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Author: Noonan, Mary Christine
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Glass, Jennifer L.
Noonan, Mary Christine
Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989-2008
Social Forces 95, 1 (1 September 2016): 217-250.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article-abstract/95/1/217/2427137
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Telecommuting; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989-2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home. Working from home rather than the office produces equal earnings growth in the first 40 hours worked, but "taking work home" or overtime telecommuting yields significantly smaller increases than overtime worked on-site. Yet, most observed telecommuting occurs precisely during this low-yield overtime portion of the hours distribution. Few gender or parental status differences emerged in these processes. These trends reflect potentially widespread negative consequences of the growing capacity of workers to perform their work from any location. Rather than enhancing true flexibility in when and where employees work, the capacity to work from home mostly extends the workday and encroaches into what was formerly home and family time.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L. and Mary Christine Noonan. "Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989-2008." Social Forces 95, 1 (1 September 2016): 217-250.
2. Glass, Jennifer L.
Noonan, Mary Christine
Workplace Flexibility Policies and Wage Growth: Do Organizational Characteristics Matter?
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71714
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Growth; Work Hours; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the wage trajectories of workers using flexible work practices to see how emplwoyers evaluate such workers under a variety of organizational settings. Earlier research has shown markedly lower wage growth for professional and managerial mothers who use flexible work arrangements when their children are small (Glass, 2004). Fathers and non-parents who use the same workplace policies have not been carefully evaluated. This study estimates fixed effects models of respondents in the 1989-2002 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to assess the comparative impact of having a flexible schedule, working from home, and working reduced hours on the wage growth of mothers, fathers, and non-parents. We further explore differences in the size of wage penalties based on occupational sector, firm size, and occupational characteristics such as customer or client contact and supervisory authority.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L. and Mary Christine Noonan. "Workplace Flexibility Policies and Wage Growth: Do Organizational Characteristics Matter?" Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
3. Noonan, Mary Christine
A Cross-Cohort Analysis of the Effects of Parenthood on Employment for Women and Men
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Fatherhood; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-1998, Young Women 1968-1983 and Young Men 1966-1981, this study examines the effect of parenthood on the paid employment of young men and women over time. In view of women's increased labor force attachment, recent cohorts of women may be less likely to interrupt their work lives (or at lest for a shorter period) after childbirth than later cohorts. Furthermore, as recent cohorts of men become more involved in family responsibilities and childcare, they may be more likely than later cohorts to reduce their time in the labor force in response to the demands of parenthood. In the first stage of the analysis, estimates are made to determine if employment responses to parenthood have been changing or remaining stable across time for both men and women. Next, decomposition analysis is performed to determine whether cohort differences are due to changes in the composition of cohorts or to behavioral changes across cohorts. Implications of the findings discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Noonan, Mary Christine. "A Cross-Cohort Analysis of the Effects of Parenthood on Employment for Women and Men." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2000.
4. Noonan, Mary Christine
How Much Does the Long Term Cost of a Work Interruption Influence Women's Employment Behavior Surrounding First Birth?
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Economic Changes/Recession; Employment; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Income; Re-employment; Wages, Women; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Economic theory states that a woman will allocate time to employment only if the value of her time in the labor force exceeds the value she places on her time at home. Previous research examining women's employment behavior around the time of childbirth has measured the value of market time, or the cost of a work interruption, with current earnings. This measure is incomplete, however, because the cost of a work interruption involves more than simply the loss of current earnings. Future earnings will also be reduced as a result of a work interruption because of wage depreciation and forgone wage appreciation occurring during the interruption period. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I create a measure of the long-term cost of an employment break for each woman into the sample, and then test whether it predicts a woman's employment behavior surrounding the first birth.
Bibliography Citation
Noonan, Mary Christine. "How Much Does the Long Term Cost of a Work Interruption Influence Women's Employment Behavior Surrounding First Birth?" Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2001.
5. Noonan, Mary Christine
The Changing Effects of Parenthood On Men's and Women's Employment
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, 2001. DAI-A 62/10 p.3577, April 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Employment; Fatherhood; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Parenthood; Wage Effects

This dissertation examines trends in men's and women's employment behavior around the time of first childbirth, and in doing so contributes to the sociological literature on gender roles, labor markets, and social change. I use data from multiple cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys and employ a range of analytic methods, including decomposition analysis and fixed-effects regression techniques. The first part of the dissertation examines trends in the parenthood-employment relationship for both men and women. Results show that men's employment patterns around the time of childbirth show no significant change; employment for both cohorts of men remains at consistently high levels in the months surrounding childbirth. Recent cohorts of women continue to withdraw from the labor force around the time of their first birth, although they work longer into pregnancy and return to work sooner after childbirth than early cohorts of women. In the second part of the dissertation, I develop a measure of the long-term costs of a work interruption and test whether it predicts women's employment behavior at the time of first birth. Results show that while the average short-term cost of a one-year employment break is $17,000, the average long-term cost is over $80,000. Put differently, over the long term, a woman who takes a one-year break will earn only 67% of what a comparable woman would earn who had not taken a break. Both the short and long-term costs have significant negative effects on the likelihood of women taking one-year employment breaks around the time of their first childbirth; however, the effect of the short-term cost appears to be stronger. The final part of the dissertation assesses whether changes in the magnitude and effect of the long-term costs of an employment break help explain trends in women's employment around the time of childbirth. Results show that the average long-term cost of an employment break has increased considerably over time and does account for a substantial portion of the increase in women's employment. The long-term cost has a negative effect on women's employment behavior at the time of first birth in both cohorts, however the effect has remained relatively stable over time.
Bibliography Citation
Noonan, Mary Christine. The Changing Effects of Parenthood On Men's and Women's Employment. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, 2001. DAI-A 62/10 p.3577, April 2002.
6. Noonan, Mary Christine
Glass, Jennifer L.
The Hard Truth about Telecommuting
Monthly Labor Review 135,6 (June 2012): 38-45.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2012/06/art3exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Telecommuting; Work Experience; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Telecommuting has not permeated the American workplace, and where it has become commonly used, it is not helpful in reducing work-family conflicts; telecommuting appears, instead, to have become instrumental in the general expansion of work hours, facilitating workers’ needs for additional worktime beyond the standard workweek and/or the ability of employers to increase or intensify work demands among their salaried employees.
Bibliography Citation
Noonan, Mary Christine and Jennifer L. Glass. "The Hard Truth about Telecommuting." Monthly Labor Review 135,6 (June 2012): 38-45.
7. Noonan, Mary Christine
Wang, Minglu
Marriage Versus Employment: Comparing Antipoverty Strategies for Mothers
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, March-April 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Income; Poverty; Racial Differences; Re-employment; Wages, Women; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In recent years, several studies have shown that married women are much less likely than are single women to live in poverty. Another body of research has shown that women's employment, not surprisingly, is also negatively related to poverty. However, little is known about the role of marriage compared to the role of labor force participation in alleviating poverty among women. This issue is important because current debates over welfare policy center on whether work participation requirements should be increased and/or whether the government should actively encourage marriage among low-income single mothers. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2002) to analyze the impact of transitions into and out of marriage and employment on the likelihood of being poor among a sample of women. Two separate models estimate the impact of marriage and employment on short-term poverty and long-term poverty. Also, models are estimated separately by race because of important racial differences in the labor market and marriage market.
Bibliography Citation
Noonan, Mary Christine and Minglu Wang. "Marriage Versus Employment: Comparing Antipoverty Strategies for Mothers." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, March-April 2006.
8. Noonan, Mary Christine
Wang, Minglu
Marriage Versus Employment: Comparing Antipoverty Strategies for Mothers
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa, September 2005.
Also: http://paa2006.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=61531
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, University of Iowa
Keyword(s): Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Income; Poverty; Racial Differences; Re-employment; Wages, Women; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In recent years, several studies have shown that married women are much less likely than are single women to live in poverty. Another body of research has shown that women's employment, not surprisingly, is also negatively related to poverty. However, little is known about the role of marriage compared to the role of labor force participation in alleviating poverty among women. This issue is important because current debates over welfare policy center on whether work participation requirements should be increased and/or whether the government should actively encourage marriage among low-income single mothers. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2002) to analyze the impact of transitions into and out of marriage and employment on the likelihood of being poor among a sample of women. Two separate models estimate the impact of marriage and employment on short-term poverty and long-term poverty. Also, models are estimated separately by race because of important racial differences in the labor market and marriage market.
Bibliography Citation
Noonan, Mary Christine and Minglu Wang. "Marriage Versus Employment: Comparing Antipoverty Strategies for Mothers." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa, September 2005.
9. Rippeyoung, Phyllis L. F.
Noonan, Mary Christine
Is Breastfeeding Truly Cost Free? Income Consequences of Breastfeeding for Women
American Sociological Review 77,2 (April 2012): 244-267.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/77/2/244
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Earnings; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Mothers, Income; Wage Determination; Wage Effects; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on studies showing health advantages for breastfeeding mothers and their infants, pediatricians and other breastfeeding advocates encourage new mothers to breastfeed their babies for at least the first six months of their infants’ lives, arguing that breast milk is best for infants, families, and society, and it is cost free. Few empirical studies, however, document how the decision to breastfeed instead of formula-feed is associated with women’s post-birth earnings. This is an important omission, given that the majority of women today work for pay, and many work in job environments incompatible with breastfeeding. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, our results show that mothers who breastfeed for six months or longer suffer more severe and more prolonged earnings losses than do mothers who breastfeed for shorter durations or not at all. The larger post-birth drop in earnings for long-duration breastfeeders is due to a larger reduction in labor supply. We discuss the implications of these findings for gender equality at home and at work.
Bibliography Citation
Rippeyoung, Phyllis L. F. and Mary Christine Noonan. "Is Breastfeeding Truly Cost Free? Income Consequences of Breastfeeding for Women." American Sociological Review 77,2 (April 2012): 244-267.
10. Rippeyoung, Phyllis L. F.
Noonan, Mary Christine
Is Breastfeeding Truly Free? The Economic Consequences of Breastfeeding for Women
Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Earnings; Income; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research has clearly demonstrated that income and work status are two strong predictors of whether or not a mother breastfeeds her child: income has a positive effect and work status has a negative effect on the odds of a woman breastfeeding versus formula feeding her child. However, the effect of breastfeeding on women’s employment outcomes is largely unknown. Since breastfeeding is currently less compatible with work than formula feeding, women who breastfeed their children may be more likely to take an extended maternity leave, reduce their work hours after childbirth, or quit work entirely. These strategies will potentially lead to lower earnings in the short-term and may also affect long-term economic prospects by reducing mothers’ prospects for promotions or raises. Using growth modeling and fixed effects techniques, we use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to assess whether there are long-term differences in the earnings trajectories between breastfeeding and formula feeding mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Rippeyoung, Phyllis L. F. and Mary Christine Noonan. "Is Breastfeeding Truly Free? The Economic Consequences of Breastfeeding for Women." Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.