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Author: Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Averett, Susan L.
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Fathers as Providers of Child Care
Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Child Development; Cognitive Development; Family Studies; Fathers, Involvement; Maternal Employment; Part-Time Work; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sex Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fathers are an important, but understudied, source of child care. In this paper we address two questions. First, what are the patterns of father care, and second, what are the cognitive and socio-emotional developmental consequences for children with working mothers whose fathers provide care? We find that father care is often used in conjunction with other forms of child care. Fathers are most likely to provide care when the mothers are working a non-day shift or are working part-time. The consequences of father care for a child's cognitive development differ by the age of the child. Father care during the first year of a child's life has a positive impact on developmental outcomes relative to other types of child care. In contrast, children in nonparental modes of child care have better cognitive outcomes in the second and third years. Nonparental care during the second or third year provides opportunities for cognitive stimulation and social interaction with peers and no nparental adults that may be less available to children who are cared for by their fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Lisa Anoush Gennetian and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Fathers as Providers of Child Care." Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996.
2. Averett, Susan L.
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Paternal Child Care and Children's Development
Journal of Population Economics 18,3 (September 2005): 391-414.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p63563120r7688h5/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Family Income; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Presence; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses the NLSY-Child data to assess the effects on cognitive and social-emotional development of father care as a child care arrangement among children in two-parent families with working mothers. Our results show that father care for infants is no better or worse than other types of arrangements. However, toddlers in non-paternal modes of child care (e.g., relatives, family day care or center care) have slightly better cognitive outcomes than those whose fathers provided care. Although our analyses do not provide a definitive explanation for this finding, there is a substantial influx of fathers in our data who provide child care in years 2 and 3 and these fathers appear compositionally different from fathers who provided care during a child's infancy. In particular, there is some indication that these fathers who are newly providing care during a child's toddler years may be temporary care providers due to changing economic circumstances.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Lisa Anoush Gennetian and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Paternal Child Care and Children's Development." Journal of Population Economics 18,3 (September 2005): 391-414.
3. Averett, Susan L.
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life
Marriage and Family Review 29,2-3 (2000): 115-136.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J002v29n02_08
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Care; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Foster Care; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Work Hours

This study examined patterns and determinants of father care of young children while mothers are working. The authors use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of individuals born from 1957 through 1964 who were interviewed as teenagers and reinterviewed every subsequent year. The final sample for this study included 1188 children and their 863 mothers. The results showed that full-time working mothers are less likely to use father care. Fathers in occupations that require non-day shifts are more likely to provide child care. While some studies have shown that fathers are more likely to provide care if they are unemployed, the data here show that fathers who provide care are no more likely to be unemployed than fathers who do not provide care. Of all the children in the sample whose mothers worked during their first year of life, 4.2% were cared for exclusively by their fathers and 4.4% were cared for by their fathers and some other care provider. Children who lived in states where the costs of child care are higher were more likely to be cared for exclusively by fathers. Hispanics were less likely to use only father care, and families in which the mother identified with traditional gender roles were less likely to use father only care. Families living in the South were less likely to use some father care. The determinants of father care varied with the extent of the care provides as well as with the age of the child. Working mothers who identified with traditional gender role patterns were less likely to use father care exclusively during the child's first year, but the effect becomes insignificant if the child had both father care and other types of care. Work schedules were generally important in predicting the use of father care with other care. While Hispanics were less likely to provide father care, those living in areas with high unemployment were more likely to provide care. Whites and African Americans living in areas of high unemployment were less likely to provide father care. These findings suggest that one way to increase father involvement is to support flexible work schedules for fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Lisa Anoush Gennetian and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life." Marriage and Family Review 29,2-3 (2000): 115-136.
4. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life
In: Fatherhood: Research, Interventions, and Policies, Volume 1. H. E. Peters and R. D. Day, eds. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, Inc., 2000.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Care; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Presence; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Also co-published simultaneously in Marriage and Family Review 29, 2/3 and 4, 2000

Conference: Conference on Father Involvement (Oct 1996 : Bethesda, MD, US). This paper uses retrospective child care data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the patterns and determinants of paternal child care during a child's 1st 3 yrs of life. Data were from 2-parent families and focused on 1,188 children of 863 mothers who worked sometime between the child's birth date and the child's 3rd birthday. It was found that father care is a fairly stable form of care; the average number of months that father care is used during a year is similar to the duration of other forms of child care. Paternal care is often used in conjunction with other types of child care including relative, nonrelative, and center care. Findings also show that different characteristics predict paternal child care according to the timing and extent of care. For those fathers who are the exclusive providers of child care during the 1st yr of life, the incidence of paternal child care is associated with race or ethnicity and a mother's identification with nontraditional gender roles. For those fathers who provide some of the total care during the 1st 3 yrs of a child's life, the incidence of paternal child care is more highly associated with the flexibility of a mother's and father's work schedule. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). Note(s): An earlier version was presented at the Conference on Father Involvement and at the annual meetings of the Population Association of America, Mar, 1997.; Special Issue: Fatherhood: Research, interventions and policies. Part I.

Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Lisa Anoush Gennetian. "Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life" In: Fatherhood: Research, Interventions, and Policies, Volume 1. H. E. Peters and R. D. Day, eds. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, Inc., 2000.
5. Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
One or Two Parents? Half or Step Siblings? The Effect of Family Structure on Young Children's Achievement
Journal of Population Economics 18,3 (September 2005): 415-436.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/y0354g4341274851/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Do children who live with both biological parents fare better than children in other types of family structures? Does the presence of step or half-siblings affect child well-being? This study examines the effect of family structure on young children's achievement addressing two sources of potential bias: (1) misclassification of blended families and (2) the omission of within-family and individual time-invariant unobserved characteristics. The results show that family structure, when defined using traditional classifications, has little effect on young children's achievement test scores. When the definition of family type is expanded, living in a blended family and living in some types of single mother families, appears to have a small, unfavorable relationship with children's achievement.
Bibliography Citation
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush. "One or Two Parents? Half or Step Siblings? The Effect of Family Structure on Young Children's Achievement." Journal of Population Economics 18,3 (September 2005): 415-436.
6. Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Resource Allocation in Families: A Comparative Analysis Using Stepfamilies
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Family Studies; Household Income; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper first examines if resource allocation accounts for differences between children in initact families versus stepfamilies. If preferences are motivated by biological ties then stepchildren be considered a private good within marriage; I test this hypothesis. Second, this paper examines if measures of a biological parent's bargaining power have greater weight in the level of c investment in stepfamilies versus intact families. I use the National Longitudinal Survey Female/Child file, which follows children and their biological mothers from birth of the child. The empirical work focuses on the relationship between indicators of resource availability (such components of household income and parental education) and child outcomes (achievement scores and home environment). Results indicate significant differences in the impact of nonbiological parent versus a biological parents' income and education on the child's assessment.
Bibliography Citation
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush. "Resource Allocation in Families: A Comparative Analysis Using Stepfamilies." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
7. Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Resource Allocation to Children in Families: A Comparative Analysis Using Stepfamilies
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Bargaining Model; Families, Two-Parent; Family Structure; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Stepfamilies

In this dissertation I compare stepfamilies (as one type of two parent family structure) with intact families (as another type of two parent family structure) to empirically examine hypotheses about resource allocation within families. Specifically I examine the hypotheses that (1) biological preferences affect resource allocation within the household, and, in turn, may account for documented differences in child outcomes between children in two biological parent families and stepchildren in stepfamilies; and (2) with biological preferences the impact of each parent's resources on child outcomes may significantly differ and thus, some types of married couple households may allocate resources through household bargaining. The empirical work is implemented using a sample of children aged 5 through 10 from 1986 to 1994 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Female/Child data. The child well-being measures include the PIAT achievement test score and the HOME Cognitive Subscore. If biological ties motivate the allocation of resources, then stepchildren, who have only one biological parent in the family, may be considered private goods within remarriage. Empirically, this hypothesis leads to testable implications about the effect of the presence of halfsiblings, stepsiblings and the effect of family income. I find some evidence of biological preferences and that, relative to children living in nonblended families, having a halfsibling or stepsibling has a negative impact on child outcomes for all children. My results also suggest that for young children there are benefits (via stepfather income) associated with a social environment that differs from that which existed while in single mother families. These benefits slightly mitigate the detrimental effects of resource allocation or of living in a blended family. With the basis of preferences being tied to biological membership and children as private goods within marriage, stepfamilies provide an alternative to t esting against the unitary model of household decision-making with respect to child outcomes. I test the income pooling hypothesis and the significance of other measures of bargaining power on child outcomes for children with two biological parents and stepchild outcomes. I reject the income pooling hypothesis in stepfamilies and fail to reject this hypothesis in families with two biological parents. These results suggest the appropriateness of a bargaining framework for modeling resource allocation within a stepfamily.
Bibliography Citation
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush. Resource Allocation to Children in Families: A Comparative Analysis Using Stepfamilies. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1998.