Search Results

Author: Kohen, Andrew I.
Resulting in 34 citations.
1. Andrisani, Paul J.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Career Thresholds, Volume 5: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth
Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 5. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Collective Bargaining; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment, Youth; Unions; Wages

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of collective bargaining on the relative earnings and employment experience of young blue collar males over the 1969-1970 period. Specifically, the authors have examined the effects of collective bargaining on five dimensions of labor market experience: (1) hourly rate of pay at the beginning of the period; (2) hours usually worked per week; (3) likelihood of being unemployed during the 12-month period; (4) duration of unemployment; and (5) growth in hourly earnings during the period. Additionally, they examined the relationship between unionism and racial differentials in these measures of labor market experience. In all cases, they attempted to ascertain the effects of collective bargaining on comparable workers within each race group.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Andrew I. Kohen. Career Thresholds, Volume 5: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 5. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975.
2. Andrisani, Paul J.
Kohen, Andrew I.
The Effects of Collective Bargaining as Measured for Men in Blue-Collar Jobs
Monthly Labor Review 100,3 (April 1977): 46-49
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Collective Bargaining; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Unions; Wages

This study examines the effect of collective bargaining coverage on hourly rates of pay, unemployment experiences, and growth in hourly earnings of young and middle-aged blue collar men. The authors find a significant and consistent positive impact of coverage on the level of hourly earnings but the impact of unions on joblessness and wage growth is more mixed. Age as well as race differences in these outcomes are noted and discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Andrew I. Kohen. "The Effects of Collective Bargaining as Measured for Men in Blue-Collar Jobs." Monthly Labor Review 100,3 (April 1977): 46-49.
3. Egge, Karl Albert
Kohen, Andrew I.
Shea, John R.
Zeller, Frederick A.
Changes in the Federal Minimum Wage and the Employment of Young Men, 1966-67
In: Youth Unemployment and Minimum Wages: Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 1657. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1970
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keyword(s): Minimum Wage; Teenagers; Unemployment, Youth

These data permit the "before and after" experience of youth to be related to the wage they were earning before the new minimum became effective. The authors ask whether those youth whose marginal productivity was lower than the newly established minimum had relatively less favorable employment experiences after the minimum wage changes than those whose wages already had been above the minimums. One would expect these low productivity youngsters to be among the first to feel whatever restriction of employment opportunities the minimum wage created. The fact that the authors have been unable to find in their data any general tendency for the foregoing relationship leads to the conclusion that if the minimum wage increases did indeed create unemployment among youth, the effect was not a pronounced one. Even when the analysis was focused on these subgroups of young men who might, on a priori grounds, be expected to be most vulnerable to the impact of the minimum wage, only a small number of such subgroups showed any signs of adversity.
Bibliography Citation
Egge, Karl Albert, Andrew I. Kohen, John R. Shea and Frederick A. Zeller. "Changes in the Federal Minimum Wage and the Employment of Young Men, 1966-67" In: Youth Unemployment and Minimum Wages: Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 1657. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1970
4. Grasso, John T.
Kohen, Andrew I.
The National Longitudinal Surveys' Data Processing System
In: Survey of Income and Program Participation: Proceedings of the Workshop on Data Processing. D. Kasprzyk, et al., eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of HEW, 1978
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, => U.S. Health & Human Services
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; NLS Description; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)

This paper discusses some important aspects of experience gained from the NLS project in an effort to assist planners of the new Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Reviewed are the dilemmas inherent in managing a large-scale, complex data base and coordinating a project whose responsibilities are split among several geographically distant agencies. The review provides details on the impact of staff turnover, staffing expertise, internal organizational design and management decisions on significant aspects of the NLS survey design and data processing tasks and concludes with specific suggestions and recommendations for the implementation of SIPP.
Bibliography Citation
Grasso, John T. and Andrew I. Kohen. "The National Longitudinal Surveys' Data Processing System" In: Survey of Income and Program Participation: Proceedings of the Workshop on Data Processing. D. Kasprzyk, et al., eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of HEW, 1978
5. Kahne, Hilda
Kohen, Andrew I.
Economic Perspectives on the Roles of Women in the American Economy
Journal of Economic Literature 13,4 (December 1975): 1249-1292.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2722298
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Family Background and Culture; Fertility; Marriage; School Quality; Schooling; Welfare; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this article is to present in nontechnical language an overview of some of the recent economic literature relating to women. The article identifies the range of topical interests of economists and spells out some of the findings. This review cannot cover all of the economic areas bearing on women. It looks primarily at the literature relating to women's economic roles and omits a number of areas where a general, theoretical or analytic framework also has a relevance for women.
Bibliography Citation
Kahne, Hilda and Andrew I. Kohen. "Economic Perspectives on the Roles of Women in the American Economy." Journal of Economic Literature 13,4 (December 1975): 1249-1292.
6. Kohen, Andrew I.
Attrition from Military and Civilian Jobs: Insights from the National Longitudinal Surveys
Final Report, Columbus OH: Battelle Columbus Laboratories, 1984
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Behavior; Military Service; Mobility, Occupational; Quits

This study uses data from the Young Men and NLSY cohorts to investigate the antecedents of voluntary job separations. The focus is on comparing military and civilian behaviors. For civilians the analysis concentrates on the first regular post-school job, while for the members of the armed forces the concentration is on attrition from the first term of service. Some of the conclusions based on comparing the various empirical findings are: (1) quitting a first civilian job and attriting from an initial term of military service are distinctly different behaviors; (2) military pay level and other objective features of the military context are strongly related to whether a young man completes his first term of service; and (3) many affective traits significantly influence the likelihood of a young man attriting from military service. A few policy suggestions regarding recruitment and training are offered based on the empirical findings.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. "Attrition from Military and Civilian Jobs: Insights from the National Longitudinal Surveys." Final Report, Columbus OH: Battelle Columbus Laboratories, 1984.
7. Kohen, Andrew I.
Determinants of Early Labor Market Success Among Young Men: Race, Ability, Quantity and Quality of Schooling
Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1973
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Occupational Attainment; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment; Wages

The study examines the effects of several hypothesized determinants of early labor market success among young men. Success is measured in terms of hourly earnings, social status of occupation, and annual unemployment experience. In a human capital theoretical framework, the following characteristics are hypothesized to affect success: socioeconomic background, health, race, mental ability, quantity and quality of schooling. Multiple regression analysis is applied to a three-equation model and several functional specifications of the success equation are tested. The study also generates estimates of the quantitative impact of current racial discrimination in the labor market. The data are from the l966 file of the NLS of Young Men and relate to out-of-school males 18 to 24 years of age who had completed at least 8 years of schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. Determinants of Early Labor Market Success Among Young Men: Race, Ability, Quantity and Quality of Schooling. Ph.D. Dissertation, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1973.
8. Kohen, Andrew I.
Determinants of Early Labor Market Success Among Young Men: Ability, Quantity and Quality of Schooling: A Preliminary Report
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1971
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Labor Market Outcomes; Occupational Status; Racial Differences

This study is part of a larger research effort to identify the determinants of differentials in "labor market success" among young men. The two measures of "success" used here are houring earnings and social status of occupation. The issues to which the conceptual framework and empirical work are addressed include: (1) a more thorough understanding of the importance of schooling relative to ability as determinants of earnings, (2) measurement of the effects of unequal school facilities on post-schooling employment experiences, (3) identification and examination of the sources of existing intercolor (black/white) differences in the measures of labor market success.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. "Determinants of Early Labor Market Success Among Young Men: Ability, Quantity and Quality of Schooling: A Preliminary Report." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1971.
9. Kohen, Andrew I.
Job Changing Behavior of Young Men in the Civilian Labor Market
In: First Term Enlisted Attrition, Volume 1. H.S. Sinaiko, ed. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution
Keyword(s): Behavior; Educational Attainment; Military Recruitment; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits

An overview of job mobility of young men is presented using the major economic schools of thought, including the human capital perspective, the neoclassical and the "institutionalist" approaches. It appears that quits of a first job are affected most by the age at which the respondent first worked, the occupational classification of that job, and rate of pay. Whites are shown to have a higher likelihood of quitting their first job than blacks. Some policy recommendations for the armed forces and recruiting, based on data from the NLS, are included.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. "Job Changing Behavior of Young Men in the Civilian Labor Market" In: First Term Enlisted Attrition, Volume 1. H.S. Sinaiko, ed. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1977
10. Kohen, Andrew I.
Labor Force and Employment Status of Students
In: Years for Decision, Volume 1, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1971
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Unemployment; Urbanization/Urban Living

A study of young women aged 14-24 enrolled in school in 1968 showed that about one-third of the eight million students in this age category participated in the labor force during the survey week. Grade in school, socioeconomic status of family, number of weeks worked during 1967, urban background, and age positively relate to participation rates among high school students (age 14-17). Black high school young women tend less than their white counterparts to be in the labor force, but this difference narrows with age. College age young women (18- 24) who are graduate students, had fathers in professional occupations, come from large cities, or were employed for at least 26 weeks in 1967 showed higher participation rates than those not having these characteristics. Data indicate unemployment is higher among black young women and suggest that the dissemination of labor market information to all enrolled female students could be much improved.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. "Labor Force and Employment Status of Students" In: Years for Decision, Volume 1, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1971
11. Kohen, Andrew I.
Minimum Wage and Handicapped Workers
In: Report of the Minimum Wage Study Commission: Volume 5. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1981: pp. 429-464
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Employment; Minimum Wage

The author provides a review of relevant empirical studies and descriptions of the labor supply, employment and wages of handicapped Americans, provides a review of the relevant portions of three major studies of the operations of sheltered workshops, and presents and interprets new analyses of data on the wages of handicapped workers in and outside of sheltered employment.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. "Minimum Wage and Handicapped Workers" In: Report of the Minimum Wage Study Commission: Volume 5. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1981: pp. 429-464
12. Kohen, Andrew I.
Andrisani, Paul J.
Career Thresholds, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth
Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1974
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Earnings; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital Status; Migration; Mobility, Job; Occupational Aspirations; Wages

Data from the first through fourth interviews of young men aged 14-24 in 1966 are used to explore enrollment in school, marital status, and geographic movement. The labor market experiences of high school graduates are examined and contrasted with the experiences of dropouts. Data from all out-of-school youth are then examined with special attention paid to interfirm movement (from both 1966-1969 and 1967-1969), and its correlates and determinants, and to changes of occupation and hourly rate of pay. Changes in the educational and occupational goals of respondents enrolled in school during this time are also investigated.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Paul J. Andrisani. Career Thresholds, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1974.
13. Kohen, Andrew I.
Barker, Susan C.
The Antecedents and Consequences of Interruptions in Formal Schooling: A Review of the Literature
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976.
Also: http://www.nlsinfo.org/usersvc/NLS_Women/Cohen-Barker-1976.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): College Education; Dropouts; Education, Secondary; Educational Attainment; High School Dropouts; Military Service; Schooling; Veterans; Vocational Education

This review provides a summary of the existing findings relevant to all types of schooling interruptions. Research reviewed includes interruptions in primary and secondary schooling, studies of the process of leaving and returning to college, institutional criteria for readmission of temporary dropouts, interruptions for military service, and women returnees.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Susan C. Barker. "The Antecedents and Consequences of Interruptions in Formal Schooling: A Review of the Literature." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976.
14. Kohen, Andrew I.
Breinich, Susan C.
Knowledge of the World of Work: A Test of Occupational Information of Young Men
Journal of Vocational Behavior 6,1 (February 1975): 133-144.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0001879175900287
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Earnings; Occupational Choice; Occupational Status; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Vocational Guidance; Work Knowledge; World of Work Test

The study evaluates a test of occupational information administered to a national sample of 5,000 young men, aged 14 to 24 in 1966, as part of the NLS Young Men's cohort. The predictive validity of the test score is assessed by reference to multiple regression analyses which confirm the significance of the score as an independent predictor of subsequent hourly earnings and occupational status. Correlation and factor analyses are used to examine the quality of the measurement instrument. All in all, the instrument is judged to exhibit desirable characteristics in terms of internal consistency, reliability, discriminatory power, and level of difficulty. The test's reliability compares favorably with a commercially produced test designed to be used in counseling as a measure of occupational knowledge. With the possible modification of deleting a section relating to knowledge of earnings differentials, the test is commended to those involved in assessing and counseling the occupational choice process.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Susan C. Breinich. "Knowledge of the World of Work: A Test of Occupational Information of Young Men." Journal of Vocational Behavior 6,1 (February 1975): 133-144.
15. Kohen, Andrew I.
Breinich, Susan C.
Shields, Patricia M.
Women and the Economy: A Bibliography and a Review of the Literature on Sex Differentiation in the Labor Market
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Employment; School Quality

This literature review expands on part of the article by Hilda Kahne and Andrew Kohen in Journal of Economic Literature 13 (December l975):1249-92. A bibliographic review of the sex differentiation in the labor market is also presented.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I., Susan C. Breinich and Patricia M. Shields. "Women and the Economy: A Bibliography and a Review of the Literature on Sex Differentiation in the Labor Market." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1977.
16. Kohen, Andrew I.
Gilroy, Curtis
The Minimum Wage, Income Distribution, and Poverty
In: Report of the Minimum Wage Study Commission: Volume 8. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1981: pp. 1-30
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Income Distribution; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Minimum Wage; Schooling

A portion of this paper describes the characteristics of minimum wage workers in terms of the distribution and level of income. Using data from the Young Men's and Young Women's cohorts, the demographic and labor force characteristics as well as non-wage income sources are examined.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Curtis Gilroy. "The Minimum Wage, Income Distribution, and Poverty" In: Report of the Minimum Wage Study Commission: Volume 8. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1981: pp. 1-30
17. Kohen, Andrew I.
Grasso, John T.
Myers, Steven C.
Shields, Patricia M.
Career Thresholds, Volume 6: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Young Men
Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 6. Washington DC: US GPO, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Marital Status; Military Service; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status; Schooling; Unemployment

This volume several analyses of youth's educational and labor market experiences. One analysis youths' labor market experience explores the factors related to the levels of educational and occupational aspirations expressed by those youth who were in high school at the beginning of a five-year period. The study investigates factors associated with the adaptation of educational goals during the high school years and the two years thereafter. Another analysis is devoted to occupational mobility among young men. In addition to quantifying and describing the gross changes in major occupation group that occurred (1) between entrance into the labor market and 1971 and (2) over the five-year period 1966 to 1971, the study analyzes the factors that are associated with both the incidence and the magnitude of occupational advancement during these same periods. A third analysis of the unemployment experience of male youth is directed at relating the incidence and duration of unemployment to various types of job separation. It focuses only on members of the experienced labor force who were not enrolled in school. The impact of military service on a youth's subsequent labor market experience is also discussed. This analysis begins with an investigation of the factors that are associated with the likelihood of having served in the armed forces during the Vietnam War and then attempts to assess the net impact of military service on various aspects of subsequent civilian labor market experience.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I., John T. Grasso, Steven C. Myers and Patricia M. Shields. Career Thresholds, Volume 6: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Young Men. Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 6. Washington DC: US GPO, 1977.
18. Kohen, Andrew I.
Nestel, Gilbert
Karmas, Constantine
Factors Affecting Individual Persistence Rates in Undergraduate College Programs
American Educational Research Journal 15,2 (Spring 1978): 233-252.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1162462
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Enrollment; Employment; Marital Status; Scholarships; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses a sample drawn from the NLS of Young Men attending college in the l960s. Some of the principal conclusions of the multivariate analyses are: (1) factors determining persistence vary widely with the stage of the undergraduate career; (2) race and parental SES bear no net relation to dropping out; (3) the impact of ability declines with progress toward graduation; and (4) entering college in a two-year institution is inversely associated with persistence. These and other findings demonstrate that much previous research has perpetuated erroneous inferences about dropping out of college, not the least of which is that the process can be modeled in a single equation representing the likelihood of graduation by any given group of freshmen.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I., Gilbert Nestel and Constantine Karmas. "Factors Affecting Individual Persistence Rates in Undergraduate College Programs." American Educational Research Journal 15,2 (Spring 1978): 233-252.
19. Kohen, Andrew I.
Nestel, Gilbert
Karmas, Constantine
Success and Failure in College: A New Approach to Persistence in Undergraduate Programs
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; College Enrollment; Educational Costs; Employment, In-School; High School Curriculum; I.Q.

This study examines the factors affecting the probabilities of completing college. It appears that factors of persistence in college vary with the year in school. Parental socioeconomic status, race and age are found to have no net relationship with dropping out. Pursuing a college prep program in high school is significant only in the freshmen year, and I.Q. is not significant after the sophomore year. However, receiving a scholarship has a significant positive relationship to the probability of completing college. Working evidently inhibits persistence in college, but not all employed students drop out, and there is no significant relationship between hours worked and dropping out. Finally, young men who initially enter a two-year college are much more likely to drop out at every stage for indeterminable reasons--even after transferring to a four-year institution.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I., Gilbert Nestel and Constantine Karmas. "Success and Failure in College: A New Approach to Persistence in Undergraduate Programs." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976.
20. Kohen, Andrew I.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Career Thresholds, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth
Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1971
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Job Training; Marital Status; Migration; Mobility, Job; Unemployment; Wages

The report attempts to delineate some of the major changes that occurred in the educational and labor market plans and status of young men over the two-year period 1966 to 1968. More specifically, it examines the extent of change in school enrollment status, educational and occupational aspirations, labor force participation, unemployment experience, employer and occupational affiliation, rate of compensation, extent of job satisfaction, and location of residence. In addition to describing the nature and extent of these types of changes, it also begins to identify some of the correlates of change. Finally, it examines the cumulative unemployment experience of the out-of-school youth over the two-year period.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Herbert S. Parnes. Career Thresholds, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1971.
21. Kohen, Andrew I.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Shea, John R.
Income Instability Among Young and Middle-Aged Men
In: Personal Distribution of Income and Wealth. J. Smith, ed. New York, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1975.
Also: Center for Human Resource Research, 1973.
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Household Income

In this paper, the authors attempt: (1) to quantify the influence on measured income inequality of lengthening the accounting period; (2) to describe the mechanism through which income instability among male heads of household is manifested (e.g., changes in sources of income, hours worked, and wage rates); and (3) to identify some of the demographic and economic characteristics of those household heads whose income is "unstable" over a two-or three- year period, in the sense of changing at above-average or below-average rates.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I., Herbert S. Parnes and John R. Shea. "Income Instability Among Young and Middle-Aged Men" In: Personal Distribution of Income and Wealth. J. Smith, ed. New York, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1975.
22. Kohen, Andrew I.
Roderick, Roger D.
Causes of Differentials in Early Labor Market Success Among Young Women
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1972): 329-334
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Influences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; I.Q.; Schooling; Siblings; Wages

This paper is part of a larger research effort to identify the causes of differentials in early labor market success among youth. Here, we are primarily interested in: (1) the effect of education, independent of ability, on early labor market success; and (2) white-black differentials in the determinants of early labor market success, where our measure of success is hourly earnings. Our results suggest that education is a more important influence on earnings among white women in typically female occupations than among those in atypically female occupations, for whom ability is a more important factor.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Roger D. Roderick. "Causes of Differentials in Early Labor Market Success Among Young Women." Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1972): 329-334.
23. Kohen, Andrew I.
Roderick, Roger D.
The Effects of Race and Sex Discrimination on Early-Career Earnings
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975.
Also: http://openlibrary.org/works/OL6784264W/The_effects_of_race_and_sex_discrimination_on_early-career_earnings
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Family Influences; I.Q.; Schooling

This paper is concerned with the determinants of differentials in early-career earnings among young workers. This study uses regression analysis of a 3-equation model to demonstrate the existence of significant labor market discrimination according to both race and sex. Findings strongly indicate that sex discrimination is more virulent than racial discrimination.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Roger D. Roderick. "The Effects of Race and Sex Discrimination on Early-Career Earnings." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975.
24. Parnes, Herbert S.
Adams, Arvil Van
Andrisani, Paul J.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Nestel, Gilbert
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Job Training; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Mobility, Job; Retirement; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

A unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews with the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971 provides information on a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle- aged men. Since the data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period, both the antecedents and consequences of particular events and courses of action can be examined. Moreover, the five years in question are an unusually interesting half decade, for they should reflect whatever short-run impact the civil rights movement has had upon the relative employment status of middle-aged black men. Also, these years include a three-year span in which the labor market was relatively tight and improving (1966- 1969) as well as a two-year period during which unemployment rose considerably (1969-1971). The fact that changes between 1967 and 1969 can be compared with those between 1969 and 1971 for the same group of individuals permits one to analyze the effect of a change in the economic environment on the labor market experience of the men under consideration.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Arvil Van Adams, Paul J. Andrisani, Andrew I. Kohen and Gilbert Nestel. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975.
25. Parnes, Herbert S.
Egge, Karl Albert
Kohen, Andrew I.
Schmidt, Ronald M.
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 2: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 2. Washington DC: US GPO, 1970
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Work Attitudes

Data from the first and second interviews of men who were age 45-59 years in mid-1966 are used in this progress report on the longitudinal study to describe the magnitude and the patterns of change that have occurred during the one-year period in the labor market status of members of the sample and in certain other characteristics that have an important effect on labor market activity.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Karl Albert Egge, Andrew I. Kohen and Ronald M. Schmidt. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 2: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 2. Washington DC: US GPO, 1970.
26. Parnes, Herbert S.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Labor Market Experience of Noncollege Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis
In: From School to Work: Improving the Transition: National Commission for Manpower Policy. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976.
Also: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?seq=73&id=mdp.39015019968513&page=root&view=image&size=100&orient=0
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Marital Status; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions; Work Knowledge

The factors associated with variations in earnings, occupational status, and unemployment experience among a relatively homogeneous segment of the labor force--young men and young women who had ended (at least temporarily) their formal education at some level before college graduation, are identified. Among the findings are that educational attainment strongly influences earnings and occupational positions; labor market exposure and knowledge of the world of work are both positive factors; interfirm mobility appears to influence earnings somewhat; marital status is very important for males while not as significant for women; residents of large cities have advantages in wages and positions; collective bargaining imparts substantial wage advantages; and for men, private sector employment is better than public sector, with the opposite true for women.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Andrew I. Kohen. "Labor Market Experience of Noncollege Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis" In: From School to Work: Improving the Transition: National Commission for Manpower Policy. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976.
27. Parnes, Herbert S.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Occupational Information and Labor Market Status: The Case of Young Men
Journal of Human Resources 10,1 (Winter 1975): 44-55.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145118
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; High School; I.Q.; Job Skills; Regions; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Urban and Regional Planning; Urbanization/Urban Living; Work Knowledge

The results of an occupational information test display a positive relationship between scores and the education, I.Q., and socioeconomic status of each participant. Furthermore, the young men whose origins are in urban areas scored significantly higher than those individuals from rural areas.Two years following the test, youth who scored higher were able to obtain better paying positions. The human capital theory and educational policy support these findings.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Andrew I. Kohen. "Occupational Information and Labor Market Status: The Case of Young Men." Journal of Human Resources 10,1 (Winter 1975): 44-55.
28. Roderick, Roger D.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Changes in Job Status of Employed Out-of-School Youth
In: Years for Decision, Volume 3, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Marital Status; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Attainment; Residence; Training, Occupational; Wages; World of Work Test

Almost half of the young women respondents who were employed and out of school changed employers from 1968 to 1970. Apparent correlates of interfirm movement include: education, occupation, length of service, prospective mobility, residence, and a change in marital status. Some consequences of changing employers are: change in rate of pay increases, a change in occupation, acquisition of occupational training, and a higher degree of job satisfaction.
Bibliography Citation
Roderick, Roger D. and Andrew I. Kohen. "Changes in Job Status of Employed Out-of-School Youth" In: Years for Decision, Volume 3, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976
29. Roderick, Roger D.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Stability and Change in Labor Force and Employment Status among Non-Students
In: Years for Decision, Volume 3, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keyword(s): Employment; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Unemployment; Work Attachment

Labor force participation of young women from 1968 to 1970 is examined using: (1) the mean number of weeks in the labor force during the 12- month period preceding the survey; (2) the percent of respondents spending 52 weeks in the labor force during the period; (3) the percent with any weeks of employment during the period; and (4) the mean number of weeks employed during the 12 months prior to a survey for those with any unemployment during the period. Just over 30 percent of the young women employed in 1968, who married between 1968 and 1970, had left the labor force by 1970. Unemployment seems to be more common and to occur for a longer time for high school dropouts than for those who completed high school. Education, however, appears to bear no regular relationship with change in unemployment experience.
Bibliography Citation
Roderick, Roger D. and Andrew I. Kohen. "Stability and Change in Labor Force and Employment Status among Non-Students" In: Years for Decision, Volume 3, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976
30. Roderick, Roger D.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Summary
In: Years for Decision, Volume 3, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Job Satisfaction; Job Turnover; Marital Status; Mobility, Interfirm; Unemployment

About two-fifths of the young women interviewed in 1968 had changed their plans for age 35 by the time of their interview in 1970. These revised plans are consistent with observed rates of labor force participation of women aged 35-44. Also, more young women are unemployed in 1970 than in 1968. Among non-married young women who were employed in 1968, 30 percent of those who married by 1970 withdrew from the labor force as opposed to only four percent of those who remained unmarried. Almost one-half of the nonstudent employed young women changed employers at least once between 1968 and 1970, with slightly fewer blacks having done so voluntarily. Other correlates of interfirm movement are a change in marital status, change in geographical location, change in occupation or rate of pay, acquisition of training, and a change in job satisfaction.
Bibliography Citation
Roderick, Roger D. and Andrew I. Kohen. "Summary" In: Years for Decision, Volume 3, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976
31. Roderick, Roger D.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Years for Decision, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Young Women
Manpower Research Monograph 24, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Employment; Fertility; Marital Status; Migration; Mobility, Interfirm; Occupational Aspirations

Data from the first three interviews of Young Women aged 14-24 in January 1968 are used to study educational and labor market experience. School enrollment status and educational aspirations and their correlates from 1970 are examined and compared with the 1968 figures, as are the respondent's plans for age 35. Unemployment of nonstudents is explored and is found to be more common for high school dropouts than graduates. Education appears, however, to bear no regular relationship with change in unemployment experience. Correlates and consequences of interfirm movement are investigated, with almost half of the respondents who were employed and out of school changing employers from 1968 to 1970. Most consequences, such as rate of pay and degree of job satisfaction, appear to increase with interfirm movement.
Bibliography Citation
Roderick, Roger D. and Andrew I. Kohen. Years for Decision, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Young Women. Manpower Research Monograph 24, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1976.
32. Shea, John R.
Roderick, Roger D.
Zeller, Frederick A.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Years for Decision, Volume 1: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor market Experience of Young Women
Manpower Research Monograph 24, Volume 1. Washington DC: US GPO, 1971
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Child Care; College Enrollment; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Family Background and Culture; High School; Job Training; Occupational Aspirations; Teenagers; Unemployment, Youth; Vocational Education

Data from the initial survey of young women age 14-24 in 1968 are used to examine their labor market status, attitudes and previous training, education, and work experience. Plans for the future, not only for employment, but also for marriage, education and children are also examined including their impact on young women's labor market experiences. Unemployment, labor force participation, and occupational distribution of non-students, and the employment status of students are investigated, as are job attachment, rate of pay, child care arrangements, and family background. Due to the large variation in age, it was difficult to generalize for the entire sample, but subsequent surveys will lessen this discrepancy and permit a complete analysis of the group as a whole.
Bibliography Citation
Shea, John R., Roger D. Roderick, Frederick A. Zeller and Andrew I. Kohen. Years for Decision, Volume 1: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor market Experience of Young Women. Manpower Research Monograph 24, Volume 1. Washington DC: US GPO, 1971.
33. Shortlidge, Richard L. Jr.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Prospective Fertility Among Young Women in the United States: The Determinants of Fertility Expectations and Ideals
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Black Family; Family Size; Fertility; Marital Status; Sex Roles; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Findings from this study which utilizes data from the NLS of Young Women show that: (1) previous work experience and future work plans are negatively related to expected and ideal family size; (2) parental SES is negatively related to expected family size and ideal family size, although parental SES is a more important determinant of ideal family size than expected family size; (3) women who have had at least one child have significantly lower expected and ideal family sizes as compared to women who have not had children; (4) even though having ever been married results in a lower ideal family size, it does not have a significant impact on expected family size; (5) the more proscriptive a woman's attitude toward working women with children, the higher the ideal family size; (6) as measured by educational attainment, a woman with higher social status aspirations has a lower expected family size; and finally, (7) blacks' ideal family size is significantly higher than their white counterparts'.
Bibliography Citation
Shortlidge, Richard L. Jr. and Andrew I. Kohen. "Prospective Fertility Among Young Women in the United States: The Determinants of Fertility Expectations and Ideals." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975.
34. Zeller, Frederick A.
Shea, John R.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Meyer, Jack A.
Career Thresholds, Volume 2: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth
Washington DC: US GPO, 1971
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Family Influences; High School; Job Training; Mobility; Mobility, Job

The present report, the second in the series on the NLS of Young Men, summarizes some of the findings of the second round of interviews with that cohort that were conducted in the autumn of l967. Based exclusively on tabular data, its primary purpose is to describe the magnitude and patterns of change that occurred in the educational and labor market status of the youth during the 12-month period between the first and second surveys. The age span covered in the survey includes those years of a young man's life in which he first becomes integrated into the world of work. This is a critical period in the total socialization process. The young man's subsequent labor market behavior is influenced substantially by his educational and early labor market experiences. In this report, the authors have begun an analysis of these experiences by focusing on the magnitude and character of various changes that have occurred over a one-year period--in school enrollment status, labor force participation, unemployment experience, occupational and interfirm mobility, and educational aspirations.
Bibliography Citation
Zeller, Frederick A., John R. Shea, Andrew I. Kohen and Jack A. Meyer. Career Thresholds, Volume 2: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Washington DC: US GPO, 1971.