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Author: Loprest, Pamela J.
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Loprest, Pamela J.
Gender Differences in the Labor Market Experiences of Young Workers
Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Mobility; Vocational Education; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wages, Young Women; Work Experience

Young women entering the labor market earn lower wages on average than young men. It is important to understand the sources of this initial wage gap because of the potential consequences for young women's futures. Wages are an important determinant of human capital investment, job choice, and labor force participation, all of which influence future labor market outcomes. This dissertation attempts to account for the gender wage gap by studying different aspects of young workers' labor market experiences. It focuses on the extent to which differences in young workers' rates of job mobility, high school work and vocational education, and early spells of nonwork can explain male/female wage differentials. All three chapters use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Loprest, Pamela J. Gender Differences in the Labor Market Experiences of Young Workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992.
2. Loprest, Pamela J.
Gender Differences in Wage Growth and Job Mobility
AEA Papers and Proceedings 82,2 (May 1992): 526-532
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Income; Job Status; Mobility; Mobility, Job

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The male-female wage differential increases with workers' time in the labor force. Lower wage growth of older female workers may be explained by lower levels of labor market experience due to time out of the labor force. However, the female-to-male ratio of earnings falls over time even for young full-time workers just entering the labor market. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that real wage growth over the first four years after labor-market entry for full-time workers is 35.6 percent for men and only 29.1 percent for women. This paper focuses on the job mobility of young male and female workers to try to explain this differential. In this paper. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to try to explain this increasing differential. I focus on the differences between men's and women's patterns of job mobility and wage growth in their first four years of working full-time in the labor market. There is much evidence that job-changing plays an important role in the wage growth of young men. Robert Topel and Michael Ward (1988) find that young men are very mobile with a large percentage of wage growth, 40 percent over the first ten years in the labor market, coming with job changes. This paper explores to what extent differences in job mobility, returns to job mobility, and the characteristics of the jobs men and women hold can account for the differences between men's and women's wage growth.
Bibliography Citation
Loprest, Pamela J. "Gender Differences in Wage Growth and Job Mobility." AEA Papers and Proceedings 82,2 (May 1992): 526-532.
3. Loprest, Pamela J.
Acs, Gregory P.
Profile of Disability Among Families on AFDC
Policy Brief (August 1996). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Health; Disability; Disabled Workers; Health Factors; National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Welfare

The authors assess the extent to which women and families currently receiving AFDC have a limited ability to work due to their own disabilities or those of their children. The resulting disability profile of AFDC recipients raises questions about whether the 20 percent exemption allowed for states is high enough to accommodate the number of recipients who are hard to place in jobs. The researchers employed a functional definition of disability to construct their profile. Under this definition, the interaction among impairments (such as blindness), chronic health conditions (such as arthritis), and social expectations about work is reviewed to determine its effect on the ability of an individual to perform expected work-related tasks - or, in the case of children, age-appropriate functions, such as attending school.

To create as complete a profile as possible, the researchers drew data from three sources: the 1990 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the 1990 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and 1992 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Their analysis reveals that between 27.4 and 29.5 percent of families receiving AFDC have either a mother or child with some level of functional limitation. Despite the differences in sample size and wording of survey questions among the three data sources used, this range is relatively narrow. In addition, since the data do not fully capture limitations due to mental or emotional disorders or substance abuse, these findings probably understate the true level of disability among the AFDC population.

National studies such as the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) use a variety of terms, including impairment, condition, limitations, and disability, all of which are defined slightly differently. Using data from the SIPP, the NHIS, and the NLSY, Loprest and Acs (1996) found that almost 16% of the families in their sample had a child with some type of functional limitation.

Bibliography Citation
Loprest, Pamela J. and Gregory P. Acs. "Profile of Disability Among Families on AFDC." Policy Brief (August 1996). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.