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Author: Usui, Emiko
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Okumura, Tsunao
Usui, Emiko
Concave-Monotone Treatment Response and Monotone Treatment Selection: With an Application to the Returns to Schooling
Quantitative Economics 5,1 (March 2014): 175-194.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3982/QE268/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Statistical Analysis; Treatment Response: Monotone, Semimonotone, or Concave-monotone

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper identifies sharp bounds on the mean treatment response and average treatment effect under the assumptions of both the concave-monotone treatment response (concave-MTR) and the monotone treatment selection (MTS). We use our bounds and the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to estimate mean returns to schooling. Our upper-bound estimates are substantially smaller than (i) estimates using only the concave-MTR assumption of Manski (1997), and (ii) estimates using only the MTR and MTS assumptions of Manski and Pepper (2000). Our upper-bound estimates fall in the range of the point estimates given in previous studies that assume linear wage functions.
Bibliography Citation
Okumura, Tsunao and Emiko Usui. "Concave-Monotone Treatment Response and Monotone Treatment Selection: With an Application to the Returns to Schooling." Quantitative Economics 5,1 (March 2014): 175-194.
2. Okumura, Tsunao
Usui, Emiko
Do Parents' Social Skills Influence Their Children's Sociability?
B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 14,3 (January 2014): 1081-1116.
Also: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bejeap.2014.14.issue-3/bejeap-2013-0077/bejeap-2013-0077.xml?format=INT
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, School-Age; Children, Temperament; Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT); Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Market Outcomes; Occupational Choice; Parenting Skills/Styles; Shyness; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Social Capital; Temperament; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article uses the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) to examine the effect of parents' social skills on their children's sociability. Similar to many other national surveys, this survey lacks detailed information on parents. To remedy this deficiency, we construct a measure of parents' sociability skills based on their occupational characteristics extracted from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). Even after controlling for a variety of background characteristics, including cognitive skills, we find that the sociability relationships between fathers and sons and between mothers and daughters remain statistically significant. We find that the dollar value to the sons of a given increase in their fathers' sociability is one-sixth of the value to the sons of the same standard-deviation increase in their fathers' education.
Bibliography Citation
Okumura, Tsunao and Emiko Usui. "Do Parents' Social Skills Influence Their Children's Sociability?" B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 14,3 (January 2014): 1081-1116.
3. Okumura, Tsunao
Usui, Emiko
Do Parents' Social Skills Influence Their Children's Sociability?
PIE/CIS Discussion Paper No. 466, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University Repository, March 2010.
Also: http://ideas.repec.org/p/hit/piecis/466.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Hitotsubashi University
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, School-Age; Children, Temperament; Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT); Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Market Outcomes; Occupational Choice; Parenting Skills/Styles; Shyness; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Social Capital; Temperament; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Several studies find that social skills are important determinants of labor market outcomes, including occupation and wages. This paper examines the causal effect of parents' social skills on children's sociability, using the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). This survey, like some other national surveys, lacks detailed information on parents; to remedy this deficiency we use occupational characteristics from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) to proxy for parental skills. By utilizing various measures of social skills, we find that parents' social skills have a positive effect on children's sociability along gender lines.
Bibliography Citation
Okumura, Tsunao and Emiko Usui. "Do Parents' Social Skills Influence Their Children's Sociability?" PIE/CIS Discussion Paper No. 466, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University Repository, March 2010.
4. Okumura, Tsunao
Usui, Emiko
Intergenerational Correlations of Skills
Presented: Boston, MA, Annual Meetings of The Society of Labor Economists (SOLE), May 2009.
Also: client.norc.org/jole/soleweb/9238.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, School-Age; Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT); Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Market Outcomes; Occupational Choice; Parenting Skills/Styles; Shyness; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Social Capital; Temperament

A number of studies have found that social skills (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, and leadership skills) are important determinants of labor market outcomes, including occupation and wages. This paper examines whether social skills are linked across generations; and whether a child's occupational choice is determined by his/her parent's abilities and personality traits. There are few studies on the intergenerational transmission of adult social skills due to a lack of data on parents' social skills. To resolve this problem, we use occupational characteristics from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) to proxy for the parents' skills. Also utilized is the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). A model of intergenerational skill following is presented. Subsequently, by constructing the appropriate measure of social skills, we find that social skills link across generations along the gender line. The correlation coefficient is computed, which measures the closeness of the direction of the multidimensional parent-child skill vectors. Skill correlation is found for father-son pairs, and the correlation is greater for whites than for blacks. White sons earn a wage premium for working in occupations that require similar skills to their fathers; whereas, black sons incur a wage penalty. This implies a transfer of occupationally-related human capital for whites, but not for blacks. Evidence for nepotism is found, when sons earn a wage premium for working in the same occupation as their fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Okumura, Tsunao and Emiko Usui. "Intergenerational Correlations of Skills." Presented: Boston, MA, Annual Meetings of The Society of Labor Economists (SOLE), May 2009.
5. Okumura, Tsunao
Usui, Emiko
Intergenerational Transmission of Skills and Differences in Labor Market Outcomes for Blacks and Whites
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9662, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2016.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp9662.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT); Earnings; Fathers and Sons; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Occupations; Racial Differences; Skills; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates, theoretically and empirically, differences between blacks and whites in the U.S. concerning the intergenerational transmission of occupational skills and the effects on sons' earnings. The father-son skill correlation is measured by the correlation coefficient (or cosine of the angle) between the father's skill vector and the son's skill vector. The skill vector comprises an individual's occupational characteristics from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). According to data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), white sons earn higher wages in occupations that require skills similar to those of their fathers, whereas black sons in such circumstances incur a wage loss. A large portion of the racial wage gap is explained by the father-son skill correlation. However, a significant unexplained racial wage gap remains at the lower tail of the wage distribution.
Bibliography Citation
Okumura, Tsunao and Emiko Usui. "Intergenerational Transmission of Skills and Differences in Labor Market Outcomes for Blacks and Whites." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9662, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2016.
6. Usui, Emiko
Gender Occupational Segregation: Theory and Evidence
Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 2002. DAI 63-11A (2002): 4037.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Job Skills; Labor Supply; Occupational Segregation; Wage Differentials; Women

This dissertation consists of two essays on gender occupational segregation and one essay on the role of severance payment policies on job separation rates.

The first essay studies the determinants of wage differences between predominantly female jobs and predominantly male jobs. In particular, I estimate the effects of the changes in proportion of men in an occupation on wage growth for workers who quit jobs and for those laid off. These estimates account for the fixed individual heterogeneity and job match specific error component, and they provide either an upper or lower bound on the true wage premium associated with working in predominantly male jobs. The estimated wage premium is in the range of 16-19 percent for women and 12-16 percent for men. The proportion male effect for quits is smaller than that for layoffs for both women and men, which implies that the wage premium overcompensates for the non-wage characteristics.

In the second essay, I analyze equilibrium search models in which jobs vary in terms of salary and hours of work. Jobs are heterogeneous in productivity, and the model is set up so that jobs with larger marginal productivity of an additional hour require more hours. In one version of the model, an employer offers two packages to workers. Simulated data match the empirical results in the first essay when: (1) women are more averse to work hours than men and (2) the likelihood of receiving an offer that workers cannot refuse to accept is higher for women than men. In the other version of the model, an employer offers a single package that accounts for the gender differences in preference. I develop an algorithm which solves for the equilibrium job distribution and show that employers raise the hour requirements when they discriminate against women.

The third essay uses an insider model of equilibrium unemployment to show that severance pay affects the jointly rational separation decisions of an employer and a worker. In particular, severance pay raises the equilibrium market tightness which is documented in a number of empirical studies.

Bibliography Citation
Usui, Emiko. Gender Occupational Segregation: Theory and Evidence. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 2002. DAI 63-11A (2002): 4037..
7. Usui, Emiko
Job Satisfaction and the Gender Composition of Jobs
Economics Letters 99,1 (April 2008): 23-26.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176507001802
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Satisfaction; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wages, Women

Regarding predominantly male jobs (using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth): While both sexes prefer male jobs, women like the pay and not the job-amenities; men appreciate both. Most of the women's pay premium in male jobs suggests compensating differentials.
Bibliography Citation
Usui, Emiko. "Job Satisfaction and the Gender Composition of Jobs." Economics Letters 99,1 (April 2008): 23-26.
8. Usui, Emiko
Wages, Non-Wage Characteristics, and Predominantly Male Jobs
Labour Economics 16,1 (January 2009): 52-63.
Also: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2008.04.001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Layoffs; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Male; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Quits; Wage Differentials

This paper estimates the wage premium associated with working in predominantly male jobs. It also examines whether this wage premium is greater than the compensation workers demand for the less desirable non-wage characteristics of such jobs. The coefficients of the change in the proportion of men in an occupation on the change in wages for quits and layoffs provide opposing biased estimates of the wage premium; because workers who voluntarily quit move to better matches, but those that are laid off accept jobs from the representative distribution of job offers. Specifically, when the premium paid over- (under-)compensates for undesirable work characteristics, the quit estimate is a downward (upward) biased estimate of the wage premium, while the layoff estimate is biased upward (downward). Results from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) indicate that: (1) the estimated bounds of the wage premium are large; and (2) the wage premium overcompensates for the non-wage characteristics of male jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Usui, Emiko. "Wages, Non-Wage Characteristics, and Predominantly Male Jobs." Labour Economics 16,1 (January 2009): 52-63.
9. Usui, Emiko
Okumura, Tsunao
Intergenerational Correlations of Skills
Presented: Amsterdam, Netherlands, European Association of Labour Economists (EALE) Annual Conference, September 18-20, 2008.
Also: http://www.eale.nl/Conference2008/Programme/Bookofabstracts.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: European Association of Labour Economists
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT); Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Market Outcomes; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parenting Skills/Styles; Shyness; Social Capital; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A number of studies have found that social skills (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, and leadership skills) are important determinants of labor market outcomes, including occupation and wages. This paper examines whether social skills are linked across generations; and whether a child's occupational choice is determined by his/her parent's abilities and personality traits. There are few studies on the intergenerational transmission of adult social skills due to a lack of data on parents' social skills. To resolve this problem, we use occupational characteristics from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) to proxy for the parents' skills. Also utilized is the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). A model of intergenerational skill following is presented. Subsequently, by constructing the appropriate measure of social skills, we find that social skills (also technical skills) link across generations. The correlation coefficient is computed, which measures the closeness of the direction of the multidimensional parent-child skill vectors. Skill correlation is found along the gender line. White sons earn a wage premium for working in occupations that require similar skills to their fathers; whereas, black sons incur a wage penalty. This implies a transfer of occupationally-related human capital for whites, but not for blacks. Evidence for nepotism is found, when sons earn a wage premium for working in the same occupation as their fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Usui, Emiko and Tsunao Okumura. "Intergenerational Correlations of Skills." Presented: Amsterdam, Netherlands, European Association of Labour Economists (EALE) Annual Conference, September 18-20, 2008.