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Author: Mimura, Yoko
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Linnenbrink, Mary
Mauldin, Teresa A.
Mimura, Yoko
Vanderford, Stephanie
Income Resources of Low-Income Families with Children: Does Cohabitation Matter?
Presented: Madison, WI, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM), 28th Annual Research Conference, November 2-4, 2006.
Also: http://www.earlyeducationresearch.org/ICPSR/biblio/studies/4683/resources/70569?collection=DATA&sortBy=1&type=Conference+Proceedings&paging.startRow=26
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; Family Models; Family Structure; Income Level; Marital Status; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Introduction: Among low-income families with children, do income sources differ between married couples and cohabiting couples? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NSLY79), we examined low-income families' types of income sources, both earned and unearned, and amount from each source. Background: Our previous study (presented at the APPAM 2004 meeting) addressed a similar question by comparing income between families in which all members were related by birth, marriage, or adoption and other families. Among low-income families with children, few differences were found. This study refines the approach by focusing on the legal relationship between parents. Studies show that cohabiting families' financial behavior is diverse (Winkler, 1997); however, little is known about differences in the income sources of low-income married and cohabiting families with children. Theoretical focus: According to the economic model of marriage (Bryant, 1990), individuals marry and remain married when being married is more beneficial than not being married. Thus, we assume that cohabiting couples see some sort of benefits in remaining unmarried. Data and sample: The data came from the NLSY79 2002 interview, and the sub-sample for this study includes low-income (total income no more than twice the 2001 poverty thresholds) families with children younger than 18 years of age. First, both single-parent families (n=661) and two-parent families (n=911) were selected for descriptive purposes. Then for the multivariate analyses, the latter group was further divided among first-marriage families (n=613), subsequent-marriage families (n=185), and cohabiting-couple families (n=113). Three income source categories are: earned income, Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), and all other income sources, including social insurance, transfer income, child support, and other. Methodology: Using a Double-Hurdle Cragg model for each of the three income sources, we assessed how the proba bility of receiving each income source and the amount of each were different among the three groups of two-parent families. Family and respondent socio-demographic characteristics, as well as the region of residence, were controlled. Findings: The probabilities of having the three income sources were not different among the three family types. The amounts that cohabiting-couple families received from earned and "all other" income sources were significantly lower than the amounts received by first-marriage families. Policy implications: Understanding the financial resources of low-income families, particularly those that cohabit, will help policymakers design policies to best assist such families. Results: have implications for EITC and the marriage initiative in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA).
Bibliography Citation
Linnenbrink, Mary, Teresa A. Mauldin, Yoko Mimura and Stephanie Vanderford. "Income Resources of Low-Income Families with Children: Does Cohabitation Matter?" Presented: Madison, WI, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM), 28th Annual Research Conference, November 2-4, 2006.
2. Mauldin, Teresa A.
Mimura, Yoko
Changes in Marital Status and Poverty Dynamics among Young Mothers in the United States
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Marital Status; Mothers, Adolescent; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also presented: Helsinki, Finland: International Household & Research Conference, 2002

How do changes in young mothers' marital status relate to the likelihood of exiting from and reentering into poverty? Does marrying get them out of poverty as strongly as being unmarried puts them back into poverty? Using two-way transition models from event history analysis and a sample of young mothers who experienced poverty from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, we will address these questions.

We expect to find that getting married in a year is associated with the increased likelihood of exiting poverty in the year and with decreased likelihood of going back into poverty. Being unmarried is hypothesized to be associated with an increased likelihood of reentering poverty and decreased likelihood of exiting from poverty when other conditions are kept equal. We also expect that the economic benefit of marrying for young mothers is smaller than the negative economic consequences from being unmarried.

Bibliography Citation
Mauldin, Teresa A. and Yoko Mimura. "Changes in Marital Status and Poverty Dynamics among Young Mothers in the United States." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002.
3. Mauldin, Teresa A.
Mimura, Yoko
Exits from Poverty Among Rural and Urban Black, Hispanic, and White Young Adults
Review of Black Political Economy 29,1 (Summer 2001): 9-23.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/y5vqrl6tvnb4a1eu/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Studies; Exits; Family Background; Hispanics; Human Capital; Poverty; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Rural Sociology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the NLSY79 cohort data (1981-1993), we examined Black, Hispanic, and White young adults for their poverty exit rates as a function of the elapsed duration of the spell, family background characteristics, human capital, labor market factors, and other socio-demographic variables. There was no difference in exit rates between rural and urban residents or between Hispanic and Whites, ceteris paribus. At the baseline, Blacks had lower exit rates than Whites between the third and fourth years, and the gap was greater when the respondents lived in the north central region of the United States and when they were not employed.
Bibliography Citation
Mauldin, Teresa A. and Yoko Mimura. "Exits from Poverty Among Rural and Urban Black, Hispanic, and White Young Adults." Review of Black Political Economy 29,1 (Summer 2001): 9-23.
4. Mauldin, Teresa A.
Mimura, Yoko
Marrying, Unmarrying, and Poverty Dynamics among Mothers with Children Living at Home
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 28,4 (December 2007): 566-582.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/fk37722vvn6701g7/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Child Development; Discrimination; Domestic Violence; Economics of Gender; Family Structure; Fertility; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the two-way transitions model and a sample of mothers with children living at home who experienced poverty, we examined how the changes in mothers' marital status relate to the odds of exiting and reentering poverty. The data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort (1979-1998). This study found an asymmetric association between poverty dynamics and becoming unmarried. Becoming unmarried was associated with increased odds of both getting out of poverty and reentering poverty, where the magnitude of the latter is greater than that of the former, when family background, family characteristics, and human capital and employment factors are controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Mauldin, Teresa A. and Yoko Mimura. "Marrying, Unmarrying, and Poverty Dynamics among Mothers with Children Living at Home." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 28,4 (December 2007): 566-582.
5. Mimura, Yoko
Poverty Dynamics Among Young Adults in Rural and Urban United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 2001. DAI, 63, no. 01B (2001): p. 221
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Modeling; Poverty; Rural/Urban Differences; Rural/Urban Migration; Simultaneity

The five objectives of this study were to examine whether individuals with characteristics associated with lower poverty exit rates were more likely to be in poverty upon becoming young adults, to assess the impact of left-censoring on poverty exit rate estimation, to examine if rural residency was associated with lower poverty exit rates than urban residency, to determine if time-varying variables associated with exit from and reentry into poverty were symmetric, and to assess the relationship between rural-to-urban migration and timing of exit from poverty, all among young adults (age 25 to 36). Discrete-time logistic regression was utilized, and the data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort.

When demographic, human capital, and labor market factors were compared, young adults who were in poverty at the beginning of the observation period (age 25) were different from those who experienced poverty later during the observation period. The poverty exit rate estimates using the data with poverty duration information only from age 25 were different from those using the data with poverty duration information from pre-young adulthood (for those who were in poverty at age 25). Young adults living in rural areas had lower poverty exit rates than those living in urban areas; however, when other factors (described above) were controlled for, this difference disappeared. Using a two-way transit model that simultaneously assesses poverty exit and reentry rates, it was found that having had a health problem in a given year was associated with lower poverty exit rates and lower poverty reentry rates in that year. Lastly, poverty spells that involved rural-to-urban migration had lower exit rates than those that were experienced only in rural areas. In addition, after relocating to an urban area, the longer young adults remained in poverty, the less likely they were to exit from poverty. Public policy implications are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Mimura, Yoko. Poverty Dynamics Among Young Adults in Rural and Urban United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, 2001. DAI, 63, no. 01B (2001): p. 221.
6. Mimura, Yoko
Retirement Savings among Immigrant Women in Child-rearing Years
Presented: Savannah, GA, Eastern Family Economics and Resource Management Association Conference, February-March 2008.
Also: http://mrupured.myweb.uga.edu/conf/retirement_savings_mimura.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Eastern Family Economics and Resource Management (EFERMA)
Keyword(s): Immigrants; Retirement; Savings; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Literature on immigrants and retirement savings suggests that foreign-born individuals have more relaxed attitudes toward financial preparation in old age than the native-born population (Fontes & Gutter, 2006). This study will examine if immigrant women in child-rearing years save less for retirement than native-born American women and whether variations in retirement saving among immigrant women can be explained by perceived variations in life expectancy in their native countries.
Bibliography Citation
Mimura, Yoko. "Retirement Savings among Immigrant Women in Child-rearing Years." Presented: Savannah, GA, Eastern Family Economics and Resource Management Association Conference, February-March 2008.
7. Mimura, Yoko
Variations in Retirement Account Holdings among Women: Native and Immigrants in the U.S.
International Journal of Business and Finance Research 7,5 (April 2013): 11-22.
Also: http://www.theibfr.com/ARCHIVE/IJBFR-V7N5-2013.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Business and Finance Research, LLC. (IBFR)
Keyword(s): Immigrants; Retirement; Savings; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigated how immigrant status and life expectancy in the country of origin relate to variations in retirement savings among working age women in the U.S. Specifically, utilizing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort data, this study compared native-born Americans, naturalized citizens, and female, non-U.S. citizens in regards to retirement-specific accounts. Overall, naturalized U.S. citizens had higher odds of saving for retirement than non-U.S. citizens; however, after controlling for socio-economic backgrounds, the difference was not significant. Variations in female life expectancies provided weak support to correlate with saving for retirement among female immigrants. Rather, variations in the demographic characteristics of these women explained the differences in the odds of having savings in a U.S. retirement account. The findings gave support for immigrants' economic assimilations corresponding with delayed cultural assimilations and implications for financial service professionals who work with immigrant clients.
Bibliography Citation
Mimura, Yoko. "Variations in Retirement Account Holdings among Women: Native and Immigrants in the U.S. ." International Journal of Business and Finance Research 7,5 (April 2013): 11-22.
8. Mimura, Yoko
Mauldin, Teresa A.
American Young Adults' Rural-to-Urban Migration and Timing of Exits from Poverty Spells
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Exits; Family Characteristics; Gender; Human Capital; Marital Status; Migration; Poverty; Rural/Urban Differences; Rural/Urban Migration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined the timing of exit from poverty among rural young adults who migrated to urban areas in the United States, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, with a focus on gender and marital status. Poverty spells that involved relocation to urban areas lasted longer than those that did not. Poverty exit rates upon relocating to urban areas declined each year the young adults remained in poverty, but the impact of remaining in urban areas on reduced poverty exit rates diminished when family characteristics, human capital, and labor market factors were controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Mimura, Yoko and Teresa A. Mauldin. "American Young Adults' Rural-to-Urban Migration and Timing of Exits from Poverty Spells." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001.
9. Mimura, Yoko
Mauldin, Teresa A.
American Young Adults' Rural-to-Urban Migration and Timing of Exits from Poverty Spells
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 26,1 (Spring 2005): 55-76.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p727j01518241693/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Exits; Family Characteristics; Gender; Human Capital; Marital Status; Poverty; Rural Youth; Rural/Urban Migration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined the timing of exit from poverty among rural young adults who migrated to urban areas in the United States, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, with a focus on gender and marital status. Poverty spells that involved relocation to urban areas lasted longer than those that did not. Poverty exit rates upon relocation to urban areas declined each year the young adults remained in poverty, but the impact remaining in urban areas had on reduced poverty exit rates diminished when family characteristics, human capital, and labor market factors were controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Mimura, Yoko and Teresa A. Mauldin. "American Young Adults' Rural-to-Urban Migration and Timing of Exits from Poverty Spells." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 26,1 (Spring 2005): 55-76.
10. Mimura, Yoko
Mauldin, Teresa A.
Duration in Poverty among Young Adults in Rural America
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Economic Well-Being; Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Characteristics; Fathers; Household Composition; Human Capital; Marital Status; Poverty; Rural Areas; Youth Problems

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper focuses on understanding the poverty dynamics among young adults in rural areas, based on a hypothesis that human capital formation opportunities and subsequent economic well-being are different for rural and urban residents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79 cohort data and survival analysis, we examined rural young adults aged at least 23 for their exit from poverty spell as a function of duration of the spell, family background characteristics, human capital, labor market factors, and other socio-demographic variables. The sample included individuals who experienced a poverty spell and have lived in rural areas at least once between 1981 and 1993. Older cohorts were more likely to have exited from a poverty spell. General literacy rate at age 14, having a father who was born in a foreign country, and higher education of father increased the likelihood that a respondent exited from a poverty spell. Moving to either a rural or urban area, living in the north-central region as opposed to the South, not being employed, and having more children of one
Bibliography Citation
Mimura, Yoko and Teresa A. Mauldin. "Duration in Poverty among Young Adults in Rural America." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.