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Author: Duncan, Kevin Craig
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Gender Differences in the Effect of Education on the Slope of Experience-Earnings Profiles: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1988
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 55,4 (October 1996): 457-471.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1996.tb02645.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Benefits, Fringe; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Job Skills; Job Tenure; Job Training; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling; Occupational Choice; Schooling; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wage Levels; Work Experience

Two earnings models are estimated for men and women of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth (1979 to 1988). Model 1 (a standard human capital equation) indicates women receive a relatively higher earnings effect from another year of education and week of work, suggesting that narrowing of the wage gap can occur through increasing these. However. increases in female education of over 20%, or increases in weeks worked of over 100% are needed to bring female earnings to the level of white males. Model 2, which includes the interaction between education and work experience, shows that more educated men have steeper experience earnings profiles while more educated women do not. This finding indicates different earnings growth patterns among similarly skilled and market attached men and women. Results imply that increasing female skills and work effort alone are insufficient in obtaining more equitable market outcomes and that the continuation of affirmative action policies are needed to achieve this goal. (Copyright American Journal of Economics & Sociology)
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig. "Gender Differences in the Effect of Education on the Slope of Experience-Earnings Profiles: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1988." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 55,4 (October 1996): 457-471.
2. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Racial Disparity in Earnings and Earnings Growth: The Case of Young Men
Social Science Journal 31,3 (1994): 237-250.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0362331994900213
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Earnings; Education; Human Capital Theory; Life Cycle Research; Racial Differences; School Quality; Wage Growth

Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth indicates a vintage effect (lower black-white earnings ratios for older cohorts relative to younger cohorts), but an examination of longitudinal earnings ratios suggests such an effect can be attributed to intra-cohort deterioration of black earnings over the life cycle rather than to inter-cohort differences in school quality. Regression results indicate that the role of education in influencing continued wage growth on-the-job differs by race. More educated white males hold occupations with steeper experience-earnings profiles. The same can. be said of blacks only at a lower level of statistical confidence. This findings implies that either labor market discrimination limits the earnings potential of black human capital or residual differences in school quality persist such that the education received by blacks does not have the same effect over the life cycle as the higher quality education received by whites.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig. "Racial Disparity in Earnings and Earnings Growth: The Case of Young Men." Social Science Journal 31,3 (1994): 237-250.
3. Duncan, Kevin Craig
The Impact of Structural Change on Human Capital and Dual Market Theories of Racial Earnings Disparity
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Utah, 1987. DAI-A 48/08, p. 2129, Feb 1988.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_impact_of_structural_change_on_human.html?id=FIHdNwAACAAJ
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Earnings; Educational Returns; Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; School Quality; Schooling

The human capital approach to racial earnings disparity suggests that the distribution of earnings may be altered by altering the distribution of skills among members of the work force. Early human capital theorists placed emphasis on increasing the quantity of schooling as a means of increasing skills; however, the theory has been modified to recognize the importance of the quality of schooling in improving the skills of labor. Empirical studies on the quality of schooling have suggested that as racial differences in educational quality have narrowed so have differences in earnings between black and white males. The literature on school quality suggests that differences in earnings can be explained by the quality of training undertaken by blacks and whites before they enter the labor market. My research has found that there is little evidence to support the orthodox hypothesis regarding the relationship between school quality and earnings. Using an index of school quality from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Young Men, regression results indicated that increases in educational quality were associated with reduced earnings for whites, but did not significantly contribute to the earnings of blacks. The significant and negative school quality coefficient may indicate that higher educational quality induces young white males to attain higher schooling levels and postpone their entrance into the labor market. However, increases in school quality do not perform the same function for young blacks. In addition, the results of the human capital regression model were sensitive to the period in which the model was estimated. In 1968, black and white males were rewarded with higher earnings for higher levels of labor market experience. However, in 1978, only white males continued to be rewarded for their labor market experience. These results suggest that racial differences in earnings cannot solely be attributed to differences in the quality of training undertaken before blacks and whites enter the labor market.[UMI ADG8724278]
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig. The Impact of Structural Change on Human Capital and Dual Market Theories of Racial Earnings Disparity. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Utah, 1987. DAI-A 48/08, p. 2129, Feb 1988..
4. Duncan, Kevin Craig
The Vintage Schooling Hypothesis and Racial Differences in Earnings and On-The-Job Training: A Longitudinal Analysis
Review of Black Political Economy 20,3 (Winter 1992): 99-117.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/104p16w66896593t/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: National Economic Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Life Cycle Research; Racial Differences; School Quality; Schooling; Training

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth indicates a vintage effect that is. lower black-white earnings ratios for older cohorts relative to younger cohorts. However, an examination of longitudinal earnings ratios suggests such an effect can be attributed to intra-cohort deterioration of black earnings over the life cycle rather than to inter-cohort differences in school quality. Regression results indicate that the role of education in influencing continued wage growth on-the-job differs by race. More educated white males hold occupations with steeper experience-earnings profiles. The same can be said of blacks only at a lower level of statistical confidence.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig. "The Vintage Schooling Hypothesis and Racial Differences in Earnings and On-The-Job Training: A Longitudinal Analysis." Review of Black Political Economy 20,3 (Winter 1992): 99-117.
5. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Prus, Mark J.
Atrophy Rates for Intermittent Employment for Married and Never-Married Women: A Test of the Human Capital Theory of Occupational Sex Segregation
Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 32,1 (Spring 1992): 27-37
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Education; Labor Force Participation; Manpower Planning; Marriage; Women

Many economists attribute the persistence of occupational sex segregation to the choices that women make in preparing for and on entering the labor market, while other economists argue that occupational sex segregation is the result of such factors as discrimination and sex role socialization. An alternative test of the occupational choice explanation for sex segregation is developed. Marital status is used as a proxy for differential commitment to the labor market, and atrophy rates are estimated for married and never married women. By dividing the sample of mature women in the National Longitudinal Survey for 1967 status, a test is conducted of the human capital prediction that women with less intermittent labor force participation opt for occupations characterized by a greater penalty for intermittence. The results suggest that, while expectations concerning labor force participation appear to guide women's preparation for the labor market and while other job characteristics may influence occupational sorting, differential atrophy rates have not been proven to be fundamental in guiding women's occupational choices.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig and Mark J. Prus. "Atrophy Rates for Intermittent Employment for Married and Never-Married Women: A Test of the Human Capital Theory of Occupational Sex Segregation." Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 32,1 (Spring 1992): 27-37.
6. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Prus, Mark J.
Starting Wages of Women in Female and Male Occupations: A Test of the Human Capital Explanation of Occupational Sex Segregation
Social Science Journal 29,4 (1992): 479-493.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0362331992900086
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Occupations; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Unions; Wage Differentials; Wages, Women

Debate regarding gender-based occupational segregation has been dominated by the view that segregation results from differences in the occupational choices made by men & women. An alternative test using the occupational choice explanation is presented, drawing on data derived from the 1967 National Longitudinal Survey for Mature Women, ages 30-44, to examine the human capital propositions that predominantly female (F) occupations are characterized by relatively higher starting wages & lower penalties for time spent out of the labor market. An examination of average hourly wage rates by level of work experience failed to indicate statistically significant starting wage differentials that would explain occupational segregation based on choice. Aggression analyses show that predominantly F occupations offer significantly lower starting wages & higher penalty rates relative to predominantly male occupations. Economic incentives suggested by human capital theory that would lead Fs to choose to work in traditionally F occupations are not found. It is suggested that future research should explore the roles of labor market discrimination & gender-role socialization in explaining occupational segregation. 3 Tables, 2 Figures. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1993, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig and Mark J. Prus. "Starting Wages of Women in Female and Male Occupations: A Test of the Human Capital Explanation of Occupational Sex Segregation." Social Science Journal 29,4 (1992): 479-493.
7. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Prus, Mark J.
Sandy, Jonathan
Marital Status, Children and Women's Labor Market Choices
Journal of Socio-Economics 22,3 (Fall 1993): 277-288.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/105353579390013B
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Modeling, Probit; Occupational Choice

This article provides a test of the human capital prediction that women with more labor force intermittence hold occupations characterized by lower earnings penalties for intermittence. By using marital and family status as proxies of labor market commitment the authors find that, on average, married women with and without children spend more time out of the labor force than never-married, childless women. Results from earnings regressions fail to indicate that the occupations they hold are characterized by significantly lower penalties for time not working. However, results from a probit model indicate that a woman's marital status, the presence of children, and the level of the husband's education significantly affect the probability of working. The results reported here suggest that human capital theory explains a woman's decision to work, but does not necessarily explain her occupational choice.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig, Mark J. Prus and Jonathan Sandy. "Marital Status, Children and Women's Labor Market Choices." Journal of Socio-Economics 22,3 (Fall 1993): 277-288.
8. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Sandy, Jonathan
Explaining the Performance Gap between Public and Private School Students
Eastern Economic Journal 33,2 (Spring 2007): 177-191.
Also: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/eej/journal/v33/n2/abs/eej200716a.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Journals
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Education, Secondary; Private Schools; Public Schools; School Quality; Schooling; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth are used to estimate the private school test score advantage. Regression results indicate that those who attend private schools score higher on the Armed Forces Qualifications Test. However, this advantage loses statistical significance with controls for family and school background. Decomposition of the private-public test score difference indicates that 78 percent of the gap can be explained by differences in average characteristics. Broken down further, 45 percent of the gap is due to differences in family background and 26 percent is due to differences in school quality.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig and Jonathan Sandy. "Explaining the Performance Gap between Public and Private School Students." Eastern Economic Journal 33,2 (Spring 2007): 177-191.
9. Sandy, Jonathan
Duncan, Kevin Craig
Does Private Education Increase Earnings?
Eastern Economic Journal 22,3 (Summer 1996): 303-312.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/40325720
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Journals
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Educational Status; Family Background; Human Capital; Job Tenure; Labor Economics; Private Schools; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Unemployment Rate, Regional; Wage Differentials; Wage Levels

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the relative effectiveness of public and private schools by examining the differential effects of education on earnings. The paper estimates wage equations, controlling for private education, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Holding family background, ability, and other school characteristics constant, the results indicate that respondents attending private schools earn significantly higher wages than those attending public schools. (Adapted from EconLit)
Bibliography Citation
Sandy, Jonathan and Kevin Craig Duncan. "Does Private Education Increase Earnings?" Eastern Economic Journal 22,3 (Summer 1996): 303-312.
10. Sandy, Jonathan
Duncan, Kevin Craig
Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap Between Urban and Suburban Students
Education Economics 18,3 (September 2010): 297-315.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09645290903465713
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Carfax Publishing Company ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Disadvantaged, Economically; Neighborhood Effects; Private Schools; School Quality; Socioeconomic Factors; Urbanization/Urban Living

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that approximately 75% of the gap in this achievement measure is explained by the high concentration of disadvantaged students in urban schools. Broken down further, 36% of the gap can be attributed to differences in family background. The lower income of urban families alone explains 25% of the gap. Differences in measures of school quality, such as small classes, large schools, and private school attendance, explain very little of the gap. While current policy focuses on schools and school reform, our results are a reminder that meaningful efforts to improve performance in urban schools must address socioeconomic conditions in urban areas. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Sandy, Jonathan and Kevin Craig Duncan. "Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap Between Urban and Suburban Students." Education Economics 18,3 (September 2010): 297-315.