenage mother was found to contribute to the escalation of externalizing problems over the course of middle childhood. For girls, the risk factors for higher levels of both types of problems included being White and receiving less cognitive stimulation from parents. The mechanism through which the risks operate and conditions in which risk and protective factors function were examined in a series of mediation and moderation models. The findings include important gender and ethnic differences in the influence of parenting as well as poverty persistence on behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Guttmannova, Katarina. Development of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems During Middle Childhood: Risk and Protective Factors. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Montana, 2004. DAI-B 66/02, p. 1197, Aug 2005.
93. Haire, James Benton
An Investigation of Selected Sociopsychological Variables in Relation to the Traditional or Nontraditional Occupational Choices of Middle Age Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1981. DAI-A 43/02, p. 431, Aug 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Occupational Choice; Occupations; Occupations, Non-Traditional

Over the past three decades an exceptionally large body of literature has been developed addressing the interrelationships and influence of social and psychological variables in the occupational choice process. Although this information is readily available most of it addresses a broad spectrum of phenomena while the types and effects of intervening forces researched depend upon the conceptual views of the author and style of research used. In addition there have been no real attempts to isolate the power of selected personality variables and to effect a valid interface with various population and gender groups. This lack of unanimity and specificity has made interpretations and generalizations relative to personality variables and their effects upon occupational choice processes extremely difficult. This study attempted to identify the power of a small set of sociopsychological predictor variables and combine them into models which could demonstrate their relationship to an individual's choice of occupational strata. To accomplish this the data were treated statistically using Pearson Moment-Coefficients of Correlation between measures of the independent and the dependent variables. Additionally coefficients of multiple correlation were used to determine the value of independent variable combinations in the prediction of occupational choice strata. Data for this research were obtained from a cohort of 1203 women, 30 to 44 years of age who participated in the ten year National Longitudinal Surveys. Coefficients of correlation consistently yielded 'insignificant or negligible' or 'low' results. The conclusions of this study are that these selected variables should not be used either singly or in any combinations as the sole choice of predictors of occupational strata. This does not preclude the possibility of using them with some other independent variable or combination of variables. The results of this research demonstrate that the occupational choice process is far more complicated than can be accounted for by the predictor variables chosen. They should not be omitted in any subsequent research because they did provide some valid information. It appears that judgement founded on careful observation and experience within specific parameters should provide a reasonable approximation of a respondent's choice of occupational strata.
Bibliography Citation
Haire, James Benton. An Investigation of Selected Sociopsychological Variables in Relation to the Traditional or Nontraditional Occupational Choices of Middle Age Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1981. DAI-A 43/02, p. 431, Aug 1982.
94. Hango, Darcy William
The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty and Residential Mobility on Child Well-Being
Ph. D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University, 2003.
Also: http://etd.ohiolink.edu/view.cgi?acc_num=osu1069324610
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Census of Population; Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Family Characteristics; Geocoded Data; Mobility; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Education; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty; Residence; Self-Esteem

The goal of this work is to examine how child and adolescent well-being are influenced by family mobility and neighborhood quality. Both of these factors have been shown to influence the overall well-being of youth, by altering successful behavioral development. Moving and high poverty neighborhoods often increase behavior problems. The connection between these two processes has not been looked at previously, except among families participating in very selective residential mobility programs (e.g. Gautreaux and Moving to Opportunity). I address several questions. Does child behavior change as a result of family mobility? Does neighborhood context pre- and post-move have any bearing on the change? Finally, does mobility have different effects on behavior depending upon when they are measured? That is, do the effects surface immediately after the move, or is there a lagged effect, with change not being seen for several years? I overcome limitations from past research by combining a nationally representative sample of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's linked mother-child files with the 1990 US census. Together these data allow for the measurement of child behavior and neighborhood poverty both before and after the move. I find that moving, when measured without taking neighborhood context into account, has no effect on the negative behavior of children and adolescents. However, once neighborhood context is considered, the effect of mobility on child behavior changes. Several important effects are noted, which vary by the class context of the origin and destination neighborhoods. First, moving from a poor to a nonpoor neighborhood reduces negative behavior. Second, this positive impact diminishes four years after the move. Third, moving to a higher poverty neighborhood, or to another poor neighborhood, increases a child's negative behavior. Fourth, these harmful effects do not manifest until four years post-move. Finally, moving between two non poor neighborhoods has no effect on child behavior. These results suggest that it is important to include contextual factors of the origin and destination neighborhood when studying the effect of residential mobility on children. Also, it is beneficial to measure behavior change immediately, as well as several years after a family moves.
Bibliography Citation
Hango, Darcy William. The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty and Residential Mobility on Child Well-Being. Ph. D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University, 2003..
95. Hannon, Natalie Rodkin
Influence of Individual Factors, Economic Sector, and Sex Stereotyping on Women's Occupational Mobility and Status Attainment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University, 1986. DAI-A 47/04, p. 1491, Oct 1986
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Labor Market, Secondary; Mobility; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Segregation

This study, using data on mature women from the National Longitudinal Surveys, examines the relationship between human capital and structural variables on the status attainment of women and the extent of their intragenerational occupational mobility. Multiple regression is employed to assess the relative influence of the various factors on whether a woman experiences upward or downward mobility or no mobility; on amounts of upward and downward mobility; and on status attainment. Defining mobility in terms of movement between the gross occupational categories, about one half of the women experienced intragenerational mobility; whereas about two-thirds of the women were mobile when mobility was defined as movement between deciles of a socioeconomic score based on detailed occupations. Compared with men, the women were more likely to experience no mobility, or to be downwardly mobile. Of the individual having an effect on status attainment and mobility, education is found to be significant for all the dependent variables. The proportion of years worked since the completion of school is significant for status attainment, and for the amount of upward mobility. Among the structural variables, compared with staying in the core economic sector, moving out of the core into the periphery is likely to lead to downward mobility and to greater amounts of downward mobility; and staying in the periphery is likely to lead to a smaller amount of upward mobility. Moving into or remaining in a male sex stereo-typed occupation as compared to remaining in a female sex-typed occupation leads to higher status attainment, a greater amount of upward mobility, and has a positive effect on type of mobility. The structural variables do a better job of explaining mobility and status attainment than do the individual variables. However, economic sector and sex typing explained different proportions of the variance depending upon the dependent variable. For type of mobility, economic sector explained slightly more of the variance than sex stereotyping; for status attainment, the opposite was true. Almost all of the variance explained by the structural factors for amount of upward mobility was due to sex stereotyping; whereas sex stereotyping contributed almost nothing toward explaining downward mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Hannon, Natalie Rodkin. Influence of Individual Factors, Economic Sector, and Sex Stereotyping on Women's Occupational Mobility and Status Attainment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University, 1986. DAI-A 47/04, p. 1491, Oct 1986.
96. Hardy, Melissa A.
Structure of Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Socioeconomic Factors that Influence the Retirement Decisions of Older Males
Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Supply; Retirement; Self-Employed Workers; Social Security

This research attempts to integrate relevant theoretical perspectives and methodological techniques from economics into a sociological study of retirement behavior. Four waves of the NLS of Older Men are analyzed by means of both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. The author looks at white males aged 45 to 59 in 1966 and places major emphasis on the influence of structural features that serve to organize the work experience of older men. Retirement is approached in two ways. First, it is approached through labor supply--that is, hours worked per year--which allows maximum flexibility in analytic conception of the retirement process. Second, retirement is approached through several categorization schemes of labor force participation which are devised to capture major choices in work behavior. These models are estimated by binary and multinomial logit analyses. The analytic designs make use of both an age cohort structure and a birth cohort structure. The author argues that the retirement process is more complex than the simple choice of labor force participation or withdrawal. Instead, retirement denotes a kind of occupational status that involves different kinds of costs and rewards for different categories of workers. The attempts of older workers to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of retirement are limited by the opportunity structures they face. Of the factors considered, health limitations and retirement policies have the strongest negative effects on the work activity of older men. The strongest positive effect is associated with self employment. The over-time patterns of results suggest the importance of more general economic conditions and changes in Social Security legislation for work decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Hardy, Melissa A. Structure of Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Socioeconomic Factors that Influence the Retirement Decisions of Older Males. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1980.
97. Haurin, R. Jean
Determinants of Fertility in Remarriage: An Analysis of White American Experience
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Fertility; Household Composition; Remarriage

This study examines how the context of remarriage influences expectations about future childbearing and the probability and timing of first births in marriage. Using longitudinal data for a contemporary cohort of white males and females, a descriptive overview of how fertility expectations change with alterations in marital status and how completed fertility is distributed across the marital history is presented. The study develops a general model of the determinants of the transition to first birth in marriage. This model is tested for both first and second marriage. A major finding is that the general model of fertility determination for short-term fertility expectations and behavior is the same for first and second marriage. While the general model is similar between marriages, this study finds that second-married individuals are significantly more likely to have a birth within two years of marriage than are first-marriers. However, second-marrieds are not more likely to expect a birth within two years of marriage. Thus, while second-marriers make judgements about additional fertility in a similar fashion to first-marriers, they are more likely to end up having a child, suggesting considerable psychological uncertainty in the context within which they are making these decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Haurin, R. Jean. Determinants of Fertility in Remarriage: An Analysis of White American Experience. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1992.
98. Hawkins, Alan Jones
Patterns of Coresident Adult Men in Maritally Disrupted Families and the Verbal Intellectual Functioning and Psychosocial Dysfunctioning of Young Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1990
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children; Fathers; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Absence; General Assessment; Grandparents; Marital Disruption; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences

Although fathers increasingly are absent from the households in which children reside, children in disrupted homes still have substantial experience with adult men in their daily lives. Demographic trends of remarriage, cohabitation, and single mothers returning to live with their parents suggest that many children in divorced families co-reside with adult men who, to greater or lesser extents, may assume the social and economic roles of the absent father. Using a sample of 865 4-6-year-old children from the Children of the NLSY data, five common patterns of children's experiences with co-resident adult men in maritally disrupted families were found: No Male, Grandfather, Stepfather, Reunited Father, and Chaotic. Of the 205 children who experienced a marital disruption, approximately 30% were in the No Male pattern, but more than two-thirds were in one of the disrupted patterns that included extended co-residential experience with an adult male. For white children in disrupted families, the Stepfather pattern was the most common, while for nonwhite children in disrupted families, the Stepfather pattern was rare; instead, the No Male and Grandfather patterns were the most common. Hierarchical regression models with dummy-coded pattern indicator variables were used to explore how these patterns were associated with children's verbal-intellectual and psychosocial functioning. The models controlled for confounding factors identified in previous bivariate analyses: ethnicity, child age, child gender, maternal resources (intelligence, education, income, age), and household size. No differences were found between children in intact families and children in any of the disrupted patterns for the measure of verbal-intellectual functioning. For the measure of psychosocial functioning, only children in the Grandfather pattern were significantly different from children in the Intact pattern. Further analyses revealed that it was white children in this three-generation living arrangement who experienced problems; black children in this pattern did not experience the same level of problems as did the white children. Moreover, white children in the Grandfather pattern primarily experienced problems of dependency and inhibition.
Bibliography Citation
Hawkins, Alan Jones. Patterns of Coresident Adult Men in Maritally Disrupted Families and the Verbal Intellectual Functioning and Psychosocial Dysfunctioning of Young Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1990.
99. Hazarika, Gautam
Cost Deterrents and Labor Market Outcomes of Schooling
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Rochester, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Higher Education; Labor Market Outcomes; Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS); Pakistan, Pakistani; Schooling, Post-secondary; Tuition; Wages

This dissertation attempts two related tasks. It studies the effect of schooling costs on educational attainment. Then, given endogenous schooling, it uses measures of such costs to identify the causal effect of schooling on labor market outcomes. The particular outcome studied for the U.S. is hourly wages. For a less developed country, namely Pakistan, the labor market outcome analyzed is farmers' adoption of improved seeds. Chapter 2 studies the effect of the direct and opportunity costs of college upon post-secondary enrollment in the U.S. The direct cost of college is measured by state averages of in-state public four-year college tuition. The opportunity cost of college is reflected by state youth unemployment rates. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) reveal that a rise in public four-year college tuition significantly reduces the probability of post-secondary enrollment. A rise in the state youth unemployment rate provides an impetus to college enrollment, though this appears less pronounced, even reversed, among youth from poorer families. Dampened countercyclical or procyclical college enrollment among less privileged youth is attributed to their inability to borrow unconstrainedly. Chapter 3 estimates the economic return to college education in the U.S. State average public four-year college tuition and its interactions with family permanent income identify the causal effect of endogenous college education on earnings. In an improvement upon previous research, college education is treated as a censored regressor. An ability-schooling interaction in earnings functions is tested. It appears absent in data from the NLSY. The rate of return to college education is 0.08 by the majority of estimates. When the earnings function is taken to be quadratic in schooling, the rate of return to college education at four years of college is 0.07 by the majority of estimates. Chapter 4 uses data from the World Bank's Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) to study the effect of farmer schooling on the adoption of improved seeds in Pakistan in 1990-91. Measures of access to education, such as the average distance from schools, identify the causal effect of endogenous schooling on adoption. It is found that schooling measured in years completed does not have a significant effect on the adoption of improved seeds. Adoption, however, is facilitated by schooling in excess of a primary education.
Bibliography Citation
Hazarika, Gautam. Cost Deterrents and Labor Market Outcomes of Schooling. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Rochester, 1998.
100. Heiland, Frank
A Dynamic Analysis of Women's Labor Supply, Fertility and Child Development: Is Maternal Employment Bad for Child Development?
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York - Stony Brook, 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Child Health; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Fertility; Hispanics; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Simultaneity

In my thesis I analyze the effects of time and material resource on children's cognitive development. Specifically, in the first part of the thesis I analyze whether the birth order, the completed family size, and mother's time spent in the labor market is detrimental for young children's cognitive development. Unlike previous work, I use a sample of all children born to a women based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979 cohort). Employing panel estimation techniques I find that the 'effect' of maternal employment on child development varies by age of the child (stage of development), as well as by race/ethnicity and educational attainment of the mother. The estimates show that the findings in the previous literature primarily pertain to the situation of children of mothers with no post-secondary education. I also find evidence that the number of older siblings in the family during infancy (birth order), a closely-spaced younger sibling, and the completed family size are detrimental for children's cognitive development. In the second part of the thesis, I formulate and estimate a discrete time and discrete choice dynamic programming model of labor supply in which fertility decisions and woman's time allocated to the labor market are explicit choice variables. In this framework I incorporate child development as a two stage production process consisting of the determination of physical health and cognitive ability. The behavioral predictions based on the estimates from the NLSY data show that the model can capture the decline in women's labor force participation during the first year of the child's life. The negative effect of maternal employment during the first year of the child's life and the disadvantage of being late in the birth order is confirmed by the structural estimates. Policy simulations show that a legislation that supports paid maternity leave during the year after birth reduces the risk of having a low ability child b y 6% among white and Hispanic families. Moreover, policies that provide incentives to have larger families are shown to have adverse effects on the cognitive development of children.
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank. A Dynamic Analysis of Women's Labor Supply, Fertility and Child Development: Is Maternal Employment Bad for Child Development? Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York - Stony Brook, 2002.
101. Hekeler, Richard W.
Labor Utilization of Married American Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual-Career Families; Employment; Racial Differences; Underemployment

The rise in labor force participation of married women in the post-war period has been noted and factors suggested for its existence. Scant attention has been paid to the adequacy of employment among married women, however. Hauser's Labor Utilization Framework and data from the NLS's cohort of Mature Women have been employed to determine the extent of underutilization among married women in the American labor force, as well as the effect on labor utilization of childcare responsibilities and several factors identified in past research as influential to labor force entry decisions. Four types of inadequate utilization are defined: underutilization by unemployment, involuntary part-time employment, low income, and a mismatch of education and the skills required of one's job. Over half of the sample were adequately employed and their percentage increased to 73.4 in 1977. The low income accounted for the bulk of inadequacy with unemployment, low hours, and mismatch ranked respectively. An analysis of bivariate associations indicated marked racial differences with nonwhites sharing the disadvantaged position. Nevertheless, high levels of adequate labor utilization were associated for both races with decreased family responsibilities, higher levels of education, and higher status occupations. Labor utilization was not differentiated by previous work experience or attitudes towards women's employment. For nonwhites, having a highly educated mother or one who held a white-collar position increased the proportion of those adequately employed to near equivalency with whites. Differences across maternal influence categories were absent for whites. Results from log-linear analyses indicated that the presence of young children in the household was the most important factor accounting for the observed variations in labor utilization. Occupation, race, and education ranked respectively. This research illuminates the significant pool of lost productivity represented by married women and suggests the importance of developing schemes to ease the conflict of mother and worker roles. Moreover, it highlights the severely handicapped position of nonwhites in the labor force and suggests that those who are able to escape their disadvantaged milieu by achieving higher levels of education will compete with whites on equal footing.
Bibliography Citation
Hekeler, Richard W. Labor Utilization of Married American Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1983.
102. Helmchen, Lorens A.
Marriage Market Incentives to Invest in Health
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Labor Economics; Marriage; Sex Ratios; Weight

Previous studies have shown that body weight is a strong predictor for the likelihood of marriage and the onset of chronic disease in later life. This paper examines the role of marriage markets in participants' choices of body weight. I present a model, in which pre-marital investments raise candidates' productivity in marital unions and thus their appeal to prospective partners. As a result, the marriage market rewards participants with more sought-after attributes by raising their marriage probability, their share of marriage surplus, and the size of the marriage surplus itself. At the same time, each candidate's investment imposes a negative externality on competitors' marriage probabilities and surplus shares. In a rational expectations equilibrium, a decline in the relative number of available partners lowers the upper bound of the marriage probability and may thereby reduce the incentive to invest. To identify this effect empirically, I combine panel data from the NLSY with figures from the 1990 Census to track how single men and women adjust their body weight in response to age-related changes in the sex ratio of their respective marriage markets. Among single women, a decline in the relative number of available mates is associated with a significant increase in body weight.
Bibliography Citation
Helmchen, Lorens A. Marriage Market Incentives to Invest in Health. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 2004.
103. Henson, Joyce M.
Occupational Sex Segregation, Private Sector Training and Earnings: The Early Careers of White Women and Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Human Capital Theory; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Female; Private Sector; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Dynamics; Wage Gap; Wage Growth

Two striking and persistent features of the labor market are occupational segregation by sex and the gender wage gap. The majority of studies find that employment in female-dominated jobs adversely affects earnings of women and men. An important previously untested argument related to this link is that female-dominated jobs provide less opportunity for on-the-job training which subsequently limits career advancement. This study looks at the occupational sex segregation of the first full-time job to see how this structural feature of the labor market affects career advancement. Using eleven years of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data (1979-89), the study follows a group of white men and women as they leave full-time schooling and begin their careers.
Bibliography Citation
Henson, Joyce M. Occupational Sex Segregation, Private Sector Training and Earnings: The Early Careers of White Women and Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University, 1994.
104. Herting, Jerald R.
The Effect of Differential Fertility on Group Occupational Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1987.
Also: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/herting/hertingcv.pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Fertility; Mobility; Mobility, Occupational; Racial Differences

This dissertation incorporates the effects of differential fertility by occupation on social mobility. The dissertation addresses how this demographic factor may influence a sub-population's overall upward or downward movement in the stratification system and how ignoring this factor may influence analyses based upon the father to son mobility table. Using data from the 1973 Occupational Change in a Generation and from the NLS of Older Men and Young Men I examine the mobility experience of fathers and sons for three cohorts of blacks and three cohorts of whites. I employ three distinct techniques: a continuous mathematical representation of the mobility process, a technique that adjusts for differential fertility in the margins of father-son crosstabulations, and a log-linear model which incorporates a dimension that reflects differential supply of sons. Simulations using the mathematical model show interesting effects of a population's initial average occupational status and status distribution. Applied to U.S. blacks, the model shows that for blacks as a whole differential fertility weakens the positive effect of recent changes in social mobility for individual blacks. The technique to adjust for the marginals in an intergenerational mobility table provides further support for the impact of differential fertility on the social mobility of blacks. The log-linear model, however, suggests only slight effects of the dimension representing differential fertility. [UMI ADG88-02249]
Bibliography Citation
Herting, Jerald R. The Effect of Differential Fertility on Group Occupational Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1987..
105. Hordon, Deborah Ann
The Impact of Adolescent Childbearing on Later Life: A Social Class Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1999.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_impact_of_adolescent_childbearing_on.html?id=LWH6GwAACAAJ
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; Detroit Area Study; Educational Attainment; Family Formation; Family Studies; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Parenthood

This dissertation investigates how adolescent childbearing uniquely affects the lives of those who experience it depending on the socioeconomic context in which it occurs. Previous studies of early parenthood have under-analyzed social class by conceptualizing it as only a control variable, or by selecting samples that exclude the non-poor. The current research is a quantitative analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and explores these issues with regard to four measureable (sic) life outcomes: educational attainment, labor force participation, family formation and the life course transition between childhood and adulthood. Findings demonstrate that teen parenthood does affect members of various social classes (both women and men) differently: in general, adolescent childbearing is associated with relatively greater deficits in these four areas of life in the higher socioeconomic strata than in the lower. Since the incidence of teen parenthood is also much smaller in the higher social class groups than it is in the lower, this study suggests that having better access to the opportunity structure-having something to lose through early childbearing-is a powerful deterrant (sic) of teen parenthood.
Bibliography Citation
Hordon, Deborah Ann. The Impact of Adolescent Childbearing on Later Life: A Social Class Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1999..
106. Horton-Mann, Carol Gail
Relative Wages of Men and Women Over Business Cycles and Over Time
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Discrimination; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Rural Areas; Wage Gap; Wages, Reservation

The purpose of the study is to empirically determine whether the wage gap between men and women varies over time or with the level of macroeconomic activity. Six theories of the wage gap are considered and it is demonstrated that each explanation implies different cyclical and time trends. The data utilized are from the NLS of Young Men, 1967-76, and Young Women, 1969-78. A system consisting of an offered wage equation and a reservation wage equation is estimated separately from men and women by weighted two stage least squares with a selectivity bias correction and an autocorrelation correction. A heteroscedastic-robust variance estimator is used to obtain consistent standard errors. Results show that the gap in offered wages is greatest in the South, in rural areas, and among unionized employees. Differences in average characteristics between men and women, including occupation and measures of productivity, account for less than one-third of the gap in offered wages. The remaining portion is due primarily to a lower constant term for women than for men, indicating that the offered wage curve for female labor is to the left of the offered wage curve for male labor. Returns to the productivity variables are higher for women than men. An interesting finding is that the gap in reservation wages exceeds the gap in offered wages. Economic activity does not affect the offered wages or reservation wages of women relative to men. The gap in both offered wages and reservation wages narrowed over this time period. Of the six theories analyzed, these results best support Becker's theory of discrimination.
Bibliography Citation
Horton-Mann, Carol Gail. Relative Wages of Men and Women Over Business Cycles and Over Time. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1984.
107. Howell-Moroney, Michael Edward
Modeling the Effects of the Geography of Opportunity on Labor Market Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Delaware, 2002. DAI-A 63/03, p. 1066, Sep 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Endogeneity; Ethnic Studies; Family Studies; Hispanics; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences; Racial Studies

A subject that had received much attention in the social science literature is interracial differences in labor market performance. A relatively recent explanation that has emerged as a possible source of these gaps is differences in the "geography of opportunity." The argument goes that spatial mechanisms are partially to blame for interracial gaps in labor market outcomes. Two salient mechanisms for the operation of differential geographies of opportunity have emerged from the literature: neighborhood effects and spatial mismatch. To date there has been no attempt to integrate these two mechanisms into a comprehensive model of how the geography of opportunity affects labor market outcomes. This paper presents a two-part model that models the effect of the geography of opportunity using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Educational outcomes are estimated as a function of neighborhood effects during childhood in the first stage of the model. In the second stage, labor market outcomes for the same persons as an adult are estimated as a function of those endogenous educational outcomes and spatial mismatch. The models were estimated separately for whites, African Americans and Hispanics. The first-stage educational model yielded mixed results depending upon the variables used to measure neighborhood quality. Overall though, the neighborhood effects were small and did not have much of an impact on educational outcomes. The second stage model yielded markedly different interracial group results with regard to spatial mismatch. Spatial mismatch never had a statistically significant effect on whites' labor market outcomes, had a consistently negative effect on the labor market outcomes of African Americans and surprisingly had consistently statistically significant and positive effects on Hispanics' labor market outcomes. An integrated analysis of neighborhood effects and spatial mismatch effects showed that neighborhood effects had relatively small recursive effects on earnings. A series of policy simulations was conducted to measure the effects of changes designed to equalize the geography of opportunity. The main policy implication flowing from the findings is that large policy changes designed to correct for differences in the geography of opportunity will have small and mixed effects on labor market outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Howell-Moroney, Michael Edward. Modeling the Effects of the Geography of Opportunity on Labor Market Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Delaware, 2002. DAI-A 63/03, p. 1066, Sep 2002.
108. Hoyt, Gail Mitchell
The Worker, the Firm, and the Decision to Use Drugs
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Firms; Heterogeneity; Simultaneity; Substance Use; Work Attitudes

Substance abuse in the United States has increased dramatically in the past few decades, bringing costs to both users and society. As substance use has come to the forefront of public attention, this new awareness has been manifested in recent legislation and in the increased efforts of various organizations to prevent and control substance use. In order to investigate the effects of the vast quantity of resources devoted to substance control, I simultaneously estimate substance demand, wage, and drug control policy equations. This framework allows me to examine how employee assistance programs and drug testing affect drug use and how drug use in turn affects productivity, while controlling for the potential of worker sorting with regard to drug control policy. I depart from previous work by focusing on how drug use affects the user's employment status and earnings while incorporating the firm's attempts to discourage drug use in the workplace through drug testing and monitoring within an expected utility framework. While past studies have considered labor market effects of substance use, none have considered how firm structure and monitoring may also influence substance use. Because the market price of illicit drugs is difficult to obtain, and perhaps not as crucial to the drug user's consumption decision as the effective price, I incorporate the effective price as a combination of the probability of being caught using drugs while at work and the adverse effects associated with dismissal. I test for not only the direct effects of drug control policy within the firm, but the indirect sorting effects. Empirical results show that wages and the use of various licit and illicit substances tend to be positively correlated until controls for unobserved heterogeneity are incorporated, in which case a negative correlation arises. Findings also indicate that drug testing, employee assistance programs, and formal workplace substance use policy have a significant negative impact on workplace marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol use. Also, users of all three substances tend to sort away from firms with control policies present.
Bibliography Citation
Hoyt, Gail Mitchell. The Worker, the Firm, and the Decision to Use Drugs. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1992.
109. Huang, Penelope Maria
Negotiating Gender, Work, and Family: Examining Gendered Consequences of Leave-taking over Time
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Life Course; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Parenthood; Wage Gap; Wages

This dissertation examines the interdependent and reciprocal relationship between gender inequalities in the family and gender inequalities in the workplace that each reproduce the other. The empirical regularity of the gender gap and family gap in wages has spurred several attempts to explain the relationship between parenthood and wages that contribute to the gender wage gap. Chief among these are explanations derived from neoclassical economic theories of human capital, which suggest that women's lower relative wages are a result of higher incidents of job interruptions and an inconsistent work history relative to men. Other explanations suggest that gender differences in wages are a result of institutionalized inequalities that have arisen from a "separate spheres" model of the traditional division of labor. Using the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY 1979-1998), data are arranged into a pooled cross-section time series and a partial-adjustment model with fixed effects is employed in the examination of both immediate short-term, as well as long-term effects of job leaves, work history, marital status, and family status on men's and women's wages over time. Lifetime expected wages are estimated and a wage trajectory is projected to characterize a path of wage growth over the working life course as a function of work history, human capital, job leaves, marital status, and family status. Results support a gendered interpretation, such that the negative effect of children on women's wages persists net of work history, job interruptions, and a host of human capital controls. The long-term effect of children on women's wages results in a $0.98 hourly wage penalty to women's equilibrium wage. Further, results reveal that taking leave exacts a greater penalty to men's wages than to women's. Moreover, this effect is entirely conditional on men's employment in male-dominated occupations. That is, wage penalties for leave-taking are found only for men in male-dominated occupations, which points to the gendered nature of norms and expectations associated with work.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Penelope Maria. Negotiating Gender, Work, and Family: Examining Gendered Consequences of Leave-taking over Time. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2003.
110. Huynh, Minh Tuong
Labor Supply Decision of Transfer Recipients
Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston College, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Human Capital; Labor Economics; Transfers, Public; Welfare; Work Experience

This dissertation examines the labor supply behavior of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants. It shows that AFDC participants work, and among those who work, a majority work consistently. It also examines National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data to elaborate on this patterns of employment, first to understand whether or not this employment is income-supplementing--i.e., consumption--or whether it is an investment in long-term prospects. Next, this data is used to investigate whether working while on welfare is an investment in future earnings (which suggests a human capital model in which experience acts as a substitute for education), or whether it is an investment in better job prospects (which suggests a job-market signaling model in which experience acts as a signal to employers of potential productivity). Under the assumption that work experience can be used as an investment in future job prospects, a variation of the Spence job-market signaling model is developed to investigate this possibility. In addition to presenting and testing a Spence model, a different view of signaling in the job market is proposed. In traditional models that use education as a signal, the presence of signaling alters the private and social returns to initial investment, and the signal serves as a mechanism to allocate jobs under incomplete information. In the case of AFDC recipients, work experience is proposed to have the additional role of being an alternative to education as a signal. The final chapter provides an overview of various federal and state efforts to date to require welfare participants to work. The success or failure of these efforts are then examined in light of the earlier findings.
Bibliography Citation
Huynh, Minh Tuong. Labor Supply Decision of Transfer Recipients. Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston College, 1999.
111. Ilias, Nauman
Essays in Development and Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 05A (2001): 1909
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Endogeneity; Human Capital; Labor Economics; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Logit; Modeling, Multilevel; Skill Formation; Skills

My dissertation consists of three unrelated chapters. The first chapter studies the presence and effect of a serious labor-market distortion in the Surgical Instrument (S.I.) industrial network of Sialkot. The problem arises due to the non-perfect substitutability between family and hired managers. In particular, the firm owners are hesitant to hire managers who can potentially steal their business. As a result, the owners prefer to engage mostly close family relatives into management positions i.e. those who are considered trustworthy. This restriction prevents the firms from optimally choosing the management size. The distortion is manifested by a significant positive correlation between family size of the founder and firm output; firm founders who have more brothers end up with higher output.

The second chapter evaluates a teacher incentives program conducted in Kenyan primary schools in 1998 and 1999. Out of 100 randomly selected schools, 50 were chosen to participate in the program, while the remaining 50 were treated as the control group. The impact of the program on various teacher and student outcomes is studied. We find a positive and significant effect of the program on extra (out of class) coaching by the teachers, but no effect on teacher attendance, homework assignment, and pedagogical practices. We also find a positive impact of the program on student test scores.

The third chapter uses a human capital approach to model juvenile participation in criminal activities and/or legitimate labor market activities. In a two-period setting, the individual decides how to allocate time to crime and labor market in each period. We endogenize skill formation by assuming that the time spent in criminal and labor market activities in the first period determines the investments in the corresponding stocks of human capital. The investments lead to a larger stock of human capital for these activities in the subsequent period, and therefore affect the second-period returns from these activities. The model is tested using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY 97). We implement the model using a multinomial logit framework and find that the data match the predictions fairly well.

Bibliography Citation
Ilias, Nauman. Essays in Development and Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 05A (2001): 1909.
112. Imai, Susumu
Intertemporal Labor Supply and Human Capital Accumulation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Economics; Labor Supply; Modeling

There has been considerable interest in both labor economics and macro economics in estimating the intertemporal elasticity of substitution for labor supply. Even though numerous papers have been written on this subject, most of them either do not assume that agents are accumulating human capital, or assume away the people who supply zero hours of labor. Other papers explicitly include human capital accumulation as well as corner solutions, but then they only allow for discrete choice of hours. The main reason most researchers have not solved and estimated the continuous choice labor supply model is because of the extreme computational difficulty of solving a dynamic model where individuals have continuous choice over both hours and consumption. In this paper, I solve and estimate a dynamic model that allows agents to optimally choose their labor hours and consumption over a continuum of positive real numbers, and that allows for both human capital accumulation and savings. I develop an algorithm which solves the continuous variable dynamic programming problem, and then use the value function derived from it to calculate the likelihood function for Maximum Likelihood estimation. The main advantage of this estimation method which is based on full solution of this type of model is that it provides a framework from which, given the parameter estimates, one can implement various simulation exercises straightforwardly. Euler equation based GMM estimation has been done for the model, but it is impossible to simulate the model only from the Euler equations. Other problems with using GMM estimation are that measurement error as well as poor instruments bias the parameter estimates, and in particular, because of the possibility of nonconvexity in the model of labor supply with human capital accumulation, first order conditions do not guarantee optimal consumption and labor supply choice. My ML estimation avoids all these problems inherent in the GMM approach. ... I use the male sample in the NLSY data ...and simulate data from the model with the estimated parameters. Using the simulated data. I then estimate consumption and labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Imai, Susumu. Intertemporal Labor Supply and Human Capital Accumulation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1998.
113. Iverson, Thomas John
The Impact of Early Work Experience on the High School Retention of Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1980.
Also: http://www.google.com/search?q=IVERSON%2C+THOMAS+JOHN+Impact+of+Early+Work+Experience+on+the+High+School+Retention+of+Young+Men&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Government Regulation; High School; Modeling, Probit; Part-Time Work; Transition, School to Work; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Work Experience

This study examined the relationship between work experience during the last year of school and high school graduation. The policy framework was presented from the point of view of a professional within the delivery system of the Department of Labor's employment and training programs. Analysis of the administrative rules and regulations for these programs indicated the assumption, by program administrators, that work experience was necessary for youth to remain in school. Some economists and school system officials were seen as viewing the programs from a different perspective. They argued that work experience draws students from school into the full time labor force and, therefore, the programs hindered high school retention. This issue was examined by analyzing the NLS of Young Men using an econometric model. A single equation, with retention as the dependent variable and vectors representing family background, personal characteristics, and the labor market as independent variables, was used to model this problem. As the dependent variable was dichotomous, probit analysis was chosen as the appropriate technique to analyze the relationship between work experience and retention. Variations in model specification and sample size were employed to examine certain marginal variables and to gain further insight into variables which were "borderline" in statistical significance. The results indicated a marginally significant relationship between work experience and retention which was clearly positive. Thus, these results support the Department of Labor's claim that work experience is a positive factor in enabling youth to remain in school. In addition, these results should calm the fears of economists and school system officials that such programs will draw students out of school prematurely and lead to a greater incidence of dropping out.
Bibliography Citation
Iverson, Thomas John. The Impact of Early Work Experience on the High School Retention of Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1980..
114. Jacobs, Jerry A.
Sex-Segregation of Occupations and the Career Patterns of Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Employment; Job Patterns; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Attainment; Occupations, Female; Sex Roles

This thesis examines the relationship between the sex-segregation of occupations and the career patterns of women. While most women are channeled into female-dominated occupations, a minority obtain employment in fields where men predominate. Both groups are assumed to remain so employed throughout their labor force experience. It is assumed that the sex-segregation of occupations is mirrored in the careers of women. The hypothesis that women who change occupations during their careers rarely change the sex-type of their occupations is not supported. The characteristics of occupations and of individuals examined have only a weak effect on the process of sex-type mobility. The length of employment spells in each sex-type employment category is also examined using the demographic tool of survival analysis. The median length of spells in all categories is quite short--only several years in length. Moves to male-dominated occupations by women are facilitated by previous detachment from the labor force. It is argued that human capital, social-psychological and labor-market segmentation approaches to understanding the sex-segregation of occupations all need to take into account the striking degree of career mobility which crosses sex-type boundaries. It is argued that career experiences are crucial in maintaining the sex-segregated structure of occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Jacobs, Jerry A. Sex-Segregation of Occupations and the Career Patterns of Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1983.
115. Jacobs, Steven N.
Effects of Family Structure and Fathering Time on Child Behavior Problems and Reading Deficits
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Dallas, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Divorce; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Studies; Family Income; Family Structure; Family Studies; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Influence; Fathers, Presence; Parents, Non-Custodial; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Studies; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This is a study of the effects of family structure in general, and of fathering time in particular, on child behavior problems and reading deficits. The source of the data is the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The sample is comprised of 1,016 children, ages 6-10 as of the 1990 outcome year. The overall behavioral problems measured were derived from a Behavioral Problems Index tapping various factors of child adjustment. The primary cognitive deficit measured was derived from the child scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Reading Recognition Assessment. The basic research design was to compare the Behavioral Problems Index and Reading Recognition Scores of children in the traditional family structure to the Index and Scores of children in each of six alternative family structures, and to compare the Index and Scores of children who spend time with their fathers daily to the Index and Scores of children in each of six time periods less than daily. Race, child gender, family income and some other potentially important factors were accounted for. Ordinary Least Squares estimates of effects on behavior and reading were made in a system of regression models. The total effects of the variables were decomposed into direct and indirect effects. It was found, using this method and these models, that (1) children who spend progressively less than daily time with their fathers have significantly greater behavior problems and lower reading scores than children who spend time with their fathers daily, (2) although children of divorce, the non-intact unwed, and cohabitation have greater behavior problems than children in the traditional family structure, the differences are explained in significant part by fathering time, (3) the greater behavior problems for children who spend less than daily time with their fathers is not explained by family structure, (4) although there are behavioral and reading differences in children for differences in family income, income does not easily compensate for less time spent between father and child, and (5) these findings are significant, to varying degrees, and with few exceptions, for children of all races and both genders. For children of the traditional family, we must create father-friendly workplaces. For children of divorce we must significantly increase time between child and "non-custodial" father. For children of the unwed, we must encourage support programs that keep two-parent families together or require and facilitate frequent and continuing time spent between father and child. Copyright: Dissertation Abstracts
Bibliography Citation
Jacobs, Steven N. Effects of Family Structure and Fathering Time on Child Behavior Problems and Reading Deficits. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Dallas, 1998.
116. Jacobson, Jonathan Erik
Essays on the Economics of Minimum Competency Testing
Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Economics, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; High School Completion/Graduates; Labor Market Outcomes; Minorities; Occupational Status; Occupations; Poverty; School Completion; Testing Requirements

This thesis investigates the impact of minimum competency testing requirements on pupils and considers what factors influence states' adoption of such testing requirements. Between 1973 and 1985 twenty-one states adopted requirements that youth pass a minimum competency exam before graduating from high school. The data used to assess the effects of these requirements came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979 to 1990. The first chapter considers the impact of mandatory testing requirements on pupil test scores. The second chapter of the thesis considers the impact of testing requirements and other school policies on labor market outcomes. The third chapter of the thesis considers the determinants of states' adoption of testing requirements both for pupils and for teachers. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries Rm. 14-0551 Cambridge MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
Bibliography Citation
Jacobson, Jonathan Erik. Essays on the Economics of Minimum Competency Testing. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Economics, 1993.
117. James-Burdumy, Susanne N.
Effects of Maternal Labor Force Participation and Income on Child Development
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Johns Hopkins University, 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Endogeneity; Family Income; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings; Variables, Instrumental

Whether and to what degree a mother's labor force participation affects a child's achievement is of concern to both policy makers and families. The first part of this dissertation examines the impact of maternal employment on child development. Coefficient estimates from models without fixed effects and without corrections for the endogeneity of maternal employment may be biased and inconsistent. This dissertation reexamines the link between maternal employment and child development through the use of an instrumental variables mother fixed effects model to correct for the endogeneity of maternal employment and the presence of unobserved individual characteristics. Generalized method of moments is used for estimation. Hausman test results indicate that fixed effects are needed for consistent estimates of the impact of hours of work on child scores. The fixed effects results show no effect of hours or weeks worked by the mother in years 1, 2, or 3 on child test scores. The degree to which income affects child development has been a hotly disputed topic in the recent child development literature. The second part of this dissertation examines the effect of income from different sources on child development. The estimation controls for any correlation between the time-invariant part of the error in the child development equation and the income variables and for any correlation between the time-varying part of the error and the income variables. The model and methods developed in the first part of the dissertation are used. The model suggests that the effect of income varies depending on the source. Results show no effect of non-maternal income on child scores and a small effect of maternal earnings and maternal wages on test scores of children. In conclusion, the results strongly suggest that weeks worked and hours worked do not impact scores. Results also imply that family income and non-maternal income have no effect on child development, but maternal earnings and maternal wages positively impact scores.
Bibliography Citation
James-Burdumy, Susanne N. Effects of Maternal Labor Force Participation and Income on Child Development. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Johns Hopkins University, 2000.
118. Johnson, Edward Graham
Panel Data Models with Discrete Dependent Variables
Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, October 2004. DAI-A 65/04, p. 1464, Oct 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Educational Attainment; Family Models; Modeling; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Logit; Modeling, Probit; Monte Carlo; Siblings; Statistical Analysis

This dissertation makes two main contributions to the theory of panel data models with discrete dependent variables when the number of time periods is fixed. First, I present a new way of thinking about identification in these models and prove a necessary condition for identification of the common parameters. I show that under fairly general conditions, in a model of K discrete probabilities containing a non-parametric "fixed" effect, the common parameters can only be identified if the set of values that the K-1 independent probabilities can take on (as the fixed effect varies) lies in a K-2 dimensional subspace for some value of the explanatory variables. I show how this theorem can be used to derive results about identification in static binary-choice models with independence across time. This approach can be useful in understanding identification in many varieties of these types of models. For example, I prove that the parameters in a panel probit model are not identified. In another chapter, I present a method for estimating the parameters (including the threshold parameters) of an ordered logit model with fixed effects for panel data when the number of time periods is small. The method is based on the conditional-likelihood approach, but differs in that several conditional probabilities are derived, which together over-identify the model. These probabilities are used to construct moment conditions, which are then weighted using a standard GMM procedure. I also develop a method of evaluating population average marginal probability derivatives. This method requires a strong assumption about the distribution of the fixed effects, but Monte Carlo evidence suggests that the method gives good results even when this assumption is severely violated. I present an empirical application that uses these methods to investigate the factors that affect educational degree attainment by individuals, controlling for family-specific fixed effects, using a sample of siblings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Edward Graham. Panel Data Models with Discrete Dependent Variables. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, October 2004. DAI-A 65/04, p. 1464, Oct 2004.
119. Joseph, Alfred Louis
Tracking of School Children: a Comparison of Life Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Demography; Education; Employment; Family Income; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Poverty; Social Work; Vocational Education

The practice of ability grouping (tracking) in the schools is thought by many to have adverse effects on children placed in the non-academic or lower tracks. The curriculum and instruction they receive is inferior to that received by students in the academic or higher tracks. This study will look at how the practice of tracking has impacted the lives of school children according to how they were tracked in school. This investigation uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Out of the 12,686 possible cases, random selection was used to create four roughly equal groups of white male, white female, black male and black female respondents. The total number equaled 1,922; all high-school graduates. The data used came from survey year 1991. The variables of interest were grouped into four distinct categories. They were employment, educational, family financial and demographic. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, chi square, Anova and Ancova were used. For most of the analytic procedures, tracking (academic, general of vocational/commercial) was the predictor variable, the other variables were either categorized as confounding or criterion. Being placed in the academic track seemed to benefit the respondents when it came to employment and educational opportunities. It was also discovered that having a parent, especially a male parent, in certain job categories increased ones chances of being placed in the academic track. Academic track respondents also had better educated parents. In the financial arena, there were no significant differences, at the 0.05 level, due to track placement when hourly rate-of-pay was considered. Significant differences were found among the respondents when annual family income was used as the variable. Respondents in the academic track had much lower poverty rates than those respondents in the general or vocational/commercial. The distribution pattern of black and white respondents over the three tracks differed significantly. Blacks and whites also differed on outcomes within a particular track. For instance, in the academic track, the black female hourly rate-of-pay was 62% of the white female rate. It was slightly better for black males. Their rate was 78% of the white male rate. Similar discrepancies were also found in other tracks over many variables. Academic track placement was a definite advantage. However, same track placement did not guarantee equal outcomes. Race and sex seemed to be powerful influences. Given some of the results, one could conclude that tracking helps to maintain the status quo. This is done by grouping people with similar grounds and ensuring that they are exposed to similar types of educational experiences. This, in turn, greatly influences the types of occupational opportunities they will have. Having their offspring placed in academic tracks would complete the circle. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Bibliography Citation
Joseph, Alfred Louis. Tracking of School Children: a Comparison of Life Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1995.
120. Just, David Allen
The Relationship Between Female Delinquent Behavior and Work Values, Occupational Aspirations, and Labor Market Experience
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1984.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Behavioral Problems; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Aspirations; School Suspension/Expulsion; Vocational Education

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between female delinquent behavior and work values, occupational aspirations, and labor market experience. Data was derived from the 1980 NLSY. Analyses were conducted on approximately 4,000 youth and three criterion variables were used: work values, occupational aspirations, and labor force status. The variates examined were: delinquency, gender, ethnic origin, age, suspension from school, current residence (rural/urban), and residence in a SMSA. Three methods of analysis were applied to the data: logistic regression (to analyze work values, employment status, and expected ability to achieve aspirations at age 35); least squares regression (to determine the relationship between the variates and the criterion variable, "occupational aspirations"); and cross-tabulation (to illustrate the relationship between the delinquency index and employment status). The findings were of two types: variates that showed a distinct relationship with the criterion variables; and those which were significant because they did not show any relationship to the criterion variables. Recommendations were offered concerning the reduction of present inequities, integration of the school system with the juvenile justice system, and the initiation of further research and pilot programs within the vocational education system.
Bibliography Citation
Just, David Allen. The Relationship Between Female Delinquent Behavior and Work Values, Occupational Aspirations, and Labor Market Experience. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1984..
121. Karnehm, Amy Lynn
The Effects of Parental Practices on Adolescent Sexual Initiation Prior to Age 16
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 2000.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_effects_of_parental_practices_on_ado.html?id=l-1NNwAACAAJ
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age at First Intercourse; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parental Influences; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

In my dissertation I examine the transmission of family social capital from parent to child, as it impacts adolescent sexual initiation prior to Age 16. I extend the application of James Coleman's ideas and borrow from the conclusions of Alejandro Portes to integrate social capital theory with parenting practices and theories of adolescent sexual behavior. Using the 1979-1996 mother, child, and young adult data files from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I examine parenting factors (i.e., shared activities as indicators of the parent-child bond, parental support, and parental control) and child and family characteristics (e.g., maternal education, race/ethnicity, father presence, maternal aspirations for child's education) that distinguish teens born to young mothers who have "early sex" (initiate prior to age 16), from those who delay their initiation until or past age 16. I also explore how the effects of parenting practices on early sexual initiation differ by gender and by father presence/absence. As hypothesized, children who reported at least monthly church attendance with their parents at age 10 or 11 are more likely to delay their first sex until at least age 16. However, contrary to expectations, children whose mothers took them to cultural performances were more likely to have sex before age 16. This level of analysis suggests that early background characteristics may be more important than parental practices in predicting early sexual initiation. This dissertation concludes by suggesting a need for a more intensive examination of the relationship between family interaction process and early sexual initiation than is possible with a large-scale data set such as the NLSY.
Bibliography Citation
Karnehm, Amy Lynn. The Effects of Parental Practices on Adolescent Sexual Initiation Prior to Age 16. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 2000..
122. Keck, Canada K.
Initiation and Duration of Breastfeeding Among Employed Women in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Demography; Ethnic Differences; First Birth; Household Composition; Labor Force Participation; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Racial Differences

Despite a growing body of medical evidence that breastfeeding is beneficial to infants and mothers, women face many obstacles in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. With the growing trend of mothers with children under one participating in the labor force, understanding the effects of employment on breastfeeding is crucial to any policy attempts to increase breastfeeding rates. I examine the impact of demographic, social psychological, employment, and birth factors on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). I analyze mothers employed during the pregnancy leading to their first birth who returned to work at some point during the first year afterwards (N=1698). Blacks but not Hispanics are significantly less likely to initiate breastfeeding than whites. Women in the West are significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding than women in the Northeast, North Central or South. Women with higher leve ls of education, who are older at their first birth, who have a spouse or partner, who have greater internal locus of control, who have higher levels of occupational complexity, and who work 30 hours or less during their pregnancy are significantly more likely to breastfeed. Women who have a cesarean section and women who have indications of difficult birth conditions are significantly less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Among women who do initiate (N=891), women with higher levels of education, who live in the West, who have a spouse or partner, who return to work later and work 30 hours or less after returning breastfeed significantly longer. Hispanics but not Blacks have significantly shorter duration than whites. Having a difficult birth has a negative impact on duration of breastfeeding. When considering duration after returning to work, women living in the West, who work 30 hours or less, and have more education and higher occupational complexity breastfeed longer, with Hispanics and women with difficult births breastfeeding a shorter time. These results clearly suggest that a combination of addressing social attitudes, improving prenatal health, extending maternity leave options, and providing workplace flexibility are needed to increase the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among employed women.
Bibliography Citation
Keck, Canada K. Initiation and Duration of Breastfeeding Among Employed Women in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997.
123. Keddem, Aliza Mizrachi
Integration of Wives into Wage-Work and the Working-Class' Struggle to Maintain its Standard of Living
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1984
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Labor Force Participation; Wives, Work; Women

This study examines in a historical context the increasing employment of wives from American working-class families. Ten years of panel data from the NLS are analyzed using multiple regression and discriminant analysis techniques to determine the effects on wives' employment of economic pressure, young children, demand for women workers, unemployment, occupation, education, race, husband's employment, health of wife and husband, age, husband's labor market experience, and region of residence. The findings suggest that income adequacy is an important determinant of wives' employment. A reduction in child-care responsibilities over time removes a major obstacle to employment, and decreases the number of claimants on family resources. This pattern is reflected in the secular decline in the effect of income adequacy on wives' employment. The demand for women workers has a positive impact on women's employment. The overall state of the economy, reflected in the rate of unemployment, had little impact on wives' employment and decreased over time. Wives' labor force participation does not respond to changes in husbands' employment status, indicating that wives have become "permanent added-workers." Professional occupations exert a strong positive influence on wives' employment. The substantial impact of a profession is related to its intrinsic non-monetary values and greater monetary rewards. Although education does not influence employment, the joint effect of less education and a non-professional occupation is negative. The well-known high rates of employment of black wives are supported. Black families are in greater economic need than white families, and race is one of the better predictors of a wife's employment status. While their own poor health strongly deters women's employment, their husbands' poor health has an opposite effect. Neither region of residence nor a woman's own age or her husband's labor market experience strongly influence her employment.
Bibliography Citation
Keddem, Aliza Mizrachi. Integration of Wives into Wage-Work and the Working-Class' Struggle to Maintain its Standard of Living. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1984.
124. Keith, Kristen K.
The Reputational Effect of Job Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989.
Also: http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Keith%20Kristen.pdf?osu1265034773&dl=y
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits

Many studies have hypothesized that workers' "reputation" ensures their performance in an implicit employment contract. Poor performance results in loss of reputation which in turn may result in future wealth reduction. This dissertation examines the firm's interest in workers' mobility propensities. Specifically, it addresses the following question: Is there a reputational effect (in the form of wage penalties) of voluntary mobility? Voluntary mobility is measured using the number of an individual's previous quits. Previous quits are disaggregated into two reasons for quitting: economic and personal. The principal analysis is based on OLS regressions of the log of the hourly wage rate of young men employed in 1986. OLS estimates from a restricted sample of workers permanently laid-off recently are compared to those from a sample of workers remaining employed. The "permanent layoff" restriction is used to isolate the reputational effect of mobility from returns to previous job shopping and losses from forfeiting firm-specific training. Personal quit estimates are insignificant in both samples. Economic quit estimates are positive and significant in the unrestricted sample and insignificant in the restricted sample. These results reveal no evidence of a reputation effect of voluntary mobility. Thus, reputation may not play its assumed role in ensuring performance in implicit employment contracts.
Bibliography Citation
Keith, Kristen K. The Reputational Effect of Job Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989..
125. Keng, Shao-Hsun
Demand for Health, Alcohol Abuse, and Labor Market Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study
Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Labor Market Outcomes; Labor Supply; Simultaneity; Taxes

Becker and Murphy (1988) presented a rational addiction theory to rationalize the behavior of addiction. This dissertation extends rational addiction theory to examine the hypothesis of rational addiction and the long-term impact of addiction on labor productivity and labor supply. The theoretical model explicitly considers investment in health, drug consumption, and labor supply as joint decision variables, and treats wage as the outcome of these decisions. A simultaneous framework is empirically estimated to test the forward-looking hypothesis and the government policies are evaluated by simulation. The data set is the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Cohort (1979-1994). The results show that there is a trade off between the demand for health and the occasions of binge drinking. Youths reduce their occasions of binge drinking when they increase the demand for health, and vice versa. The finding supports the forward-looking hypothesis and that heavy drinking is addictive. Furthermore, we found a statistically weak effect of the alcohol price on the demand for binge drinking, and the long run alcohol price elasticity of the probability of heavy drinking, binge drinking, and no binge drinking are relatively small, -0.24, 0.03, and 0.21, respectively. The short run price elasticities are − 0.09, 0.01, and 0.08, respectively. The results suggest that the demand for binge drinking is not price responsive in the short run or long run. Continued binge drinking results in lower wage and health profiles, whereas it does not have significant impact on hours worked. Policy simulations show that increasing alcohol price by 100% decreases the occasions of binge drinking by only 5%, but raising the minimum legal drinking age one year reduces the occasions of binge drinking among underage youths by about 5%. The effect of increasing the alcohol price and the minimum drinking age on health status, hours worked, and log wage are positive, however, their magnitudes are sm all. Our results suggest that policy makers should focuses on affecting the age at which young people start drinking and taxing alcohol is a relatively inefficient policy for achieving this.
Bibliography Citation
Keng, Shao-Hsun. Demand for Health, Alcohol Abuse, and Labor Market Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, 1998.
126. Kim, Joshua Masnick
Economic Viability And Marriage: Life Course Transitions White and African Americans. 1967-1993
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, May 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Event History; Life Course; Marital Status; Marriage; Wage Dynamics; Wage Gap; Wages, Young Men

This dissertation examines changes in employment and marital patterns of young American men between 1967 and 1993. The data utilized to describe the changing relationship between economic viability and marital family formation are a two-cohort longitudinal dataset constructed by merging the Young Men's (NLS) and Youth (NLSY) samples of the National Longitudinal Surveys. The time frames covered by the two cohorts correspond to years of increasing real wages and high rates of marital family formation (NLS, 1967 to 1981), and the onset of economic restructuring, declining real wages, and a retreat from marital family formation (NLSY, 1979 to 1993). Continuous time (Cox regression) and discrete time (logistic regression) event history analytical techniques are utilized in the analysis of changes in economic viability and marriage between the NLS and NLSY cohorts. The findings of this research indicate that the ability of young men to transition to adult work and family roses has bifurcated significantly by educational attainment. High school-educated men have endured approximately a twenty percent decline in rates of reaching secure, non-poverty employment during young adulthood. The gap in economic viability between high school and college educated men has grown substantially between the cohorts, with the slippage in the earnings and employment levels of high school educated men accounting for almost all of this inequality. The increased bifurcation in levels of economic viability across the cohorts has resulted in a significant decline in the probabilities of marital family formation during young adulthood. The single most important factor in explaining the retreat from marriage among high school-educated men is the diminished ability of this group to achieve economic viability during young adulthood. This finding lends support to the economic provider hypothesis that posits that the narrowing of the economic structure for young men is the most significant causal factor behind declines in marital family formation. This polarization in the assumption of adult work and family roles by educational level has become an entrenched feature of the early adult life course.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Joshua Masnick. Economic Viability And Marriage: Life Course Transitions White and African Americans. 1967-1993. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, May 1999.
127. Kim, Kiweon
The Effect of Poverty on Children's Academic Performance
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Dallas, 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Medicaid/Medicare; Mothers, Health; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Welfare

Today's high poverty rate for children makes us think about its negative effects on our society. One such effect is on the children's academic performance. This study investigates how poverty spells affect children's academic achievement. Previous studies have found an adverse effect of low birth weight on children's academic achievement. For home environment, studies generally find a positive association between the quality of the home environment and children's academic outcomes. Transactional theory argues that home environment interacts with physical insults as they affect academic performance. For this study, 1988 NLSY Merged Child-Mother Data are used. By using key linkage variables, a child's ID number and a mother's ID number, two data sets are merged and the inter-generational effects are studied. Variables included are PIAT reading, mathematics test scores in 1988, poverty spells, prenatal maternal health and habits, physical insults, home environment,program participation, children's academic achievement, child's age, sex of the child, residence, spouse presence, mother's AFQT score, mother's highest grade completed, and spouse's highest grade completed.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Kiweon. The Effect of Poverty on Children's Academic Performance. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Dallas, 1992.
128. Kim, Young Min
Deprived? Privileged? Or Just Deviated? Unequal Resources and Differential Returns to Resources in Explaining Gender, Race, and Sector Differences in Earnings Attainment Among Young Career Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University At Carbondale, 1993. DAI-A 54/08, p. 3226, Feb 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Heterogeneity; Racial Differences; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Wage Gap

In this research I present an analysis of sex, race, and sector differences in earnings attainment among young workers, using the National Longitudinal Surveys data. The separate analyses of earnings for females and males affirm that the gender earnings gap is not principally rooted in differences in the level of the worker characteristics. For example, differences in educational attainment between females and males are very small, with differences usually favoring females. By contrast, the single most prominent worker characteristic in explaining the race earnings gap is found to be education. When the effects of sex, race, and economic sector are analyzed interactively, I found no evidence of a three-way interaction effect. But both sex and race, and sex and sector seem to interact with each other positively, but more so between sex and race. When the effects of sex and race are analyzed at three different career stages over time, I found that the positive interaction between sex and race increases as one's career progresses. When the effects of moving in and out of economic sectors on earnings are analyzed, both white females and males are more likely to be affected by intersectoral mobility than black males and females. For white males and females, moving from core to periphery sectors is found to be costly, but the reverse is not necessarily true. The implications of these findings for both the individual and the structural perspectives of earnings inequality are multifarious. For the individual perspectives, the seven covariates are in general statistically significant predictors across gender, race, and sector groups. On the other hand, the degree of explanatory power of the supply variables varies considerably across gender, race, and sectoral groups. Further, the combined explanatory power of the supply variables seems to lose its importance over time. For the structural perspectives, the sector effect on earnings is quite significant and remains rather substantial even after the confounding effects, such as sex and race, are removed. Ironically, the sector effect on earnings is greatly reduced when the supply variables are held constant. That is, the unequal level of the supply variables between the sectoral groups persists across all gender-race groups. But, when analyzed within each gender-race group, earnings determination processes by the two sectoral groups are found to be quite homogeneous.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Young Min. Deprived? Privileged? Or Just Deviated? Unequal Resources and Differential Returns to Resources in Explaining Gender, Race, and Sector Differences in Earnings Attainment Among Young Career Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University At Carbondale, 1993. DAI-A 54/08, p. 3226, Feb 1994.
129. Kinder, Deenie
The Effect of the Marriage Penalty on Female Labor Supply
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Santa Barbara, 1987
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Income; Labor Supply; Legislation; Marital Status; Marriage; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women; Women

Utilizing data from the NLS of Mature Women, this paper studies the effect of one aspect of the 1969 tax law change on female labor supply. The 1969 act reduced the tax rate schedule for single taxpayers, and as a result introduced a positive marriage penalty. The introduction of the marriage penalty widened the marginal tax rate differential between single and married women. As a result, the labor supply differential between married and single women increased. The increased labor supply differential was greater for women from high-income families, and for women who earned incomes close to their husbands' incomes. In addition, the tax law change had implications for the labor supply adjustments women make when they change marital status. Generally, women reduce their labor supplies when they marry, and increase their labor supplies when they divorce. The 1969 act served to magnify these labor supply adjustments: the decrease in labor supply when a woman married became greater after the tax change, as did the increase in labor supply when a woman divorced.
Bibliography Citation
Kinder, Deenie. The Effect of the Marriage Penalty on Female Labor Supply. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Santa Barbara, 1987.
130. King, Randall H.
Labor Market Consequences of Dropping Out of High School
Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Earnings; High School; High School Dropouts; Occupational Status; Schooling; Unemployment

This study, based on human capital theory, examines the economic consequences of dropping out of high school. The effect of schooling over time on labor market success (hourly pay rate, occupational prestige, and employment incidence and duration) was measured. Data from Young Men and Women cohorts of the NLS were utilized. The study universe consisted of respondents who left school between l958-70 (males) and l962-70 (females), completed 9-12 years of schooling, and were not enrolled at the time of the survey. A three-equation recursive model was used to determine schooling contribution to success measures. Findings demonstrated substantial labor market benefits for all groups during the first decade of labor market experience. Earnings differences between graduates and dropouts were not pronounced immediately upon leaving school, but became significant over time. Graduates' age-earnings profiles were steeper than those of dropouts. The difference in occupational status between black graduates and dropouts shrinks over time. All graduates except black females enjoyed greater immunity to unemployment than dropouts. In employment duration the advantage of black males and black and white females deteriorated over time; little difference was demonstrated between white male graduates and dropouts.
Bibliography Citation
King, Randall H. Labor Market Consequences of Dropping Out of High School. Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1978.
131. Kizer, Jean Vaughn
Influence of Gender Role Ideology, Socioeconomic Factors, Residential Location, Family Structure and Ethnic Background on Child-Care Arrangements in United
Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Demography; Education; Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Family Studies; Income; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Modeling; Racial Differences; Regions; Residence; Sex Roles; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Decision-making of parents regarding child-care arrangements has been a continual focus in the literature since the early 1900's. Although gender role ideology has been acknowledged, no study using a large national sample, has examined its contribution to decision-making regarding parental choice of child-care arrangement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a number of antecedent variables, including gender role ideology on parental choice of child-care arrangement. Three research questions guided the study, first, are there differences associated with selected demographic and family characteristics and parental choice of child-care arrangements? Second, are there differences in gender role ideology associated with choice of child-care arrangement? Finally, are there differences in selected demographic and family characteristics associated with choice of child-care arrangement after controlling for differences in gender role ideology? The data were taken fr om the 1987-1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and was limited to female respondents with children 71 months or younger. A conceptual model was developed which consisted of 15 independent variables, one dependent variable, arrangement (with five categories) and the intervening variable of gender role ideology. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, crosstabulation and discriminant analysis. Findings from this study indicated that parents with more children and younger children chose parental or relative care and parents with older children chose non-relative or daycare. Those respondents with higher education and income chose daycare and non-relative over other types of care. Race, employment status and region of residence are associated with choice of child-care arrangement and marital status was the strongest predictor of choice. It was concluded that including the variable gender role ideology did make an independent contribution to parental choice of child-care arrangement. Those who exhibited a more traditional gender role ideology were more likely to choose parental or relative care and those with a more contemporary perspective were more likely to choose non-relative or daycare.
Bibliography Citation
Kizer, Jean Vaughn. Influence of Gender Role Ideology, Socioeconomic Factors, Residential Location, Family Structure and Ethnic Background on Child-Care Arrangements in United. Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 1994.
132. Klawitter, Marieka Marjorie
The Interrelations of Young Women's Marriage and Employment Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment; Hispanics; Marriage; Modeling, Probit; Racial Differences; Wives

This thesis explores linkages between marriage and employment for young women. Marriage could substitute for a woman's market work by adding financial resources to her household. A marriage-employment "trade-off" may result, with women who are more likely to marry being less likely to be employed. Differences in values or opportunities could also link marriage with employment outcomes even prior to marriage. The major part of the thesis is an empirical study of marriage and employment for young women. The data come from the National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort in 1979. Bivariate Probit models jointly estimate marriage and employment outcomes. Using the 1985 survey year as a cross section, there is evidence of a marriage-employment trade-off for Nonblack-Nonhispanic women through the impact of observed and unobserved characteristics. For Black and Hispanic women, however, there is no clear pattern of marriage-employment linkage. In the second part of the empirical analysis, women who marry during the panel are compared with those still unmarried in 1985. Prior to marriage, women who will marry are more likely to be employed than are women who will not marry--even after controlling for a set of observed characteris- tics. Results suggest that women who marry are not the kind unlikely to be employed outside of marriage because of unobservable factors. For Black women, the higher employment rates for married women may be the result of stable individual differences in opportunities or values outweighing a trade-off through child-bearing.
Bibliography Citation
Klawitter, Marieka Marjorie. The Interrelations of Young Women's Marriage and Employment Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1992.
133. Knapp, James Lyndon
Predicting the Retirement Intentions of Professional Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Texas, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Retirement; Working Conditions

The entrance of the entire baby-boom generation into the prime-age work force in 1989, along with an increase in the number of professional workers, has produced changes in the composition of the labor force. The impact of these changes will be seen most vividly in the early part of the 21st century when the baby-boom generation begins to leave the labor force. While research focusing on the retirement intentions of individuals within the general population has been undertaken, only two empirical studies have examined the retirement intentions of professional workers. This study expands the small, existing body of literature focusing on this topic by presenting eighteen hypotheses, grouped into five categories of factors, and testing them with the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience. While several variables impacted the retirement intentions of professional workers, age and job satisfaction were especially influential. Policy makers in the public and private sectors can respond to the findings by realizing the complex nature of the retirement decision. In addition, decision makers in the private sector can strive to create more satisfying work environments and offer comprehensive retirement planning programs for professionals who are contemplating retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Knapp, James Lyndon. Predicting the Retirement Intentions of Professional Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Texas, 1995.
134. Kohen, Andrew I.
Determinants of Early Labor Market Success Among Young Men: Race, Ability, Quantity and Quality of Schooling
Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1973
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Occupational Attainment; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment; Wages

The study examines the effects of several hypothesized determinants of early labor market success among young men. Success is measured in terms of hourly earnings, social status of occupation, and annual unemployment experience. In a human capital theoretical framework, the following characteristics are hypothesized to affect success: socioeconomic background, health, race, mental ability, quantity and quality of schooling. Multiple regression analysis is applied to a three-equation model and several functional specifications of the success equation are tested. The study also generates estimates of the quantitative impact of current racial discrimination in the labor market. The data are from the l966 file of the NLS of Young Men and relate to out-of-school males 18 to 24 years of age who had completed at least 8 years of schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. Determinants of Early Labor Market Success Among Young Men: Race, Ability, Quantity and Quality of Schooling. Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1973.
135. Koppel, Ross
The Role of Social Psychological Variables in the Status Attainment of Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Temple University, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Control; Education; Family Background; Intelligence; Internal-External Attitude; Job Tenure; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Status; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Attainment; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); School Quality; Schooling

We attempt to ascertain the roles that three social psychological variables play in the labor market attainment of young men. The three variables are: occupational aspirations, self-assessed expectations of reaching those aspirations, and the Rotter locus of control scale. To examine the influences of these factors we observe their effects within a matrix of variables generally thought to determine labor market rewards. These other variables are: family background, intelligence, education, school quality, age, job tenure, responsibility for dependents, marital status, region of country, and size of local labor force. We ascertain our measures near the completion of each respondent's schooling. Labor market outcome measures are collected at the last year of our study period -- five to nine years after completion of school. The data for this research are from the Young Men's cohort of the NLS. Three interrelated research strategies reflect our hypotheses: 1) we determine if any of the social psychological variables significantly affect labor market outcomes; 2) we determine how much of the explained variance is shared between social psychological and other factors; we develop and test path models reflecting the hypothesized interrelations of our social psychological and other variables. Findings include: social psychological variables measured before full-time labor market participation directly affect income and occupational attainment; respondents with higher aspirations and/or more confidence attained higher status jobs than those with less ambitious goals and/or with less confidence about occupational success; "internals" -- those who believed that they have more control over their lives -- have higher earnings than the "externals." Further, we found that those with high expectations of reaching their goals earn considerably more than those who are less optimistic. These data also reveal that a substantial proportion of variance is shared between the social psychological and other variables. Path analysis indicates that occupational aspirations and expectations are important intervening elements in the process of occupational and income attainment, mediating much of the influence of intelligence, family background, and education.
Bibliography Citation
Koppel, Ross. The Role of Social Psychological Variables in the Status Attainment of Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Temple University, 1981.
136. Kost, Kathleen Ann
The Use of An Income Maintenance Program By Young Men: An Exploratory Study
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Fatherhood; Fathers; Financial Assistance; Income; Regions; Welfare

Concern over the effects of the public provision of financial assistance on the lives of citizens, and its consequences for society, has been a driving force in the policy arena for the last decade. Public debate has focused primarily on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), a federally mandated and regulated welfare program. Missing from much of this debate has been the smaller General Assistance (GA) program, a state and/or locally financed income maintenance program for persons in need who do not qualify for economic assistance under federal programs. There are no federal mandates or regulations which require states to implement this program or that govern its administration. Little is known about the potential effect of GA on the lives of recipients and the impact its availability may have on work effort. This research examines the personal and structural characteristics of young able-bodied men who use GA, their duration of use and the characteristics that may be related to exit from it. These characteristics are compared to recipients who are considered unemployable by program administrators and to similarly situated able-bodied young men who also have access to a GA program but did not use it. Data are from the 1979 through 1984 panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of the Labor Market Experience of Youth (NLSY). Significant differences were found between unemployable and employable recipients; there were fewer substantive differences between able-bodied recipients and nonrecipients. Young men living in states in the East North Central region were found to be more likely to use GA, as were young men who had had two or more incidents in the criminal justice system. Little long-term GA use was found in these data: a majority of able-bodies recipients exit this welfare program within six months. The number of weeks worked previously increases the likelihood to exit from GA. Fathers were less likely to exit than recipients who did not have a child. Implications for policy and suggestion for future research are included.
Bibliography Citation
Kost, Kathleen Ann. The Use of An Income Maintenance Program By Young Men: An Exploratory Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994.
137. Kowalewski, Brenda Marsteller
The Effects of Work and Family Experiences on Gender Role Attitudes of Youths: 1982-1987
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Ethnic Differences; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Life Course; Racial Differences; Sex Roles; Transitional Programs

Bibliography Citation
Kowalewski, Brenda Marsteller. The Effects of Work and Family Experiences on Gender Role Attitudes of Youths: 1982-1987. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1995.
138. Kulahci, Mehmet
Factors Affecting the Labor Market Experience of Young Men with Special Needs
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Disability; Education; Employment; Labor Market Outcomes; Training, Occupational; Unemployment; World of Work Test

Unemployment rate differentials furnished by statistical studies do not demonstrate whether educational experiences and post-school training affect early labor market experience of youth with special needs. This study was designed to determine the effects of education and occupational training on the labor market experiences of young men with special needs. The sample for this study consisted young men from the NLS. Special needs applies to both disadvantaged and handicapped persons and includes: (1) educationally disadvantaged; (2) socially or culturally disadvantaged; and (3) functional limitations (handicapped). The statistical methodology employed in this study was threefold: (1) a modified analysis of variance; (2) the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient; and (3) stepwise regression analysis. Five major conclusions were reached: (1) Types of high school curricula did not make any difference in average wage and salary earnings, the number of weeks employed, the number of weeks unemployed, and job satisfaction for special needs young men; (2) Differences in educational attainment were positively correlated with labor market experiences for special needs persons; (3) Differences between knowledge of the world of work were also a major force determining labor market outcomes for special needs persons; (4) Post-school occupational training had a significant benefit to special needs young men regarding average wage and salary earnings; and (5) Post-school occupational training did have a significant effect on the number of weeks of employment. Special needs young men without occupational training experienced more weeks of unemployment than those who had completed or used one or two occupational training experiences. Therefore, it is concluded that post-school occupational training has a significant effect on early labor market experience of young men with special needs.
Bibliography Citation
Kulahci, Mehmet. Factors Affecting the Labor Market Experience of Young Men with Special Needs. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1981.
139. Kurz, Brenda Jo
Impact of Adolescent Illegitimacy on Academic Achievement: An Analysis Within Racial and Socio-Economic Status Groups
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1986
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Mothers; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationship between adolescent illegitimacy and academic achievement within specific race and socio-economic status (SES) groups. The primary hypothesis is that among the very low- SES blacks, the effect of adolescent illegitimacy on achievement is negligible. For other race-SES groups, the effect is expected to be adverse. The magnitude of the effect is postulated to be greater for whites than blacks and to increase for both whites and blacks with SES. Data from the NLSY were used to test the hypotheses. Proportional hazards analyses were conducted. A second objective of the study was the development of prognostic models for adolescent illegitimacy. The effect of adolescent illegitimacy on the academic achievement of the young mother was found to differ among the various race-SES specific groups. No effect was detected among the high-low SES blacks whereas an adverse effect was observed among all other groups. The power of some of the analyses was low. However, the consistency of the patterns generated by the analyses of interest and the supplementary analyses support the findings.
Bibliography Citation
Kurz, Brenda Jo. Impact of Adolescent Illegitimacy on Academic Achievement: An Analysis Within Racial and Socio-Economic Status Groups. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1986.
140. LaChance, Laura
Effects of Changes in Maternal Occupational Characteristics on Maternal Depression and Adolescent Well-Being
Master's Thesis, The Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Maternal Employment; Occupational Prestige; Risk-Taking; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Work Hours

In this study, I examine how work-to-family spillover functions in families with adolescent children. In particular, I hypothesize that persistently low or declining substantive complexity of a mother's occupation, chronic over-time hours or movement into over-time hours, and chronic non-standard shift work or movement into non-standard shift work will lead to higher levels of maternal depression. Moreover, I predict that adolescents of mothers with elevated depression will have higher levels of depression, risk-taking attitudes and lower self-esteem themselves. Overall, I find that low or declining levels of occupational complexity have negative implications for mothers' well-bring. Additionally, these mothers were more likely to experience an increase in their levels of depression during the two years immediately following a move to working over-time hours. These same maternal working conditions, however, have almost no direct impact on adolescent well-being. However, increases in maternal depression are linked to greater adolescent depression and lower self-esteem. These findings provide evidence that poor maternal working conditions affect adolescent depression and self-esteem indirectly through increased maternal depression.
Bibliography Citation
LaChance, Laura. Effects of Changes in Maternal Occupational Characteristics on Maternal Depression and Adolescent Well-Being. Master's Thesis, The Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 2001.
141. Lee, Hongjik
The Effects of Welfare-to-Work Program on Welfare Recipients' Employment, Earnings, and Welfare Use
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2003. DAI-A 63/11, p. 4093, May 2003.
Also: https://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/facet/all_author_field?filters=all_author_field%3A%22Hongjik%20Lee%22
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Labor Economics; Labor Force Participation; Socioeconomic Factors; Welfare; Work Reentry

Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, it is important to gauge whether welfare-to-work programs move recipients from welfare to work in short period of time. This study analyzes the effects of welfare-to work programs, using data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study explores which of the three welfare-to-work program approaches--human capital development, labor force attachment, and the combined approach--is most successful in helping welfare recipients get a job, increase their earnings, leave welfare, and reduce the amount of welfare benefits within a one-year follow-up period. This study also examines which socioeconomic subgroups had greater success with employment, earnings, and welfare use. By comparing the impacts of the three welfare-to-work approaches with these subgroups, this study answers the question: Which welfare-to-work program approach is more effective and for whom? All three welfare-to-work program approaches enabled participants to leave welfare, to reduce the amount of welfare benefits, to gain employment, and to increase their earnings in a one-year follow-up period. However, the labor force attachment approach did not produce statistically significant increases in the one-year follow-up, after controlling for other socioeconomic variables. The combined approach produced the largest gains in leaving welfare, reductions in the amount of welfare benefits, employment, and earnings. The labor force attachment approach produced larger gains in welfare leave and employment than did human capital development approach, which produced larger gains in reducing the amount of welfare and increasing earnings in the one-year follow up period. In terms of a subgroup analysis, the impacts of the three program approaches varied by socioeconomic groups, even though the combined approach was the strongest predictor in leaving welfare, reducing the amount of welfare benefits, securing employment, and increasing earnings in most subgroups. This study contributes to the position that policymakers and planners of welfare-to-work programs should allocate funds to formulate appropriate strategies. Also, the finding of subgroup analysis may help program managers understand the importance of in-depth assessment of their socioeconomic characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Hongjik. The Effects of Welfare-to-Work Program on Welfare Recipients' Employment, Earnings, and Welfare Use. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2003. DAI-A 63/11, p. 4093, May 2003..
142. Lee, Sokbae
Essays on Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods in Econometrics
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Iowa, 2002. DAI-A 63/04, p. 1457, Oct 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Modeling, Multilevel; Work History

This dissertation consists of four chapters that deal with semiparametric and non-parametric problems in econometrics. The first chapter presents methods for estimating a conditional quantile function that is assumed to be partially linear. A simple, two-stage estimator of the parametric component of the conditional quantile is developed and the semiparametric efficiency bound for the parametric component is derived. Two types of efficient estimators are constructed. The estimation methods are applied to estimate the return to education in a human capital earnings function. Dimension reduction can be achieved in a different way. In the second chapter, the conditional quantile function is assumed to be additive. Individual additive components of the conditional quantile are estimated nonparametrically based on marginal integration. This chapter introduces a new pilot estimator and establishes the asymptotic distribution of the marginal integration estimator. The third chapter considers a panel duration model that has a proportional hazards specification with fixed effects. The chapter shows how to estimate the baseline and integrated baseline hazard functions without assuming that they belong to known, finite-dimensional families of functions. Existing estimators assume that the baseline hazard function belongs to a known parametric family. Therefore, the estimators presented here are more general than existing ones. This chapter also presents a method for estimating the parametric part of the proportional hazards model under dependent right censoring, under which the partial likelihood estimator is inconsistent. The estimation methods are illustrated by applying them to National Longitudinal Survey of Youth work history data. There are few a priori reasons for preferring one type of semiparametric model to other models. The final chapter reviews semiparametric methods for estimating conditional mean functions. The methods are illustrated by using them to estimate a model of the salaries of professional baseball players in the U.S. It is shown that the various semiparametric models can be distinguished empirically from each other and from a parametric model. The parametric model and several simple semiparametric models fail to capture important features of the data. However, a sufficiently rich semiparametric model describes the data well.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Sokbae. Essays on Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods in Econometrics. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Iowa, 2002. DAI-A 63/04, p. 1457, Oct 2002.
143. Levine, Phillip B.
Three Essays on Unemployment and Unemployment Insurance
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Treatment Response: Monotone, Semimonotone, or Concave-monotone; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment Insurance

This dissertation contains three separate essays. The first essay assesses the ability of a simple search- theoretic model to explain the results of two controlled social experiments. The availability of two independent experiments with substantially different treatments allows for a rigorous test of the model. Parameters of the model are estimated by minimizing the distance between the observed and predicted aggregate response in each experiment, then cross-validated using the observed and predicted treatment response from the other experiment. The model is unable to predict an effect as large as that observed in one of the experiments. In addition, the model cannot explain the degree of individual-specific wage variability found in the data. The relative success of models with and without search intensity is also considered, but the statistical procedures cannot distinguish between them. The second essay documents and attempts to explain the observed disparities between unemployment rates computed from contemporaneous and retrospective data from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The maintained hypothesis is that the discrepancies are consistent with different definitions of unemployment between the two measures. The longitudinal nature of the CPS is exploited to show that more workers with weak labor force attachment are considered unemployed in the contemporaneous rate relative to the retrospective measure. An example is provided indicating that conclusions of earlier studies are unwarranted when retrospective rates are used rather than contemporaneous. Given the different definitions, researchers may find that in certain circumstances the retrospective rate is a more appropriate measure of unemployment. In the third essay, I consider the effect of changing the level of Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits on workers who do not receive UI. The author presents a model indicating that if UI benefits increase, the offer arrival rate for the uninsured increases and, under the appropriate conditions, uninsured workers find jobs sooner. These predictions are tested using data from several March Current Population Surveys and the NLSY. In both samples, I find that an increase in UI benefits leads to a reduction in the duration of unemployment for uninsured workers. [UMI ADG91-10383]
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Phillip B. Three Essays on Unemployment and Unemployment Insurance. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1990.
144. Liu, Qing
Two Essays on Human Capital Acquisition Among Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Department of Economics, 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Geocoded Data; Male Sample; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Teachers/Faculty; Wage Determination; Wage Levels

Does School Quality Matter and for Whom? Evidence from a Quantile Regression Analysis. This essay uses quantile regressions to evaluate the diverse returns to school quality accruing to people who are at different positions in the wage distribution. Using data from the geocoded version of the NLSY79, We find that teachers with advanced degrees and better paid teachers have significantly larger benefits for individuals at higher quantiles of the wage distribution, while a high teacher/student ratio favors individuals at lower quantiles. These results are consistent across a variety of samples and specifications. While adopting different measures of student outcomes, this work reaches a conclusion that is similar to research in education - the estimated effect of school quality are misleadingly small when the average effect is considered. We argue that a correct question to ask is for whom school quality matters. Answering this question will help promote sound policies for targeting limited resources to be used most efficiently among heterogeneous students.

Parental Expectations and Child Learning Performance. This essay estimates how parents affect their children's achievement by transmitting their preferences to their children. The model developed in the paper demonstrates that children whose parents have higher expectations for their achievement, spend more time studying conditional on their ability and previous achievement, and thus learn more. Using data from the NLSY79 Child & Young Adult, we construct a variable measuring parental expectations for children's educational attainment. These data are then linked to the summary tape files of 1990 Census and the Common Core of Data to obtain a unique data set on the characteristics of the neighborhoods and school districts where the NLSY children live. After controlling for a comprehensive set of characteristics of the children's mother, family, neighborhood, and school, we find a positive and significant effect of parental expectations on child learning performance.

Bibliography Citation
Liu, Qing. Two Essays on Human Capital Acquisition Among Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Department of Economics, 2001.
145. Lloyd, Kim Marie
Contextual Influences on Sexual Initiation and Family Formation Throughout the Life Course of Young Latino/Latina Americans
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Ethnic Studies; Event History; Family History; Family Studies; Hispanic Studies; Hispanic Youth; Life Course; Marriage; Modeling; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Motherhood; Racial Studies; Sex Roles; Simultaneity

Sexual initiation, premarital motherhood, and first marriage are examined among a nationally representative cohort of Hispanic men and women. Competing theories of union formation are evaluated by merging 1980 and 1990 census data with the individual sexual and familial histories of respondents in the 1979 through 1990 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Separate person-year data sets are constructed for each of the three outcome variables and independent equations are estimated for Latinos and Latinas. Event-history models focus on the intersection of race and ethnicity within Hispanic marriage markets by employing six separate race-ethnicity-specific sex ratio measures (and other indicators of partner quality) to empirically distinguish the most appropriate operationalization of Hispanics' field of potential partners. Discrete-time proportional hazards models are then estimated to determine the impact of local marriage market characteristics on each dependent variable, while simultaneously holding constant conventional individual-level predictors. Finally, models generated for Latinos and Latinas are compared to similar equations for Anglo and African American men and women to ascertain how the Hispanic American experience approximates the experience of other major U.S. subpopulations. Analyses reveal that a shortage of prospective partners in the local marriage market impedes Hispanics' coital initiation, while facilitating Latinas' probability of experiencing premarital motherhood. Additionally, the sex ratio exerts a positive influence on both Latinos' and Latinas' first marriage transitions. The racial and ethnic boundaries of Hispanic marriage markets vary depending on the type of sexual or familial transition being examined. Generally speaking, the parameters of Hispanic marriage markets become more racially and ethnically endogamous as the life course transition in question becomes increasingly permanent and legally binding. The implications of these findings for future research on the sexual and familial transitions of U.S. Hispanics are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Lloyd, Kim Marie. Contextual Influences on Sexual Initiation and Family Formation Throughout the Life Course of Young Latino/Latina Americans. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 2000.
146. Loprest, Pamela J.
Gender Differences in the Labor Market Experiences of Young Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Mobility; Vocational Education; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wages, Young Women; Work Experience

Young women entering the labor market earn lower wages on average than young men. It is important to understand the sources of this initial wage gap because of the potential consequences for young women's futures. Wages are an important determinant of human capital investment, job choice, and labor force participation, all of which influence future labor market outcomes. This dissertation attempts to account for the gender wage gap by studying different aspects of young workers' labor market experiences. It focuses on the extent to which differences in young workers' rates of job mobility, high school work and vocational education, and early spells of nonwork can explain male/female wage differentials. All three chapters use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Loprest, Pamela J. Gender Differences in the Labor Market Experiences of Young Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992.
147. Ludwig, Jens Otto
Information and Inner-City Educational Attainment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Economics, Duke University, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Background; Geocoded Data; Information Networks; Inner-City; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty; Residence; Role Models; Urbanization/Urban Living; Youth Problems

This dissertation provides an empirical examination of William Julius Wilson's 1987 hypothesis that youths residing in concentrated urban poverty neighborhoods may misperceive the returns to education and, in turn, underinvest in schooling. In the absence of useful longitudinal data capturing the earnings expectations of youths from central city poverty communities, this dissertation makes use of the labor market information measures available with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine Wilson's theory, under the hypothesis that youths' information about the labor market will be (imperfectly) correlated with the consistency of their expectations of the returns to schooling.

A model is developed which shows that even if central city youths are exposed to middle class role models, if the observed role models are different from themselves with respect to such income-altering characteristics as race, these youths may have difficulty in isolating the earnings effects of education.

Three primary empirical questions raised by Wilson's hypothesis are addressed using the NLSY data: (1) Do youths in urban poverty neighborhoods (defined as urban ZIP Code areas with 1980 poverty rates above 30 percent) have less information about the labor market than youths from other areas? Simple analysis-of-variance procedures indicate that the answer to this question is yes, and that these differences are statistically significant. (2) Does residence within a concentrated urban poverty neighborhood per se depress labor market information, or are information differences due primarily to characteristics such as race and socioeconomic status? Results derived using both naive and two-stage estimation procedures suggest that neighborhoods do not appear to affect information for the NLSY sample as a whole. However, urban poverty area residence did seem to negatively influence the information of youths from families that had received welfare. These results may suggest that neighborhoods become more important as sources of labor market information for youths as their families becomes less so. (3) Does the information a youth has about the labor market influence educational outcomes? Both naive and two-stage estimation procedures suggest that the information which youths have about the labor market may influence their likelihood to graduate from high school and their eventual total years of school completed, even after controlling for individual, family, neighborhood and school characteristics.

Bibliography Citation
Ludwig, Jens Otto. Information and Inner-City Educational Attainment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Economics, Duke University, 1994.
148. Lundquist, Jennifer Michelle Hickes
A Counterfactual Approach to the Black-White Differential in Family Trends: The Effect of a 'Total Institution'
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2004. DAI-A 65/06, p. 2373, Dec 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Divorce; Economic Well-Being; Economics of Minorities; Ethnic Studies; Family Studies; General Social Survey (GSS); Military Service; Modeling, Logit; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Survey of Active Duty Personnel (1999)

Social scientists have noted an increasing divergence in family patterns between US blacks and whites, with the former experiencing markedly higher divorce, nonmarital childbearing and never-marrying rates. While the causality behind such racial divergence is complex, the current political climate tends to downplay economic explanations, emphasizing that differences are attributable primarily to individual and group level preferences. This dissertation exploits the military context as a unique way to reassess these issues. Most explanations forwarded for race differences in society find their counter in the military environment. For minorities, the military provides improved economic opportunity and stability. There is also evidence for an improved environment extending beyond simply socioeconomic parity, as evidenced by the military's comparatively high levels of racial desegregation and interracial marriage. Through a combination of event history and propensity score matching analyses using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I find that racial differences in family patterns, so prevalent in the civilian population, dramatically decrease or disappear. Military blacks and whites are each equally likely to marry. Divorce rates are reversed from the civilian pattern. Nonmarital childbearing is substantially reduced among blacks in the military relative to their civilian counterparts. In the second part of the dissertation I use the Survey of Active Duty Personnel to show how the military moderates many of the structural disadvantages of race. Using ordered category logistic regression, I find that, compared to military whites, military blacks consider their lives vastly improved from civilian life along all of those elements identified as lacking for many black Americans in civilian society. This is the case not only in ratings of improved economic conditions and related benefits, but also in ratings of overall happiness. The third part of the dissertation explores the "social contact hypothesis," comparing veterans with nonveterans in their behaviors and opinions related to race. Exploratory analyses using the General Social Survey show an association between increased tenure in the military and a pronounced lessening of racially discriminatory attitudes among white males. Overall, this dissertation highlights the experimental utility of the military environment in reevaluating traditional approaches to race stratification.
Bibliography Citation
Lundquist, Jennifer Michelle Hickes. A Counterfactual Approach to the Black-White Differential in Family Trends: The Effect of a 'Total Institution'. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2004. DAI-A 65/06, p. 2373, Dec 2004.
149. Maahs, Jeff R.
Maternal Risk Factors, Early Life Events, and Deviant Outcomes: Assessing Antisocial Pathways from Birth Through Adolescence
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2001.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Poverty; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Fathers, Presence; Life Course; Modeling, Multilevel; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Religious Influences

The life-course perspective has been instrumental in exploring relationships between early life circumstances, childhood problem behaviors, and adolescent and adult offending. This dissertation focuses on three areas that are central to the life-course perspective, (a) the development of childhood antisocial behavior, (b) factors that foster the stability of antisocial behavior, and (c) debate over the existence of multiple routes to delinquency. Particular research questions focus on (a) whether biosocial interactions predict childhood antisocial behavior, (b) whether processes of cumulative continuity account for stability in antisocial behavior, and (c) whether discrete offender groups differ on risk markers for delinquency. This research uses a sample of 1030 individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Mother-Child data set to examine the onset and persistence of antisocial behavior. Negative Binomial regression models reveal no support for the hypothesis that childhood antisocial behavior is the result of an interaction between neuropsychological deficits and structural adversity. Rather, the findings suggest that while both individual differences and structural adversity predict childhood antisocial behavior, these factors operate in an additive, rather than interactive fashion. The analyses focusing on the development of antisocial behavior from childhood to adolescence suggest that both stability and change are evident, and that early antisocial behavior is an insufficient cause of delinquency. Analysis of sub-groups constructed based on their level of antisocial behavior over time revealed some differences (including verbal intelligence and poverty status) between individuals with a history of childhood antisocial behavior (life-course persistent) and those who began offending in adolescent (adolescent limited), but these differences are overshadowed by similarities between the groups. The theoretical and policy implications of this research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Maahs, Jeff R. Maternal Risk Factors, Early Life Events, and Deviant Outcomes: Assessing Antisocial Pathways from Birth Through Adolescence. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2001..
150. Mac, Chi Tinh
Essays in Public Policy Issues
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment

The first two chapters analyze the effects of paid maternity leave on women's current wages and birth weight. Most workers in the US have access to unpaid parental leave benefits, and there is public interest in expanding existing coverage to provide paid leave benefits. California has already passed the first paid family leave statute, effective in 2004. An important step in considering future policy recommendations is to understand how workers have implicitly paid for new benefits in the past and how babies may have benefited from their mothers' leave-taking. I use the NLS-Young Women panel to examine the role of paid maternity leave in women's wages and the NLSY to study the effect of leave-taking on birth weight. Using a difference in difference approach, I find that younger women with paid leave benefits have wages that are 4.7 percent lower than their older counterparts. Using a fixed effects and a discontinuity design (i.e. isolating the periods before and after benefits change), I find that while wages of women with the benefits are higher overall, this is not the case during periods in which benefits change, particularly if the women acquire these benefits while staying with the same employer. I also find that women who take paid leave during pregnancy have babies that are 2.1 to 2.7 ounces heavier. In the third chapter, I consider the effects of Regulation Fair Disclosure. Reg FD was motivated by a desire to eliminate the (legal) trading advantage some investors had through selective disclosure practices. If this had been pervasive practice prior to Reg FD, then then there should have been information leakage through price run-up before official earnings announcements. I analyze the average cumulative abnormal returns for three samples: the NYSE and the largest and smallest capitalization firms of the NYSE/Amex/Nasdaq pool. The results suggest that Reg FD affected large firms more than small ones and negative information releases mor e than positive ones. There is also evidence that information leakage was already subsiding before Reg FD became effective, possibly because of voluntary compliance or the demands of the increasing number of individual investors.
Bibliography Citation
Mac, Chi Tinh. Essays in Public Policy Issues. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2004.
151. Macke, Anne Statham
Family Role Definitions as Determinants of Labor Force Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Behavioral Differences; Family Income; Family Influences; Husbands, Influence; Sex Roles

The extent to which a shift in support responsibility causes behavioral differences for traditional and nontraditional married persons is the central consideration of the study. An expected repercussion of shifting support responsibility is that husbands and wives who are relatively free of family support responsibility (nontraditional men and traditional women) should be less constrained to stay in their present jobs by the family's financial situation (assets, number of dependents, etc. ) and more likely to leave their jobs in response to personal preferences (extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction) than traditional men and nontraditional women. In general, true reciprocal role modification for men and women is not apparent. While true role modification (in the form of shifting support responsibility) has apparently occurred for a certain segment of our society, the modification of role definitions (nontraditionality) is the crucial factor producing alterations in role behavior (differing reactions to constraints upon labor force behavior). The simple fact that a wife works--in and of itself--is not sufficient to produce these behavioral changes. Specific aspects of our findings substantiate two important principles of the symbolic interactionist approach: (1) the power of Thomas' subjective "definition of the situation" is seen in the important influence role definitions have in determining the role behavior of working wives and their husbands; and (2) the constraining power of one's social environment is shown by the fact that certain respondents do not adhere to their role definitions because of overpowering environmental influences.
Bibliography Citation
Macke, Anne Statham. Family Role Definitions as Determinants of Labor Force Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1976.
152. Magee, Tracy
Behavior Problems in Childhood: Testing an Interactive Model
Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Nursing, Boston College, 2004. DAI-B 66/03, p. 1397, Sep 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Children, Illness; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Temperament

There is compelling evidence that the first years of life are important for the social, emotional and cognitive development of a child. Advances in medical technology have made it possible to confirm that the experiences children have in the first years of life may have life long influences on the development of the child, including behavior problems. Yet pediatric health care has not embraced these findings and families are no longer being well served by pediatric primary care. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships within a proposed conceptual framework, based on a transactional model of child development, of child-mother-environment transactions and to identify the contribution of each variable to behavior problems of the school age child. The current study is a secondary analysis using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (U.S. Bureau of Labor, ("NLSY79 Children and Young Adults," 2003) to describe and test relationships that impact child behavior using a transactional model that includes: (a) child variables of ethnicity, age, gender, health, prenatal drug exposure, prematurity, birth weight, temperament, cognition and motor development, (b) mother variables of age, education and parenting ability and (c) environmental variables of socioeconomic status, social support and quality of the home environment. Using the transactional model of child development supported by the developmental science framework, this research described and tested a conceptual framework of child-mother-environment transactions and identified the contribution of each variable to behavior problems of the school age old. Results of this study indicate, child temperament, gender, ethnicity, maternal education and parenting ability, measured between the ages of one month to four years of age were predictors of behavior problems in school age children in a not at risk sample. By identifying specific variables in a child's life in early childhood that contribute to behavior problems in school age, this nurses can plan effective and efficient interventions as well as advocating for the needs of children and families.
Bibliography Citation
Magee, Tracy. Behavior Problems in Childhood: Testing an Interactive Model. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Nursing, Boston College, 2004. DAI-B 66/03, p. 1397, Sep 2005.
153. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Intergenerational Benefits of Maternal Education: The Effect of Increases in Mothers' Educational Attainment on Children's Academic Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, Human Development and Social Policy, 2002. DAI-B 63/11 (May 2003).
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Children, Well-Being; Educational Attainment; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Entry/Readiness; Schooling, Post-secondary; Welfare

A positive association between parental education and children's well-being, particularly academic achievement, is one of the most consistent findings from developmental studies. However, most prior research has been correlational and thus subject to the criticism that correlation does not prove causation. Topping the list of plausible alternative explanations for the maternal education-child wellbeing association are mothers' cognitive endowments, which are positively related both to mothers' educational attainment and children's academic achievement. Results from analyses in this dissertation provide more convincing evidence that the association between maternal education and children's academic outcomes is causal, not spurious. Using three rigorous research methods, and two different data sources, I establish that increasing mothers' education has a positive effect on their children's academic achievement. I used Instrumental Variables analyses with data from the random-assignment National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies Child Outcomes Study (NEWWS-COS) to estimate the effect of maternal education on young children's school readiness. Results from these analyses indicate that maternal education, particularly Adult Basic Education for low skilled mothers, improved children's school readiness and reduced children's academic problems two years after random assignment. I showed that these findings were robust by conducting two sets of analyses with nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Supplement (NLSY-CS). Using change models and piecewise hierarchical linear modeling I demonstrated that children's reading, but not math, achievement improved when their mothers returned to school on their own volition. I found that these benefits accrue to children consistently regardless of their mothers' prior level of education. The effect sizes of benefits from additional maternal schooling, particularly among welfare recipients, are compared to the effect sizes of other interventions for low income families. The findings suggest that although mandating education may not be an effective form of intervention, welfare policies that discourage economically disadvantaged mothers from attending school may be detrimental to young children's well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A. Intergenerational Benefits of Maternal Education: The Effect of Increases in Mothers' Educational Attainment on Children's Academic Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, Human Development and Social Policy, 2002. DAI-B 63/11 (May 2003)..
154. Malhotra, Heide B.
Effects of Education and Experience on Pay Inequality Among Male and Female Professionals a Cross-Sectional Study
Ph.D. Dissertation, Walden University (Minnesota), 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Education; Education; Wage Differentials; Work Experience

This research attempted to assess the effect of education and experience on the wage differential between male and female professionals, and the existence of a trend toward the narrowing of the wage gap. This study used the NLS of Youth, conducted by the Center for Human Resource Research between 1979 and 1991. The total population consisted of 12,686 male and female cohorts from 485 counties and independent cities within the United States. A bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to test the data for existing relationships among years of experience, sex, given degree, specific professional position, and income from wages. Empirical results indicated that education and years of experience are major factors in the determination of wages. The sex component appears to show statistical significance only in positions where the employee holds an associate degree. The indications are that a bachelor's or higher degree affects wages positively for either sex. The final section of this paper discusses possible factors, such as location and industry, as having equal importance in the determination of wages.
Bibliography Citation
Malhotra, Heide B. Effects of Education and Experience on Pay Inequality Among Male and Female Professionals a Cross-Sectional Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, Walden University (Minnesota), 1993.
155. Manuel, Tiffany A.
Giving Mercenaries a Chance to be Missionaries: Making the Case for Universal Paid Family Leave in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Boston, 2004. DAI-A 65/07, p. 2788, Jan 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits; Labor Economics; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Poverty; Welfare; Women's Studies

The U.S. Congress and more than twenty state legislatures have recently considered legislation that would provide wage replacement for workers taking various forms of unpaid family leave from their jobs. In 2002, California became the first state to adopt such legislation. This dissertation seeks to present a coherent theoretical, empirical, and polemical case for expanding wage replaced family leave in the United States. More specifically, this dissertation explores the need, political feasibility, and challenges involved in extending family leave policies as well as critically evaluates the historical evolution of leave policies, the current policy environment, and the overall impact of existing leave policies (particularly on new mothers). Particular attention is given to the allocation and distribution effects of current family leave policies and how changing existing government policies on this issue might alter those effects. As a part of evaluating the distribution effects of existing policies, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the opportunity costs of lost annual earnings to three types of new mothers taking maternity leave: paid leavers, unpaid leavers, and women who quit their jobs when they became pregnant. Results indicate that mothers who had access to wage replacement during their maternity leave (paid leavers) fared much better than those who did not and this was true for almost a decade following the birth. Results also show that women who quit their jobs when they became pregnant were more likely to experience poverty than unpaid or paid leavers. I conclude that policymakers should carefully consider wage replacement proposals because of the potential to: (1) mitigate existing inequalities across families and occupational categories; (2) provide work supports to families no longer receiving support from other social welfare programs; and, (3) distribute the costs and benefits of family leave-taking more effic iently by extending these opportunities to those who most need them.
Bibliography Citation
Manuel, Tiffany A. Giving Mercenaries a Chance to be Missionaries: Making the Case for Universal Paid Family Leave in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Boston, 2004. DAI-A 65/07, p. 2788, Jan 2005.
156. Marsiglio, William
Male Teenage Fertility: An Analysis of Fatherhood Commitment and its Association with Educational Outcomes and Aspirations
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Fathers, Influence; Fertility; Hispanics; Household Composition; Racial Differences; Schooling; Teenagers

My research, based on NLSY data and my survey of high school youth in Columbus, Ohio, focuses on male adolescent fertility, teenage fathers' propensity to live with their nonmaritally conceived first child, and young males' hypothetical intentions to do the same in the event that they and their girlfriend were responsible for an unplanned pregnancy. I explore the association between living arrangement variables and young fathers' educational outcomes, schooling intentions, and their expectations for their partners' schooling. I also test Ajzen and Fishbein's social psychological model of reasoned action. I argue that this kind of research is timely since we need to incorporate young males more fully into our conceptualization of adolescent fertility and fatherhood if we wish to develop more viable policies and programs. NLSY data indicate 5.5 percent of males 20-27 years of age in 1984 were teenagers when they fathered a nonmaritally conceived first child, that almost 80 percent of teenage fathers had their child when they were 18 or 19 years old, and that black teens were more likely to father children, and to do so outside of marriage and at younger ages, than their white or Hispanic counterparts. While several background variables were associated with an above average probability of living with a child initially for whites in a multivariate context, none of the measured background variables were significant predictors of living arrangement status among blacks. These data do not suggest that living with a child is directly related to adverse educational consequences. Teenage fathers whose first child was maritally conceived had the poorest high school completion patterns of all males. About half of young males in the high school sample, both whites and blacks, indicated that they would be "quite likely" or "extremely likely" to live with their partner and child. The attitudinal and subjective norm components of Ajzen and Fishbein's model accounted for 32 percent of the variance in the intention variable and the attitudinal component was the more powerful predictor in all models. [UMI ADG87-10026]
Bibliography Citation
Marsiglio, William. Male Teenage Fertility: An Analysis of Fatherhood Commitment and its Association with Educational Outcomes and Aspirations. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1987.
157. Martin, Holly P.
Integration of Women into the Military: A Preliminary Investigation of Relevant Factors
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Gender Differences; Job Satisfaction; Military Enlistment; Military Service; Racial Differences; Sex Roles; Wage Levels; Women

This paper presents an extension to the human capital model of wage level determination for women. The new model incorporates the effect of expectations of potential earnings on future earnings. A woman's decision to invest in human capital, to remain committed to the labor force, and to search for a new job that would pay a greater return to her for her investment in human capital, rests primarily on her expectations of what she can earn in the labor market. Using the NLS Mature Women data, the empirical analysis shows that current wages are dependent on past expectations and that expectations depend on past wages and labor market conditions. Two-stage least squares regression was used to obtain parameters of current wage and expected wage equations. The results indicate that historically low expectations, due possibly to the male/female wage differential, will continue to influence the future wage patterns of women.
Bibliography Citation
Martin, Holly P. Integration of Women into the Military: A Preliminary Investigation of Relevant Factors. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1987.
158. Mauldin, Teresa A.
The Effect of Human Capital on the Economic Status of Women Immediately Following Divorce or Separation
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1985
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Divorce; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Human Capital Theory; Marital Disruption; Mothers, Race; Poverty

Human capital theory and comparative advantage theory were used to develop regression models to explain the effect of work-related human capital on the per capita family income of women immediately following divorce or separation, controlling for background variables. It was hypothesized that work-related human capital, as measured by education, occupational status (as a proxy for work experience), and job training, would increase a woman's per capita income following marital disruption. It was further hypothesized that a negative attitude toward women working and poor health would decrease a woman's per capita income following marital disruption. It was also hypothesized that the effect of work-related human capital on per capita income would differ between women who were non-poor prior to and following disruption and women who were non-poor prior to disruption but poor following disruption and between women who were poor prior to and following marital disruption and women who were poor prior to marital disruption but non-poor following marital disruption. A sample of women who experienced marital disruption for the first time was drawn from the NLS of Young Women. Per capita family income was associated with education and occupational status. Among the control variables, current employment status, presence of children under 6 years old and race were significant. For the women who were non-poor prior to disruption and poor following disruption (non-poor/poor) an increase in occupational status actually decreased per capita income. In addition, lower educational achievement among the non-poor/poor women reduced the positive effect of education on per capita family income. Educational attainment also differentially affected the per capita family income of women who were poor prior to and following marital disruption and the women who were poor prior to marital disruption and non-poor following marital disruption with the latter group benefit ing more from their human capital. The results of this study indicated the importance of the stock of work-related human capital possessed by women who are maritally disrupted. Education and occupational status (as a proxy for work experience) had a significant impact on a woman's ability to provide for her family immediately following marital disruption.
Bibliography Citation
Mauldin, Teresa A. The Effect of Human Capital on the Economic Status of Women Immediately Following Divorce or Separation. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1985.
159. Maxwell, Nan L.
Retirement Implications of Industrial and Occupational Labor Market Segmentation
Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Income; Retirement

This research explored the extent to which industrial and occupational labor market segments, labor market institutions, and human capital accumulation impact on a worker's labor market and retirement income. Using data from the Older Men's cohort of the NLS and a path analytic estimation procedure, results supported the hypothesis that labor market segments and market institutions exert a powerful impact on labor market earnings and that these influences extend into retirement. Labor market segments exert a more powerful impact on earnings than human capital variables as well as dictate the return on human capital investments while a worker is in the labor market. Labor market segments continue their impact on income once a worker withdraws from the labor force by influencing both the level and source of retirement income.
Bibliography Citation
Maxwell, Nan L. Retirement Implications of Industrial and Occupational Labor Market Segmentation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, 1983.
160. McCauley, Gary Thomas
The Relationship of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control to Unintended Pregnancy and Childbearing Among Adolescent Females
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; First Birth; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Internal-External Attitude; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Pregnancy, Adolescent; Psychological Effects; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

The purpose of this study was to identify the association of self-esteem and locus of control with early pregnancies and births among adolescent females. This research is designed to aid the practitioners in identifying adolescents at high risk for early pregnancy and childbearing so early interventions can occur. This investigation was a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). This sample consisted of 2,803 females adolescents, aged 14 to 19 years, as of January 1, 1979. The respondents in the sample have been interviewed annually since 1979. Self-esteem and locus of control were examined in adolescents who became pregnant before age 20 in comparison with those who became pregnant after age 20. Self-esteem and locus of control were also examined in adolescents who had births before age 20 in comparison with those who had births after age 20. The NLSY used the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale to measure an adolescent's self-esteem. A four item scale was used to measure the adolescents' locus of control. This scale was an abridged form of the widely used and tested Rotter's Internal-External scale. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data while controlling for selected demographic variables. The goal of the analysis was to evaluate the relative odds of First Pregnancy or First Birth associated with Self-Esteem and Locus of Control for each year of age from 16 to 19, The method employed was discrete life table analysis, in which a logistic model governed the risk of outcome at each of the four ages, 16, 17, 18, and 19. Adolescents with low self-esteem are more likely to become pregnant and bear children during their adolescent years than adolescents with high self-esteem. Teenage girls with low self-esteem are 1.57 times(95% C.I. = 1.16-2.12) more likely to have their first pregnancy in their adolescent years, than girls with a high self-esteem. Teenage girls with low self-esteem are 1.52 times(95% C.I. = 0.94-2.18) more likely to have their first birth in their adolescent years, than girls with a high self-esteem. Teenage girls with an external locus of control are 1.32 times(95% C.I. 0.98-1.77) more likely than teens with an internal locus of control to have their first pregnancy in their adolescent years. Teenage girls with an external locus of control are 1.59 times(95% C.I. = 1.11-2.27) more likely than teens with an internal locus of control to have their first birth in their adolescent years. Thus, the results of this research suggest that future interventions should address the self-esteem and locus of control of the adolescent in an effort to curtail the alarming increase in the rate of teenage pregnancy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Bibliography Citation
McCauley, Gary Thomas. The Relationship of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control to Unintended Pregnancy and Childbearing Among Adolescent Females. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 1993.
161. McDonald, Lynn
Retirement Spectrum: A Socioeconomic Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Calgary, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Retirement; Rural Women

Utilizing data from the NLS Older Men's cohort, this study examined the socioeconomic factors influencing early, on-time, and late retirement. Using a political economy perspective as an inferential framework, three models of retirement were estimated to achieve this purpose. The initial model was designed to determine the extent to which economic, social, and political structures explain the degree and timing of retirement. The second model investigated the effects of economic segmentation (core and periphery) on retirement and the third model explored the influence of substantive complexity, motor skills, physical demands, and working conditions of occupations on the retirement process. The general conclusion of the analysis is that behavior across the retirement spectrum can be linked to the social and economic structures of society, a central tenet of the political economy perspective. Further, these socioeconomic structures are at least as important as individualistic factors in influencing the degree and timing of retirement.
Bibliography Citation
McDonald, Lynn. Retirement Spectrum: A Socioeconomic Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Calgary, 1983.
162. McGinnis, Sandra L.
Child Well-Being in Cohabiting Homes: A Study of Outcomes and Processes
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York At Albany, 2004. DAI-A 64/12, p. 4644, June 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Cohabitation; Depression (see also CESD); Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Status; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Stepfamilies; Temperament

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and Children of the NLSY79), 1992 through 1998, are used to assess the effects of living in a cohabiting home on the emotional, cognitive/scholastic, and behavioral outcomes of children ages 0-22. Children in cohabiting family structures are compared to those in other family structures (married biological families, single-mother families, and married stepfamilies). The effects of living in a biological cohabiting family (where two unmarried, biological parents are present), and living in a cohabiting stepfamily (where a biological parent and the parent's unmarried partner are present) are also compared. Hypotheses are tested about the processes by which cohabiting family structure affects child outcomes, with emphasis on the mediating effects of socioeconomic status, child's experience of family transitions, and quality of the home environment in terms of cognitive stimulation and emotional support. Although many differences appeared between children in cohabiting families and those in married families, most of these differences were explained by controls for socioeconomic and family characteristics. After controlling for these factors, children in biological cohabiting homes typically did not differ from children in biological married homes, and children in cohabiting stepfamilies did not typically differ from children in married stepfamilies. The overall finding is that living in a cohabiting household does not disadvantage children in terms of most outcomes, provided that the family's socioeconomic standing and various aspects of family functioning are comparable to those of other families. Cohabiting families do not appear to be inherently inferior to other families so far as providing for children's levels of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral well-being. Rather, these families are economically disadvantaged, have experienced more instability in the form of the mother's union transitions, and tend to provide less cognitive stimulation and emotional support to children than the traditional biological married family. The results seem to imply that the best way to encourage positive emotional, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes for children is to improve the socioeconomic status of families with children, and to improve the home environments of children by teaching and encouraging sound parenting skills.
Bibliography Citation
McGinnis, Sandra L. Child Well-Being in Cohabiting Homes: A Study of Outcomes and Processes. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York At Albany, 2004. DAI-A 64/12, p. 4644, June 2004.
163. McKinney, Robin Earl
Relationship of Family Structure and Context to Reports of Behavior Problems and Academic Performance in African-American Adolescents
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Black Youth; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Income; Family Size; Family Structure; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Self-Reporting

This study investigated the effect of maternal marital status on maternal and adolescent reports of behavioral problems and academic performance in African American adolescents. The data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, collected in 1992, were used for the analyses. Three hundred and eighty, African American mothers with children 13-17 were involved. Of the 380 mothers, 135 were never married, 118 married, and 127 were separated/divorced. The adolescent sample consisted of 216 females and 243 males between the ages of 13 and 17. Maternal marital status did not have a significant relationship with maternal reports of behavioral problems, adolescent self reports of behavioral problems, and academic performance. However, maternal marital status had a strong relationship with family income, number of children, neighborhood conditions, home environment, and parent/adolescent relationships. These variables had a stronger relationship to maternal reports of behavioral problems, adolescent self reports of behavioral problems, and academic performance. Children from married families lived in better neighborhoods, had larger families, more income, positive home environments and greater academic performance than children from never married or separated/divorced families. Poverty, more importantly than maternal marital status, influenced maternal and adolescent reports of behavioral problems and academic performance.
Bibliography Citation
McKinney, Robin Earl. Relationship of Family Structure and Context to Reports of Behavior Problems and Academic Performance in African-American Adolescents. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1996.
164. Meyer, Jack A.
Labor Supply of Women Potentially Eligible for Family Assistance
Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1972
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Household Income; Poverty; Taxes; Wages; Welfare; Wives

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hours of work and key welfare variables that have been omitted from other studies of the determinants of the labor supply of the poor. The study found a strong negative relationship between hours worked and "potential other income," which implies that, other things being equal, the amount of time spent working by poor married women will be inversely related to the level of welfare benefits for which they would be eligible without working.
Bibliography Citation
Meyer, Jack A. Labor Supply of Women Potentially Eligible for Family Assistance. Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1972.
165. Mimura, Yoko
Poverty Dynamics Among Young Adults in Rural and Urban United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 2001. DAI, 63, no. 01B (2001): p. 221
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Modeling; Poverty; Rural/Urban Differences; Rural/Urban Migration; Simultaneity

The five objectives of this study were to examine whether individuals with characteristics associated with lower poverty exit rates were more likely to be in poverty upon becoming young adults, to assess the impact of left-censoring on poverty exit rate estimation, to examine if rural residency was associated with lower poverty exit rates than urban residency, to determine if time-varying variables associated with exit from and reentry into poverty were symmetric, and to assess the relationship between rural-to-urban migration and timing of exit from poverty, all among young adults (age 25 to 36). Discrete-time logistic regression was utilized, and the data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort.

When demographic, human capital, and labor market factors were compared, young adults who were in poverty at the beginning of the observation period (age 25) were different from those who experienced poverty later during the observation period. The poverty exit rate estimates using the data with poverty duration information only from age 25 were different from those using the data with poverty duration information from pre-young adulthood (for those who were in poverty at age 25). Young adults living in rural areas had lower poverty exit rates than those living in urban areas; however, when other factors (described above) were controlled for, this difference disappeared. Using a two-way transit model that simultaneously assesses poverty exit and reentry rates, it was found that having had a health problem in a given year was associated with lower poverty exit rates and lower poverty reentry rates in that year. Lastly, poverty spells that involved rural-to-urban migration had lower exit rates than those that were experienced only in rural areas. In addition, after relocating to an urban area, the longer young adults remained in poverty, the less likely they were to exit from poverty. Public policy implications are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Mimura, Yoko. Poverty Dynamics Among Young Adults in Rural and Urban United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 2001. DAI, 63, no. 01B (2001): p. 221.
166. Missun, Ronald Edward
Returns To Basic Skills For Young Adults In The United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Educational Attainment; Family Background; Head Start; Job Training; Tests and Testing; Variables, Independent - Covariate

The premise of this thesis is that early acquisition of basic skills may affect several variables which are often controls in wage regressions. Such variables include occupational status, the receipt of job training, and perhaps most importantly higher educational attainment. If this is the case, studies which simply include measures of skill as additional independent variables in wage regressions may report downward biased estimates on the returns to these skills. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I have taken a sample of respondents who were currently enrolled in high school and under the age of 19 when they were administered the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) in 1980. The ASVAB contains four tests measuring basic skills in English and mathematics which are used to form composite English and math scores that are standardized and adjusted for age. These variables are used to predict future educational attainment and early labor market outcomes. Chapter 4 reports results from OLS and logistic regressions that establish the relationship between family background, early development of basic skills, and future education attainment. Employing regressions based on the first difference of sibling characteristics, omitted variable bias caused by strong correlation with unobserved family background characteristics is purged from the returns to basic skills. The results show the estimated returns to English and math proficiency decline dramatically when omitted variable bias is removed. However, both English and mathematics skills remain important determinants of college entrance rates among high school graduates. Labor market returns to basic skills are explored in chapter 5. In general, math proficiency is highly valued in the labor market for men and women. Since the early acquisition of basic skills leads to higher levels of educational attainment and basic skills appear to be important determinants of labor ma rket earnings for high school and college graduates, this study has policy implications for programs (such as Head Start) which promote the enhancement of fundamental English and math skills early in life.
Bibliography Citation
Missun, Ronald Edward. Returns To Basic Skills For Young Adults In The United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997.
167. Mitra, Aparna
Effects of Firm and Industry Structures on Black/White Wage Inequality in the United States Economy, 1988
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Dallas, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Cognitive Ability; Ethnic Studies; Firms; Human Capital; Labor Economics; Modeling, Logit; Private Sector; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Wage Differentials

This study attempts to analyze black/white wage differentials by incorporating human capital attributes as well as firm and job characteristics, with emphasis on the latter. The focus of the study is to analyze the effects of allocation in the different segments of the labor market on wages, as well as the importance of cognitive skills and education in the allocation process. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1988), ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions and logit models are used to estimate a recursive model that partitions out the total wage differentials into direct and indirect components. The analysis focuses on 2,370 full-time private sector employees. The results show that (1) although there is no significant racial gap in education as measured by years of schooling, blacks are entering the labor market with considerable handicaps in the form of lower test scores, (2) cognitive skills, net of education, is important in the allocation process, (3) blacks are disproportionately employed in large firms and establishments, and (4) even though blacks are employed in the high wage sector of the labor market, significant wage differentials exist, net of human capital attributes and job placement. The results suggest that efforts to improve the cognitive achievements of blacks should be at the forefront of policy making and policy makers need to be aware of the differences in the quality of education received by blacks and whites. The results of the allocation process show that affirmative action is helping blacks in finding employment in the high wage sector and that the existing wage differential would have been magnified if blacks were not provided with opportunities to be employed in large firms and establishments.
Bibliography Citation
Mitra, Aparna. Effects of Firm and Industry Structures on Black/White Wage Inequality in the United States Economy, 1988. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Dallas, 1995.
168. Mizell, C. André
Structural and Social Psychological Influences on the Adolescent Self-Concept, Adult Achievement and Adult Mental Health of African-American Males
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Ethnic Studies; Family Structure; Family Studies; Health, Mental; Inner-City; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Occupational Attainment; Parental Influences; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Poverty; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This study investigates the impact of structural and social psychological factors on the adolescent self-concept, adult achievement and adult mental health of African American males. Three primary questions are asked: (1) What are the sources of African American male achievement? (2) Do structural (e.g., family composition and region of origin) and social psychological (e.g., self-esteem and aspirations) factors affect outcomes differently for those who begin in poverty compared to their non-poor counterparts, and (3) Do the benefits of material success for adult mental health differ depending on the African American male's adolescent poverty status? This is a longitudinal study, spanning fourteen years (1979-1992). The primary sample consists of 1,304 African-American male respondents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Regression models are estimated to predict adolescent aspirations, adolescent self-esteem, adult educational attainment, adult earnings, adult mastery and adult depression. The independent variables used in this investigation include the traditional structural variables such as poverty status, parental educational and occupational achievement, family structure and region of origin, as well as social psychological variables such as self-esteem, educational aspirations and mastery. As expected, the traditional structural variables are predictive of outcomes, but social psychological variables (esteem and aspirations) measured in adolescence also have significant effects even after controlling for the structural variables. For those who are impoverished in adolescence, the negative effects of poverty are exacerbated by larger family sizes, central city residence, and low parental educational attainment, but poverty status does not interact with socio-economic outcomes in affecting adult mental health. Finally, a subsample of 2,252 NLSY same cohort White males are added to the sample to test for differences by ethnicity. Most effects are constant across race; some exceptions are the greater benefits that accrue to Whites from some background variables, and the greater mental health benefits from earnings that accrue to African-Americans.
Bibliography Citation
Mizell, C. André. Structural and Social Psychological Influences on the Adolescent Self-Concept, Adult Achievement and Adult Mental Health of African-American Males. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997.
169. Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A.
Education, Occupation, and Income: The Effects of Attending a Community College on the Labor Market Outcomes of Young Men and Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Education; Earnings; Educational Returns; Human Capital Theory; Labor Market Outcomes; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Research using data from the NLS of Young Men and Women to determine how the differentiation of higher education into sectors affects current socioeconomic status focuses on the ramifications of community college education. Socioeconomic returns to level and kind of education are analyzed using insights offered by human capital theory. An argument is made, however, that the significance of type of educational experience can only be adequately analyzed within a framework that allows for notions of power and conflict. Previous studies analyzing correlations between educational level and labor market outcomes virtually ignore the effects of community college attendance. Most studies focus on the value of a four-year B. A. degree, compared to a high school diploma. When fewer than four years of college are mentioned, all people with 1-3 years of college are lumped together regardless of whether they received a two- year degree or dropped out of a community or a four-year college.
Bibliography Citation
Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A. Education, Occupation, and Income: The Effects of Attending a Community College on the Labor Market Outcomes of Young Men and Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1982.
170. Moore, Carol S.
Information in the Labor Market: Empirical Studies of Incentive Pay, Work Hours, and Earnings
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Industrial Relations; Labor Economics; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Occupational Choice; Occupational Status; Skilled Workers; Work Hours

This dissertation tests models of information in the labor market using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). "Do Monitoring Costs Explain Positive Returns to Tenure? Evidence from Incentive Pay Earners," assesses the role of monitoring costs in internal labor markets using NLSY data on method of pay. Several models predict that employers deter shirking by combining positive wage-tenure profiles with the threat of dismissal when monitoring costs are high. Because incentive pay bases a worker's pay explicitly on individual performance, incentive pay jobs have relatively low costs of monitoring worker performance. A fixed effects model is estimated by following wages for up to six years on the job. Contrary to the predictions of the monitoring costs model, incentive pay wages grow faster on the job than do time-rate wages. "Information, Incentive Pay, and Labor Market Discrimination," documents racial and gender differences in method of pay and in incentive pay wages. Results are considered in light of statistical and customer discrimination models. The scope for statistical discrimination is smaller where incentive pay is offered, so that skilled women and minorities may exhibit especially high returns to incentive pay in production jobs. Customer discrimination suggests that women and minorities experience depressed returns to incentive pay in customer-oriented service and sales jobs in which they are not traditionally represented. Models of occupational choice, method of pay, and earnings across and within occupations are estimated. Racial and gender wage gaps are found to be no smaller under incentive pay than under time rate systems in production jobs. However, evidence of customer discrimination is found for women and blacks in customer-oriented service jobs, and for Hispanics in sales jobs. "Economies of Agglomeration and Productivity: The Role of Starting Time," tests for economies of agglomeration by estimating the relationship between wages and work start time. A model is developed in which the concentration of start times around the peak exerts two mutually offsetting effects on productivity: economies of agglomeration and diminishing returns to labor. The empirical results imply that economies of agglomeration dominate diminishing returns across occupations and for managers and professionals.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Carol S. Information in the Labor Market: Empirical Studies of Incentive Pay, Work Hours, and Earnings. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1994.
171. Moore, Sylvia F.
The Effects of Marital Disruption on the Labor Supply Behavior of Young Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Divorce; Employment; Labor Force Participation; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Sylvia F. The Effects of Marital Disruption on the Labor Supply Behavior of Young Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1979.
172. Moretti, Enrico
Social Return to Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2000. DAI, 62, no. 01A (2000): p. 274
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Census of Population; College Graduates; Educational Returns; Endogeneity; High School Dropouts; Technology/Technological Changes; Wage Equations

The main goal of this dissertation is to estimate the social return to education. Understanding the magnitude of this return is key to assessing the efficiency of public investment in education. In the first part, I estimate externalities from education by comparing wages for otherwise similar individuals who work in cities with different shares of college graduates in the labor force. A key issue in this comparison is the presence of unobservable factors that may raise wages and be correlated with the share of educated workers. To control for the potential endogeneity of education across cities, I use a combination of longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and repeated cross-sectional data from the Census. The results from the NLSY sample are remarkably consistent with those based on Census data. A percentage point increase in the supply of college graduates raises high-school drop-outs' wages by 1.9%, high-school graduates' wages by 1.6%, the wages of college graduates by 0.4%. The effect is larger for less educated groups, as predicted by a conventional demand and supply model. But even for college graduates, an increase in the supply of college graduates increases wages, as predicted by a model that includes both conventional demand and supply factors and externalities.

In the second part of the dissertation, I create and employ a unique worker-firm matched dataset to investigate the effect of human capital externalities on productivity and technological change in manufacturing firms. The dataset is obtained by combining the Census of Manufacturers and the Census of Population. I start by documenting a positive correlation between the productivity of manufacturing establishments in a given city and the average level of education outside the establishment in the same city. I find little evidence that omitted variables play a major role. I investigate whether in cities with a better-educated labor force plants tend to be equi pped with better technology. I find that in plants that are situated in cities with higher average education, both investment in computers and the fraction of new machinery to the total stock of machinery are larger, after controlling for a plant's characteristics. Furthermore, within a given city, investment in computers in a particular plant is positively associated with the number of workers who use computers outside the plant.

Bibliography Citation
Moretti, Enrico. Social Return to Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Berkeley, 2000. DAI, 62, no. 01A (2000): p. 274.
173. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Divorce Process and Children's Well-Being: a Longitudinal Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Support; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Fathers, Absence; Marital Disruption; Marital Dissolution; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Previous research on the consequences of divorce for children has primarily focused on the difficulties that stem from the breakup and its aftermath. Measures of the antecedent processes of disruption generally have been unavailable. The present study examines the effects of the disruption process on two primary measures of child well-being: behavior problems and academic achievement. Data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used. The analysis begins with children ages 3 to 13 in 1986 whose parents' marriages are intact. In 1988 children are classified according to whether they are in intact or disrupted families and measures of well-being are reassessed. Within the disrupted group, time since disruption, contact with the non-custodial parent, and receipt of child support, are also examined. Research hypotheses are tested using a series of regression equations. Models are estimated separately by sex. Sample selection biases are estimated and evaluated. Findings indicate that boys undergo additional behavior problems not present in pre-disruption and that father involvement after disruption had little impact on the outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane. Divorce Process and Children's Well-Being: a Longitudinal Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1993.
174. Mott, Joshua Adam
Familial and Behavioral Antecedents of Children's Injuries
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Accidents; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Children, Health Care; Children, Home Environment; Children, Well-Being; Event History; Family Environment; Family Influences; Gender Differences; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Injuries; Job Satisfaction; Modeling; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Health; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This research uses a national longitudinal sample of children (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) to make two new contributions to our understanding of the antecedents of children's injuries. First, it employs path analysis to examine both family and behavioral influences on injuries, factors which have previously been analyzed separately, within the context of each other. Second, it employs event-history techniques to identify risk factors that may operate only at specific ages in childhood. Measures of the dependent variable are based on retrospective maternal reports. Injuries requiring any medical attention (including hospitalization) and those requiring hospitalization were analyzed separately. Family environmental variables tap issues of family structure, socio-economic status and maternal job satisfaction, the quality of parent-child interaction, the home physical environment, maternal health and maternal behaviors prior to the birth of the child. Children's externalizing, injury-related, behaviors are measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). This study finds that, especially in middle childhood, externalizing behaviors were predictive of children's injuries. Externalizing behavior played a stronger role in the etiologyof boys' injuries than girls' injuries, confirming prior work. This may, in part, explain gender differences in risk. As expected, but not previously documented, strongest relationships between the family environment and children's injuries that existed independent of externalizing behavior appeared at younger ages. Consistent with child developmental theory, cognitive and emotional family support contributed to "safe" behavioral development in children. This was found to be the case at all ages. As found in prior work, having one or more injuries in a given year was predictive of injuries in subsequent years. However, the pattern of repeating injuries disappeared with the addition of multivariate cont rols. This new finding suggests that persisting familial and behavioral factors may largely account for injury repetition in children. This research points to useful avenues for future research by concluding that: (1) viewing childhood in broad age groupings masks meaningful variation in the timing and patterning of risk, and, (2) models designed to explain externalizing behavior in children also provide a useful framework for examining children's injuries.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Joshua Adam. Familial and Behavioral Antecedents of Children's Injuries. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1996.
175. Mullin, Charles H.
A Re-Evaluation of Teenage Childbearing
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1998. DAI-A 59/07, p. 2626, Jan 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Fertility; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Sex Ratios

First, I construct a model of marriage, labor-force participation, and childbearing in which women make different decisions depending on whether they foresee themselves marrying. Those that intend to marry choose to delay their childbearing and invest more resources in their children. Furthermore, women who bear children both in and out of wedlock invest more resources in their in-wedlock children. I test the marriage market implications of the model with data on women from the NLSY and sex ratios constructed from the 1990 Census. In general, I do not reject the implications of the model. Second, I exam the casual effect of early childbearing on women on their children. I use the natural experiment of miscarriages to control for the self-selection into early motherhood. Since not all miscarriages are random, I cannot point identify the effect with this instrument. However, I show under general conditions that this instrumental variable estimator provides upper bounds on the casual effects of not delaying childbearing, while the traditional OLS estimator provides lower bounds of these casual effects. Additionally, I apply results developed in Horowitz and Manski (1995) on identification with data from contaminated samples in conjunction with the miscarriage data to construct bounds on the effect of early childbearing. Both bounding techniques produce qualitatively similar results: The casual effect of not delaying childbearing for young women and their children is small, and the best inference, although not statistically significant, indicate that it is positive. These results are strongest for women under 18 years of age. In other words, forcing teenagers to delay there childbearing worsens their and their children's expected outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Mullin, Charles H. A Re-Evaluation of Teenage Childbearing. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1998. DAI-A 59/07, p. 2626, Jan 1999.
176. Mullis, Randolph J.
Dynamics of Household Saving Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Behavior; Household Income; Life Cycle Research; Retirees; Retirement; Social Security

The purpose of this research was to identify the correlates of household behavior. Factors related to both the level of savings at several points in time and saving behavior over time were explored. Four cross section analyses and three longitudinal analyses were conducted to identify the correlates of household saving(s). Development of a conceptual framework, the Household Economic Activity Model (HEAM), provided theoretical organization for the analyses. Concepts from the Permanent Income Hypothesis, and Life Cycle Income Hypothesis were operationalized together with propositions developed out of the HEAM in order to explore factors related to household saving(s). Four waves of NLS data, (1966, 1971, 1976, and 1981), gathered from the Older Men cohort, were used in the analyses. The objectives of the study included: to identify the associations between cross section values of household socioeconomic variables and household savings at each point of data collection; and to identify the relationships between socioeconomic characteristics of households, and changes in them, and household saving behavior over time. Three levels of analyses were performed. First, a simple descriptive analyses of the dependent variables, net assets and change in net assets, were partitioned by age groups in order to examine trends over time. Next, several multiple regression models were developed to identify the correlates of savings. Lastly, two different statistical techniques were used to explore saving behavior over time: the first, a two stage least-square technique utilized to avoid auto-correlated error terms; and the second, an ordinary least-squares model which incorporated raw change variables together with corresponding base period static variables. The findings: (1) raised serious questions about the life cycle income hypothesis because evidence abounded suggesting that retirees do not dissave; (2) identified interesting differences between private pension eligibility and social security eligibility as they relate to saving(s); (3) provided vital information about treating cross section findings in a temporal manner; (4) pointed out the impact of macro-economic phenomena on household economic behavior; and (5) suggested the possibility that respondents save less in response to higher interest rates.
Bibliography Citation
Mullis, Randolph J. Dynamics of Household Saving Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia, 1984.
177. Na, In-Gang
Three Empirical Essays in Labor Markets
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; College Dropouts; College Graduates; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Displaced Workers; Family Background; Labor Market Demographics; Local Labor Market; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Parental Influences; Unemployment; Unions; Wage Differentials

The thesis consists of three empirical essays in labor markets. Essay I: The effect of Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) on unemployment. This paper examined the effectiveness of WARN of 1988, using three most recent CPS's Displaced Workers Supplements data. I used difference-in-differences method for estimating the WARN effect. The findings are that there was no evidence that the WARN act affected the probability of getting advance notice, the probability of avoiding positive spells of unemployment, and the hazard rate of re-employment duration. Essay II: The union membership wage premium for employees covered by collective bargaining agreements. Using Current Population Survey data for 1983 to 1991, this paper analyzes whether there is a union membership wage premium among private sector employees covered by union contracts. Following the union-nonunion wage differentials literature, cross-section as well as longitudinal empirical estimation strategies are utilized. The cross-section estimates suggest a union membership wage premium of 10 to 18 percent while the longitudinal estimates are smaller. Significant differences in this premium, as well as in membership rates conditional upon coverage, across various demographic subgroups are also documented. Essay III: An empirical analysis of hazard rates of college graduation and dropout. This paper examines the effects of waiting duration to college enrollment, and the effects of family background and local labor market conditions on the hazard rates of college graduation and dropout. A bivariate two-period competing risks hazard model is used, which allows for two distinct durations (waiting duration to first college enrollment and college duration until exit) and two competing risks of college exit (graduation and dropout). The data used in this paper are derived from National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth (NLSY). The results in dicate that waiting duration to college enrollment increases (decreases) the hazard rate of college dropout (college graduation). The family background variables such as education levels and occupation of parents are found to be important determinants of the hazard rates of college graduation and college dropout. It is also found that higher unemployment rates decrease the hazard rate of college graduation.
Bibliography Citation
Na, In-Gang. Three Empirical Essays in Labor Markets. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1996.
178. Nah, Myungkyun
The Male-Female Wage Gap: A Test of Becker's Hypothesis
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1991.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=747144941&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=2&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1314210795&clientId=3959
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Sexual Division of Labor; Wage Determination; Wage Gap

This study examines the impact of marital status (which affects the household division of labor) on the wage rates of married men, single men, single women, and married women, all of whom demonstrate strong labor force attachment. According to Becker's hypothesis, being married depresses women's wage rate because household responsibilities reduce time and energy for market work. Wage equations were estimated using data from both the NLSY and the NLS of Young Women. Findings indicate that for whites, marriage and household responsibilities are not critical determinants of wage gap. Both married and single women have something in common which depresses their wages relative to those of men. In addition, wage gap analysis indicates that about 61 percent of the wage gap between married men and women and 37 percent of the gap between married men and single women is not explained by human capital characteristics and other variables included in the wage equations. This finding suggests that married women may be more discriminated against than single women or that the wage gap between married men and married women may be more affected by unmeasured factors than that between married men and single women. For blacks, findings were not consistent across equations and comparison groups. In one equation, married women's wage was lower than that of black married men, but black single women's was not--a finding that supports Becker's hypothesis. However, the wages of black single men and women were not significantly higher than those of black married women. While most findings do not support Becker's hypothesis that marriage and household responsibilities depress the wages of married women compared to other groups, they do not rule out the possibility that the anticipation of marriage leads women to make different choices than men. Occupational choices and attitudes may both lead to lower wages for women compared to men regardless of their marital status.
Bibliography Citation
Nah, Myungkyun. The Male-Female Wage Gap: A Test of Becker's Hypothesis. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1991..
179. Nam, Sung Il
Essays on the Application of Theory of Time to Labor Supply and Wages
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rochester, 1987
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Human Capital Theory; Husbands; Labor Supply; Sexual Division of Labor; Wage Gap; Wage Theory; Wives

Absenteeism and Labor Supply: This paper develops an equilibrium model of absenteeism and labor contracts under the assumption that an individual's total discretionary time for which he has control is stochastic. Absenteeism is viewed as a reduction of labor supply due to the stochastic decrease in total discretionary time. The equilibrium absence rate is shown to be a function of preference, technology, and the distribution of a worker's discretionary time. The structure of the equilibrium contract depends on the amount of information available to the firm on the worker's discretionary time. Observability of Time and Full Paid Absenteeism: If discretionary time is observable by the firm, full wage payment for absence is possible as an insurance provision for the risk averse worker. However, the contract explicitly specifies a condition of absence in order to control absenteeism. The model explains the observed cross-sectional negative correlation between wage and absence rate as an exhibition of a negative compensating differential for increased absences. Division of Labor and Wages of Family Members - A Two Period Model: This paper develops a two period, family decision model in which labor supply and human capital investment of the husband and the wife are interdependently determined. The model demonstrates that family division of labor may not only decrease the growth of the wife's wage but also increase the growth of the husband's wage. Age Profile of Male-Female Wage Difference - An Evidence from Family Data: This paper investigates the validity of the "family side, human capital explanation" of the gender wage gap. Based on panel data of young married couples from the NLS, taken from the Young Men's cohort and Young Women's cohort during the period of 1969 through 1980, the empirical study finds that: (1) OJT investment is positively affected by prospective hours of work of family members; (2) Hours of work of the husband and wife are interdependent as substitutes; (3) Thus, the estimated investment profile predicts a steeper age-wage profile with greater concavity for the husband than for the wife. [UMI ADG88-10969]
Bibliography Citation
Nam, Sung Il. Essays on the Application of Theory of Time to Labor Supply and Wages. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rochester, 1987.
180. Nasir, Zafar Mueen
The Effect of Naturalization on the Earnings Profiles of Young Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University, 1997.
Also: http://wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations/fullcit/9736782
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Immigrants; Labor Economics; Migration; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Growth

(See also, Nasir, Zafar M. as alternative spelling for author's name.)
Prior studies suggest that immigrants assimilate into the labor market by acquiring skills such as language proficiency, familiarity with the host country's culture, and contacts in the labor market, thereby promoting rapid wage growth. In most of these studies, years since migration is used to capture the assimilation process. This study investigates whether naturalization also facilitates assimilation. In particular, the study examines whether naturalization leads to higher wages, either immediately or by accelerating wage growth. Reasons for any wage gains are also explored. The study incorporates two different data sets, U.S. census data from 1980 and National Longitudinal Survey data (youth cohort) from 1979 to 1991. The main results are derived from NLSY data. Furthermore, because of the longitudinal information in the NLSY data, the fixed-effects estimation procedure is used to net out the effects of unobservable personal fixed characteristics of immigrants which, if not accounted for, could bias estimates of returns to observable characteristics. The estimates from the fixed-effects model are then compared with estimates based on pooled NLSY data and 1980 census data. All models are estimated separately for male and female immigrants to determine the effect of naturalization by gender. Based on 1980 census data, estimated returns to citizenship amount to 1 percent for males and 4 percent for females. The NLSY data, which is restricted to younger immigrants who come from a different mix of countries, indicate a substantially larger reward for citizenship. The panel estimate is lower for females than the pooled estimate, suggesting that female immigrants who naturalized tend to have positive unmeasured personal characteristics, but panel and pooled estimates are comparable for males. The estimates reveal that time spent in the U.S. labor market as a citizen, even after standardizing for years since migration, is associated with higher wages for both male and female immigrants. The premium increases with years since naturalization. Our results further suggest that, for male immigrants, naturalization operates through experience and tenure by increasing returns to these attributes following citizenship, with the dominant role played by experience. For female immigrants, naturalization steepens the experience-earnings profile following citizenship.
Bibliography Citation
Nasir, Zafar Mueen. The Effect of Naturalization on the Earnings Profiles of Young Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University, 1997..
181. Neumark, David B.
Gender Differentials in the Labor Force: Measurement, Causes, and Probes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1987. DAI-A 49/05, p. 1234, Nov 1988.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com.proxy.lib.ohio-state.edu/pqdweb?index=0&did=753736421&SrchMode=2&sid=1&Fmt=2&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1264784574&clientId=3959
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Family Influences; Fertility; Gender Differences; Human Capital Theory; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parental Influences; Rural/Urban Differences; Siblings

This dissertation analyzes gender differences in the labor force. Its principal goal is to identify the underlying sources of the differentials, and to estimate their quantitative importance.

The first essay addresses the estimation of wage discrimination. It considers the linkage of these estimates, using the "decompositions" introduced by Oaxaca (1973), to theoretical models of discriminatory behavior. A model of employer discrimination is used to derive conditions under which these widely used estimates are valid measures of discrimination. That this approach is more generally useful is demonstrated by showing that different assumptions about the nature of employers' discriminatory behavior lead to alternative estimates of wage discrimination.

The second essay studies the role of the family in determining earnings and various dimensions of human capital, focusing in particular on gender differences. The essay asks whether the finding of Bound, Griliches and Hall (1986), of "symmetric" treatment by the family of male and female offspring in determining ability and schooling, carries over when extended to the accumulation of labor force experience. Somewhat ambiguous findings emerge, due to the difficulty of identifying parameters capturing all of the possible channels of influence. In one version of the model, significant family effects on labor force experience for both men and women are found, and these effects are very dissimilar by gender. In a second version, the dissimilarity is attenuated.

The third essay studies the factor that is probably most responsible for male-female labor force differentials, the childbearing role of women. It focuses on the timing and spacing of fertility; the potential relationships between these variables and labor market outcomes are indicated in research by Bloom (1987). The broad issue it addresses is whether women choose birth intervals, or instead choose fertility control strategies entailing risks of a birth over time. The empirical results suggest that the first type of behavior is dominant. More strongly, the results show that much of the effects of demographic and other characteristics on the risk of a birth, found in "reduced form" hazard model estimates, are due to the relationship between these characteristics and expected duration.

Bibliography Citation
Neumark, David B. Gender Differentials in the Labor Force: Measurement, Causes, and Probes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1987. DAI-A 49/05, p. 1234, Nov 1988..
182. Noonan, Mary Christine
The Changing Effects of Parenthood On Men's and Women's Employment
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, 2001. DAI-A 62/10 p.3577, April 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Fatherhood; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Parenthood; Wage Effects

This dissertation examines trends in men's and women's employment behavior around the time of first childbirth, and in doing so contributes to the sociological literature on gender roles, labor markets, and social change. I use data from multiple cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys and employ a range of analytic methods, including decomposition analysis and fixed-effects regression techniques. The first part of the dissertation examines trends in the parenthood-employment relationship for both men and women. Results show that men's employment patterns around the time of childbirth show no significant change; employment for both cohorts of men remains at consistently high levels in the months surrounding childbirth. Recent cohorts of women continue to withdraw from the labor force around the time of their first birth, although they work longer into pregnancy and return to work sooner after childbirth than early cohorts of women. In the second part of the dissertation, I develop a measure of the long-term costs of a work interruption and test whether it predicts women's employment behavior at the time of first birth. Results show that while the average short-term cost of a one-year employment break is $17,000, the average long-term cost is over $80,000. Put differently, over the long term, a woman who takes a one-year break will earn only 67% of what a comparable woman would earn who had not taken a break. Both the short and long-term costs have significant negative effects on the likelihood of women taking one-year employment breaks around the time of their first childbirth; however, the effect of the short-term cost appears to be stronger. The final part of the dissertation assesses whether changes in the magnitude and effect of the long-term costs of an employment break help explain trends in women's employment around the time of childbirth. Results show that the average long-term cost of an employment break has increased considerably over time and does account for a substantial portion of the increase in women's employment. The long-term cost has a negative effect on women's employment behavior at the time of first birth in both cohorts, however the effect has remained relatively stable over time.
Bibliography Citation
Noonan, Mary Christine. The Changing Effects of Parenthood On Men's and Women's Employment. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, 2001. DAI-A 62/10 p.3577, April 2002.
183. Norgaard, Katherine Ellen
A Study of the Relationship Between Self Esteem and Heavy Use of Cannabis Among Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Structure; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Sex Roles

This study encompassed a national, multi-stage random probability sample from the NLSY. The study focused on the female portion of the sample, although comparisons were sometimes made with the male sample. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between heavy use of cannabis and self-esteem, labor force participation, family structure and school attendance. A Chi('2) statistic, two-way ANOVA with two follow-up procedures (the Scheffe and a contrast of sets) were performed. The results yielded findings which indicated that differences exist along both ethnic and gender lines. The hypothesis that a positive relationship exists between low self-esteem and heavy use of cannabis does not hold for minority women. Rather, the relationship is positive for white women. Interestingly, the contrast of sets indicated significant differences in self-esteem among the women studied. Hispanic women scored lower on self-esteem than did black or white women.In addition, women scored significantly lower than men on this measure. Furthermore, the second hypothesis concerning the relationship of heavy use of cannabis and labor force participation was not significant for minority women. The relationship was significant for the white female sample. School attendance and heavy use of cannabis are related among black women and unrelated among Hispanic women. In addition, among the white female respondents the findings indicate a strong relationship among these two variables. Lastly, the findings for the relationship between heavy use of cannabis and disrupted family structure were diverse. For Hispanic women there was an inverse relationship. Among black women there was no relationship. Furthermore, the findings for white women indicated a positive relationship between heavy use of cannabis and disrupted family structure. These results illustrate that people who use marijuana heavily vary according to both psychological and sociological characteristics as well as sexual and racial status.
Bibliography Citation
Norgaard, Katherine Ellen. A Study of the Relationship Between Self Esteem and Heavy Use of Cannabis Among Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1983.
184. Oh, Wonsun
Craft versus Industrial Unions: Union Organization Within the Work Place
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Collective Bargaining; Geographical Variation; Industrial Sector; Skills; Unions; Wage Gap; Wages

This dissertation examines the determinants and the economic consequences of alternative types of labor union organization. The early conflicts between craft and industrial union organizations provide strong evidence that the type of union representation is important to workers. I developed a model of the optimal integration of workers under alternative environmental conditions, including most importantly the costs of organizing and policing agreements internally and externally to the collectives. Both multiple and sequential logit estimation techniques are used to test trichotomous decision making procedure based upon the representative individual's utility maximization behavior. The main data sets used in this study are the NLS of Older Men and the Census of Manufacturers. The NLS identifies union status and also partitions the organizational structure of the union into skill levels (craft and industrial) and geographical types (local or national). It is therefore possible to identify empirically the factors that make each organizational type more or less likely, as well as to identify the payoff to each type of organization. The empirical results indicate that the rent-sharing concerns of the highly skilled workers induce them to prefer no union at all, ceteris paribus, although, if unionized, they are more likely to organize craft unions than industrial unions. Low skilled workers are also more likely to organize craft unions than industrial unions compared to semi-skilled workers. The result indicates that the traditional focus on union/nonunion status ignores an important dimension of work place bargaining structure. I then analyze the effects of unions on the relative wage gaps. The analysis of wage gaps among workers in the two distinct types of union shows that union wage differentials depend not only on the human characteristics and the nature of the work place but also on the type of bargaining structure. The type of union representation is most important for the high-skilled and workers in less concentrated industries. [UMI ADG90-14466]
Bibliography Citation
Oh, Wonsun. Craft versus Industrial Unions: Union Organization Within the Work Place. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989.
185. Oklah, Montaser J.
Effects of Labor Unions on the Wages of Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Employment, Youth; Unions; Wages, Youth

Empirical estimation of the union's wage effects for the NLSY is provided. The total union's wage effect is divided into two separate effects. The first is termed the "bargaining effect" and represents the differential between the wage received by a nonunion worker in a collective bargaining unit and the wage paid to a comparable worker not covered by a collective bargaining agreement. It is this effect that offers a measure of the bargaining or monopoly power of labor unions effects on wages. The second effect is the "membership effect" representing the wage differential between union and nonunion workers within a collective bargaining agreement. This effect characterizes the Collective Voice/Institutions Response (CV/IR) effect of labor unions on wages. Such effect is attributed to the economic benefits that unions procure to their members. [UMI ADG87-13828]
Bibliography Citation
Oklah, Montaser J. Effects of Labor Unions on the Wages of Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1987.
186. Okou, Jane E.
Academic and Transitional Experiences of High School At-Risk Youth
Ph. D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 2004.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=775163681&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; High School Completion/Graduates; Racial Differences; School Progress; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education

This study investigated academic and transitional experiences of at-risk youth with a purpose to establish whether these experiences vary among them by race, race and gender, and race and residence. Of particular interest was whether the experiences of at risk white males differ from those of other at-risk youth.

Five specific experiences were examined, namely: program of study, high school graduation, dropout, transition to postsecondary, and transition to employment. The main research question that guided the study was: Among at-risk youth, do the academic and transitional experiences vary by race, race and gender, and race and residence?

Data for the study were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). A sub-sample of 837 participants was used. At-risk youth were defined as those from families living below poverty level in the United States and who are at risk of experiencing academic and transitional difficulties as a result of their poor economic backgrounds. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to analyze the data. Frequency counts, percentages and Chi-square tests were used in the descriptive analysis and logistic regression and survival analysis were used in the multivariate analyses. Findings revealed that among at-risk youth there are no variations in high school graduation, dropout, and transition to postsecondary education. In general, at-risk white males are as likely as all other at-risk youth to experience the negative effects of poverty when faced with equal levels of economic hardships. Their patterns of enrollment in programs vary slightly, but overall all at-risk youth are more likely to follow a general curriculum. The one major exception is that blacks in rural America are significantly less likely to be employed than their white counterparts even when poverty levels are controlled.

Bibliography Citation
Okou, Jane E. Academic and Transitional Experiences of High School At-Risk Youth. Ph. D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 2004..
187. Olatunji, Anane Nokware
The Relationship Between Work Experience and Well-Being among Mexican-Origin Youths
Ph.D. Dissertation, Sociology, Tulane University, 2000.
Also: http://libguides.tulane.edu/content.php?pid=61023&sid=1305180
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Hispanic Studies; Income; Self-Esteem; Work Experience

This research explores the relationships between work experience and self-esteem, delinquency, educational attainment, and future income among youths of Mexican descent. Social scientists have addressed the concern that teenage work experience might undermine the emotional well-being of adolescents as well as their investment in education. Despite what appears to be a propensity for early labor market participation among adolescents of Mexican-origin, investigators have focused little attention on the effects of employment vis-a-vis this segment of the population. But the question remains an important one in light of demographic projections for population growth among Hispanics, the majority of whom claim Mexican ancestry, as well as their relatively low rate of high school completion. Using multivariate regression techniques and data from two distinct national surveys, I find that for U.S.-born youths of Mexican descent early work experience lowers self-esteem, increases delinquency, stymies educational attainment, but increases income gains over the long-run. In contrast, among Mexican immigrant adolescents, employment increases self-esteem, reduces delinquency, and enhances high school completion as well as future earnings. That outcomes for the former group more closely resemble those for non-Hispanic White adolescents than Mexican immigrants, suggests that U.S.-born youths of Mexican descent may suffer adverse effects from assimilation processes that Mexican culture appears to nullify.
Bibliography Citation
Olatunji, Anane Nokware. The Relationship Between Work Experience and Well-Being among Mexican-Origin Youths. Ph.D. Dissertation, Sociology, Tulane University, 2000..
188. Olson, Lawrence Smedley
The Allocation of Time to Vocational School Training
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1976.
Also: http://openlibrary.org/works/OL3721010W/The_allocation_of_time_to_vocational_school_training
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Leisure; Part-Time Work; Simultaneity; Vocational Education; Vocational Training

Economic and statistical techniques are used to analyze training decisions, in which their longitudinal and simultaneous nature is emphasized. The study is set apart from all the rest because of the comprehensive structure and broad data base. The findings show that vocational school trainees spend more time in market activities and are highly motivated.For vocational trainees, age-wage profiles appear to be lower and flatter than those individuals who attend college.
Bibliography Citation
Olson, Lawrence Smedley. The Allocation of Time to Vocational School Training. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1976..
189. Osborne, Melissa Anne
Power of Personality: Labor Market Rewards and the Transmission of Earnings
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2000. DAI-A 61/10, p. 4120, Apr 2001
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Britain, British; Cross-national Analysis; Gender Differences; Human Capital; I.Q.; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wage Determination

This dissertation research examines the influence of personality and behavioral traits on economic success using the National Longitudinal Surveys and the National Child Development Study. The first essay investigates the ability of personality to explain why apparently similar people have varied success in the labor market. Results suggest that personality is a significant determinant of labor market success and offers a unique and valuable contribution to our explanation of labor market outcomes. The second essay designs and estimates a behavioral model of the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. This model allows me to estimate the magnitude of the contribution of personality to the intergenerational transmission of earnings and to elucidate the process by which personality helps to explain social mobility. The final essay investigates how the returns to personality differ according to sex, or position in the occupational hierarchy. The results suggest that while personality traits are important for both men and women, the reward structures are distinct.
Bibliography Citation
Osborne, Melissa Anne. Power of Personality: Labor Market Rewards and the Transmission of Earnings. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2000. DAI-A 61/10, p. 4120, Apr 2001.
190. Osterman, Paul
Labor Market for Young Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Age; Employment; Mobility, Job; Schooling; Unemployment; Work Attitudes

This report studies the operation of the labor market for young men. The research consists of interviews with employers, young workers, and youth workers as well as analysis based on the NLS survey of Young Men. The report seeks to integrate a theory of the nature and impact of adolescent development on labor market behavior with a theory of the institutional structure of labor demand. The theories are tested and applied to policy issues such as youth unemployment and labor market discrimination.
Bibliography Citation
Osterman, Paul. Labor Market for Young Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1976.
191. Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff
Youth Employment and Parental Transfers
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 05A (2001): 1909
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Allowance, Pocket Money; Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; Family Characteristics; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Minimum Wage; Modeling; Racial Differences; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Parental; Wage Rates

We know very little about the employment experiences of the United States' youngest workers. Previous studies of youth employment focused upon youths aged 16 and older while neglecting a sizable cohort of younger workers who also attend school full-time. I use data from the new National Longitudinal Survey of Youths 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the employment and earning behavior of youths aged 12-16, as well as the cash transfers received from their parents.

I provide a descriptive overview of the employment and earning behavior of the NLSY97 youths and test for the effects of both family and individual characteristics and federal and state laws upon their behavior. Nearly half of all youths (47 percent) earned income in 1996. Results indicate that minimum wages reduce the probability of labor force participation for female youths aged 14-16, while subminimum wage certificate programs (allowing students to work at wages below the minimum wage) help mitigate the disemployment effects of minimum wages.

I describe and assess the quality of the parental transfer data from the NLSY97 and test for the determinants of parental allowances. The median annual allowance received by youths aged 12-16 in 1996 was $260, the equivalent of $5 per week. Surprisingly, black youths are more likely to receive allowances, and to receive higher allowances, than non-black, non-Hispanic youths. Reduced-form estimations also indicate that allowances depend upon parents' wherewithal, given the effects of parents' income and the number of siblings upon allowances.

Finally, I present an altruism model of youths' earnings and parental transfers where the parent does not directly control the child's earnings. Using a tobit two-stage procedure, I find that youths earn less the greater their allowances, and that parents decrease allowance amounts in response to youths' decisions to earn more. It is also important to allow earnings and allowances to be jointly determined in order to assess the effects of family and individual characteristics upon earnings and allowances. For example, allowances conditional upon earnings do not depend directly upon being black. Therefore, black parents apparently compensate their children for having a lower probability of labor force participation.

Bibliography Citation
Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff. Youth Employment and Parental Transfers. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 05A (2001): 1909.
192. Padilla, Yolanda Chavez
The Effect of Geographic Mobility on the Socioeconomic Achievement of Young Hispanic Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1993.
Also: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/infoserv/catalog/detail/106287
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Family Income; Hispanics; Life Cycle Research; Mobility; Mobility, Social; Poverty; Welfare

This study examines Hispanic geographic mobility in the context of the socioeconomic life cycle. It incorporates rich information on family background and examines its effects on geographic mobility and social mobility as well as on socioeconomic achievement. The objective of the analysis is to expand micro level research on the role of internal migration in improving the economic status of Hispanics. This is done by focusing on how family background conditions the propensity to migrate during young adulthood and in turn how migration decisions affect economic achievement net of the effects of social origins. Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience-Youth Cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Padilla, Yolanda Chavez. The Effect of Geographic Mobility on the Socioeconomic Achievement of Young Hispanic Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1993..
193. Park, Hye-Sook
Effect Of Item Text Characteristics On Children's Growth In Reading
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Modeling, Multilevel; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

This study investigates children's growth in reading reflected on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) reading comprehension item responses from the National longitudinal Survey of Youth data over several years. Based on the idea that reading comprehension is determined by characteristics of both readers and texts, this study investigates the relative impact of both. Using a three-level hierarchical generalized linear model, in which item (level-1) are nested within time points (level-2) and time points are nested within individuals (level-3), this study assesses relationships among text characteristics, cognitive abilities, environmental factors, and reading ability (as indexed by the Peabody text).

Reading ability did not grow at a constant rate; in fact it exhibited variable patterns that were influenced by verbal memory and text characteristics in different ways at different points in children's reading development. In general, short sentences, frequently used vocabulary, and high density facilitated reading comprehension, but the temporal influences of the patterns of three text characteristics differed.

The effect of age on children's reading comprehension was manifested differentially depending upon sentence characteristics. In the case of sentence length, the effect of age was manifested only with short sentences. The positive contribution that frequently used vocabulary made to reading comprehension increased over years, but the growth rates were also different. The effect of age on reading comprehension was greater with sentences written using high frequency vocabulary than with low frequency vocabulary. The effect of propositional density increases constantly. The effect of age on reading comprehension was manifested greatly with high density sentences, that is, coherent sentences, rather than with low density sentences.

In addition, verbal memory was statistically significant in predicting both the average effect of sentence length over time and the rate of growth of sentence length slope. There was an interaction effect between verbal memory and length of sentences over time. In the case of short sentences, the effect of verbal memory was practically as well as statistically significant. However, in the case of long sentences, the effect of verbal memory was almost absent. As verbal memory increased, vocabulary frequency had a greater effect on reading ability. However, verbal memory did not influence the effect of propositional density.

The differential contribution of each psycholinguistic variable over time implies that achievement, as measured by a reading comprehension test, is a complex entity that is greatly dependent on the nature of the text contained in the test.

Bibliography Citation
Park, Hye-Sook. Effect Of Item Text Characteristics On Children's Growth In Reading. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1999.
194. Park, Jennifer Ji-Hye
Adolescent Mothers' Perceptions of Support and Receipt of Government Financial Assistance: An Examination of the NLSY97 Data File
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Florida State University, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Mothers, Adolescent; Program Participation/Evaluation; Rural/Urban Differences; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Welfare

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between adolescent parent perceptions of social support and their participation in Government financial assistance programs. Primiparous adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey on Youth (NLSY97) who reported having a resident biological child (N = 65) were the focus of this study. A comparison group of 65 non-mothers matched by age, race, and urban or rural residence were included in this study. Research questions were developed to determine if: (1) differences existed between mothers and non-mothers in perceptions of support, (2) perceptions of social support were predictive in receipt of Government financial assistance, (3) urban versus rural differences were evident, and (4) if younger versus older group membership differences were evident. Significant differences were not found between adolescent mothers and non-mothers in their perceptions of support from grandmothers, grandfathers, teachers, and schools. Greater levels of support perceived from grandmothers and grandfathers were associated with increased receipt of food stamps, while greater levels of support from teachers and schools were associated with receipt of WIC. Although cell sizes were a limiting factor, findings are useful in the planning of future studies and in understanding the experiences of adolescent mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Park, Jennifer Ji-Hye. Adolescent Mothers' Perceptions of Support and Receipt of Government Financial Assistance: An Examination of the NLSY97 Data File. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Florida State University, 1999.
195. Paserman, Marco Daniele
Essays on Job Search and Hyperbolic Discounting
Ph. D. Dissertation, Department of Economics--Harvard University, 2000.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com.proxy.lib.ohio-state.edu/pqdweb?index=0&did=732228431&SrchMode=2&sid=1&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1253549325&clientId=3959
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Exits; Job Search; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Wages, Reservation

Abstract available on microfilm through "http://proquest.umi.com"
Bibliography Citation
Paserman, Marco Daniele. Essays on Job Search and Hyperbolic Discounting. Ph. D. Dissertation, Department of Economics--Harvard University, 2000..
196. Pavetti, Ladonna Ann
The Dynamics of Welfare and Work: Exploring The Process By Which Women Work Their Way Off Welfare
Ph.D. Dissertation, The John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, May, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Mothers, Income; Parents, Single; Skills; Welfare; Women's Studies; Work Experience; Work Reentry

In this research, I use quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and qualitative data from extensive interviews with working and non-working low-income single mothers in the Boston area to conduct an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of welfare and work. I find that, contrary to popular belief, many women on welfare are quite willing to work. However, work provides a permanent exit from welfare for a relatively small percentage of women who ever enter the welfare system. When using monthly data, I find that work is the most common reason why women leave the welfare rolls, accounting for 45 percent of all exits from welfare. The majority of these exits occur rapidly--60 percent of women who leave welfare for work do so within a year after beginning a spell of welfare. However, many of these exits end just as quickly as they begin. About 40 percent of all women who leave welfare for work return to welfare within the first year after leaving. By the end of five years, two-thirds of all women who leave welfare for work will have returned to the welfare system. When I examine the experiences of a beginning cohort of recipients and account for multiple spells of welfare receipt, I find that only about 30 percent of women will leave welfare for a work exit that lasts for two years or longer by the end of the five-year period beginning with their initial welfare receipt. Another 30 percent manage to leave welfare for a relatively permanent exit through means other than work. The remaining 40 percent never leave the welfare rolls or leave only for short periods of time and then return. Many of the women who stay on welfare for long periods of time appear to do so because their labor market prospects are so grim. These women have a very poor mastery of basic skills as measured by the Armed Forces Qualifying Test (AFQT); fewer than half complete high school. In addition, very few enter the welfare system with any recent work experience. Copyright Dissertation Abstracts.
Bibliography Citation
Pavetti, Ladonna Ann. The Dynamics of Welfare and Work: Exploring The Process By Which Women Work Their Way Off Welfare. Ph.D. Dissertation, The John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, May, 1993.
197. Peltola, Pia Kristiina
Mothers' Level of Attachment to the Labor Market Following the Birth of a Second Child
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland - College Park, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Work Reentry

Increased employment of mothers with infants has prompted an avalanche of studies about how mothers balance paid work and family. Most of that research has focused on how the birth of the first child impacts mothers' employment. Less is known about what happens after the birth of a second child. Combining the life course perspective with the classic labor supply theory and employing the 1979-1998 NLSY data, this study examines how mothers balance paid work and family when they have two children. Some comparisons are made between the first and a second birth. The first comparison, the survival distribution of mothers' return to market work, finds no significant difference in the rate at which mothers return to employment after the first and a second birth. The results of Cox hazard models show some similarities and some differences in the determinants for the timing of return to paid work after the two births. They also highlight the importance of considering the impact of past life experiences on current decisions. Results of the competing risk models show that some predictors for full time and part time returns differ. This study also examines what mothers' employment is like after returning to paid work by examining mothers' employment hours during the preschool years of the second child. Very different employment patterns are observed between those who began working full time and those who started part time. The changes in employment hours during this period would be missed without longitudinal data. The large number of mothers dropping out of the labor force over the five-year period suggests that reports focusing on the return to market work only overestimate mothers' economic activity. Fluctuations in the employment hours underline the dynamic nature of the balancing act: the equilibrium keeps shifting as children grow older, and mothers keep readjusting and chasing the optimal balance between care work and market work.
Bibliography Citation
Peltola, Pia Kristiina. Mothers' Level of Attachment to the Labor Market Following the Birth of a Second Child. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland - College Park, 2004.
198. Peng, Tai
Educational Experiences and Labor Market Outcomes of Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Employment, Youth; Gender Differences; Income; Job Satisfaction; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Schooling; Vocational Training

This study was designed to determine the effects of educational experience on labor market outcomes of youth. The sample for this study consisted of 1,643 respondents (17 to 21 years of age) from the NLSY. The major conclusions were: (1) The economic outcomes were higher for young men than for young women. However, young women were more likely to experience job satisfaction than young men. (2) The number of weeks employed and income were greater for whites than for non-whites. There was no difference between whites and non-whites with regard to wages and job satisfaction. (3) The father's occupation and educational attainment, and the mother's educational attainment had slight direct effect on the labor market outcomes of youths but mostly the effects were indirect. The father's occupation and the parents' educational attainment had a direct influence on the educational experiences of youths. The family reading index had a positive direct effect on the number of weeks employed and the wages of young men. (4) Schooling had a positive direct effect on the economic outcomes of youths. However, schooling had a negative direct effect on the job satisfaction of youths. The effect of schooling on the employability of youths was greater for non-whites than for whites. The effect of schooling on the income of youths was greater for young men than for young women. (5) Student performance in high school was positively related to the number of weeks employed and job satisfaction of youths. (6) Academic training in high school did little to improve the economic outcomes and job satisfaction of youths. (7) Vocational training caused an increase in the number of weeks of employment for young women but a decrease for young men. Vocational education improved earning potential ability and the ability of youth to be employed early in the labor market. Moreover, vocational education had a positive direct effect on job satisfaction of young women. [UMI ADG87-28061]
Bibliography Citation
Peng, Tai. Educational Experiences and Labor Market Outcomes of Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1987.
199. Peterson, Richard R.
Socioeconomic Consequences of Divorce for Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1984
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Divorce; Dual Economic Theory; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Marital Status; Well-Being

The dual career hypothesis suggests that women are at a disadvantage in the labor market because of their involvement in family roles, implying that women should fare better after divorce. However, the increase in the number of women (including divorced women) supporting themselves and their children is often cited as a cause of the feminization of poverty. In this study, the life-course perspective is developed to consider the effects of divorce on women's position in the labor market and on their economic well-being. The analyses presented here use data from the NLS of Mature Women. Divorced women who work improve their position in the labor market, especially after a long period (consistent with the dual career hypothesis), but all divorced women, including those who work, experience a drop in economic well-being. Improvement in the labor market position of divorced women depends both on increased work experience after divorce, and also on higher demand for the labor of divorced women over married women. Economic well-being after divorce depends to a large extent on prior work history and fertility, but also depends on education and on work adjustments after divorce. The life-course perspective is developed to consider the effects of marital and work history in determining socioeconomic outcomes. The marital history concept is used to demonstrate that divorce is associated with higher wages and earnings, a finding consistent with the dual career hypothesis but previously subject to debate because of emphasis on cross-sectional analysis. The most comprehensive explanation to date is provided to account for the effects of marital status on labor market position, including, for the first time, the finding that there are differences in demand for female labor by marital status. Finally, a simple model is developed to combine the human capital and labor market segmentation approaches; further theoretical development to integrate these two approaches is suggested.
Bibliography Citation
Peterson, Richard R. Socioeconomic Consequences of Divorce for Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1984.
200. Pizer, Steven Daniel
Essays on the Causes of Increased Earnings Inequality
Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston College, 1998. DAI-A 59/03, p. 910, September 1998
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Unions; Wage Differentials

Does international competition undermine wage differentials and increase inequality? This essay develops two models of the strategic effect of trade on wages then uses quantile regressions on micro data to estimate wage premia for 43 industries from 1984 to 1991 and test the predictions of these models. Wage premia are positively related to import penetration at the mean and the 90th percentile for union workers and negatively related to import penetration at the 10th percentile for nonunion workers. As predicted by theory, the positive relationship is limited to industry-years without capacity constraints, and the negative relationship arises only in constrained industry-years. These trade effects can account for 49% of the observed increase in wage inequality for union workers and 9% of the increase for nonunion workers in manufacturing from 1984 to 1991. Did the declining price of computing intensify earnings inequality? This essay employs data from the FCC to determine whether the decline in the price of quality-adjusted electronic capital from 1992 to 1995 can account for the observed increase in local telephone companies' relative demand for college graduates. Electronic capital and college graduates are estimated to be substitutes while noncollege workers and electronic capital are complements. Consequently, the increased relative demand for college graduates by telecommunications companies cannot be accounted for by changes in the price of electronic capital. Furthermore, the data are consistent with a hypothesis of skill-neutral within-industry technological change. Therefore, I find no support for the proposition that computerization contributed to growing demand for college workers either through skill-biased technological change or through price effects from 1992 to 1995. Trends in voluntary and involuntary job turnover (with James W. Monks). This essay uses data from the National Longitudinal Surveys to show that young men became more likely to change jobs over the period from 1971 to 1990. For whites, this increase is mostly attributable to an increase in the probability of involuntary job change. For nonwhites, the probability of voluntary and involuntary job change both increased.
Bibliography Citation
Pizer, Steven Daniel. Essays on the Causes of Increased Earnings Inequality. Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston College, 1998. DAI-A 59/03, p. 910, September 1998.
201. Porter, Karen Louise
Scheduling of Life Course Events, Economic Adaptations, and Marital History: An Analysis of Economic Survival after Separation and Divorce for Midlife Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1985
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Divorce; Earnings; Employment; Human Capital; Income; Life Course; Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This dissertation is a study of economic survival for women whose first marriages ended in separation or divorce compared with women who have been continuously married. Economic survival is conceptualized in several ways: personal income, poverty status, household net worth, and dollar amounts in checking and savings accounts. In the predictive model, the dependent variable is personal income. Data for the study come from the first seven waves of the NLS. From marital history data, four marital history types were created: the continuously married in first marriages; the separated or divorced who have never remarried; the currently remarried; and the previously remarried. The research analyses were performed separately for the races and the four marital history types. The questions posed in this study include the following: (1) To what extent does marital history make a difference in the process of socioeconomic attainment for midlife women? (2) In a model of economic survival, in what ways does the scheduling of life course events influence economic outcomes? (3) How do human capital variables influence economic outcomes when life course measures are included? and (4) How important are factors such as age of the respondent and number of children in the household at the time of marital disruption in predicting economic survival? Multiple regression results show that human capital variables such as continuity of employment are positively related to personal income, regardless of marital history for both races. In general, education has a positive income effect, but it is not statistically significant for all marital history groups. Life course variables are only moderately related to personal income without controlling for marital history and have negligible effects on income when marital history is held constant. A discriminant analysis of marital history shows that the four types can be statistically distinguished by life course variables such as age at first marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Porter, Karen Louise. Scheduling of Life Course Events, Economic Adaptations, and Marital History: An Analysis of Economic Survival after Separation and Divorce for Midlife Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1985.
202. Prause, JoAnn
Underemployment: A SociaL Ecological Perspective
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Irvine, 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education, Guidance and Counseling; Hispanics; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Racial Differences; Schooling; Self-Esteem; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Underemployment; Unemployment

This research examines whether early measures of educational, occupational, and psychological factors are determinants of economic underemployment as defined by unemployment, involuntary part-time work, intermittent unemployment, and low income. Individuals were termed "chronically underemployed" if they experienced one of these forms of economic underemployment for two or three of the years 1985-87. The data source was the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, restricted to respondents with high school attitude data acquired in 1979. Logistic regression was utilized to model the risk of chronic underemployment as a function of educational, occupational, psychological and control variables. The results demonstrated that high school occupational attitudes did not increase the odds of persistent underemployment five to seven years later. What did increase the odds of persisitent and chronic underemployment was: low self-esteem, more so for males than for females; rural residences, younger ages, and living in areas with higher local unemployment rates; negative perceptions toward high school peer relations and job counseling; less than 12 years of education, more so for females than for males; no spouse present relative to those with a spouse present; and a history of underemployment, more so for blacks/hispanics than for non-blacks/non-hispanics. Regional variations in chronic underemployment were evident by race and sex where blacks/hispanics were more likely to be underemployed relative to non-blacks/non-hispanics, more so in the Northcentral and Southern regions as compared to the Northeastern and Western regions. Females relative to males had a greater risk of underemployment in the South followed by the West. In the Northeastern and Northcentral regions, females and males were equally likely to be chronically underemployed. These results suggest that there is a pool of relatively young adults who are persistently underemployed. The extent to which this "early career" underemployment will affect their future labor market participation and employment quality remains to be seen.
Bibliography Citation
Prause, JoAnn. Underemployment: A SociaL Ecological Perspective. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Irvine, 1991.
203. Raiser, M. Valora
Effects of Parental Structure in the Family of Origin on Adult Children's Self-Esteem and Marital Relationship
M.S. Thesis, Iowa State University, 1994.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/Effects_of_parental_structure_in_the_fam.html?id=ViMSOAAACAAJ
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Families, Two-Parent; Family Structure; Marital Status; Parental Marital Status; Parents, Non-Custodial; Parents, Single; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception

The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of parental structure within the family of origin on marital status, self-esteem and the quality of the marital relationship. Parental structure factors included (a) having lived with both biological parents or (b) with a single parent from birth through 16 years-of-age, (c) having experienced life with a separated/divorced parent or (d) a widowed parent, and (e) having lived at some time during childhood and adolescence with a biological parent and a step- or adoptive parent. In addition timing of having lived with a single parent was considered. Marital status was significantly influenced by parental structure. Self-esteem and the quality of the marital relationship (i.e. marital happiness and marital communication) were not significantly related to parental structure except for having lived with a widowed parent predicting lower marital happiness. When control variables were included in regression analyses, education was the strongest predictor of self-esteem and self-esteem was the strongest predictor of the quality of the marital relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Raiser, M. Valora. Effects of Parental Structure in the Family of Origin on Adult Children's Self-Esteem and Marital Relationship. M.S. Thesis, Iowa State University, 1994..
204. Rashad, Inas
Essays in the Economics Of Obesity
Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, September 2004. DAI-A 65/03, p. 1043, Sep 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Heterogeneity; Modeling; Modeling, Fixed Effects; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Television Viewing; Weight

Obesity is currently an epidemic, rapidly outpacing smoking as the leading cause of preventable deaths in the United States. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) are the data sets that the Centers for Disease Control use in order to track changes in obesity over time. In The Super Size of America: An Economic Estimation of Body Mass Index and Obesity in Adults, I use individual-level NHANES data in order to assess the effect of various state-level variables on the increase in the obesity trend in adults. In Structural Estimation of Caloric Intake, Exercise, Smoking and Obesity, I use NHANES to estimate simultaneous equations models by taking advantage of information on caloric intake, physical activity, and smoking by individuals, and the mechanism through which economic factors influence these choice variables. In Fast Food Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Childhood Obesity, I estimate the effect of fast food advertising on television on obesity in children and adolescents using panel data sets, which allows for the estimation of individual fixed effects models to control for possible unobserved heterogeneity. Children of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used in this analysis. I discuss various economic forces that have contributed to the rapid increase in the obesity epidemic in the United States, and also address social and labor market consequences to this increase in obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Rashad, Inas. Essays in the Economics Of Obesity. Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, September 2004. DAI-A 65/03, p. 1043, Sep 2004.
205. Rashid, Nazih Turki
Powerlessness and Job Satisfaction
Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This study investigates the relationship of job satisfaction to: powerlessness and selected work conditions; and socioeconomic variables and background characteristics. The objectives of this study are: 1. to examine the relative effects of powerlessness versus other independent variables on job satisfaction; and 2. to investigate the possible interaction effects of powerlessness with job conditions, socioeconomic factors, and background variables of the individual. Multivariate regression analysis is used in the analysis of the data which come the responses of the 1976 NLS Older Men cohort. The findings concerning the effects of powerlessness on job satisfaction are statistically significant, even controlling for other independent variables. Those who feel less powerless are significantly more satisfied with their jobs than those who feel more powerless. Findings indicate that physical health limitation is significantly related to job satisfaction. Men with severe physical limitations are less satisfied with their job than those who are physically healthy. The relationship between length of time on the job and job satisfaction is insignificant. The effects of socioeconomic status indicate education and occupation are not statistically significant. The effects of income are statistically significant. The effects of class of the worker on job satisfaction are not significant. The relationships between categories of job industry and job satisfaction are not statistically significant. The effect of age on job satisfaction is significant and positive. The effect of race on job satisfaction is also significant. In the analysis of conditional effects, the findings did not support the general hypothesis that the effects of powerlessness vary significantly with sociodemographic variables and job condition. However, the hypothesis concerning the interaction effect of powerlessness by education is supported. Possible explanations for such results are discussed, and recomm endations for future studies are made.
Bibliography Citation
Rashid, Nazih Turki. "Powerlessness and Job Satisfaction." Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1984.
206. Reimers, Cordelia
The Timing of Retirement of American Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1977
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Retirement; Work Attitudes

The study investigates the historical trend in age at retirement, using U.S. Census data on age-specific labor force participation rates and population. It was found that the mean age at retirement remained constant across cohorts of men born between 1866 and 1900, but the variance decreased over time. A behavioral model was developed in which retirement is timed to maximize lifetime utility. A linear probability equation predicting retirement in the following two years was estimated using data from the NLS of Older Men and the Michigan PSID; it was found that poor health and job dissatisfaction are more important than financial variables in inducing early retirement. Finally, the determinants of divergence between expected and actual retirement date and of work after retirement were examined using the NLS data.
Bibliography Citation
Reimers, Cordelia. The Timing of Retirement of American Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1977.
207. Rendon, Silvio Roberto
Job Search and Asset Accumulation Under Borrowing Constraints
Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Job Search; Labor Economics; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Surveys; Transfers, Financial; Wage Effects

In this thesis, I show how borrowing constraints and job search interact. Assets influence job search outcomes by allowing wealthier people to be more selective and obtain higher wages, so that initial wealth positively affects success in the labor market. On the other hand, employment transitions influence asset accumulation: unemployed individuals maintain their consumption by running down their assets, and employed agents save to buffer against future unemployment spells and future lower wages. I fit the model to data from the National Longitudinal Survey (1979-cohort) and I quantify the two main effects mentioned above. A permanent decrease of $100 in unemployment net transfers leads to a decrease in assets holdings of $17 for blacks and $183 for whites twenty quarters after high school graduation. I also show that most of the wage differences across people are accounted for by differences in their labor market environments, rather than by differences in their initial wealth. Twenty quarters after leaving high school, an individual who started off with $2,000 of initial assets can have quarterly wages $50 higher than an individual who started off with no assets. In particular, if blacks had the labor market environment of whites, their quarterly wages twenty quarters after graduation would be $3,974 and not $3,384. This would be still below the $4,048 quarterly wages of whites.
Bibliography Citation
Rendon, Silvio Roberto. Job Search and Asset Accumulation Under Borrowing Constraints. Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1997.
208. Riley, Teresa Marie
The Impact of the Antidiscrimination Legislation on the Employment Status of Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1984.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_impact_of_the_antidiscrimination_leg.html?id=vOJ-YgEACAAJ
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Discrimination; Discrimination, Sex; Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO); Government Regulation; Legislation; Modeling, Probit; Occupational Segregation

This paper is a study of the effects of Title VII and Affirmative Action on the employment status of women. To investigate the enforcement effects of the antidiscrimination legislation, the determinants of the probability that a woman would be employed in a traditionally male occupation were studied for two different years. One of the years represented a period of lax enforcement and the other year represented a period of stricter enforcement. The NLS samples used in this study were stratified into four subsamples on the basis of age and race to control for the effects of race discrimination and prelabor market conditioning. Enforcement of the legislation was estimated on an industry wide basis. It was hypothesized that as enforcement increased within industries, employers would be more likely to hire women in traditionally male occupations. Probit analysis was used to estimate the effects of changes in enforcement on the probability that a woman would be hired for a traditionally male occupation. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of women employed in male occupations between the two years of the study. The results of the study, in general, do not support the hypothesis that, as enforcement increases on an industry wide basis, women are more likely to be employed in male occupations. The results do, however, indicate that enforcement activity has had an effect across industry groups.
Bibliography Citation
Riley, Teresa Marie. The Impact of the Antidiscrimination Legislation on the Employment Status of Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1984..
209. Ripani, Laura Alejandra
Essays in Empirical Labor Economics and the Economics of Gender (Computer-Use, Workgroup's Gender Composition And Motherhood)
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2004. DAI-A 65/11, p. 4297, May 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender; Labor Economics; Motherhood

Three chapters exploring different topics of empirical labor economics and the economics of gender compose this work. Each chapter looks at some specific question and answers it using the most appropriate econometric technique.

The first chapter is an attempt to determine if more intensive computer use by women is an explanation for the decrease in the gender wage gap. It uses the Current Population Survey to investigate the relationship between the gender wage gap and computer-use at work. Since literature on the gender wage gap has shown that it is decreasing over the last two decades, this paper examines whether the computer-use wage premium is an explanation for the decreasing gender wage gap. The results suggest that less than ¼ of the wage gap is explained by differences in observable skills between men and women, and that the computer use differential does not substantially help to explain the gender wage gap.

The second chapter explores a new explanation for the unexplained gap: the gender composition of the individual's co-workers. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between the proportion of female co-workers and wages for both males and females. I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and personnel records from a single firm to investigate the relationship between the proportion of female co-workers and wages. I find that increasing the number of female co-workers lowers wages for both female and male workers. I also find that male wages are negatively related to having a female supervisor. A second part of the empirical research investigates non-linear effects in this relationship. The results suggest that the penalization for working with a higher proportion of females is non-linear.

Studies in developed countries regularly observe a wage penalty for working mothers. The third chapter explores the effects of motherhood on wages and labor force participation for four Latin American countries. Conversely from the evidence found in the developed countries, Latin American results do not show a homogeneous impact of being a mother on wages. I find that wage penalties and premiums are not borne equally among all mothers.

Bibliography Citation
Ripani, Laura Alejandra. Essays in Empirical Labor Economics and the Economics of Gender (Computer-Use, Workgroup's Gender Composition And Motherhood). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2004. DAI-A 65/11, p. 4297, May 2005.
210. Robinson, Kristen Noelle
Effect of Educational Attainment on Mortality Rates and Cause of Death Structures
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1997
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Demography; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Health Care; Income; Life Course; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Occupational Choice

Researchers interested in mortality have found a strong inverse relationship to exist between educational attainment and risk of dying. Various explanations have been offered to explain this relationship, such as access to health care, lifestyle behaviors, and occupation and income. While all of these factors play a part in estimating how education affects mortality, education still retains a direct effect on total mortality. This analysis hypothesizes that educational attainment serves as a mechanism stratifying the resources available in society by rewarding those who are highly educated with the opportunities, resources, and rewards associated with low mortality rates. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), hazard models are estimated to assess the effect education has on the risk of dying. The hazard models are constructed to represent early life course and late life course events, with both total mortality and cause-specific mortality as the dependent variables. The results of the total mortality models indicate that while educational attainment works primarily through alternative mechanisms, such as occupation and lifestyle behaviors, to effect mortality, a direct effect still remains. Modeling the same early and late life course events on cause-specific mortality suggests that this residual direct effect of education is most likely caused by the missing endogenous variable(s) linking education to stroke mortality. It is argued that once the missing variables are found, the direct effect of education, on both stroke and total mortality rates, will disappear.
Bibliography Citation
Robinson, Kristen Noelle. Effect of Educational Attainment on Mortality Rates and Cause of Death Structures. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1997.
211. Rogers, David Edward
Effects of Individual and Occupational Characteristics on the Career Paths of Young Males
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Discrimination, Job; Dual Economic Theory; Family Background; Heterogeneity; Labor Market, Secondary; Mobility; Occupational Segregation

Researchers have long been interested in factors influencing the initial labor force attachment and subsequent mobility of young workers. Many investigators examine various human capital investments that individuals undertake to differentiate themselves and improve their market position. Other researchers maintain that augmenting an individual's stock of human capital yields an insignificant marginal return because employment opportunities are non-existent or highly restricted. This view posits that labor markets are segmented and that discrimination, certain systematic factors, and even random effects can start workers off in bad jobs, and once there, antiwork behavior is reinforced, thereby creating a dead-end situation. This debate prompts several questions for analysis. First, can the existence of a secondary sector be documented and what are its characteristics? Second, who gets these bad jobs? Are there differential characteristics of these workers that might attribute the segmentation to heterogeneity in the population? Finally, to what extent is there mobility over time between good and bad jobs? The research provides an empirical test of the dead-end hypothesis, i.e., that a set of jobs restrict subsequent mobility. Of key interest is the extent to which it is the characteristics of the jobs or unobservable individual differences which cause this effect. The research uses recent information from the NLS of Young Men and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to construct four-year work histories for 358 young males as they leave formal schooling. While this sample exhibits what can only be called a substantial amount of intersegment mobility, there is some evidence that suggests that the sector of past employment has an independent effect on sector of current employment. When controls for unobservable heterogeneity are incorporated, all evidence of sector persistence is eliminated. This suggests that it is not the past sector of employment per se which creates the observed persistence, but rather characteristics unique to the individuals.
Bibliography Citation
Rogers, David Edward. Effects of Individual and Occupational Characteristics on the Career Paths of Young Males. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1982.
212. Rogers, George E.
Relationship Between Industrial Arts Education and Secondary Students' Performance in Mathematics Utilizing Data from the NLSY
Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education, Secondary; High School Curriculum; High School Transcripts; Simultaneity; Vocational Education; Vocational Training

This study examined the relationship between industrial arts course participation and a student's performance in mathematics. The data utilized in the study were retrieved from the NLSY, specifically the transcript survey tapes. The NLSY respondents were categorized as either participants or non-participants in industrial arts courses. The non-participant group was assumed to represent the general education student population. The industrial arts group was divided into construction, drafting, electrical/mechanical, and metals sub-groups. The industrial arts exposure was examined as both a simultaneous enrollment with mathematics and also as a previous treatment to the mathematics course. A point biserial correlation statistical treatment was used to determine the relationship. An analysis of the statistical treatment indicated that industrial arts does not provide a significant positive enhancement to a student's mathematics performance. Moreover, students enrolled in industrial arts and mathematics simultaneously had significantly lower mathematics grade means than their general education counterparts. However, data indicated that students previously exposed to drafting and electrical/mechanical courses had higher mean mathematics grades than general education students. The relationship between the different industrial arts program areas was examined utilizing six orthogonal comparisons. These comparisons indicated that there was no significant difference between the mathematics performance of students in the different industrial arts program areas. [UMI ADG90-10595]
Bibliography Citation
Rogers, George E. Relationship Between Industrial Arts Education and Secondary Students' Performance in Mathematics Utilizing Data from the NLSY. Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia, 1989.
213. Rogers, Stacy J.
Family Context of Children's Social and Emotional Development: Marital Quality and Mother-Child Interaction in Mother-Father and Mother-Stepfather Families
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Education; Family Environment; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income; Marital Stability; Maternal Employment; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC)

This study examines the ways in which the processes of marital and parent-child interaction and their implications for children's well-being differ in mother-father and mother-stepfather families. This research considers the influence of marital quality on the quality of mother-child interaction, as indicated by the supportiveness of the mother's reported response to the child's temper tantrum, and the actual disciplinary style the mother reported using in the week prior to the interview. This research then considers the subsequent effects of the quality of mother-child interaction on children's behavior problems and self-esteem. This model of family interaction is tested using data from the 1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Merged Child-Mother dataset. The research sample consists of 697 preadolescent children age 8 through 11 who lived either with both biological parents, or their mother and a stepfather in 1988, and were interviewed in 1988. Several sources of information, including maternal reports and reports from the children themselves, are utilized in this research. A series of weighted, cumulative, ordinary least squares regression models were estimated to test the relationships in this model. The results indicate that the quality of the marital relationship has a significant effect on the quality of mother-child interaction and children's behavior problems for those in mother-father families, but is more separate from these aspects of the family for those in mother-stepfather families. The quality of the mother-child relationship has similar effects for children in both types of families, with higher quality mother-child interaction having significant, beneficial effects for children's self-esteem and behavioral development. Children's feelings of self-esteem also have a significant, negative effect on their level of behavior problems, though this relationship is significant only for children in mother-father fam ilies. Additional ana lyses indicated that the effects of the key variables in this model vary significantly by family structure, with less variation by the sex or race of the child. Dissertation Abstract International, VOL. 54-08A, Page 3223
Bibliography Citation
Rogers, Stacy J. Family Context of Children's Social and Emotional Development: Marital Quality and Mother-Child Interaction in Mother-Father and Mother-Stepfather Families. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1993.
214. Rooks, Ronica Nicole
The Effects of Working in Pink-Collar Occupations on Upward Occupational Mobility
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1999.
Also: https://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/facet/all_author_field?filters=all_author_field%3A%22Ronica%20Nicole%20Rooks%22
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Mobility; Mobility, Occupational; Racial Equality/Inequality

This research (1) creates an empirical definition and list of "pink-collar" occupations (PCO), (2) analyzes whether women in PCO are more likely to remain in these occupations or experience upward occupational mobility to professional and managerial occupations, (3) analyzes whether Latina and African-American women in PCO are less likely to experience upward occupational mobility compared to White women, and (4) analyzes what other factors determine upward occupational mobility for women in PCO, using bivariate cross-tabulations and multinomial logistic regression. Based on the 1980 Public-Use Microdata Sample, PCO are defined as occupations where: (1) greater than two-thirds of the workers are women, (2) greater than 50% are within service industries, and (3) greater than 50% have between eleven to fourteen years of educational achievement. Fifty-one PCO were identified. Based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, fewer women remained in PCO (32%) between 1982 and 1992 than those who experienced mobility into professional and managerial occupations (38%), blue-collar occupations (9%), or non-employment (21%). Bivariate and multivariate results revealed that race and ethnicity did not account for significant differences in women's occupational mobility from PCO. Multinomial logistic regression results revealed that women in PCO were more likely to move to professional and managerial occupations when they were never or previously married in 1982, had more years of completed education in 1992, were not enrolled in school in 1992, and did not have children in 1992. Women were more likely to move to blue-collar occupations when they were not enrolled in school in 1982, had a lower hourly rate-of-pay in 1982, and were working part-time in 1982. Women were more likely to become non-employed when they had a lower hourly rate-of-pay in 1982 and had one child or more in 1992. Women were more likely to remain in PCO when they were married in 1982, had a higher hourly rate-of-pay in 1982, worked full-time in 1982, had fewer completed years of school in 1992, were enrolled in school in 1992, and had a child in 1992.
Bibliography Citation
Rooks, Ronica Nicole. The Effects of Working in Pink-Collar Occupations on Upward Occupational Mobility. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1999..
215. Rosen, Harvey S.
The Impact of U.S. Tax Laws on the Labor Supply of Married Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1974
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Taxes; Wages; Wives; Work History; Work Hours

Payroll and progressive income taxes play an enormous role in the American fiscal system. It is therefore of some importance to know the extent to which they influence work incentives. Some econometric evidence is presented on the effects of taxes on married women, a group of growing importance in the American labor force. A testable model of labor supply is developed which permits statistical estimation of a "coefficient of tax perception." Unlike previous models of labor supply, it allows for the possibility that the wage may depend on the number of hours worked. Contrary to much of the literature, results strongly suggest that marginal tax rates do have an important impact on labor force behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Rosen, Harvey S. The Impact of U.S. Tax Laws on the Labor Supply of Married Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1974.
216. Rothstein, Donna S.
Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Early Career Matches Between Employees and Supervisors, and the Labor Market Outcomes of Young Employees
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Industrial Relations; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Studies; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Growth; Wage Models; Wages

This dissertation evaluates whether the gender, race, and ethnicity match between employees and supervisors has an influence on employees' early career labor market attainments. Three simple theories are posited to help explain why supervisor gender, race, and ethnicity might affect employees' labor market outcomes; the expected empirical impacts of different supervisor and employee matches are derived under each model. These theories include employee preferences regarding supervisor gender, race, or ethnicity, differential productivity effects of supervisors on their employees, and the role of supervisors in providing on-the-job training and promotion opportunities for their employees. From these theories, empirically testable implications regarding current wages, perceived likelihood of promotion, and wage profiles are obtained; they are tested using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The empirical results suggest that for male employees and black and white female employees, there is a negative impact on current wages associated with working for a female supervisor. Working for a female supervisor is found to have no impact on individuals' perceived likelihood of promotion and minimal positive, significant effects for black and white men on employee wage growth. Working for a Hispanic supervisor is associated with lower wages for Hispanic men and women. This is followed by some positive relative wage growth for Hispanic women, and is accompanied by a negative effect on the perceived likelihood of a promotion for Hispanic men. Taken together, the empirical results do not provide strong, clear-cut support for any of the three theories. In addition, one cannot rule out that supervisor characteristics are serving as proxies for the 'type' of job held.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Early Career Matches Between Employees and Supervisors, and the Labor Market Outcomes of Young Employees. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1995.
217. Roy, Anusuya
Evaluation of the Head Start Program: Additional Evidence from the NLSCM79 Data
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York At Albany, 2003. DAI-A 64/03, p. 1005, Sep 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Children, Health Care; Cognitive Development; Head Start; Modeling, Probit; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Preschool Children; Siblings

This dissertation is an economic evaluation of Head Start--a program for low-income children of preschool age (3-5 years). The main goal of Head Start includes fostering cognitive development and better health for children. Few studies have addressed the problem of non-random selection in Head Start. First, selection arises because families decide whether or not to send children to any preschool program. A second source of selection is that program administrators select only a certain proportion of children from applicants. If factors deciding participation into the program are not controlled for, then the estimated coefficients will be biased. This dissertation controlled for such non-random selection problems. In this dissertation, the main data source is the Children of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79 (NLSCM79). An unbalanced panel was used with multiple children in different families. Outcome measures studied are PPVT scores (cognitive development), BPI scores (behavior problems) and two measures of preventive health care: physical and dental checkups. The third chapter evaluates the PPVT and the BPI scores. A random effects model was specified to control for within family variations and a dummy indicated if the child participated in Head Start. The Head Start dummy was identified by within family variations in enrollment. In addition, "spillover" from elder siblings was introduced by using an interaction between the Head Start dummy and that indicating if any of the elder sibling attended Head Start. Further, state level program variations were also studied. The fourth chapter evaluates the use for preventive care by using a random effects probit model. The model of sibling comparison was extended to a comparison between Head Start family and non Head Start family. In all these chapters, the main result was that Head Start did not significantly affect the outcome measures except for dental checkups. My estimate shows that Head Start increases the prob ability of dental checkups by 8%. In chapter 5, I addressed the question whether Head Start had actually influenced these children initially but faded away with age. Initial significant positive impact was found for all measures except for physical checkups.
Bibliography Citation
Roy, Anusuya. Evaluation of the Head Start Program: Additional Evidence from the NLSCM79 Data. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York At Albany, 2003. DAI-A 64/03, p. 1005, Sep 2003.
218. Sahin, Aysegul
Incentive Effects of Social Policies on Education and Labor Markets
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Rochester, 2002. DAI-A 63/03, p. 1051, Sep 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Higher Education; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Tuition; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Welfare

A social policy might have disincentive effects on its beneficiaries in the presence of asymmetric information, This dissertation studies the incentive issues arising from the implementation of certain educational and labor market policies when informational asymmetry is present, In particular, the first chapter deals with higher education subsidies and the second chapter studies unemployment insurance. Chapter 1 analyzes the potential disincentive effects of higher education subsidies on students' performance, A game-theoretical model is employed to analyze the interaction between parents and their child prior to and during the college education, The model is calibrated by using information from the High School and Beyond Sophomore Cohort: 1980-92 and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data sets, The experiments show that subsidizing tuition increases enrollment rates and graduation rates. Yet, there are two effects lowering student effort, First a low-tuition, high-subsidy strategy causes an increase in the ratio of less able and less highly-motivated students among college graduates. Secondly, all students, even the more highly-motivated ones, respond to lower tuition levels by decreasing their effort levels. Chapter 2 employs a dynamic general equilibrium model to design and evaluate long-term unemployment insurance plans (plans that depend on workers' unemployment history) in economies with and without hidden savings. The simulations show that optimal benefit schemes and welfare implications differ considerably when hidden savings are considered. First of all, the optimal benefit path is not necessarily declining, Secondly, the role of history dependence of unemployment insurance plans is not as important quantitatively as the earlier studies suggest: welfare gains are much lower when hidden savings are considered. Given these results, as well as the fact that long-term unemployment insurance plans are hard to administer in practice, switching to long-term plans may not be a desirable policy.
Bibliography Citation
Sahin, Aysegul. Incentive Effects of Social Policies on Education and Labor Markets. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Rochester, 2002. DAI-A 63/03, p. 1051, Sep 2002.
219. Salter, Sean Patrick
A Transition Analysis of Housing Tenure Choice
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Alabama, 2001. DAI-A 62/09, p. 3136, Mar 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Home Ownership; Household Income; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Modeling, Logit; Welfare

This study focuses on housing tenure choice--the decision to rent or to own. For many Americans, an important element of their financial "coming of age"; is the decision to buy a home. We examine housing choice with a special focus on youths. Because the consumption and investment patterns of today's young people are not yet established, we must garner insight into this group's decision-making through older groups. We employ the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort in our analysis. Longitudinal data allows us to follow an individual and to trace the impact of life changes such as marriage, as well as financial characteristics, on the decision to own or rent. Using the NLSY79, we follow a panel of youths over a 16-year period during which ownership rises from 19.70% to 55.54%. The first stage of our analysis is an exploratory investigation of the factors that drive housing choices through time, including income and wealth, user cost of housing, and demographic factors. In this investigation, we identify issues pertinent to the tenure decision for those who have transitioned to ownership. In the second stage of the study, we analyze random effects associated with time and some unobservable factors as well as the previously identified fixed effects, allowing more insight than is available from the simpler logit model. The third and final stage in the analysis is the application of survival analysis to our data. The hazard functions associated with survival analysis allow us to estimate the factors that affect a respondent's time to ownership. We find differences in ownership across gender, racial or ethnic, educational, and socioeconomic lines as are indicated by the results from our base models. However, these differences do not associate themselves across factor lines in our interaction models. The one major area in which differences across ethnicity are ubiquitous is family structure. Marital status and number of children seem to help explain botH tenure choice and transition time well. Additionally, we recognize that there are demographic, household, and income-related factors that help predispose certain individuals to ownership or renting.
Bibliography Citation
Salter, Sean Patrick. A Transition Analysis of Housing Tenure Choice. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Alabama, 2001. DAI-A 62/09, p. 3136, Mar 2002.
220. Sampson, Julia Ann
Employment Decisions of Female College Students: Influences and Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Kent State University, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 02A (2001): 703
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Earnings; Gender Differences; Home Environment; Labor Economics; Work Experience

The resumes of college graduates have been evolving in the past several decades. Unlike older students, many current students will enter the working world not only with a degree but also with a substantial amount of work experience. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this dissertation examines three questions for a sample of young women. First, what are the short run and long run effects of working in college on earnings? Second, how does employment during college effect the time to degree completion? And third, how does the presence of children in the home impact this decision to work?

Using Ordinary Least Squares earnings regressions, with controls for ability and attitude, the results show that women who work about 15 hours per week while in college are found to experience significantly higher wages five years after education completion than their counterparts. No such effect is found when income is measured two years after education completion. Women who were employed more than an average of five hours a week in college had a longer time to completion of their bachelor's degree, holding constant other factors.

A Tobit analysis of the determinants of hours worked indicates that the number of children have a positive but insignificant effect on hours worked. An increase in the number of children significantly lengthens the woman's time to degree completion, however, and decreases future earnings. The addition of attitude variables to the regressions has no significant effect.

Bibliography Citation
Sampson, Julia Ann. Employment Decisions of Female College Students: Influences and Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Kent State University, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 02A (2001): 703.
221. Santa-Maria, Hugo
The Transaction Cost Economics Approach to the Organization of Labor: An Empirical Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University, 1998.
Also: http://www.worldcat.org/title/transaction-cost-economics-approach-to-the-organization-of-labor-an-empirical-analysis/oclc/39310713
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Human Capital; Labor Economics; Unions; Wages

Williamson, Wachter, and Harris (1975), Klein, Crawford, and Alchian (1978), and Williamson (1985) developed the Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) approach to the organization of labor. The basic insight is that the collectivization of the employment agreement can economize in transaction costs generated by the presence of firm-specific human capital. The dissertation tests the two main hypotheses that the theory has developed regarding the relation between firm-specific human capital, collective employment agreements, and wages: H1: Collective employment agreements are more likely to be in place when firm-specific human capital is present. H2: Jobs with firm-specific human capital content should exhibit a lower collective-bargaining-agreement wage premium than jobs without firm-specific human capital.H1 follows the logic of most TCE empirical papers. It examines how the attributes of the transaction (dominated by the presence of firm-specific human capital) determines the organizational choice (the collectivization of the employment agreement). The test of H2 complements the examination of the first hypothesis by focusing on the effect of the organizational choice on the transaction prices (wages). H2 completes the TCE argument and forces the discussion of alternative hypotheses that may be observationally equivalent to TCE propositions, in tests focused on the relationship between the attributes of the transactions and the organizational choice. Standard econometric tools of labor economics are applied to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of Ohio State University (1988 cohort) to perform the empirical tests. The results are consistent with H1, but not with H2 and, therefore, question the validity of the TCE's empirical predictions. This dissertation is an example of the problems of limiting the test of the TCE approach to verifying whether the observable attributes of the transactions line up with the organizational choice in a way consistent with the theory's prediction. Empirical tests should also examine the effects of the organizational choice on transaction prices, productivity, or other measures of performance to get an indication that transaction-cost economizing is actually taking place. As the review in Klein and Shelanski (1994) shows, very little has been done in this direction.
Bibliography Citation
Santa-Maria, Hugo. The Transaction Cost Economics Approach to the Organization of Labor: An Empirical Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University, 1998..
222. Sasser, Sue Lynn
The Relationship Between Selected Demographic Variables and Participation in Voluntary Activities by Mature Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Women's University, 1983.
Also: http://www.worldcat.org/title/relationship-between-selected-demographic-variables-and-participation-in-voluntary-activities-by-mature-women/oclc/11342700
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Volunteer Work

The purpose of the study was to determine the volunteer participation of mature women. The objectives of the study included: to identify the demographic characteristics of mature women in volunteer activities; to determine the amount of time spent in volunteer activities by mature women, and to determine the types of organizations with the greatest number of mature women participants. Data for the study were obtained from the NLS. Independent variables included age, education, health, home ownership, labor force attachment, marital status, number of dependents, race, and total family income. Dependent variables were the number of hours allocated to volunteer activities and the types of organizations in which mature women participated. Statistical procedures included chi- square and stepwise multiple regression. Results of the chi-square analysis revealed that all relationships were significant at .05, with the exception of race and type of volunteer work. According to the results of the multiple regression analysis, education was the strongest of the independent variables in predicting the amount of time volunteered. Marital status was the best predictor of the independent variables on the type of volunteer work in the regression analysis. The mean number of hours volunteered per week was also examined and the significance of the difference of the means was tested by ANOVA and t-test procedures. Marital status was the only variable yielding a significant difference at .05, with never marrieds allocating significantly more hours per week than married, divorced/ separated, or widowed females. Results of the study determined that the nine selected demographic characteristics did not have a substantial impact on the amount of time volunteered nor the type of volunteer work by mature females.
Bibliography Citation
Sasser, Sue Lynn. The Relationship Between Selected Demographic Variables and Participation in Voluntary Activities by Mature Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Women's University, 1983..
223. Saunders, David N.
Company Youth Keep: An Empirical Analysis of Job Finding Among Young Men 14-24
Ph.D. Dissertation, Bryn Mawr College, 1974
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Educational Attainment; Industrial Sector; Job Search; Private Sector; Public Sector; Socioeconomic Status (SES); White Collar Jobs

The study examined the personal, social, and economic correlates of job-finding of young men using data from the NLS of Young Men, l966-l969. Younger, less educated youth relied more heavily on informal channels. Increasingly, age and education led to a slight shift from informal to formal channels, although informal still dominated. As white youth matured they relied less on friends and relatives and schools and more on formal methods except schools. For both races, increased education led to a rise in the use of formal techniques, particularly schools. While blacks relied more heavily on friends and relatives than did whites, race was less important than social class with higher social class youth showing a greater use of formal channels. Youth using formal channels tended to locate white-collar jobs, particularly professional and clerical; those relying on informal had a greater chance of locating blue-collar jobs. Whites found the highest quality jobs through private agencies, newspapers, and the 'other' channel. Among both races, friends and relatives generally led to lower quality jobs. An extensive review of the literature on job-finding is included.
Bibliography Citation
Saunders, David N. Company Youth Keep: An Empirical Analysis of Job Finding Among Young Men 14-24. Ph.D. Dissertation, Bryn Mawr College, 1974.
224. Savage, Timothy Howard
The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Human Capital; Labor Market Outcomes; Legislation; Training; Unemployment, Youth; Vocational Training

Most analyses of the potential adverse impacts of labor market legislation focus primarily on contemporaneous employment effects. Particularly for young people, such a focus might be quite shortsighted. Using a sample of young men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this research presents policy-relevant results on the long-term impacts of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. It examines whether there are any substantial adverse effects on a number of different outcomes, including training and earnings. The existing youth labor market literature provides little guidance about the magnitude and duration of these effects. A spell of involuntary unemployment can lead to sub-optimal investments in human capital among young people in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment and accumulation predicts a rational "catch-up" response to such a spell. Using semiparametric estimation techniques, the empirical results control extensively for the endogeneity of prior unemployment and unobserved heterogeneity. These results provide strong evidence of a catch-up response. I find that an unemployment spell experienced today increases the likelihood of undertaking vocational training in the near future. It also increases for many years to come the likelihood of working and the amount of time spent working among those who work. This evidence is entirely new to the literature. Unlike much of the literature, however, I find evidence of short-lived persistence in unemployment after controlling for the endogeneity of prior unemployment. Unemployment experienced this year increases the likelihood that unemployment is experienced in the near future and lengthens the duration of future spells. Finally, I find the negative effect of prior unemployment on earnings is mitigated over time as a result of the catch-up response. The theoretical model exactly predicts that this will happen. Controlling for the observed human capi tal stock, 13 weeks of unemployment experienced last year reduces average hourly earnings by 4.7 percent. A similar spell experienced four years ago, however, reduces them by only 1.3 percent. Dynamic simulations show that the adverse impacts from a large exogenous labor market shock experienced at age 22 have largely dissipated by age 27.
Bibliography Citation
Savage, Timothy Howard. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999.
225. Segal, Lewis Mark
Four Essays on the Supply of Volunteer Labor and Econometrics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1993
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Data Analysis; Demography; Family Structure; Labor Supply; Leisure; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Monte Carlo; Statistical Analysis; Volunteer Work; Wage Models; Wages

The goal of the first three essays is to apply economic theory and second generation labor supply methods to the study of volunteer (unpaid) labor, paid labor, and wages. The first essay develops a three good model of leisure, consumption, and volunteering based on the shadow price model of Heckman (1974) and the fixed cost model of Cogan (1981). Using data from the Current Population Survey, I find that wages have a large positive effect on volunteering by single men and a negligible positive effect on volunteering by single women. Note that theory does not predict the sign of the compensated or uncompensated wage effect on volunteering in the three goods model. The second essay considers the hypothesis that increased paid labor implies decreased volunteer labor. Fixed effect probability models examine volunteer participation by women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience. A positive employment effect and a negative paid hours effect lead to the prediction of a lower volunteer participation rate in the young cohort than in the mature cohort. However, a comparison of comparably aged women reveals that the later cohort volunteers at a higher rate than the earlier cohort, even after controlling for demographic differences including marital status and family composition. The third essay uses the CPS data to examine volunteering within the family where volunteer activity is positively correlated across family members through observed and unobserved common characteristics. Volunteer time supplied by wives tends to crowd out time supplied by their husbands and volunteer participation by parents increases the probability that their children volunteer. The parental effect dissipates with the age of the child. The final essay presents theoretical and Monte Carlo evidence of bias in generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation of covariance models and suggests a new unbiased estimator. The bias results from a positive correlation between the moments and the weighting matrix used in the GMM procedure. The proposed estimator uses separate data subsamples to estimate the moments and weights, thereby eliminating the correlation and the small sample bias.
Bibliography Citation
Segal, Lewis Mark. Four Essays on the Supply of Volunteer Labor and Econometrics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1993.
226. Sen, Bisakha
Recent Changes in the Relationship Between Marital Dissolution and Women's Labor Supply Behavior: A Two-Cohort Study Using National Longitudinal Survey Data
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Department of Economics,1998
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Divorce; Labor Supply; Marital Dissolution; Racial Differences; Simultaneity; Wives, Work; Women's Studies

Over the past few decades, the U.S. has witnessed a steady increase in both the labor force participation rates of married women and the rates of marital dissolution. The two processes are often viewed as interconnected. Anticipation of divorce and the need to be self-sufficient is seen as a force driving married women to work. Simultaneously, such work is seen as a factor that increases the probability of divorce by decreasing gains from marriage. In this work, I utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey for two cohorts of women to study the temporal changes between women's labor supply and marital dissolution. The first cohort is born between 1944-54, and I observe them over the l970s and early 1980s. The second cohort is born between 1957-64, and I observe them over the 1980s and early 1990s. I test three specific hypotheses: (1) That the probability of divorce plays an equal role in the labor supply decision of both cohorts. (2) That wives' labor supply exerts the same effect on probability of future divorce for both cohorts. (3) That among the women who become divorced in the two cohorts, the impact of actual divorce causes an equal change in hours and participation probability for both cohorts. Given the evidence that labor supply behavior of married women have differed historically for blacks and whites, I test the three hypotheses separately by race. I argue that over time, women are increasing their labor supply due to unobservable changes like change in social norms and changes in the technology of household production. Therefore, the relationships between women's work and marital dissolution are weakening across cohorts, and I should be able to reject all three hypotheses. I am able to reject all three hypotheses for white women. I fail to reject the first and second hypotheses for black women. I also fail to reject the third hypothesis with respect to hours, but not with respect to participation probabilities. Hence, I conclude that there have been substantial changes in the relationship between women's labor supply and marital dissolution across cohorts for whites, but not for blacks.
Bibliography Citation
Sen, Bisakha. Recent Changes in the Relationship Between Marital Dissolution and Women's Labor Supply Behavior: A Two-Cohort Study Using National Longitudinal Survey Data. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Department of Economics,1998.
227. Seo, Gye Soon Kong
Impact of Maternal Problem Drinking on Children's Developmental Outcomes: Focus on Parenting as Mediator
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University: 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Child Development; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Behavioral Development; Family Structure; Gender; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Education; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Social Work

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of parenting practice as potential mediator of the influence of maternal problem drinking on children's developmental outcomes. Child outcomes were examined in terms of non-normative behaviors, depressive mood, and reading performance. Areas of parenting practice examined were maternal warmth, cognitive stimulation, child-parent joint activity, maternal supervision, emotional closeness between child and mother, child's participation in making rules, and conflict between parent and child over rules. Binge drinking, which is defined as alcohol consumption of 6 or more drinks at one time in the past month, was used as a criteria of problem drinking status. Several sociodemographic characteristics such as poverty status, family structure, mother's education, number of children, race, child's age and gender were included as control variables. The subjects of this study were drawn from among a group of children 10 to 14 years of age and their mothers who responded to a survey conducted in 1994 as part of the National Longitudinal Surveys on Youth (NLSY). A series of regression analyses were conducted, and the relationships among major variables were presented in path diagrams. The results showed that maternal problem drinking was associated with children's increased non-normative behaviors and poor reading performance, but maternal problem drinking was not associated with children's depressive mood. Maternal problem drinking was associated with less maternal warmth and less cognitive stimulation, but it was not associated with other dimensions of parenting practices. Less cognitive stimulation and less maternal warmth were associated with increased children's non-normative behaviors and poor performance in reading tests, but they were not associated with scores on the measures of depression. Parenting practices, specifically in terms of maternal warmth and cognitive stimulation, had a mediating function in the impact of maternal problem drinking on children's non-normative behaviors and reading performance. However, the mediating effects of parenting were very small, and the direct effects of maternal binge drinking on child outcomes remained strong after controlling the effects of parenting variables. Major findings were discussed in terms of previous research findings. Several suggestions were made for social work practice and future studies of children with parental problem drinking.
Bibliography Citation
Seo, Gye Soon Kong. Impact of Maternal Problem Drinking on Children's Developmental Outcomes: Focus on Parenting as Mediator. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University: 1998.
228. Serrato, Carl A.
Premarital Pregnancies, Pregnancy Resolutions and Public Policy
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Fertility; Hispanics; Parents, Single; Poverty; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Sex Education; Sexual Behavior; State Welfare; Welfare

The premarital fertility rate of teenagers and young women has risen steadily over the past two decades. In some quarters it is the common wisdom that public programs, such as sex education and welfare, are an important cause of teenage pregnancy, premarital childbearing and subsequent poverty. This study examines the role public policies play in young women's decisions regarding the likelihood of out-of-wedlock pregnancy resolutions (abortion, single-parenthood, married- parenthood). The specific public policies examined are Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), sex education, public funding of abortion services, parental involvement laws and availability of abortion providers. The underlying model of decision making employed in this study is a multiperiod utility maximizing model. One conclusion from this model is that public policies are expected to play a more prominent role in the pregnancy resolution decisions than in decisions concerning pregnancy risk tak ing behaviors. The principle source of data for the empirical analyses is the NLSY combined with state-year measures of policy variables. The findings of this study are that public policies do not affect the probability that a young woman will experience a premarital pregnancy. States with more generous economic assistance programs are not encouraging young women to become premaritally pregnant in order to qualify for welfare. Increased access to abortions is not associated with riskier sexual behavior, and there is no strong evidence that sex education courses change the probability of a premarital pregnancy. However, public policies do affect pregnancy resolution decisions. Higher AFDC payments lower the likelihood that premaritally pregnant women will choose either abortion or married-parenthood. Hispanic and white women are more inclined to choose abortions if they have had a prior sex education course. Finally, decreasing the supply of abortion providers or eliminating the government subsidy of abortions for poor women will increase the rates of premarital childbearing.
Bibliography Citation
Serrato, Carl A. Premarital Pregnancies, Pregnancy Resolutions and Public Policy. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1990.
229. Sharp, Sharon Andrews
Relationship Between Health Patterns in the Family and Married Women's Dependency
Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1980
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Income; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Status; Modeling, Multilevel; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Wives, Work

This investigation focused upon the relationship between health patterns in the family and married women's dependency. Dependency was measured by three variables: locus of control, proportionate income contribution, and attitude toward wives' working. Separate longitudinal patterns of health status for the family as a unit, spouses only, and married women only were established. These patterns were termed familial, conjugal, and personal health patterns. The major purpose of the investigation was to determine whether familial, conjugal, and personal health patterns in conjunction with other selected variables contributed significantly in explaining variance in the three measures of dependency. The NLS for 3,140 married women aged 30 to 44 interviewed in 1967, 1969, 1971, and 1972 were utilized in the investigation. Findings from previous research guided the formulation of the eight linear models hypothesized. The criterion variable in three of the models was locus of control; in another three, proportionate income contribution was the criterion variable; and in two models, the criterion variable was attitude toward wives' working. The major form of statistical analysis was multiple linear regression. All eight hypothesized linear models were found to be statistically significant in terms of the proportion of variance in each criterion variable attributable to the specified linear combination of predictors. The increment in explained variance in locus of control scores attributable to familial health patterns was statistically significant. With proportionate income contribution, the increment in explained variance due to personal health patterns was statistically significant. In the other six models the health patterns did not add significantly to the variance in the criterion variable after the other predictors operating jointly were considered. The findings suggested that health patterns are more strongly related to some aspects of dependency than others and that the relationships vary when health patterns are considered for the family unit versus the individual. Results of the investigation suggested that further refinements in the identification of longitudinal patterns of health among family members would be useful in subsequent studies of married women's attitudes and actions.
Bibliography Citation
Sharp, Sharon Andrews. Relationship Between Health Patterns in the Family and Married Women's Dependency. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1980.
230. Shaw, Kathryn L.
Income Effects of Occupational Change and the Investment in Occupational Skills
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Industrial Training; Job Tenure; Mobility, Job; Occupational Investment; Transfers, Skill; Work Experience

Standard models of income determination specify income to be a function of two variables which measure post-school investment, the years of labor market experience, and employer tenure. This investigation develops a better proxy for general human capital investment than experience. This variable, called occupational investment, hypothesizes that the yearly rate of investment varies by occupation and that a portion of skills are transferable upon occupational change. After developing exogenous measures of occupation-specific intensity and transferability, the occupational investment variable is calculated for the Young Men of the NLS. Empirical work demonstrates that occupational investment is a very strong determinant of income, far superior to the experience variable. Thus, the author has improved upon models of income determination, presented a unique model of occupational change, and provided evidence that stable occupational investment is a significant source of income growth for young men.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Kathryn L. Income Effects of Occupational Change and the Investment in Occupational Skills. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1981.
231. Shearer, Charles Livingston
Union Effects on Quit Rates and Training
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Industrial Classification; Job Training; Quits; Unions; Wages

Prior studies have emphasized the way in which unions affect quit rates, but little research has been done on the effects of changes in the quit rate on training. This study is an attempt to fill that void by providing a measure for training that does not depend on proxy variables, and by examining the factors that determine the amount of training received. Union voice affects the quit rate as do increases in wages. The objective is to determine to what extent unionization and wage increases lower quits and in turn raise investments in firm-specific training. Using a neoclassical model of the profit maximizing firm, the factors affecting the demand for labor and training are determined. To test the reaction by the firm on the amounts of training provided in response to a decrease in quits induced by union voice and wages, three regression equations are used. One of data sets used was from the NLS of Older Men to test a set of regression equations. Results indicate that the kind of training offered by the firm is more oriented toward bringing the new worker up to par than to firm-specific training of currently employed workers. Once the impact of the union through voice and wage benefits lowers the quit rate, the firm will experience lower employment costs. The firm then faces the decision of whether to provide more specific training of employees to achieve efficiency gains. These gains can then pay a return to the firm which helps to fund the costs of the training as well as to defray the costs of collective bargaining.
Bibliography Citation
Shearer, Charles Livingston. Union Effects on Quit Rates and Training. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1981.
232. Shearer, Darlene Louise
Cognitive Ability and Its Association With Early Childbearing and Second Teen Births
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Birth Rate; Births, Repeat / Spacing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Poverty; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Self-Esteem; Sexual Activity; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Despite efforts to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in the U.S., it remains a pressing social concern and public health problem. Indeed, births to women under 20 continue to constitute one of every seven births in this country and remain higher than teen birth rates in comparable industrialized nations. The literature clearly indicates that factors such as (a) early initiation of sexual activity, (b) lack of appropriate reproductive knowledge, (c) limited educational aspirations, (d) low self-esteem, and (e) family poverty increase the likelihood that an adolescent will begin early childbearing and that she will subsequently have at least one additional birth during adolescence. It is also clear that a certain level of cognitive ability and decision-making competence are necessary for a young woman to negotiate critical decision points in order to avoid unplanned childbearing. Yet, early childbearing in the context of cognitive limitation remains largely unstudied. The present study used a matched-pairs nested case control design to examine cognitive ability as an independent variable; early childbearing and second teen births as outcome variables; and age of initiation, level of reproductive knowledge, level of educational expectations, level of self esteem, and family poverty status as intervening variables that might mediate the effects of the independent and dependent variable relationship. Study subjects were women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) (N = 2,094) who were between the ages of 14 and 22 at the beginning of the NLSY study. One third of the study sample (n = 706) were women who gave birth to a child before their 18th birthday. They were matched at a ratio of 1 to 2 with women who did not give birth before age 18 on variables of age, race, geographic region, and urban-rural status. Results show that poverty (OR 1.8, CI 1.4, 2.4, p < .001) and low cognitive ability (OR 2.0, CI 1.7, 3.7, p < .001) signific antly increase the odds that a woman will give birth before age 18. Furthermore, low cognitive ability, independent of poverty, significantly increases the odds of a second birth before age 20 (OR 2.9, CI 1.7, 4.9, p < .001). In sum, this study provides a quantitative basis for considering low intellectual function as an important risk factor for adolescent pregnancy.
Bibliography Citation
Shearer, Darlene Louise. Cognitive Ability and Its Association With Early Childbearing and Second Teen Births. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, 1999.
233. Sheran, Michelle Elizabeth
Career and Family Choices of Women: A Dynamic Analysis of Labor Force Participation, Schooling, Marriage, and Fertility Decisions
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2001. DAI-A 62/07, p. 2501, Jan 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Education; Family Studies; Fertility; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Marriage; Women's Studies

This paper formulates and estimates a dynamic labor supply model in which marriage, fertility, and education are choice variables. Specifically, I model the behavior of women as a finite horizon, discrete time, discrete choice, dynamic programming problem. Each period, each woman maximizes the present value of her utility over a known finite horizon by choosing her employment status, marital status, whether to use contraception, and whether to attend school. The dynamics of these choices are captured by various forms of state and duration dependence. Uncertainty in the model comes from the imperfect control women have over births and from a choice-specific random shock to utility each period. Women choose different career and family life-cycle paths because of the realizations of these uncertainties and also because they have different tastes. I estimate the structural parameters of the model using maximum likelihood estimation techniques with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Because I model so many choices each period, estimation is computationally expensive. This dissertation discusses techniques employed to reduce this computational cost. The structural parameter estimates are used to analyze the career and family paths women choose over their lifetimes, and to examine the impact on choices over time of a change in the cost of college, divorce laws, own income, the marriage "penalty", and the cost of childcare.
Bibliography Citation
Sheran, Michelle Elizabeth. Career and Family Choices of Women: A Dynamic Analysis of Labor Force Participation, Schooling, Marriage, and Fertility Decisions. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2001. DAI-A 62/07, p. 2501, Jan 2002.
234. Shideler, Linda S.
Effect of Wives' Educations on Husbands' Earnings
Ph.D. Dissertation, California State University - Fullerton, 1988
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Education; Wives

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of wives' educations on their husbands' earnings. A human capital earnings function that allows for sample selectivity is estimated on data from the NLS of Young Men's 1981 interviews. Sample selection bias is shown to have significant impact on some of the estimates. The results indicate that a wife's education has no independent effect on her husband's earnings; any influence attributed to wives' educations by previous research is actually due to other human capital variables or due to the sample selection bias. [UMI ADG13-33641]
Bibliography Citation
Shideler, Linda S. Effect of Wives' Educations on Husbands' Earnings. Ph.D. Dissertation, California State University - Fullerton, 1988.
235. Shields, Patricia M.
Determinants of Service in the Armed Forces During the Vietnam Era
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Military Draft; Military Recruitment; Vietnam War

The paper explores the military recruitment process of the Vietnam era. It looks at three questions: who served, who was drafted, and who chose to enlist. A conceptual framework is developed which takes into account sociological, institutional, geographic, and economic factors. The data in this study are based upon the NLS of white and black Young Men. The age and the national representation of the sample allow an accurate representation of the population providing the military manpower during the Vietnam era. Draft pressure was the strongest prediction. Variables representing Selective Service draft classification such as health and fatherhood were significant. Surprisingly, blacks with poor health, unlike whites, were drafted at rates not different from average. Regardless of race, socioeconomic status was not related to the draft or 'who serves' dependent measures. Finally, civilian earnings are significant in predicting enlistment among whites.
Bibliography Citation
Shields, Patricia M. Determinants of Service in the Armed Forces During the Vietnam Era. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1977.
236. Shnaps, Reuven
Estimating the Effect of Smoking on Birth Weight in a Dynamic Model When Fertility Is a Choice
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2001. DAI-A 62/05, p. 1899, Nov 2001.
Also: http://wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations/fullcit/3015372
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Heterogeneity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

The negative effect of smoking during pregnancy on birth weight outcomes has been a consistent finding in the economics literature on estimating birth weight production functions. An important result in the literature is that the negative effect of smoking on birth weight is generally robust to the introduction of unobserved heterogeneity in family-specific health endowments. All of the studies have assumed, however, that fertility itself is unrelated to either anticipated or realized birth weight outcomes that depend on such endowments. One purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of relaxing that assumption on the estimates of the smoking effect on birth weight. To that end, a dynamic model of fertility choice that explicitly incorporates the smoking decision, allowing for its addictive nature, and the birth weight technology, is constructed and empirically implemented using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys 1979 youth cohort. The estimates of the model imply that avoiding heavy smoking during pregnancy will increase the birth weight of the born child by almost 5oz., or approximately 140g. This estimate, however, is only slightly lower than the one obtained from a sibling Fixed-Effects estimation procedure which is based on the simulated data, and is equal to the sibling Fixed-Effects estimate obtained from the actual data. In addition to obtaining estimates of the birth weight production function that account for fertility choice, the estimates of the model are used to perform counterfactual policy experiments. In particular, the model predicts that preventing women from smoking during pregnancies will increase average birth weight outcomes by 0.7oz. In addition, this policy will reduce the incidence of low birth weight by about 10%. Furthermore, increasing the cigarette taxes will lead to a significant decline in the percentage of women who smoke, both while they are pregnant and while they are not pregnant. Consequently, in the event of a 50% increase in the price of cigarettes about 6% of the pregnant women will realize a significant increase of 4.7oz., on average, in their children's birth weight.
Bibliography Citation
Shnaps, Reuven. Estimating the Effect of Smoking on Birth Weight in a Dynamic Model When Fertility Is a Choice. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2001. DAI-A 62/05, p. 1899, Nov 2001..
237. Sickmeier, Marie B.
Union Wage Impact: Cross-Sectional & Longitudinal Analyses Using the NLSY
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Unions; Wage Effects

To date, the state of the research on the impact of unions on wages is clear on the existence on a union wage differential, but the size of the differential remains subject to debate. Central to the uncertainty surrounding the debate is which type of research design is most appropriate for measuring the differential. This dissertation addresses this issue by conducting cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using the NLSY. Results of the two cross-sectional analyses and the longitudinal analyses lead us to the following conclusions: (1) the impact of unions on the wages of youth is less than it is traditionally argued for - on the order of ten percent for males and three percent for females; (2) cross-sectional estimates of 14 and 12 percent were found for the years of 1982 and 1986, respectively; and (3) striking gender differences in the impact of unions on wages were reported with unions having no significant effect on female wages in the longitudinal analysis. Suggestions for future research utilizing longitudinal data sets and arguments for the inclusion of both genders in such efforts are presented. The authors conclude that longitudinal designs are the preferred way of investigating the union impact on wages.
Bibliography Citation
Sickmeier, Marie B. Union Wage Impact: Cross-Sectional & Longitudinal Analyses Using the NLSY. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989.
238. Smith, Richard A.
Adjustment of Occupational Aspirations among Young Men During Their Transition to Adulthood
Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1988
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Event History; Job Aspirations; Occupational Aspirations; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition, School to Work

This study investigated the adjustment of occupational aspirations among young men during their transition from adolescence to adulthood. Using data obtained from the NLS, changes in aspirations were examined over a ten-year period for a sample of young men aged 14 to 24 in 1966. Changes in aspirations were examined at the individual level and separate race and class analyses were conducted. There were three stages to the analysis: first, changes in aspirations were described as they were experienced by young men during the transition to adulthood; second, patterns of aspirations were identified based on the types of changes that occurred; third, an event history analysis was conducted to analyze the likelihood of changing aspirations as it was associated with age, cohort, race, class, prior aspirations and educational and occupational experiences. The results from this study indicate that young men frequently changed their aspirations during the transition to adulthood. These changes were consistent with prior aspirations and experiences. As a result, it was possible to identify patterns of change in aspirations. In addition, event history analysis demonstrated that class was more important than race in explaining changes in aspirations and that young men whose educational and occupational experiences were not congruent with their aspiration were likely to change their aspiration. Overall, neither race nor class significantly influenced the process of adjusting aspirations once variables representing prior aspirations and experiences were entered into the event history models. [UMI ADG-88 -15749]
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Richard A. Adjustment of Occupational Aspirations among Young Men During Their Transition to Adulthood. Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1988.
239. Smith, Susan Elizabeth
Public Policies and Economic Hardship: Determining Where Individual Decisions Confront Structural Barriers
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Chicago, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Childbearing, Adolescent; Disadvantaged, Economically; Economics of Gender; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Event History; Exits; Family Background; High School Dropouts; Life Course; Marriage; Mobility; Mobility, Economic; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Parenthood; Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare

This dissertation examines the relative importance of life course events and family background on young women's prospects for remaining or becoming economically disadvantaged. Using a broad theory of economic mobility, and controlling for family background, the relative power of children's behaviors in explaining variation in their adult poverty odds is tested. Of particular interest is how ethnicity combines with other events to predict poverty odds. Despite obvious differences between white, African American, and Latino women in their experiences with teen parenthood, marriage, and welfare receipt, research often fail to properly specify the interaction between ethnicity and other causal variables. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (the NLSY), this research studied the life courses of 4766 women for fifteen years--from the age of 14 to 28 years. The sample was a stratified, probability sample of young people in the United States. Models used event history, logistic, and probit models to estimate odds of teen births, high school exits, and marriage. The role of welfare receipt in preceding or mitigating events was also considered. A large set of family background and personal characteristics were controlled. The study's major finding was that dropping out of high school had a much more negative and enduring impact on adult poverty odds than did early childbearing. The life chances of high school dropouts were significantly constrained. Still, dropouts who were also teen parents were no worse off than those who delayed childbearing. Leaving high school or having a child before the age of 16 had a much more dramatic effect on life chances than an event occurring in the later teen years. Finally, regardless of their behavior or family background, African American girls were poor more often and for longer periods of time than white and Latino girls. Three policy implications come from these findings. First, the United States needs to develop a comprehensive set of family policies, including supplementing low-income wages and guaranteeing child support. Second, children need to be encouraged to stay in school. And third, serious effort must be made to break down racial barriers.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Susan Elizabeth. Public Policies and Economic Hardship: Determining Where Individual Decisions Confront Structural Barriers. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Chicago, 1998.
240. Smock, Pamela Jane
Economic Costs of Martial Disruption for Young Women in the United States: Have They Declined over the Past Two Decades?
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Divorce; Educational Returns; Marital Dissolution; Work Experience; Work History

This dissertation examines the economic costs of separation and divorce for young women in the United States from the late 1960s through the late 1980s. Broadened opportunities for women outside of marriage may have alleviated the severe economic costs of marital disruption. This research thus contrasts the experiences of two cohorts of young women: those who married and separated or divorced in the late 1960s through the mid-1970s and those who experienced these events in the 1980s. Drawing on panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979-88, Young Women 1968-78, and Young Men 1966-78, the results show stability in the costs of disruption for the two cohorts. Levels of post disruption economic status and declines from predisruption levels are similar. The results show that women in the more recent cohort had more labor force experience prior to marital disruption than those in the earlier cohort, but that prior work history does not protect women from the costs of disruption. Young separated and divorced women are also not receiving greater income returns to their schooling or labor force experience over time. Other findings show that unmeasured characteristics do not account for the persisting disadvantages of marital disruption. Young martially-disrupted women continue to confront the low wages and conflict between parenting and employment as their counterparts a decade or so ago.
Bibliography Citation
Smock, Pamela Jane. Economic Costs of Martial Disruption for Young Women in the United States: Have They Declined over the Past Two Decades? Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1992.
241. Soh, Hoon Sahib
The Rate of Return of the General Equivalency Diploma
Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Abortion; Continuing Education; Education, Adult; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Heterogeneity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Simultaneity; Wage Effects

This dissertation evaluates the impact of receiving a General Equivalency Diploma (GED) on subsequent wages, and whether the impact depends on the age at which individuals received their degree. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data's survey on individual males from years 1979 to 1990, it estimates the rate of return to a GED at ages 25 and 28. The empirical analysis broadly follows two methodologies: one, a range of regression models differentiated by sample, regressor composition, weighting scheme, and variance-covariance estimation technique; two, simultaneous equations models and fixed effects models which control for individual heterogeneity with respect to labor supply and degree certification. The empirical results give mixed results at age 25, but they show that at age 28 a GED without further years of schooling significantly increases wages from 15.3 to 20.5 percent, and a GED regardless of further years of schooling increases wages from 16.3 to 19.0 percent. Individuals who earned their GED at relatively younger ages receive significantly higher wages than individuals who earned their GED at relatively older ages. Sample data composition and weighting scheme have a large impact on the magnitude and significance of the estimates.
Bibliography Citation
Soh, Hoon Sahib. The Rate of Return of the General Equivalency Diploma. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1996.
242. Solomon, Janet S.
Influence of Personal Attitudes on Occupational Typicality: A Study of Mature Women Reentering the Labor Force
Ph.D. Dissertation, George Washington University, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Marital Status; Occupational Attainment; Occupations, Female; Sex Roles; Wives; Wives, Attitudes; Wives, Work; Women's Roles; Work Reentry

This research examines the relationship of attitudes toward appropriate roles for women and occupational typicality at the time of reentry to the labor force. Two sample subsets utilizing NLS data from the Mature Women's cohort studied married white reentrants through the 1970s. The objectives were: (1) to determine a relationship between attitudes and occupational typicality; and (2) to study the changing relationship over time. The study concludes that both sets of women were very slowly changing their attitudes but did not significantly alter their occupational distribution. Analyses of the attitudinal data indicate that between 1972 and 1977, the survey respondents' attitudes toward working wives became slightly more positive. Analyses of the occupational typicality data demonstrate that respondents from both surveys returned to the same female dominated occupations that they were in before. Analyses of the association between attitudes and occupational typicality indicate the absence of any correlation of predictive relationship between the variables. This absence was observed for the aggregated attitude responses and for each of the nine responses.
Bibliography Citation
Solomon, Janet S. Influence of Personal Attitudes on Occupational Typicality: A Study of Mature Women Reentering the Labor Force. Ph.D. Dissertation, George Washington University, 1983.
243. Sommers, David Gerard
Effects of Labor Market Activity and Financial Resources on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Men
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Economic Well-Being; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Kinship; Mobility, Labor Market; Retirement

Using data from the older men's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience, this study examined the effects of labor market activity and financial resources on the subjective well-being of older men. Ordinary least squares regression results showed that the number of hours older men worked in 1989 did not have a significant effect on the satisfaction levels, the depression levels or the morale of respondents. Different combinations of income and asset levels, however, influenced the mental health of older men. Interestingly, job satisfaction had a greater influence on the well-being of employed men than did hours worked or type of occupation. The strongest predictor of well-being for retired men was health status.
Bibliography Citation
Sommers, David Gerard. Effects of Labor Market Activity and Financial Resources on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Men. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996.
244. Song, Xueda
Essays on Technological Change and Labor Markets
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 2004. DAI-A 65/11, p. 4297, May 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; Human Capital; Industrial Sector; Modeling; Schooling; Technology/Technological Changes

This dissertation is organized into three essays on technological change and labor markets. I specifically focus on the effects of technological change on human capital and its investment.

In the first essay, I examined how technological change affects experience-earning profiles through a simultaneous estimation of industry choice and wage determination with correction for self-selection on industry. Using data from Current Population Survey, I found positive truncation effects and nonhierarchical sorting into industries. Experience-earning profiles turned out to be higher and flatter in low-tech industries than in high-tech industries. Earnings peaks occurred at similar experience levels for the two types of industries. Differences in the curvature of experience-earning profiles between high-tech and low-tech industries were substantially reduced after correcting for selection bias.

In the second essay, I made a distinction between human capital obtained from schooling and human capital obtained from training based on their different responses to technological change, and assessed how technological change affects these two types of human capital. Relying on National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79 data, I estimated the parameters of a dynamic structural human capital investment model in an environment of rapid technological change using nonlinear least squares method. I found that the productivity of schooling human capital increased under rapid technological change in spite of the obsolescence while the net effect of technological change on training human capital was fast obsolescence. These findings suggest that individuals with more schooling enjoy an advantage in dealing with technological change over those with less schooling.

In the third essay, I analyzed empirically how technological change affects life-cycle human capital investment, in particular, schooling and training choices. Using the parameter estimates for the human capital investment model constructed in the second essay, I solved the value function and optimal decision rules for the dynamic programming problem numerically. I further simulated the life-cycle profiles of schooling and training under different rates of technological change for two ability groups respectively. I found that technological change tended to result in more schooling and training for the high-ability group while exerting little impact on human capital investment for the low-ability group.

Bibliography Citation
Song, Xueda. Essays on Technological Change and Labor Markets. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 2004. DAI-A 65/11, p. 4297, May 2005.
245. Spletzer, James R.
Dynamics of Postsecondary Educational Attainment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1990
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Costs; Family Income; Human Capital Theory; Life Cycle Research; Pairs (also see Siblings); Schooling, Post-secondary; Tuition

This dissertation is an empirical examination of the dynamics of post-secondary educational enrollment patterns using the theoretic framework of the economic life cycle model. Specifically, are there economic factors which explain why individuals delay or interrupt their investment in post-secondary educational attainment. The first essay uses the utility maximization life cycle model to analyze the explanation that intertemporal variation in the relative prices of post-secondary educational attainment (the financing of tuition costs) and labor supply (the life cycle wage profile) influences the allocation of time among college, work, and leisure. This study uses panel data on college graduates from the NLS of the High School class of 1972. It is found that higher amounts of the financing of tuition costs reduces the time allocated to pre-graduation labor supply and has uncertain effects on the time allocated to educational investment. Higher pre-graduation wages reduces the time allocated to educational investment and increases the time allocated to educational investment and increases the time allocated to pre-graduation labor supply. In a reduced form analysis, financial background variables which proxy for liquidity constraints can not explain the dynamics of post-secondary education. The second essay tests for the presence of liquidity constraints in educational attainment. The income maximization life cycle model of human capital accumulation is modified with non-negativity wealth constraints. The education and labor market status of recent high school graduates are matched with the financial information of their parents using the NLS. The empirical results indicate that liquidity constraints appear to be a significant factor in explaining the post-secondary educational patterns of individuals from financially constrained families. However, there is evidence that liquidity constraints do not affect the timing of enrollment for individuals who have started college. [UMI ADG91-14640]
Bibliography Citation
Spletzer, James R. Dynamics of Postsecondary Educational Attainment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1990.
246. Spykerman, Bryan R.
Analysis of the Covariance Structure of the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale: Dimensionality and Stability
Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1986. DAI 46/8-A(2456-2457), 0419-4217, Feb 1986
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Control; Internal-External Attitude; LISREL; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Scale Construction; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The measurement properties and the stability of an abbreviated version of the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale were examined using an analysis of covariance structures technique (LISREL) developed by Joreskog and Sorbom. Respondents to the scale were NLS males 45 to 59 years old in 1966. These respondents were administered an abbreviated eleven item Rotter I-E scale in 1969, 1971 and 1976. The unidimensionality of the eleven item scale was rejected. Hypotheses suggested by previous research on the dimensionality of the scale were tested. A four item "personal control" subscale met statistical criteria of acceptable fit to the observed data, unidimensionality and structural invariance within subsamples across the three panels of the study. Only weak evidence was found for a "control ideology" subscale reported in earlier research. Personal control in the black subsample was found to be very unstable and influenced by level of socio-economic status. The opposite was true in the white subsample--personal control was highly stable over the period 1969 to 1976 and was little affected by socio-economic status. Some evidence was found for a lack of equivalence in personal control scale structure between the black and the white subsamples.
Bibliography Citation
Spykerman, Bryan R. Analysis of the Covariance Structure of the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale: Dimensionality and Stability. Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1986. DAI 46/8-A(2456-2457), 0419-4217, Feb 1986.
247. Steczak, Cheryl
Impact of Availability of Child Care Arrangements on the Career Paths and Eventual Job Satisfaction of Women in Vocational Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Child Care; Mothers; Occupational Choice; Occupations; Self-Perception; Vocational Education; Vocational Guidance

Vocational development theorists have suggested that occupational choice is a means by which a woman implements her self-concept; occupational choice influences one's total life adjustment and serves a key function in the evolution of one's career. When the employed woman is also a mother, however, another dimension impacts upon her career development with implications for her occupational and vocational choices. Because of the responsibilities of child-rearing, the employed mother's choices are limited and her career path is often less stable and less predictable than the woman who does not have children. As a result, employed mothers represent a segment of the labor force which faces unique and compelling problems and whose skills and resources are either underutilized or neglected. The present study utilized data from the NLS, which followed the movement of 4,531 women (1,978 employed women without children, 1,952 employed mothers with preferred child care, and 601 employed mothers without preferred child care) from adolescence and into adulthood. This research utilized only those women from the sample who were employed in 1975. The career patterns of employed mothers and employed women without children were found to be very different. The employed mother has a career path that is less stable than the employed woman without children. She is more likely to be employed in non-professional and non-managerial occupations and less likely to be able to participate in occupational opportunities which would prepare her for occupations with higher levels of income, benefits, and personal satisfaction. The results of this study appear to indicate that the employed mother or future employed mother needs not only vocational guidance, but also realistic career information.
Bibliography Citation
Steczak, Cheryl. Impact of Availability of Child Care Arrangements on the Career Paths and Eventual Job Satisfaction of Women in Vocational Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University, 1980.
248. Steffick, Diane Elizabeth
Mental Health and Labor Market Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2002. DAI-A 63/10, p. 3663, April 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Gerontology; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Modeling, Probit; Retirement; Welfare

This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between mental health (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and labor market behaviors--employment, hours worked, wages, welfare program participation, and retirement. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (individuals in their thirties), I find that high levels of psychological distress are associated with a lower probability of employment for men and women, fewer hours worked among men that work, and lower wages among women that work. Women with high levels of psychological distress were more likely to use welfare and had longer spells of recipiency. Using panel data techniques, these effects are examined across time and remain significant as far as five years in the future. The third chapter uses the Health and Retirement Survey to examine the relationship between psychological distress and early retirement. Among men and women aged 50 to 61 at baseline, those with above-average levels of psychological distress were more likely to not be working at baseline and, if working, to leave the labor force during the following six years. The analysis uses the Stock and Wise option value of work theoretical framework, and the retirement decision is modeled as a sequential probit, with decisions across years correlated through an individual random effect. Comparisons are made to the effect of physical health (a scale of self-reported functioning limitations), which has a larger impact on labor force withdrawal than psychological distress. The time series properties of physical and mental health are estimated by a model with a persistent component (following an autoregressive process of order one) and a transitory component. Physical and mental health have similar persistent components but mental health has a more variable transitory component. Physical and mental health have similar indirect effects on retirement, except for earnings where physical health has a larger effect. These differences are not large enough to explain the larger impact of physical health on retirement timing. The theoretical model leaves one explanation--that physical limitations have a larger negative impact on the non-pecuniary utility from work relative to retirement than psychological distress.
Bibliography Citation
Steffick, Diane Elizabeth. Mental Health and Labor Market Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2002. DAI-A 63/10, p. 3663, April 2003.
249. Strayer, Wayne Earle
Returns to High School Quality: College Choice and Earnings
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Colleges; Earnings; Education, Secondary; High School; Higher Education; Human Capital; Modeling; School Quality; Schooling; Simultaneity; Wage Growth

Despite thirty years of research on the subject, it remains unclear whether high school quality affects labor market earnings. Existing studies typically rely on reduced form wage equations with quality measures among the regressors to assess the impact of school quality on wages. School quality is assumed to represent a dimension of human capital and, therefore, to influence wages in the same manner as time spent in school (school quantity). My study extends the previous research on school quality by focusing on the structural effects of high school quality on labor market earnings. I specify a model of simultaneous college choice and earnings determination that captures two separate effects of school quality on earnings. First, measured high school quality affects a graduating high school student's choice of college. College choice, in turn, affects the individual's post school earnings. Second, the additional skills accumulated via a higher quality high school translate into higher future wages. Modelling the college choice jointly with the wage process identifies both of these important effects and eliminates selection bias inherent in studies that ignore the college choice. In the econometric specification of my model, the unobserved components associated with each college alternative as well as the wage process are permitted to covary, allowing for greater behavioral generality and avoiding the "independence of irrelevant alternatives" assumption commonly made in multinomial discrete choice models. The use of a recently developed simulation method allows me to estimate my model without calculating the prohibitive multidimensional integrals necessary for standard maximum likelihood analysis with non-independent error distributions. My study is one of the first applications of this simulation method in the literature on school choice. For estimation, I use a unique data set that combines the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Database. The data set includes extensive information on personal and family characteristics, schooling, and labor market experiences for a sample of approximately 5,000 high school graduates born in 1957-64. In addition, it has detailed information on the high schools and colleges attended by these individuals.
Bibliography Citation
Strayer, Wayne Earle. Returns to High School Quality: College Choice and Earnings. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997.
250. Strohschein, Lisa
A Life Course Approach to Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: Tracking the Influence of Income Dynamics on the Health of Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, McMaster University, September 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Accidents; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Health; Children, Mental Health; Children, Well-Being; Depression (see also CESD); Family Income; Family Structure; Household Composition; Illnesses

Socioeconomic inequalities in health research comprises the investigation of the pathways through which differential access to resources affects the distribution of morbidity and mortality in the population. Because many of the factors that influence health are cumulative, researchers have incorporated a life course approach into their work by linking socioeconomic conditions in one stage o fthe life course to health at a later stage. The childhood period has acquired particular significance due to conflicting theories about the relative importance of early life events for health inequalities during adulthood.

Using seven waves of the child component of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (1986-98), I employ generalized linear mixed models to examine the effect of household income on child physical and mental health over the entire childhood period. The results of this dissertation support the hypothesis that household income influences the physical and mental health of children, both concurrently and over time. In generalized linear mixed models, the stable component of household income, that is, the average household income for a given child over the period in which he or she is observed, exerts a strong influence on risk for child chronic health limitation, child anxiety/depression and antisocial behaviour, and to a lesser extent, child medically attended accident or injury. However, the dynamic component of household income, defined as deviations in household income over time from the observed average of that household, is mostly unrelated to child health.

These findings have broader implications for life course theory and for the discipline of sociology as health inequalities researchers track the impact of socially significant events over time and reveal the long term processes underlying the social distribution of health.

Bibliography Citation
Strohschein, Lisa. A Life Course Approach to Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: Tracking the Influence of Income Dynamics on the Health of Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, McMaster University, September 2002.
251. Suhr, Diana D.
Investigation of Mathematics and Reading Achievement of 5- through 14-Year Olds Using Latent Growth Curve Methodology
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northern Colorado University, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Education; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Growth Curves; Hispanics; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

The development of literacy and numeracy (i.e., reading and mathematics) for 5-through 14-year old children was investigated using a cohort-sequential design. A fundamental assumption motivating the study was that knowledge about the pattern of growth of individual students' mathematics and reading skills, differences in the pattern of growth among groups of students (i.e., gender and ethnic groups), and variation within groups of students provides a foundation for developing effective educational policy. The purpose of the research was to advance a methodology, latent growth curve models (LGM), for analyzing individual and group differences. Latent growth curve models estimate mean initial level of achievement, mean rate of change in achievement, variances of initial level and rate of change, covariance of initial level with mean rate of change, variances of test measurements, and growth scores (i.e., structural slopes). Findings indicate the form of achievement growth curves for 5- through 14-year old children is a negatively accelerating function of age. In the sample, no differences were found in mathematics achievement between boys (n = 561) and girls (n = 573). Differences in reading recognition achievement between boys (n = 581) and girls (n = 607) were found with respect to variances in initial level of achievement and test measurements at ages 10, 11, and 12. Girls (n = 525) had a faster growth rate than boys (n = 488) in reading comprehension achievement at ages 8 and 12, whereas boys had a faster growth at age 11. In mathematics, reading recognition, and reading comprehension achievement, differences between White and Black/Hispanic children in levels of achievement increased over time. Rates of change in mathematics, reading recognition, and recognition achievement were faster for White children than for Black and Hispanic children.
Bibliography Citation
Suhr, Diana D. Investigation of Mathematics and Reading Achievement of 5- through 14-Year Olds Using Latent Growth Curve Methodology. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northern Colorado University, 1999.
252. Sundt, Leslie A.
Effect of Work Interruptions on Subsequent Earnings
Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, April 1987
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias; Skill Depreciation; Wages; Work Reentry

Previous empirical findings suggest that earnings depreciate during periods of non-employment and following reentry, rebound and make up in large part for their initial decline. An alternative interpretation is that these results are driven by sample selection bias. Analysis of the NLS of Young Women indicates that individuals who remain employed for substantial periods after reentry do not experience wage depreciation. Those who re-exit the labor force, however, do experience depreciation. In fact, earnings depreciate for only part of the population and the so-called rebound effect is a statistical artifact.
Bibliography Citation
Sundt, Leslie A. Effect of Work Interruptions on Subsequent Earnings. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, April 1987.
253. Surette, Brian J.
College Attendance, Vocational Training, Labor Supply and Wages: A Dynamic Empirical Model of Endogenous Human Capital Accumulation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Education; Colleges; Endogeneity; Human Capital; Labor Supply; Modeling; Schooling, Post-secondary; Tuition; Vocational Training; Wages

This dissertation estimates the overall effects of post-secondary education using a unified, dynamic empirical model of two- and four-year college choice, training participation, labor supply, and wages. Applying this model to a panel of data drawn from the NLSY reveals that: (1) Wage benefits from two-year college attendance accrue only to students who complete an Associates Degree, (2) Both four-year credits and Bachelors Degree completion raise wages, (3) One hour of vocational training and one hour of labor market experience provide similar, positive wage benefits, (4) Two-year college attendance helps students transfer to and succeed in four-year college, (5) Four-year college students are more likely to obtain subsequent on-the job training, (6) Completing a Bachelors Degree raises the probability of employment, and (7) Both two- and four-year college decisions are sensitive to tuition changes. To illustrate the sensitivity of college attendance behavior this study simulates the effects of 50 percent reductions in two- and four-year tuition. This provides one method of inducing exogenous changes in college attendance rates and evaluating each schools' impacts on subsequent labor market and college attendance outcomes. The simulations show that while the two-year tuition reduction would raise two-year college attendance and the number of Associates Degrees completed, it would reduce completed four-year credits and the number of Bachelors Degrees earned. In other words, the tuition reduction causes individuals to substitute away from the most profitable types of human capital. By contrast, the four-year tuition reduction would cause an increase in four-year attendance, completed four-year credits, Bachelors Degree completion, and would raise wages and employment rates. The empirical model incorporates lagged dependent variables asregressors. Semiparametric, discrete factor random effects estimators are used to control for the influence of unobserved variables that give rise to the potential endogeneity of these previous outcomes. A comparison of results from models estimated with and without these controls demonstrates the importance of controlling for unobserved heterogeneity.
Bibliography Citation
Surette, Brian J. College Attendance, Vocational Training, Labor Supply and Wages: A Dynamic Empirical Model of Endogenous Human Capital Accumulation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1995.
254. Surfield, Christopher James
The Use and Prevalence of Contingent Work Arrangements in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertatiod, Department of Economics, University of South Carolina, 2003. DAI-A 64/07, p. 2603, Jan 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earnings; Employment, Part-Time; Health Care; Labor Economics; Modeling; Part-Time Work; Wage Effects; Wage Models

This dissertation explores the earnings and employment experiences of American workers engaged in contingent work arrangements. Employment as a contract, consulting, or temporary worker has long been criticized as unstable and poorly-compensated when compared with open-ended employment. Using data from the Contingent and Alternative Employment Arrangement Supplement to the Current Population Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort (NLSY79), I find little evidence to support these criticisms. The first contribution of this dissertation is to provide a profile of those engaged in contingent work. Next, I examine how current employment status affects the likelihood of being unemployed in the future. These results suggest that contingent workers are able to avoid future unemployment compared to those who are currently jobless. Furthermore, contingent work appears to lengthen spells of employment in the future. The empirical results are consistent with a theoretical model in which contingent arrangements serve as a possible matchmaker between firms and workers. Regressions using cross-sectional data suggest a significant and substantially negative impact of contingent employment status on worker compensation, both in terms of wages and access to employer-related health insurance. However, in the presence of omitted variables likely to appear in compensation models, such as a worker-specific ability component to the error term, this estimate may be biased and inconsistent. Using data from the NLSY79, panel-data techniques are used to control for ability. The results indicate that the usual cross-sectional results provide a substantial overstatement of the negative effect of contingent employment on compensation. In particular, the entire cross-sectional wage effect appears to be a reflection of lower ability levels among contingent workers relative to regular workers.
Bibliography Citation
Surfield, Christopher James. The Use and Prevalence of Contingent Work Arrangements in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertatiod, Department of Economics, University of South Carolina, 2003. DAI-A 64/07, p. 2603, Jan 2004.
255. Sylvester, Mary Alice
The Effects of Parental Occupational Status, Age at First Fertility and Educational Attainment on the Occupational Prestige of Young Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1980.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_effects_of_parental_occupational_sta.html?id=L3jrNwAACAAJ
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Fertility; Occupational Status; Racial Differences

The interrelationship of mothers' and fathers' occupational status, daughters' age at first fertility, daughters' educational attainment, and daughters' occupational status are examined for the Young Women's cohort of the NLS. The effects for black and white girls are examined separately and in combination in a causal model, using multiple regression analysis. The model for the entire population proved the two major hypotheses quite nicely. Mothers' and fathers' occupational status influenced both fertility and education, fertility influenced education and education influenced occupation. The effects of mothers' occupational status were stronger than were those of fathers' occupational status. In the model for white women, fathers' occupational status was retained because it slightly influenced age at first fertility and occupational status. Mothers' occupational attainment continued to influence the daughters' age at first fertility and educational attainment. The impact of education on occupational prestige was stronger than in the total model. This was read as an indication that black women were working in occupations in which the prestige level was less congruent with their education than was the case for white women and their removal from the model allowed the strength of the relationship to increase. Neither mothers' nor fathers' occupational status for black women proved to be relevant to age at first fertility. This was attributed to the preponderance of mothers working in domestic and service occupations and fathers working as laborers or within service occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Sylvester, Mary Alice. The Effects of Parental Occupational Status, Age at First Fertility and Educational Attainment on the Occupational Prestige of Young Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1980..
256. Takai, Ricky T.
Marital Separation in First Marriages and Remarriages of Women: An Examination of Divergent Patterns
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1981
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Family Influences; Family, Extended; Husbands, Income; Kinship; Marital Disruption; Marital Instability; Marital Stability; Racial Differences

Recent studies have shown that the rate of marital separation for remarried white women is higher than once-wed women. However the marital separation rate for black remarried women has been reported to be lower or not significantly different than first-married women. Several hypotheses were examined in order to identify the factors that account for the different rates of marital separation for once-wed and remarried women. The hypotheses were studied using data from the NLS of Mature Women (1967-1976) aged 30 to 44 in 1967. A subsample of about 3700 women who reported themselves as married with their husbands present in 1967 was extracted from the data. One original hypothesis focused on the characteristics of the men that remarried women select for husbands. Due to the disadvantages in the marriage market and economic hardships, white remarried women are forced to choose husbands who are not as successful as husbands of once-wed women. Black women appear to use kinship support to replace the lost income of their former husbands. On this basis, the hypothesis is that black women are not under the economic pressure to remarry as white women. Using a variety of economic characteristics of the husbands, partial support was found for the above hypothesis. A second hypothesis tested was that remarried women place greater emphasis on economic factors when considering the decision to separate or divorce than once-wed women. The results were mildly supportive of the assertion. The findings support the idea that the process of separation compels women to become more economically self-reliant and this self-reliance plays a larger role in the evaluation of their second or subsequent marriages. The third hypothesis focused on the problems arising from step-kin relationships in "recombined" families. The data did not support the theory that the network of step-kin relationships is an important factor in explaining the higher separation rate of remarried women. The fourth hypothesis centered around the issue of marital homogamy in first and second marriages of women. The findings support recent studies reporting greater marital heterogamy among remarried women and regression analyses supported the notion that marital heterogamy is positively related to the probability of separation.
Bibliography Citation
Takai, Ricky T. Marital Separation in First Marriages and Remarriages of Women: An Examination of Divergent Patterns. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1981.
257. Terris, Kristin Lynn
Evaluating Match Quality in Labor Markets
Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgetown University, 2004. DAI-A 66/01, p. 288, Jul 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Job Search; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Schooling

In the three chapters of this dissertation, I analyze large samples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to study match quality in the labor market. I use non-linear, semi-parametric estimation techniques. In the first chapter, I characterize the duration of employment for an individual's first job after leaving high school. I find that employment duration has a significant positive correlation with the length of the preceding non-employment spell. I take this as evidence that increasing search time improves the quality of the match. In addition, factors that reduce an individual's ability to conduct an effective job search decrease match quality and factors that increase family stability have a positive impact on match quality.

The second chapter examines the effects of schooling on match quality. I characterize the distribution of employment for high school and college graduates. I find evidence that job mobility is considerably lower for college graduates. In addition, wage changes between jobs are correlated with the decision to move, and between-job wage changes are significantly higher for college graduates. Higher wages lead to a lower hazard out of employment and therefore longer employment durations. I take this as evidence that college graduates are making better quality matches and that there are positive returns to schooling on match quality.

The third chapter characterizes the ways in which age and worker mobility contribute to the quality of the employment match. As they age, workers experience a significant decline in mobility. Analyzing the determinants of workers' decisions to move, I find evidence that older workers make higher-quality matches.

Bibliography Citation
Terris, Kristin Lynn. Evaluating Match Quality in Labor Markets. Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgetown University, 2004. DAI-A 66/01, p. 288, Jul 2005.
258. Ting, Kwok Fai
Timing Effects of Women's Family Careers on Employment and Occupational Attainment
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1990
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; First Birth; Life Course; Life Cycle Research; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Occupational Attainment; Wives, Work; Women's Roles

In the last few decades, the dramatic increase of the female labor force, particularly among young mothers, has changed women's lives considerably. The coordination between their family and work roles has become a major problem. The NLS young women, who grew up with domestic aspirations, entered the adult world during the late 1960s and the 1970s. Many of them had to search for a viable life style to keep up with the accelerated pace of change. Delaying a family has been increasingly a common option for them. This dissertation uses the life-course framework to examine the consequences of marriage and parenthood timing on women's employment and occupational attainment. The purpose is to evaluate the differential impacts of marriage and parenthood due to their timing in the life course. Three competing hypotheses, each emphasizing the aspect of career dynamics, work orientation, and the labor market structure respectively, are tested in this dissertation. Findings suggest a mixed support for them. Early first marriage temporarily decreases the likelihood of employment, but work orientation does change the implications of marriage timing. Early first marriage does not seem to have negative effects on women's occupational attainment. First births are such dramatic events in women's lives that they affect the employment of new mothers of all ages to the same extent. Occupational attainment, on the other hand, varies with parenthood timing. Those who entered parenthood at older ages were able to minimize the negative impacts of first birth.
Bibliography Citation
Ting, Kwok Fai. Timing Effects of Women's Family Careers on Employment and Occupational Attainment. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1990.
259. Tolbert, Charles M., II
Occupational Mobility in a Dual Economy
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Mobility, Job

One important assumption of economic segmentation theory requires that mobility between economic sectors be constrained. The present research employs a major variant of these theories--dual economy theory--in an analysis of occupational mobility. Career mobility patterns within core (oligopolistic) and periphery (competitive) economic sectors are examined with conventional occupational mobility tables and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Results of this analysis appear to indicate greater within-sector than between-sector mobility. Similar trends are evident in an analysis of intergenerational occupational mobility as sons tend to begin their careers and to continue to work in the same economic sectors as their fathers. Further analysis suggests that the influence of economic sectors on occupational mobility cannot be reduced to individual levels of human capital. It is concluded that our understanding of mobility could be enhanced through a reorientation of contemporary individualistically-oriented theory and policy that takes account of dimensions of the social organization of production such as economic segmentation.
Bibliography Citation
Tolbert, Charles M., II. Occupational Mobility in a Dual Economy. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1980.
260. Tortolero, Susan Rohrabacher
Association of Allergies and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, May, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Temperament; Health Factors

To investigate the association between allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a case-control study was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth population. Cases were between the ages of 4 and 11 years and were classified either by a maternal-reported diagnosis or by the Behavior Problems Index Hyperactivity Scale. Controls were chosen from the same age group but had a score or less than 14 on the overall Behavior Problems Index. A history of allergies was considered positive if any of the following conditions were reported as requiring treatment by a doctor or other health professional: asthma, allergic conditions, or food allergies. A strong association was observed between allergies and a maternal reported diagnosis while controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, perinatal, and environmental factors.
Bibliography Citation
Tortolero, Susan Rohrabacher. Association of Allergies and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, May, 1994.
261. Tremayne, Pamela L.
The Effect of Sex Role Attitudes and Personal Characteristics on Job Satisfaction and Labor Force Turnover among Women: A Longitudinal Study
Ph.D. Dissertation, Emory University, 1985
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Job Satisfaction; Job Turnover; Variables, Independent - Covariate

The effect on labor force turnover of a number of personal and family variables is the focus of this research. Job turnover is the primary dependent variable with job satisfaction treated at times as dependent and at other times as independent. The major independent variables are family income, the presence of children in the home, education, age, race, marital status and the attitudes of working women and their husbands toward the acceptability of work for women. A review of past research into job turnover and satisfaction reveals an emphasis on characteristics of the work place as well as on samples primarily composed of male respondents. This research shifts the view to factors which are apart from the job and which in the past have been used to explain women's absence from the labor force. Instead, these factors are examined to see what influence they may have on job turnover and satisfaction. The data are from the NLS Mature Women's cohort. The study focuses on approximately 2,000 women who reported they worked at both the 1967 and 1972 interview points. The remainder of the cohort includes women who worked at neither time or only at one other time point. The analysis is in two steps. First, two- and three-way comparisons are made among the variables and chi square tests are done to determine if relationships exist. Significant association at the .001 level is found between turnover and satisfaction, family income, age and education, and strong relations emerge with other independent variables. Second, logistic regression analyses are done on two groups of variables. In the first, five independent variables and turnover, as the dependent, are examined. A model is fitted with three main effects and two two-way interactions. In the second logistic regression analysis, satisfaction is treated as dependent and four independent variables are included in the examination. Both methods of analysis indicate relationships between turnover and satisfaction, income and the presence of children in the home.
Bibliography Citation
Tremayne, Pamela L. The Effect of Sex Role Attitudes and Personal Characteristics on Job Satisfaction and Labor Force Turnover among Women: A Longitudinal Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, Emory University, 1985.
262. Trenholm, Christopher Allen
The Impact of Prenatal Medicaid Programs on the Health of Newborns
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1997.
Also: http://osu.worldcat.org/title/impact-of-prenatal-medicaid-programs-on-the-health-of-newborns/oclc/038166451
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Endogeneity; Health Care; Heterogeneity; Marital Status; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Health Care

This dissertation undertakes a comprehensive examination of how state Medicaid programs affect the health of newborns. Its key innovation is that it isolates the impact of individual Medicaid components on the birth outcome. These components encompass all aspects of Medicaid including coverage, quality, and eligibility. Given the recent explosion in enrollment and the possibility of cuts in federal funding, states are under increasing pressure to provide effective prenatal care to Medicaid recipients. Results from this dissertation provide state policy makers with detailed information on where to focus scarce resources to maximize newborns' health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the empirical model evaluates the effect of Medicaid program components in a full information maximum likelihood framework. An equation for newborns' birthweight is estimated jointly with equations explaining a woman's health insurance status, her marital status, and her decision to give birth. A discrete-factor specification of unobserved heterogeneity controls for the endogeneity of insurance, marriage, and fertility. The results strongly suggest that reimbursement to ob/gyns for prenatal care and vaginal delivery has a positive effect on birthweight. An increase from $400 to $800 (in 1986 dollars), for example, is predicted to raise birthweights of children on Medicaid by over five ounces. The cost reduction associated with higher birthweights more than offsets the increase in reimbursement costs. Additional results confirm that the recent eligibility expansion has significantly increased the probability that a pregnant woman enrolls in Medicaid. However, there is no evidence that this increase has reduced the probability that a woman is uninsured, suggesting that the expansion has crowded out private insurers. Finally, based on simulations under selected state Medicaid programs, I find significant variation both across states and through time in the ability of these programs to improve birthweights. The most cost-effective programs generally maintain high rates of reimbursement but limit eligibility to avoid crowd-out. Examples include Georgia, Ohio, and Virginia in 1992. Given the variation in these programs, I conclude that future research must focus on the characteristics of state Medicaid programs, rather than assessing their overall effectiveness through aggregate measures such as coverage or eligibility.
Bibliography Citation
Trenholm, Christopher Allen. The Impact of Prenatal Medicaid Programs on the Health of Newborns. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1997..
263. Trevor, Charles Oliver
Establishing New Relationships Within a Traditional Voluntary Turnover Model: The Effects of a Multidimensional Approach to Actual Ease of Movement in the Job Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Industrial Relations; Industrial Sector; Job Turnover; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Unemployment

This study was designed to contribute to individual voluntary turnover research by adding conceptual and methodological precision to the notion of actual ease of movement in the job market (AEOM). I suggested that a three component common model of voluntary turnover has emerged across turnover research, with voluntary turnover being a function of AEOM and job satisfaction. In particular, job satisfaction's well documented negative effect on voluntary turnover was hypothesized to be moderated by AEOM, with the effect being greater when AEOM was high. However, in contrast to the typical operationalization of AEOM as a single type of unemployment rate, I proposed that incorporating individual and occupational aspects of the construct could substantially improve the common model. Data for the study consisted predominantly of responses from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), although it was augmented by occupational wage data and detailed unemployment rates obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In all, 5,527 individuals employed between 1980 and 1992 were included in the final data set. Longitudinal data allowed for the conduction of proportional hazard models with repeated events and time dependent covariates. Results of the analyses supported the use of a multidimensional approach to AEOM. An occupationally driven type of unemployment rate (termed the relevant unemployment rate) derived from local and occupational rates appeared to not only moderate job dissatisfaction's effect on turnover, but also to be an approach somewhat superior to using either rate alone. Additionally, individual and occupational level AEOM indicators mirrored the relevant unemployment rate effect, suggesting a synthesis of the common model framework, whose roots lay in March and Simon's (1958) seminal work, with the human capital approach. Finally, I found evidence of hypothesized within-AEOM interactions, as relevant unemployment rate's negative effect on turnover was greater for those with lower individual and occupational AEOM. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, as was the importance of adequate controls in occupationally heterogeneous turnover research.
Bibliography Citation
Trevor, Charles Oliver. Establishing New Relationships Within a Traditional Voluntary Turnover Model: The Effects of a Multidimensional Approach to Actual Ease of Movement in the Job Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998.
264. Trotta, Joseph R.
Socioeconomic Attainment Process
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1978
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Influences; Fathers, Influence; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This research investigates the socioeconomic attainment processes of education, occupational status and earnings. Comparisons of these processes are made for race and sex groupings. For educational attainment, it was found that mental ability played the most influential role as compared to the effects of father's and mother's educational attainment, head of household's occupational status and sibship size. The hypothesis that the same-sexed parent had a stronger effect was supported for both races. Overall, black males and females and white females experienced lower rates of return from mental ability as compared to white males. In terms of occupational status attainment, only education and previous occupational status had effects. Labor force experience and number of previous jobs had no effects. The models for white and black males were similar and the model for white and black females were similar. For earnings attainment, only previous earnings and current occupational status exerted effects while no effects were found for education, labor force experience and number of previous jobs. This finding seriously calls into question the human capital perspective which has been heavily utilized in the literature.
Bibliography Citation
Trotta, Joseph R. Socioeconomic Attainment Process. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1978.
265. Tsao, Hui-Shien
Career Mobility in an Age of Economic Restructuring: a Multilevel Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 04A (2001): p. 1591
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Demography; Family Models; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Racial Differences

The American economy has experienced enormous changes since the late 1970s, and this wave of changes has extended into the 1990s. The kind of career patterns that workers have been engaged over this time period is the major interest of this dissertation. Career mobility is frequently examined in a cross-sectional context. However, careers are made up of a series of jobs, which suggests that a longitudinal approach to career mobility is more appropriate than a cross-sectional approach. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1994, is the empirical basis of this dissertation. Two methodologies are applied to the career mobility process. First, the partial adjustment model is used to investigate the career dynamics of American workers. Second, event history analysis is used to explore job mobility processes.

A number of methodological innovations are incorporated into this dissertation. First, multilevel modeling is used in conjunction with the partial adjustment model to estimate career dynamics. Unlike cross-sectional analyses that simply compare individuals' achievement at a given point in time, this dissertation illustrates career trajectories by gender and race, and also demonstrates how career dynamics differ across demographic groups. Next, instead of studying a general mobility process, this dissertation decomposes job mobility by distinguishing types of mobility. Two sets of distinctions were made: the direction of job mobility (i.e., upward, downward, or horizontal) and the reasons for job mobility (i.e., voluntary or involuntary).

The results, in general, were consistent with my hypotheses. Whites still have better opportunities to advance in their careers compared to Hispanics and blacks. Blacks have the weakest momentum in terms of building their careers; moreover, they are also at the bottom of the occupational prestige hierarchy. Also, job mobility was triggered by individual characteristics, job characteristics, and macroeconomic factors. The effects of job characteristics and macroeconomic indicators are further differentiated after the types of mobility and the reasons for leaving jobs are specified. The impact of mergers and acquisitions on job mobility is rarely evaluated in the job mobility literature. The results in this research, though, show that mergers and acquisition do increase workers' risks of being fired or experiencing "programs end" because of the disappearance of jobs. Overall, the findings support the general impression that American business are downsizing.

Bibliography Citation
Tsao, Hui-Shien. Career Mobility in an Age of Economic Restructuring: a Multilevel Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 04A (2001): p. 1591.
266. Tsui, Steve Wai Cho
A Sequential Study of Birth Probabilities: An Economic Model
Ph.D. Dissertation, Illinois University at Carbondale, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Planning; Family Size; Fertility; Household Income; Modeling; Sexual Reproduction

A sequential economic model of human reproduction is developed and tested in this study. Rather than focus on the completed family size, desired or actual, of a family as the decision variable in the fertility process, this study looks at the economic determinants of parity progression. The dynamic model fills in the gap left by Namboodiri's suggestion for a sequential economic model of transitional probabilities from parity n to parity n+1. With the introduction of a multi-period intertemporal preference thesis, the decision variable "whether or not an additional child is demanded" is shown to be logically derived as the dependent variable in a planning and replanning household production model. According to this multi-period household consumption and production model, the demand for an additional child is an outcome of rational choice: utility maximization subject to resource, time, and technological constraints. Most importantly, it is clear that other economic models treating completed parity as the dependent variable are actually implicitly imbedded with very unrealistic and restrictive separability assumptions on the family's preference ordering. Empirical tests of this model with the 1976 NLS data yield encouraging results. The probability of another child is reported as very sensitive to changes in the value of selected independent socioeconomic and demographic variables. Two interesting findings are: (1) The quantity of children is shown to be a normal good. The demand for children will increase as income increases; and (2) An opportunity cost effect of the father's time is reported in the study. This is not surprising since the labor of the father is allowed to be productive in household activities. Hence, educational level of the father may not be as good an indicator of the earning potential of a family as it is usually assumed in numerous studies.
Bibliography Citation
Tsui, Steve Wai Cho. A Sequential Study of Birth Probabilities: An Economic Model. Ph.D. Dissertation, Illinois University at Carbondale, 1981.
267. Upchurch, Dawn M.
Effects of Early Childbearing on High School Completion Among Recent Cohorts of American Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavior; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Hispanics; Women

While most of the previous studies on the possible influence of early childbearing on educational attainment have assumed the direction of causality from early childbearing to truncated education, few have actually examined the precise timing of events. The purpose of this study was to re-examine the relationship between early childbearing and educational attainment (specifically high school completion) with particular emphasis on the timing and sequencing of a birth and dropping out of school. The conceptual framework was based on a modified status attainment model incorporating early adolescent characteristics as well as fertility-related behaviors. The data were obtained from the NLSY. Two statistical methodologies were employed: analysis of binary data and analysis of survival data. The major finding of this study is that the timing and sequencing of a birth relative to the schooling process influences a woman's eventual graduation; women who become mothers while still in s chool are no less likely to graduate than women who progress through school without a birth or drop out experience. While some women drop out because they are pregnant, the majority of women drop out for reasons other than impending motherhood and go on to become mothers. The second major finding suggests there are important racial differences in the determinants of high school completion and in the processes of childbearing and schooling. Black school-age mothers were more likely to graduate than similar whites or Hispanics. The findings suggest the effects of early childbearing on schooling may have been overstated in previous research and that the causal mechanisms underlying the relationship of childbearing and schooling are more complex than suggested by earlier researchers.
Bibliography Citation
Upchurch, Dawn M. Effects of Early Childbearing on High School Completion Among Recent Cohorts of American Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1989.
268. Usui, Emiko
Gender Occupational Segregation: Theory and Evidence
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 2002. DAI 63-11A (2002): 4037.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Job Skills; Labor Supply; Occupational Segregation; Wage Differentials; Women

This dissertation consists of two essays on gender occupational segregation and one essay on the role of severance payment policies on job separation rates.

The first essay studies the determinants of wage differences between predominantly female jobs and predominantly male jobs. In particular, I estimate the effects of the changes in proportion of men in an occupation on wage growth for workers who quit jobs and for those laid off. These estimates account for the fixed individual heterogeneity and job match specific error component, and they provide either an upper or lower bound on the true wage premium associated with working in predominantly male jobs. The estimated wage premium is in the range of 16-19 percent for women and 12-16 percent for men. The proportion male effect for quits is smaller than that for layoffs for both women and men, which implies that the wage premium overcompensates for the non-wage characteristics.

In the second essay, I analyze equilibrium search models in which jobs vary in terms of salary and hours of work. Jobs are heterogeneous in productivity, and the model is set up so that jobs with larger marginal productivity of an additional hour require more hours. In one version of the model, an employer offers two packages to workers. Simulated data match the empirical results in the first essay when: (1) women are more averse to work hours than men and (2) the likelihood of receiving an offer that workers cannot refuse to accept is higher for women than men. In the other version of the model, an employer offers a single package that accounts for the gender differences in preference. I develop an algorithm which solves for the equilibrium job distribution and show that employers raise the hour requirements when they discriminate against women.

The third essay uses an insider model of equilibrium unemployment to show that severance pay affects the jointly rational separation decisions of an employer and a worker. In particular, severance pay raises the equilibrium market tightness which is documented in a number of empirical studies.

Bibliography Citation
Usui, Emiko. Gender Occupational Segregation: Theory and Evidence. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 2002. DAI 63-11A (2002): 4037..
269. Valero, Gil J. N.
Influence of Past Labor Force Experience and Education on Economic Activity and Inactivity
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Santa Barbara, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Job Search; Labor Force Participation; Markov chain / Markov model; Methods/Methodology; Modeling, Logit; Racial Differences; Statistical Analysis; Transition, Job to Job; Unemployment, Youth; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This work investigates the relationship between past experience and the choice of status in the labor market, employment, continuing unemployment, and leaving the labor force, for young people, 16-23 years old, by race. The data used are from the 1979 and 1980 interviews of the NLSY. The major focus is the ways that youth become inactive, that is, neither enrolled in school nor in the labor force. The theoretical framework applies the concept of semi-Markov processes to explain the factors affecting the probabilities of transition from one labor force state to another, as well as the varying time or duration spent in a state before moving. Three methodologies were used to analyze the problem. The first is descriptive analysis, which reveals the importance of having being employed as condition of avoiding inactivity in the future. The second uses Goodman log-linear models and path analysis to investigate the dependence of the outcomes of enrollment and labor force activity upon race. The third uses a multinomial logit model. The dependent variable was status in the labor force and the independent variables were: fractions of time out of the labor force and unemployed during the past year, the number of employers and number of times not employed, education, sex, age, and area unemployment rates. This analysis revealed that the most important variables explaining differences in status among the three races were those related to occurrence dependence and those related to duration dependence. The main result obtained is that a policy promoting employment for youth of all races will increase the probability of employment for individuals of all races in the future and will benefit Hispanics and blacks relative to whites.
Bibliography Citation
Valero, Gil J. N. Influence of Past Labor Force Experience and Education on Economic Activity and Inactivity. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Santa Barbara, 1989.
270. Vander Ven, Thomas Michael
Home Alone: The Impact of Maternal Employment on Delinquency
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Temperament; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment

For several decades, social scientists have debated the social impact of the unprecedented number of mothers recently entering the paid workforce. While the majority of studies have found that the children of working mothers are generally no worse off than other children, many Americans continue to be concerned that maternal employment may contribute to behavior problems and delinquency. Although several researchers have investigated the relationship between maternal employment and delinquency, past efforts are limited by narrow conceptualizations of maternal employment and by a preoccupation with maternal supervision and control as the mediating variables between maternal employment and delinquency. With this dissertation, I investigate the maternal employment-delinquency relationship by examining many characteristics of maternal work, such as hours employed and workplace controls, and by considering a wide variety of mediating pathway variables. The impact of both early employment (i.e., maternal work during the child's pre-school years) and current employment (i.e., maternal work during adolescence) is studied through the use of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data. Data on 876 mother and child pairs were used to investigate the connection between maternal employment, family life, and delinquency. Multiple regression techniques were employed to test hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect effects of maternal employment. The general finding of this study is that the characteristics of maternal work have relatively little or no effect on delinquency either directly or indirectly through the family-oriented pathway variables. The results of the analysis showed consistently that regardless of how this issue was examined, having a working mother has only small effects and that those effects are not consistently criminogenic.
Bibliography Citation
Vander Ven, Thomas Michael. Home Alone: The Impact of Maternal Employment on Delinquency. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1998.
271. Varghese, Geetha M.
An Analysis of Racial Differences in Employment and Their Feedback Effect on the Accumulation of Human Capital
Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 1994.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com.proxy.lib.ohio-state.edu/pqdweb?index=0&did=746569461&SrchMode=2&sid=1&Fmt=2&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1261156413&clientId=3959
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Behavioral Differences; College Enrollment; Economics of Discrimination; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Higher Education; Human Capital; Industrial Relations; Labor Market Demographics; Modeling; Racial Differences; Simultaneity

This dissertation analyzes the negative effects of different hiring standards for blacks and whites on their investment in higher education. It also uses the informational assumptions underlying the human capital and signalling models to provide an estimate of the signalling value of education. In the first part of this thesis, I set up a model in which the hiring standard set by an employer and the educational decision of the worker are determined simultaneously. The hiring standard is shown to depend on the sorting value of education. Negative employer beliefs about the productivity of blacks are shown to increase the hiring standard facing blacks. At the same time, race-based educational subsidies reduce the sorting value of education and cause the hiring standard facing blacks to increase. In the second part of this thesis, I estimate the difference in the hiring standard facing blacks and whites using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Since the racial difference in the hiring standard is shown to include a difference in the sorting value of education, the hiring equation is estimated under the assumption that the employer has no information about the quality of the worker. I find that most of the racial difference in hiring standards is due to differences in employer behavior. Using estimates of the expected gain from education, I estimate a structural form of the college attendance decision. My results indicate that the probability of college attendance for blacks would more than double if the differences in employer behavior were neutralized. The third part of the thesis discusses the estimation of the gain from education under the assumption that the employer has all the information needed about the type of the worker. Thus, the coefficient on education is purged of any signalling component it might have. A comparison of the return to education estimated under different assumptions about the employer's information provides a measure of the relative importance of the signalling value of education. The results indicate that the signalling value of education is a relatively small part of the total return to education.
Bibliography Citation
Varghese, Geetha M. An Analysis of Racial Differences in Employment and Their Feedback Effect on the Accumulation of Human Capital. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 1994..
272. Voeks, Lisa Ann Ford
Reservation Wage, Job-Search Behavior, and Labor Turnover: A Stochastic-Frontier Approach
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Economics; Labor Turnover; Modeling; Modeling, Multilevel; Quits; Simultaneity; Wage Equations; Wages, Reservation

The concept of the reservation wage plays an important role in theories of job search and labor turnover. The reservation wage is defined as the lowest wage necessary to induce someone to accept an offer of employment. Since the reservation wage is not directly observed, previous studies of its determinants and effects have either used a survey-reported measure or have inferred the reservation wage from estimates of an average wage equation. However, the former is widely believed to be biased upward and the latter biased downward as a proxy for the true, but unobserved, reservation wage. In this dissertation, I estimate a reservation wage for each individual worker, using a stochastic-frontier framework and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. I use a heteroscedasticity-corrected reservation-wage equation to calculate reservation wages for unemployed workers, and estimate a simultaneous-equations model of the relationship between the reservation wage and the duration of unemployment. The empirical results reveal that the higher the reservation wage, the longer an individual must search theory. However, the length of time spent unemployed has no effect on the reservation wage. I calculate a quasi-rent or labor-market differential for each worker, defined as the difference between the individual's observed wage and reservation wage. Theory predicts that workers who earn a wage at or slightly above their minimum supply price are more likely to quit, whereas employees whose salaries exceed their opportunity costs face a greater likelihood of layoff. I specify a binomial logit model of the relationship between the probability of on-the-job search and the quasi-rent, and formulate a multinomial logit model of the relationship between the quasi-rent and the odds of a subsequent quit or layoff. I find a positive and statistically significant relationship between the quasi-rent and the probability that a person experiences a layoff, and a negative and marginally significant relationship between the quasi-rent and the probability of on-the-job search. The estimated effect of the quasi-rent on the probability of on-the-job search. The estimated effect of the quasi-rent on the probability of quitting is negative but not statistically different from zero.
Bibliography Citation
Voeks, Lisa Ann Ford. Reservation Wage, Job-Search Behavior, and Labor Turnover: A Stochastic-Frontier Approach. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 2000.
273. Waitzman, Norman J.
Occupational Determinants of Health: A Labor Market Segmentation Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, American University, 1988
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Health Factors; Health Reform; Morbidity; Mortality; Occupational Segregation; Occupational Status

The thesis contains two major theoretical strains, one critical, the other constructive. The critical strain concerns the theory of wage compensating differentials for differential workplace risk in the labor market. Under the theory, workers choose health outcomes by choosing from among the portfolio of jobs available to them. The constructive strain of the thesis forwards an alternative, "occupational determinants" model of health that focuses on structural determinants arising from labor market segmentation. It is assumed that risk to health increases the lower one is situated on the occupational hierarchy due to levels of competing physical hazards stress. The Cox proportional hazards model is applied to the mortality and morbidity experience of the NLS Older Men cohort studied from 1966 to 1981. In addition to risk measures associated with wage differentials in various studies, variables assessing class location and other control variables associated with health status are entered into the analysis. The empirical results from the thesis discredit the notion that efficient labor market conditions assure worker choice over health outcomes. Health and safety regulatory policy should address the regimentation and routinization of work that cause occupational stress characterized by jobs at the lower end of the occupational structure. Policy directed at full employment as well as labor law reform directed at strengthening labor unions, are associated with important occupational health policies.
Bibliography Citation
Waitzman, Norman J. Occupational Determinants of Health: A Labor Market Segmentation Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, American University, 1988.
274. Wang, Dan Shang
Labor Supply of Young, Married, Former Participants in Vocational Education in Secondary Schools in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Health Factors; High School Curriculum; High School Transcripts; Hispanics; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Marital Status; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Vocational Education

The purpose of this study is to determine whether taking vocational courses in high school would affect married youths' labor supply behavior. Data for this study were obtained from the NLSY for the years 1985 and 1986. The total sample consisted of 1,186 respondents who had completed at least a high school education, who were married and not enrolled in school at the time of the 1985 interview, and who had high school transcript data available. Employing static labor supply theory, two dependent variables were used to measure labor supply: labor force participation and annual hours of work. The independent variables used in the labor supply models were: high school curriculum, family assets, nonlabor income, spouse income, wage rate, educational attainment, age, race, number of dependents in the family, family socioeconomic status, health limitation, and local unemployment rate. Four major statistical methods were applied to analyze data: simple cross-tabulation, logistic regression, OLS regression, and Tobit regression. After stratifying labor supply models by gender, the major findings of this study were: (1) Among women, compared to general education participants, vocational education had significantly greater labor supply while academic education participants had significantly lower labor supply. (2) Both men's and women's uncompensated wage elasticities were positive. (3) Among married men, educational attainment (negative), age (positive), and family socioeconomic background (positive) had significant effects on annual hours of work; while among married women, educational attainment (positive), age (negative), race/ethnicity (positive for blacks and negative for Hispanics), and number of dependents (negative) had significant effects on labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Dan Shang. Labor Supply of Young, Married, Former Participants in Vocational Education in Secondary Schools in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1989.
275. Wayno, Frank John, Jr.
Retirement Decision Process: A Multinomial Logit Analysis of the Expected Retirement Decisions of Middle-Aged Male Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Household Income; Retirement

This study examines the process by which an employed male, nearing the point in his work career where retirement becomes a possibility, selects an intended retirement mode from among the several possibilities available to him. Utilizing data from the NLS and employing multinomial logit analytical procedures, the study identifies the factors which influence the selection of retirement modes different from the traditional one of retirement at age 65. The research design: (1) operationalizes the decision to retire as a choice among multiple options; (2) incorporates mandatory retirement as a specifying variable in the retirement decision model; (3) utilizes a multivariate framework for analysis which includes six broad categories of factors reputed to be influential in the retirement decision; and (4) utilizes a longitudinal time frame in the analysis of the retirement decision process. The major findings of the study indicate that: (1) The six categories of factors do not each play a role in every retirement decision. The expectation of early retirement grows out of a decision process dominated by social psychological and informational factors, with age and changes in family income and assets playing a minor role. The decision process associated with the expectation of never retiring contains several factors from the employment rewards and retirement needs and resources categories, as well as the social psychological factors of importance to the early retirement choice. (2) Workers subject to mandatory retirement regulations are more prone to expect to retire early, and tend to consider a wider range of factors in their early retirement decision, than workers not so subject. A normative explanation for the findings is developed using anthropologist Richard Hall's "levels of culture" framework.
Bibliography Citation
Wayno, Frank John, Jr. Retirement Decision Process: A Multinomial Logit Analysis of the Expected Retirement Decisions of Middle-Aged Male Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1983.
276. Wells, Thomas Eric
Using the Two-Sided Logit Model to Elucidate the Determinants of Occupational Attainment
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2000. DAI 61,12A (2000): 4958
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Demography; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Studies; Family Background; Industrial Relations; Modeling, Logit; Racial Studies; Socioeconomic Background; Work Experience

This research project addresses the labor market process of matching people to jobs. Using John Allen Logan's two-sided logit model along with recent data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I investigate the process by which workers get matched to jobs, paying attention to characteristics and preferences of both workers and employers.

The results from my analysis indicate that race/ethnicity, cognitive ability, educational attainment, and years of work experience are all salient factors in predicting the likelihood of receiving employment offers. In addition, the results indicate that hourly rate of pay is a salient factor in predicting the likelihood of accepting an employment offer in a particular occupational category.

However, the coefficients corresponding to the preferences of employers for characteristics of individuals are not shown to be uniform across the occupational distribution. Rather, they are shown to differ across the occupational categories, suggesting the existence of differential employer preferences and differential demands for certain types of labor across the occupational structure. Such findings and interpretations are consistent with common sense and are hardly surprising. However, status attainment and earnings attainment models are usually constructed in such a way that a single uniform labor market process is implicitly assumed to operate across the entire occupational structure. The results indicate that this is not the case.

I also consider the role that family background variables may play in predicting the likelihood of receiving offers of employment in various occupational categories. However, these variables are not shown to provide much additional explanatory power in terms of predicting occupational outcomes.

My findings seem to indicate that employers are primarily concerned with the characteristics of individuals. An individual's socioeconomic background is not extremely relevant to employersand to their hiring decisions, ostensibly because (unlike cognitive ability, educational attainment, and work experience) it has little bearing on an individual's capacity to perform a job. However, this is not to say that socioeconomic origins have no bearing on occupational outcomes. My findings also suggest that background variables may exert important indirect effects through the other variables included in the model.

Bibliography Citation
Wells, Thomas Eric. Using the Two-Sided Logit Model to Elucidate the Determinants of Occupational Attainment. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2000. DAI 61,12A (2000): 4958.
277. Wheeler, Susan Elizabeth
Successful Children of Adolescent Mothers: Identifying Microsystem Factors Impacting the Adjustment of Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Academic Development; Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Depression (see also CESD); Family Influences; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Adolescent; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Variables, Independent - Covariate

The purpose of this study was to examine specific microsystem factors which predict the academic achievement and behavioral adjustment of children of adolescent mothers with a special emphasis on those children who are academically and behaviorally successful. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on 476 mothers between the ages of 15 and 19 years at the birth of their first child with first born children between the ages of 13 and 17 years in 1992 were used for this study. Of the sample mothers and children, 224 were African American, 155 were Caucasian, and 97 were Hispanic. There were 19 independent variables identified in this study including 6 microsystems categories (15 variables) and 4 individual child characteristic variables. There were 3 dependent variables measured in the study: Academic achievement, Behavioral Adjustment, and Overall Success. Both bivariate analyses and multiple step logistic regression analyses were completed employing the enter method to examine the effects of the predictor variables on each of the three dependent variables.
Bibliography Citation
Wheeler, Susan Elizabeth. Successful Children of Adolescent Mothers: Identifying Microsystem Factors Impacting the Adjustment of Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1997.
278. White, Mary Elizabeth
Home Environment, Self-Concept, and School Achievement in a Disadvantaged and Multiethnic Sample
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Education; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Structure; Health Factors; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Marital Status; Mothers, Race; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers

The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the effects of home environment variables on self-concept and school achievement. The statistical technique of path analysis was used to examine an extensive data set. Data were partly derived from a variety of psychological measures administered to a large sample of families in the first months of 1986. The measures included an achievement measure, a receptive language measure, a self-worth and perceived cognitive competence measure, and a home environment measure. Additional data considered in the analysis were developed from selected characteristics of the family units included in the study sample. Assessed characteristics included components of socioeconomic status, family structure (marital status of the mother), maternal educational level, race of the mother, and gender of the subject. The sample was composed of 307 male subjects and 291 female subjects between the ages of 7 and 15 years. The racial composition of the sample was 83 Hispanic, 255 Black, and 260 White subjects. The subjects participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in 1986. An important characteristic of the sample was that the majority of the mothers of the subjects gave birth when they were adolescents. As a result of the early pregnancies, the sample was highly representative of a more disadvantaged, less well educated population than the general population of American mothers. Results of the study indicated that the three variables most directly associated with scholastic achievement were family process, maternal education, and perceived cognitive competence. While no gender differences were identified in the analysis, there were significant ethnic differences in the relationships among the predictor variables and school achievement. One particularly significant finding was the importance of maternal education levels in predicting both family process characteristics and school achievement. The influence of maternal education was evident for all three ethnic groups examined in the study. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
White, Mary Elizabeth. Home Environment, Self-Concept, and School Achievement in a Disadvantaged and Multiethnic Sample. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1991.
279. Wilson-Figueroa, Maria E.
Relationship Between Migration Behavior and Poverty Status of Hispanic Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Migration; Poverty

The purpose of this research has been to study the migration behavior of poor and nonpoor Hispanic youth in the 1984-86 interval and to identify policy to alleviate the poverty situation of Hispanic youth in the United States. Two data sources were used to conduct the study: the NLSY and the County and City Data Book. These two sources allowed the study and integration of microlevel and macrolevel variables. In addition, the data allowed for the longitudinal measure of migration behavior. Research was carried out in two stages. The first stage was a descriptive of migration rates according to microlevel and macrolevel variables and according to types of migration. This stage also included the testing of hypotheses. The second stage was a multivariate analysis of microlevel and macrolevel predictors of migration of Hispanic youth for the 1984-86 interval. Due to the skewed nature of the data and the dichotomous dependent variable, logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Several models were used to measure the relationships between migration behavior and poverty status of Hispanic youth. Findings show that poor Hispanic youth tend to have lower migration rates than nonpoor Hispanic youth. Geographic areas defined as poor tend to have higher rates of migration than areas defined as nonpoor. Residence in counties with high concentrations of other Hispanics tends to act as an inhibitor of migration for the Hispanic youth in this study. [UMI ADG90-34099]
Bibliography Citation
Wilson-Figueroa, Maria E. Relationship Between Migration Behavior and Poverty Status of Hispanic Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University, 1990.
280. Wilson, Janet K.
The Impact of Roles on Involvement in Deviant Behavior During Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 1991.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_impact_of_roles_on_involvement_in_de.html?id=w8RnXwAACAAJ
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Control; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Teenagers; Variables, Independent - Covariate

The major question addressed by the current research project is to what extent the roles that we hold explain differences in rates of involvement in deviant behaviors during the years between adolescence and adulthood. Status integration, social control, and multiple identities theories/perspectives use role statuses as indicators of one's level of integration into society. Each hypothesizes an inverse relationship between level of integration, as reflected by the roles which are held, and level of involvement in delinquent and criminal behavior. The theories/perspectives differ in that status integration addresses the compatibility of roles, social control focuses on the tendency of conventional roles to strengthen the social bond, and multiple identities examines the additive nature of roles. Additional analyses examine the extent to which roles account for the age effect on deviant behavior and whether the impact of roles varies with age. The data for the analyses were collected by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) as part of the NLSY. The present research uses data from the 1980 and 1984 NLSY. Dependent variables are the levels of delinquent and criminal involvement as measured by 11 deviance scales. Roles held, age, and a number of control variables are employed as independent variables. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicate that social control theory is best able to explain the impact of roles on involvement in deviant behaviors during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. In addition, role statuses account for a large portion of the total variance associated with age. When roles are added to the regression equation, especially for the substance use scales, the amount of explained variance attributable to the age variables is decreased by one-half. Finally, the effect of role statuses varies with age. Specifically, subjects who possess nonnormative role statuses at a young age (i.e., those who are not living with parents, single, nonparents, or students) tend to report increased levels of involvement in other forms of deviant behavior. [UMI 91-33320]
Bibliography Citation
Wilson, Janet K. The Impact of Roles on Involvement in Deviant Behavior During Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 1991..
281. Winholtz, Gerald M.
Some Economic Determinants and Consequences of Marital Disruption
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1981
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Marital Disruption; Transfers, Skill; Urbanization/Urban Living; Women

This thesis represents an effort to formulate and test a theory which might account for the sharp rise in marital dissolution in recent decades. It was hypothesized that the increasing economic independence of women constitutes a critical factor in the upsurge in marital dissolution: with greater economic independence, marital dissolution becomes a less costly, more viable alternative for women. The NLS cohorts of Young Women and Mature Women were used to attempt to test the theory. Relevant variables to the increasing availability of employment for women were used: level of women's earnings, number of children, presence of a young child, and availability and level of public assistance payments. A set of control variables was also utilized, including age, age at marriage, duration of marriage, urban residence, husband's income instability, and level of husband's earnings. Availability of employment for women exhibited the expected influence: a significant increase in the probability of marital dissolution. In sum, the hypothesis regarding the centrality of a wife's economic independence as a determinant of marital dissolution was only partially upheld. To the extent that the economic independence of women may have been a significant factor in rising divorce rates in recent decades, these findings suggest that it is the increasing availability of jobs for women that is the key factor. Somewhat surprisingly, older women whose marriages dissolved experienced less absolute decline in economic well-being and remained better off than younger women. Those women whose husbands had more unstable income incurred a lesser absolute decline in economic well-being. However the most important determinant of economic well-being among those women whose marriage dissolved was their potential earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Winholtz, Gerald M. Some Economic Determinants and Consequences of Marital Disruption. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1981.
282. Wisnicki, Kathleen Sherlock
The Impact of Maternal Characteristics on Child Academic Achievement as Mediated by Home Environment: A Cohort-Sequential Approach to Latent Growth Modeling
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1998.
Also: http://en.scientificcommons.org/6149228
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Age at First Birth; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Gender; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Education; Poverty; Welfare

Research in child development consistently demonstrates the importance of both maternal and child characteristics and their influence on children's cognitive outcomes. Utilizing data from the NLSY Mother/Child Assessment, this study employs powerful, multivariate statistical methodology to examine growth in children's achievement over time with respect to important background variables. These include both maternal and child characteristics such as Poverty Status, Ethnicity, Gender, Maternal age at birth, Maternal Education, Maternal Support, and Maternal Drinking Behavior. This data set, which consists of data for over 9000 children and their mothers, allows for examination of children's growth at four time points (1986-1992) over a wide range of child ages (5-17). The complex structure of this data set provides a great opportunity to build on previous substantive findings, while demonstrating a cohort-sequential approach to latent variable growth modeling (LGM). Specifically, the LGM framework assumes that there is variable growth modeling (LGM). Specifically, the LGM framework assumes that there is individual variation in both the initial status of an individual and individual variation in growth rate over time. In this approach, random slopes and intercepts are incorporated into the model as latent variables, and growth in achievement is based on these growth parameters as influenced by background characteristics. Further, growth in achievement may be modeled independently for each birth cohort, as in a multiple-group design, allowing for parameter estimates based on the child's age at the time of assessment. In addition, the influences of background variables that change over time, such as poverty status, are examined at each assessment and are estimated for each cohort. Finally, the impact of home environment as a mediator for child outcomes and the manner in which the influence of home environment changes over time are examined. According to the results, aassumptions regarding individual variation in growth and initial status are valid. Further, the modeling sequence clearly demonstrates the need for the inclusion of both time varying and time invariant background variables into the growth model. Although the home mediator did not produce as big an effect on the outcome measure as initially anticipated, its usefulness within the latent variable growth model is easily demonstrated. Overall, this study provided a comprehensive framework for the study of growth over time with encouraging results. The importance of including background variables and the mediator is discussed in terms of relevance to many other applications in Social Science research.
Bibliography Citation
Wisnicki, Kathleen Sherlock. The Impact of Maternal Characteristics on Child Academic Achievement as Mediated by Home Environment: A Cohort-Sequential Approach to Latent Growth Modeling. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1998..
283. Wood, Erica Brown
Impact of Household Structure on the Economic Status of Employed Women: A Cohort and Racial Comparison
Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Household Income; Income; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Simultaneity; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This dissertation examines the impact of household type on the economic status of employed women. One of the major assumptions of the research is that the two are interrelated to such an extent that a comprehensive assessment of economic status cannot be made without simultaneously controlling for the effects of household composition. Another assumption is that patterns in household composition differ by race and that, in turn, causes both intra- and inter-racial economic disparities. The data for this study come from the NLS of Mature and Young Women, years 1967, 1968, 1977 and 1978. All aspects of the data analysis are controlled for household type; race; and cohort. The descriptive data examine the structure of respondents' changing household composition, current employment status, and labor force history as well as components of respondent total family income. The inferential analysis focuses on a human capital model of labor force earnings. The independent variables are education, Duncan occupational prestige code, labor force history, age of youngest child and other family income. The main finding is that both black and white married women in each cohort tend to capture higher returns on their human capital investments with respect to earnings than do black heads of household. The model and the descriptive data indicate signs of economic distress with respect to the increasing population of black heads of household: a drop in labor force participation over the decade studied, low levels of human capital attainment, and low levels of income other than earnings. Simultaneously, black heads of household tend to have nearly as many children as do married women but only one-half the total family income of married women with which to support their families. Results suggest a need to reevaluate the rapidly changing economic and familial roles of white women with data and research.
Bibliography Citation
Wood, Erica Brown. Impact of Household Structure on the Economic Status of Employed Women: A Cohort and Racial Comparison. Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1983.
284. Woodrow, Karen Ann
Fertility and Marital Dissolution among Young American Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1984
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Divorce; First Birth; Household Demand; Marital Stability; Marriage; Sexual Division of Labor; Variables, Independent - Covariate

The focus of this research is on the impact of childbearing upon the likelihood of marital dissolution during the first ten years of marriage. The birth of the first child causes numerous shifts in spousal roles, the household division of labor, time for leisure activities, and economic demands. Children also constitute a unique type of marital-specific capital, capital of greater value in the marriage than if the marriage were to dissolve. This research has two major directions: first, to discern the relationship between marital dissolution and the tempo of marital childbearing of the first, second and third births; and, second, to discern whether women's involvement in non-familial activities influences marital dissolution. The sample utilizes event-history data on first marriages for ever-married women from the NLS of Young Women, 1968-1978. A methodology particularly appropriate with longitudinal, event-history data is discrete-time proportional hazards modeling of the hazard of divorce. The independent variables are the woman's characteristics at the beginning of each marital year, including not only her characteristics at the time of entry into first marriage, but also, more importantly, the time-variant characteristics related to childbearing and non-familial roles. The dependent variable is simply the probability that a divorce occurs prior to the end of each marital year. The findings confirm that the occurrence of the first and second marital births decreases the hazard of divorce for black and white women during the first ten years of their first marriages. Rapid family formation during the first six years of marriage is associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Young women's involvement in the labor force increases the hazard of divorce. The timing and occurrence of the first marital birth is important in decreasing the likelihood of divorce during the early years of marriage. Future research should address the causal linkages between the presence of children and women's involvement in labor force activities
Bibliography Citation
Woodrow, Karen Ann. Fertility and Marital Dissolution among Young American Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1984.
285. Yang, Chih-Chien
Finite Mixture Model Selection with Psychometric Applications
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1998. DAI-A 59/09, p. 3421, Mar 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Data Analysis; Modeling; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Monte Carlo; Statistical Analysis

Recent statistical advances, for example, Bandeen-Roche, Miglioretti, Zeger and Rathouz (1997); Jedidi, Jagpal and DeSarbo (1997); and Wang and Puterman (1998) have made it feasible to fit finite mixture models in a wide range of applications. With a collection of plausible models for a given data set, problems of model selection arise. Selection among finite mixture models often involves a choice among models with different number of latent classes. As pointed out by several researchers (Everitt, 1981; Aitkin & Rubin, 1985), this can be problematic for traditional likelihood ratio tests because of the unknown distribution of the likelihood ratio. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate information criteria for alternative model selection procedures. Lin and Dayton (1997) showed that the accuracy of widely used criteria, AIC/BIC/CAIC, can be dissatisfying for complex finite mixture models. To improve the accuracy, a relatively newer criterion (Draper, 1995) as well as an adjustment of standard criteria have been suggested. The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of information criteria and standard likelihood ratio testing methods for various finite mixture models. Monte Carlo studies in this dissertation show that improvements of accuracy by using the adjusted information criteria are considerable. Guidelines are also provided for practical use of these model fit indices in estimating the number of latent classes, especially when different sample sizes, parameter structures and model complexities are involved. Following these guidelines, the optimum accuracy rates of these model fit indices can be achieved; moreover, situations that can cause low accuracy can be avoided. Finite mixture models for an alcohol dependence and abuse study using datasets from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY) are also illustrated. Both model selections and interpretations for the finite mixture models are emphasized using these examples.
Bibliography Citation
Yang, Chih-Chien. Finite Mixture Model Selection with Psychometric Applications. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California - Los Angeles, 1998. DAI-A 59/09, p. 3421, Mar 1999.
286. Yin, Tao
Relationship Between Mother's Alcohol Use and Child's Well-Being
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland at Baltimore, 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Well-Being; Control; Modeling; Parenthood; Parenting Skills/Styles; Substance Use

The study is aimed at: (a) testing a structural model on the relations among maternal alcohol use, family cohesion, quality of parenting, and children's well-being, and (b) examining the mediational effects of family cohesion and quality of parenting on children's well-being. The data from both the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the Children of NLSY79 datasets in 1994 were used to obtain a study sample of 1381 mother-child dyads. All the children in this study were between 10 and 14 years old in 1994. The mothers answered questions related to their alcohol use, such as the duration, frequency, quantity of drinking, and the impact of drinking. Information regarding family cohesion, quality of parenting, and child's well-being including psychological well-being, school performance, and child's own substance use/abuse were obtained from both the mothers and the children. A tentative model that highlights the relationships among these four constructs was developed based on literature review. Structural equation modeling was used to test the model in a random-split sample, which contained 691 of the subjects. The final revised theoretical model was cross-validated using the rest of the total sample.

Although the chi-square test value for the overall model fit of the final revised theoretical model is 882.7, with df = 454, p < 0.01, the ratio of the chi2/df is less than 2, indicating an acceptable fit. The fitness of the model to the sample is also supported by other fit indices, such as the GFI, CFI, and the NNFI. In this model, mother's alcohol use is associated with decreased family cohesion, and decreased family cohesion contributes to child's increased level of substance use/abuse. In addition, higher level of parental control/discipline is also associated with lower level of child's substance use/abuse, higher level of psychological well-being, and better school performance. The cross-validation also partially supports the external validity of the model. Early intervention aimed at promoting children's development may need to focus on how to promote closeness within the family and the quality of parenting rather than mother's own alcohol use behaviors.

Bibliography Citation
Yin, Tao. Relationship Between Mother's Alcohol Use and Child's Well-Being. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland at Baltimore, 2000.
287. Zhang, Zhiwei
A Longitudinal Study of Alcohol and Drug Use in the Workplace
Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1999.
Also: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-042299-100829
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Life Cycle Research; Longitudinal Data Sets; Occupational Choice; Wage Theory

Alcohol abuse and illicit drug use in the United States are major concerns of American households, as well as of the White House. This dissertation research evaluates alcohol abuse and controlled drug use by American workers in the context of various individual, organizational, and occupational settings. It tests the importation and organizational stress perspectives, the occupation subculture perspective, and the lifecycle wage compensation theory. The analyses are developed utilizing (1) logistic regression, (2) generalized linear modeling, including Poisson regression and negative binomial regression, (3) weighted modeling estimation, taking the clustering effects of complex survey design into account, and (4) the hierarchical growth curve modeling of intra- and inter-individual differences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-1993, the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, and the 1998 National Occupational Information Network (O*NET 98), I find that employees' drinking and controlled drug use behavior are predicted by a number of individual background characteristics, as well as workplace-environment variables. I also find that occupational characteristics influence alcohol and drug using behaviors of workers, although in more complex ways than suggested by much of the organizational stress and occupational subculture literature. It appears that occupations with higher levels of steady employment prospects exert the most significant negative effect on employees' alcohol use, marijuana use, and any illicit drug use, regardless of an employee's age, gender, race, education, and income. It also appears that the etiology of cocaine use is different from that of either alcohol use or other drugs, such as marijuana. Finally, I find that when education and years employed are held constant, employees' current marijuana use is negatively associated with their earnings. No evidence has been found that current alcohol use, current ma rijuana use, or lifetime cocaine use predicts future growth rates on earnings. Having examined the factors of occupational, organizational, and individual social/demographic characteristics as they influence patterns of alcohol abuse and controlled drug use in multiple large representative samples of the labor force, discussions on the research findings, the implications, the limitations, and the future study directions are presented. Access: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-042299-100829
Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Zhiwei. A Longitudinal Study of Alcohol and Drug Use in the Workplace. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1999..
288. Zhao, Zhong
Two Essays in Social Program Evaluation
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, 2002. DAI-A 62/10, p. 3511, Apr 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Educational Returns; Employment, In-School; Employment, Part-Time; Treatment Response: Monotone, Semimonotone, or Concave-monotone; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay studies using matching estimators to estimate models of treatment effects. The second essay is an empirical study of the impact of the Federal Work-Study program (FWS) on post college earnings. In the first essay, I compare propensity score matching methods to covariate matching estimators. I first clarify the misperception in the literature that propensity score matching estimators are less data hungry (require fewer observations) than covariate matching estimators. Next I propose a new matching metric incorporating the treatment response information. Then I examine the sensitivity of the matching estimate to the propensity score specification. Finally I use the National Supported Work Demonstration data set to demonstrate that, like any non-experimental estimator, the behavior of matching estimators crucially depends on the data structure at hand. In the second essay, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort data set to study the effect of the FWS on post-college earnings. I estimate different types of treatment effects of the FWS, namely, the average treatment effect (ATE), the treatment effect on the treated (TT), and the marginal treatment effect (MTE). These effects are conceptually different and have different policy implications. I find that the FWS has a zero or insignificant negative impact on post-college earnings for the whole population. But for the Black population, the FWS has a positive effect on its participants. My conclusion is that the FWS coverage rate is too high, and that it would be better to divert some of the FWS resources to other financial aid programs.
Bibliography Citation
Zhao, Zhong. Two Essays in Social Program Evaluation. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, 2002. DAI-A 62/10, p. 3511, Apr 2002.
289. Zimmerman, David J.
Intergenerational Mobility and the Transmission of Inequality: an Empirical Study Using Longitudinal Data
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Earnings; Education; Fathers; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Mobility, Economic; Modeling, Probit; Mothers and Daughters; Poverty; Sons; Variables, Instrumental; Welfare

This dissertation contains three separate essays. The first essay uses data from the NLS to measure the degree of intergenerational economic mobility in the U.S. Specifically it examines the extent to which the economic outcomes of sons resemble those of their fathers. Estimates are provided using a variety of procedures including Ordinary Least Squares Instrumental Variables and Generalized Method of Moments. The findings indicate the intergenerational correlation in earnings to be on the order of 0.4 suggesting considerably less economic mobility in the U.S. than previously reported. The second essay uses a matched sample of mothers and daughters from the NLS to measure the extent to which a daughter's exposure to parental welfare participation increases the probability of the daughter receiving welfare when she heads her own household. The observed correlation in the welfare histories of mothers and daughters would provide a biased estimate of the intergenerational welfare trap if parent-child earnings are correlated across generations. Two approaches are used to form an unbiased estimate of the welfare trap. The first predicts the fraction of children expected to participate in the welfare program AFDC simply because of the intergenerational correlation in income. The second approach employs a probit model of welfare participation. The findings suggest that much of the intergenerational correlation in welfare participation is not the result of a welfare trap but rather is an outcome of the intergenerational transmission of poverty. The third essay uses a matched sample of brothers and fathers and sons from the NLS to estimate the economic returns to schooling. Contrasting the earnings and education of brothers or fathers and sons provides a means of controlling for unobserved family attributes that could bias the estimated returns to schooling. The findings suggest that estimated returns to schooling do not suffer from a significant upward omitted variable bias but rather a substantial downward bias due to measurement error in reported schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, David J. Intergenerational Mobility and the Transmission of Inequality: an Empirical Study Using Longitudinal Data. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1992.
290. Zwycewicz, Anne Marie B.
Do as I Say, Not as I Did: A Mother's Influence on Her Daughter's Educational and Occupational Achievements
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1984
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; I.Q.; Mothers and Daughters; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Race; Occupational Aspirations; Pairs (also see Siblings); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Variables, Independent - Covariate

The present study investigated whether a mother's behavior and attitudes about work and school were significantly related to her daughter's educational and occupational achievements. It also explored whether the powerful influence of education on male achievement applies equally well to female achievement. Data from the NLS were used to study these questions. A subgroup of (144) NLS mother-daughter pairs selected by race served as the present subject sample. Multiple regression analyses were used to test each of five research hypotheses. Daughter's perceived encouragement from father to continue education past high school was included as a variable to clarify the role of parental encouragement on daughter's achievements. Three covariates, mother's age, daughter's age and daughter's oldest child status, were believed to influence the outcome measures, but were not of theoretical interest in the present study. Two mediating variables, daughter's IQ and SES of daughter's parental family, were chosen because of their known influence on achievement. Six maternal attitudinal factors were the main focus of the study: mother's occupation, whether mother worked for wages when daughter was a teenager, mother's educational achievement, mother's attitude toward women working, mother's prediction of daughter's educational achievement, and daughter's perceived encouragement from mother to continue education past high school. The study investigated the effect of these variables on two outcome measures, daughter's occupational achievement and daughter's educational achievement. The analysis showed that mother's attitudes and not her behaviors are related to daughter's occupational and educational achievements, and that daughter's educational attainment is correlated with daughter's occupational achievement. It was found that mother's prediction of daughter's educational achievement and daughter's perceived encouragement from mother explained an additional twenty percent of the variance in daughter's educational achievement, over and above the thirty-four percent of the variance explained by the covariates and mediators.
Bibliography Citation
Zwycewicz, Anne Marie B. Do as I Say, Not as I Did: A Mother's Influence on Her Daughter's Educational and Occupational Achievements. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1984.