Search Results

Source: American Society of Criminology
Resulting in 72 citations.
1. Abeling-Judge, David
Social Capital, Social Controls, and Desistance from Crime
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Family Influences; Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Informal social controls facilitate desistance from crime through establishing specific bonds, such as employment, but desistance research has not sufficiently examined the complex sequencing of how an offender may secure employment in the first place. Both the ability to obtain employment and the factors instilling a personal connection to the workplace (i.e., establishing a social control) may be better understood by incorporating an additional theoretical perspective: social capital. Social capital articulates the importance of utilizing existing social resources, such as family ties or opportunities provided by friends, and could increase informal social controls to further facilitate desistance. The current study explores this connection through an examination of social capital, informal social control, offense, and additional control variables in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Offenders were divided into different race and gender subsets, with lagged models examining how social capital and employment predict offending behavior. Findings provide opportunities to re-examine theoretical and practical influences of desistance, and elaborate on race and gender discrepancies in crime.
Bibliography Citation
Abeling-Judge, David. "Social Capital, Social Controls, and Desistance from Crime." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
2. Andersen, Lars Hojsgaard
Karlson, Kristian Bernt
The Impact of Paternal Incarceration on Boys' Delinquency: A New Method for Adjusting for Model-Driven Bias
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Denmark, Danish; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling; Parental Influences; Sons

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Paternal incarceration has a range of deleterious effects on children, especially on boys' behavioral problems, and the damaging impact of paternal incarceration on boys' delinquency is among the most well-established findings in studies of the intergenerational consequences of incarceration. Measures of sons' delinquency are often dichotomous, indicating whether a son exhibits delinquent behavior, and scholars of criminology often apply nonlinear probability models to analyze such outcomes. But in so doing, we involuntarily make our estimates vulnerable to model-driven bias, because these models are sensitive to their own fundamental assumptions. In this paper, we introduce to scholars of criminology a recent advance in the methodology of nonlinear models, the "KHB method". We use data from the NLSY97 to illustrate that existing strategies for estimating the impact of paternal incarceration on sons' delinquency produce biased estimates, and we use high quality registry data from Denmark to show that this is true even across sentence length and across the distribution of sons' abilities. Our bias-corrected estimates still support the claim that paternal incarceration is damaging to sons' delinquency, but they also cause concern regarding the widespread use of nonlinear models in criminological research.
Bibliography Citation
Andersen, Lars Hojsgaard and Kristian Bernt Karlson. "The Impact of Paternal Incarceration on Boys' Delinquency: A New Method for Adjusting for Model-Driven Bias." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
3. Anderson, Annika Yvette
Oselin, Sharon Suzanne
Gender, Cognitive Transformation and Desistance from Crime
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite its widespread use, critics of social control theory point out that it primarily emphasizes institutions and social networks but ignores the role of agency in the desistance process (Giordano, Cernkovich, and Rudolph 2002). Another theoretical limitation centers on the oversampling of predominantly white male offenders, resulting in some ambiguity about the theory's generalizability to contemporary, female or minority offenders. Giordano and colleagues developed cognitive transformation theory in an effort to address these gaps. Building off this work, we use cognitive transformation theory to explore the relationship between gender, desistance and identity transformation for a sample of adolescents transitioning into adulthood in the United States in the 1990s. Using multivariate analyses of data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we investigate the impact of socio-demographic characteristics, hooks for change and cognitive transformation on self-reported criminal behavior and arrest. Our study shows support for both structure and agency in the desistance process. We find that enrollment in higher education and job stability significantly reduces the likelihood of arrest for men. Conversely, women who envisioned an increased chance of working in the future had decreased chances of arrest, compared to women whose future expectations remained the same or diminished.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Annika Yvette and Sharon Suzanne Oselin. "Gender, Cognitive Transformation and Desistance from Crime." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
4. Augustyn, Megan
Kamerdze, Amy
Loughran, David S.
Untangling the Heterogeneity in the Marriage Effect
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Heterogeneity; Life Course; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a life course framework as a guide, much of the recent work on desistance from crime has examined the positive effect of marriage on the decrease and/or cessation of criminal activity. Rare, though, is the examination of the heterogeneity in the effect of marriage on criminal involvement. This is unfortunate because prior work may overstate or understate the beneficial effect of marriage during the life course. This study is one attempt to fill this void in literature. Specifically, this investigation will use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to investigate whether or not there is heterogeneity in the marriage effect across propensity, age, gender and race. In addition, it will help to clarify theory by examining the true robustness of the social bond in question.
Bibliography Citation
Augustyn, Megan, Amy Kamerdze and David S. Loughran. "Untangling the Heterogeneity in the Marriage Effect." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012.
5. Barbieri, Nina
Religiosity as a Protective Factor: Does Affiliation or Frequency Restrict Delinquency
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Religion; Religious Influences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research, such as seen in Jang and Johnson (2003), concluded that measures of religiosity significantly weaken the relationship between strain and negative emotionality among a sample of African-Americans. Using this premise, this study seeks to explore the relationship between religiosity as a protective factor for involvement in delinquency and underage substance use. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997), religious identification and attendance is assessed to determine if frequency of participation in religious activities results in declines in a variety of delinquent behaviors. Further, analyses are stratified by gender and race/ethnicity, to determine if demographic differences are seen. Future steps and policy implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Barbieri, Nina. "Religiosity as a Protective Factor: Does Affiliation or Frequency Restrict Delinquency." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
6. Bares, Kyle J.
Mowen, Thomas
Brent, John
Youth Arrest as a Turning Point in Delinquency: The Role of Labeling across Time
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research on delinquency has shown that punishment and sanctions have become more punitive over time. While these punishments are meant to serve as a deterrent, research on the topic is mixed with some scholars finding that punishment functions as a deterrent in certain social milieus. Contrary to these findings, other research has found that punishment and sanctions may lead to worse outcomes. While past research has examined the effects of punishment on offending, what is still unknown is the long term affects that punishments--such as arrest--have on youth offending over time. Using the life-course perspective and labeling theory, we examine the relationship between arrest and offending, hypothesizing that arrest serves as a turning point where youth are labeled as delinquent and thus perform more delinquent behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997), we find that youth who are arrested report higher levels of delinquency than youth who are not arrested. Further, we find that arrest increases offending within youth across time even when accounting for baseline levels of delinquency. Finally, we find that arrest presents a cumulative effect on delinquency whereby each arrest is accompanied by a proportional increase in delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Bares, Kyle J., Thomas Mowen and John Brent. "Youth Arrest as a Turning Point in Delinquency: The Role of Labeling across Time." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
7. Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
DiPietro, Stephanie
Divergence in the "Good Marriage Effect": Findings and Processes of an NIJ W.E.B. Du Bois Fellowship
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Immigrants; Life Course; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The aim of this presentation is to provide practical guidance on the application process, to share our experiences as Du Bois Fellows and to summarize the findings of our research, which synthesizes life course and immigration literature to examine whether and to what extent immigration status conditions the relationship between marriage and offending. While criminological interest in the impact of salient life events on offending over the life course has garnered much empirical attention over the last few decades, this work has evolved with limited recognition of potential cultural contingencies. Specifically, despite growing evidence that marriage holds the potential to alter offending trajectories, both theoretical development and empirical analysis have been largely andro- and ethnocentric in their portrayal of marriage effects. We examine the marriage-crime nexus among immigrants, paying attention to important generational, nativity, and migration factors that may complicate this relationship. To study these questions, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and apply hierarchical linear modeling to examine within-individual longitudinal patterns of offending among immigrants and non-immigrants. While our results lend credence to the universally beneficial effect of being married, we find notable points of divergence when immigrant generation and gender intersect.
Bibliography Citation
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth and Stephanie DiPietro. "Divergence in the "Good Marriage Effect": Findings and Processes of an NIJ W.E.B. Du Bois Fellowship." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013.
8. Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
Doherty, Elaine Eggleston
Disrupting Desistance? Minor Criminal Justice Contact and the Age Crime Curve
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Substance Use; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The consistency with which the age-crime curve has been replicated across time, space and sample signifies it as a brute fact in criminology. One facet of this curve is the decline in crime in young adulthood. Research focusing on desistance has been dominated by studies of factors that accelerate the reduction in offending. Less is know about the factors that may hinder desistance within the general population. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine the age distribution of deviant behaviors (e.g., self-reported offending, substance use, sexual partners) stratified by criminal justice system involvement. Controlling for a host of background factors, we examine whether the age crime curve differs for justice-involved youth and non-justice-involved youth. Whereas research finds that incarceration can detrimentally impact offending among high-risk samples, testing for detriments of criminal justice system interaction is equally important among low-risk individuals who are most apt to naturally desist. This research asks: Do minor interactions with the criminal justice system hold the potential to alter offending trajectories?
Bibliography Citation
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth and Elaine Eggleston Doherty. "Disrupting Desistance? Minor Criminal Justice Contact and the Age Crime Curve." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
9. Bixby Radu, Monica
Do Perceptions of Unsafe Schools and Bullying Hinder the Effects of Family and School Social Capital in Deterring Violence?
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Bullying/Victimization; Family Influences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Studies suggest that the bonds between youths and their families and youths and their schools help deter problem behaviors. However, less is known regarding how students' perceptions of their schools' environments and experiences with their peers may affect these relationships. Therefore, I merge insights from family and criminological research to test how youths' perceptions of schools' safety and experiences with bullying affect the relationship between family and school social capital and violence perpetration in early adulthood. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997), I find that students' perceptions of schools as safe help deter violence. I also find that individuals who report being bullied are more likely to engage in subsequent violence. Additionally, while my additive models show that both family and school social capital are important deterrents of violence, the interaction effect between school social capital and perception of school safety suggest a complex relationship between individuals' perceptions of their schools and school resources. I find that school social capital does little to prevent violence when individuals perceive their schools as unsafe. This suggests that school resources in the form of social capital are not enough to deter violence, particularly when individuals reported feeling the least safe at school.
Bibliography Citation
Bixby Radu, Monica. "Do Perceptions of Unsafe Schools and Bullying Hinder the Effects of Family and School Social Capital in Deterring Violence?" Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
10. Bounds, Christopher
Exploring the Relationship between Employment Stability and Desistance from Illicit Substance Use across Various Racial Categories
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Tenure; Racial Differences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Sampson and Laub’s age-graded informal social control theory has generated considerable attention vying to become a leading explanation of criminal involvement across the life-course. It has spawned a number of criticisms and an equivocal body of research. Many of these criticisms have centered on their reliance upon the Glueck data - a dataset consisting of all White males born in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Using logistic regression, the current project explores whether job stability, a key factor highlighted by Sampson and Laub, is related to desistance of illicit substance use among a nationally representative sample born in the United States between 1957and 1964 – The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The findings are discussed in terms of the further specification of theoretical models recognizing distinct pathways to change and continuity of illicit substance use among various racial categories.
Bibliography Citation
Bounds, Christopher. "Exploring the Relationship between Employment Stability and Desistance from Illicit Substance Use across Various Racial Categories." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013.
11. Brent, John
Mowen, Thomas
School Discipline: Its Impact and Cumulative Effect on Juvenile Delinquency
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Discipline; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Though under examination, schools are often marked by punitive disciplinary practices that have produced a number of negative consequences at the student- and school-level. Further, the criminalization of school discipline has been charged with establishing a school-to-prison pipeline: a process through which youth--especially racial/ethnic minorities--are enmeshed in criminal justice as a result of school discipline. Building on prior research noting elevated levels of misconduct where heightened forms of discipline are adopted, this study examines whether school discipline serves as a negative turning point for youth within their life-course by contributing to increased odds of delinquency. Further, this effort assesses whether discipline received across multiple years has a 'cumulative' effect on delinquency. To accomplish this, we use four waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997) and cross-lagged dynamic panel models. Results show that youth who are disciplined have significantly higher levels of delinquency across time relative to their peers. Further, each subsequent year the youth is punished leads to a significant increase in the odds of delinquency. In line with the life-course perspective, findings demonstrate that school discipline marks a negative turning point that can have a cumulative effect on delinquency over time.
Bibliography Citation
Brent, John and Thomas Mowen. "School Discipline: Its Impact and Cumulative Effect on Juvenile Delinquency." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
12. Bryan, Brielle
Seeking Support or Avoiding Institutions: Examining Social Safety Net Usage After Incarceration
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Incarceration/Jail; Program Participation/Evaluation; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Unemployment Insurance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research suggests both that formerly incarcerated individuals are likely to face financial precarity after release and that contact with the criminal justice system may lead to avoidance of institutions that keep formal records and lower trust in government. Thus, despite need, formerly incarcerated adults may fail to utilize social safety net resources, particularly those that require in person interactions with government offices. We do not currently have good estimates of the extent to which formerly incarcerated adults actually utilize social safety net resources, however. This paper uses data from the NLSY79 to estimate how much formerly incarcerated individuals draw upon five social safety net programs that require differing levels of in person interaction: unemployment insurance, disability, food stamps/SNAP, AFDC/TANF, and the earned income tax credit. I examine the extent to which formerly incarcerated individuals utilize these programs relative to otherwise similar individuals who have not been incarcerated and how utilization varies by program. Understanding how formerly incarcerated individuals make use of safety net programs and how their utilization varies by program structure will illuminate the extent to which the social safety net is alleviating or perpetuating the inequality generated by America's criminal justice system.
Bibliography Citation
Bryan, Brielle. "Seeking Support or Avoiding Institutions: Examining Social Safety Net Usage After Incarceration." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
13. Carter, Angela
Adolescent Delinquent Behavior and Job Search Support
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Job Search; Social Contacts/Social Network

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A substantial literature examines the effects of formal sanctions on later-life employment outcomes. However, individuals who have histories of adolescent delinquent behavior but who are never arrested, convicted, or incarcerated may also suffer diminished employment outcomes. In this paper, I test whether delinquency may result in informal sanctions stemming from an offender's social network. Relationships and their associated social capital are important in finding jobs, often regulating information about job openings and application processes. People in an adolescent's life frequently know about offending that goes unnoticed by the juvenile justice system. Employed people are often less likely to assist someone they think would be an unreliable employee, so offenders may have difficulty mobilizing network ties. Delinquents may also accumulate more criminal, rather than legal, social capital by becoming embedded in networks that are less helpful for legitimate job search. To examine these issues, I use propensity score weighting to analyze 25 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n= approx. 6,000 at wave 1). I test whether the relationship between adolescent offending and adult employment is mediated by adolescent offenders' diminished access to job search support such as asking "friends/relatives" and "teachers/professors" for help finding their current job.
Bibliography Citation
Carter, Angela. "Adolescent Delinquent Behavior and Job Search Support." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
14. Clark, Fernando
Chen, Yvonne
A Depressing Moment: The Role of Social Support on the Mental Health of Children with Incarcerated Family Members
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Family Influences; Health, Mental; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing body of research examines the health consequences of mass incarceration. While studies have examined the mental health effects of incarceration on individuals, few studies have looked at the mental health effects of having a family member incarcerated. Having a family member incarcerated can be a source of stress that can produce adverse health outcomes, such as depression. Only a handful of studies explore the relationship between familial incarceration, social support, and mental health. These studies focused on the effects of financial support on partners but not emotional support. In this study, we draw from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the role of perceived emotional support on the relationship between familial incarceration and children's depression.
Bibliography Citation
Clark, Fernando and Yvonne Chen. "A Depressing Moment: The Role of Social Support on the Mental Health of Children with Incarcerated Family Members." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
15. Connolly, Eric J.
Gang Membership and Violent Delinquency: How Strong is the Association After Taking into Account Familial Confounds?
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Influences; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Gang membership has perhaps been found to be one of the strongest predictors of juvenile delinquency and early contact with the criminal justice system. Indeed, a well-developed body of research indicates that gang membership increases the likelihood of engaging in violent delinquency over and above the influence of individual personality traits, school environment, and neighborhood context. While an impressive amount of empirical support has accumulated over time for the association between gang membership and adolescent violence using different statistical techniques and analyzing a wide range of samples, no research to date has examined whether and to what extent gang membership predicts violent delinquency after taking into account co-occurring genetic and environmental processes. The present study uses sibling data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to estimate a series of sibling-comparison models in order to isolate the environmental influence of gang membership on violent delinquency and provide a rigorous test of the well-established link between gang membership and adolescent violence. Results offer new insight into the nexus between gang membership and violent delinquency. Theoretical and methodological implications for future life-course/developmental research on gangs and delinquency are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. "Gang Membership and Violent Delinquency: How Strong is the Association After Taking into Account Familial Confounds?" Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
16. Crowley, Joan E.
Delinquency and Employment: Substitutions or Spurious Associations
Presented: Washington, DC, American Society of Criminology, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Employment; Self-Reporting; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The hypothesis that unemployment leads to crime is implicit in much of the policy work on employment. Data from the 1980 NLSY linking self-reports of crime and various indices of employment show that there is little direct effect, either of crime on employment or of employment on crime. Among high school youth, school experience seems much more important than labor force experience in the etiology of crime. Early transition out of childhood may be associated with both employment outcomes and with illegal behaviors. Relationships between crime and work may be mediated by education and other background factors.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Delinquency and Employment: Substitutions or Spurious Associations." Presented: Washington, DC, American Society of Criminology, 1981.
17. Crowley, Joan E.
Longitudinal Modeling of the Relationship between Crime and Employment among Young White Americans
Presented: Denver, CO, American Society of Criminology, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Behavioral Problems; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Employment; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Modeling; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Both economic and sociological theories of crime focus on illegal activities as rational alternatives to conventional employment under certain conditions. Two alternate models of the link between crime and employment were developed, one hypothesizing that factors such as education and employment history affect crime through determining the individual's expected wage, and the other model hypothesizing that these factors are indicators of commitment to conventional roles. Path analyses were calculated, using data from the NLSY. Neither model was entirely supported. Among white females, there were no significant relationships between any predictors and criminal behavior, or between criminal behavior and employment. Among white males, violent crime was associated with time out of the labor force. Criminal activities may reflect life styles, rather than rational calculations of costs and benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Longitudinal Modeling of the Relationship between Crime and Employment among Young White Americans." Presented: Denver, CO, American Society of Criminology, 1983.
18. Crum, John David
The Impact of Court-Ordered and Non-Court-Ordered Volunteering on Substance Use: A Life Course Approach
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Life Course; Substance Use; Volunteer Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For my research, I contribute to the literature on volunteering by examining the impact of different types of volunteering on individuals' substance use in the United States. Though many individuals strictly volunteer for altruistic reasons, other individuals volunteer to satisfy requirements for school or church, while others are sentenced from the court. Research has examined the link between volunteering and substance use in the past; however there seems to be a dearth of research on court-ordered community service effects, particularly long-term substance use in the life course. To address this gap in the literature, my research will examine what the long-term effects of volunteering on substance use in the U.S. by looking at court-ordered volunteers and non-court-ordered volunteers. For my analysis, I will use data from waves 1 through 16 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. This dataset allows for prior substance use and criminal justice system participation to be controlled. The age-graded social control theory will be utilized to answer if the type of volunteering affects marijuana, hard drug, tobacco, and alcohol use. The results from my research will discuss whether court-ordered and non-court-order volunteering can be a possible means to reduce substance use.
Bibliography Citation
Crum, John David. "The Impact of Court-Ordered and Non-Court-Ordered Volunteering on Substance Use: A Life Course Approach." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
19. Cuevas, Gerardo V.
Not on Track to Apply to College: School Punishment and Taking the SAT
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; School Suspension/Expulsion; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Studies have consistently shown that school punishment has negative consequences on school academic achievement. Students that are suspended and arrested are more likely to have lower math and reading scores and drop out of high school, and are less likely to enroll in a four year-university. It is important to further understand if individuals that experience school punishment or involvement with the criminal justice system are taking the steps to apply to a four-year university. The SAT exam is one of the standardized tests used by many four-year universities during the admission process. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine if an arrest or suspension impacts a youth's likelihood of taking the SAT exam. The preliminary results suggest youth who are suspended and arrested are less likely to take the SAT.
Bibliography Citation
Cuevas, Gerardo V. "Not on Track to Apply to College: School Punishment and Taking the SAT." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
20. Cundiff, Kelsey
The Effects of Teenage Work Quality on Delinquency
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Employment, Youth; Job Satisfaction; Supervisor Characteristics; Wages, Youth; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Studies of the potential risks and benefits of youth employment in the past have focused on the average hours of work involvement, largely ignoring whether job quality matters. Yet research focusing on adult employment typically includes a breadth of information on the quality of the employment. Similar to Sampson and Laub's (1993) argument for adult work, the quality of youth employment experiences could influence the level of attachment felt towards a job. This attachment, in turn, places the job in a position to act as an additional institution of informal social control to reduce the involvement in delinquent activities. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study examines the effects of hours worked, job duration, hourly pay, job satisfaction, and supervisor age on delinquency. Random and fixed effects models are used to investigate the between and within individual differences in the effects of these measures on delinquent behavior across time. Results show that supervisor age, pay, and satisfaction are significantly associated with lower levels of delinquency when comparing between individuals. However, only supervisor age retains marginal significance in the fixed effects models. The implications of these results will be discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Cundiff, Kelsey. "The Effects of Teenage Work Quality on Delinquency." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
21. DeWitt, Samuel
Apel, Robert
Perceptual Deterrence and Deterrability: Individual Differences and Risk Perceptions in a National Sample
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Bayesian; Crime; Risk Perception

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current project aims to describe and explain change over time in individual perceptions of the risk of arrest in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). With an appeal to contemporary models of Bayesian learning, the degree to which risk perceptions are "updated" in response to personal and vicarious experiences with criminal behavior and arrest will be examined. Furthermore, this study will consider the degree to which perceptual updating in response to past experiences is moderated by a variety of measures of "deterrability" (e.g., present orientation).
Bibliography Citation
DeWitt, Samuel and Robert Apel. "Perceptual Deterrence and Deterrability: Individual Differences and Risk Perceptions in a National Sample." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
22. Fernandes, April
In the Wind: Low-level Criminal Justice Contact & Housing Instability
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Empirical evidence has shown that the prison boom has an appreciable effect on the livelihoods of those incarcerated. Imprisonment, in conjunction with other economic factors, impacts the ability of the formerly incarcerated to procure and sustain housing. The impact on those with minor forms of criminal justice contact, in particular an arrest, conviction or jail stay, could parallel the experience of the formerly incarcerated. Similar to prison, an arrest or jail stay can incapacitate an individual, making it difficult to pay rent. Additionally, criminal record checks have become a mainstay of rental applications, barring individuals from renting on the basis of an arrest or misdemeanor drug conviction. Using ten waves of the NLSY97, I investigate the effect a misdemeanor arrest, charge, conviction or jail sentence on an individual's ability to maintain or procure housing after their release. Initial results show detrimental effects on housing situations, suggesting that even an arrest or jail stay could jeopardize stability.
Bibliography Citation
Fernandes, April. "In the Wind: Low-level Criminal Justice Contact & Housing Instability." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
23. Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Engagement in Criminal Activity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Protective Factors
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Education; Family Influences; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper will present findings that examine the protective factors influencing the successful transition of adolescents who committed crimes in their youth to non-participation in criminal activity as adults using data from the NLSY97. The 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) is a nationally representative longitudinal dataset of individuals born between 1980 - 1984 who were living in a U.S. household in 1997. Latent Profile Analysis will be performed during adolescence and young adulthood. We anticipate the emergence of 3-4 groups or ‘profiles’ of adolescents and adults who range in the frequency and severity of criminal/delinquent behavior. We will also examine the movement in ‘profile’ membership from youth engagement in delinquent activities to adult participation in criminal activities. We will also examine whether protective factors such as education, employment, health, environmental, and family characteristics influence membership in the profiles during adolescence and young adulthood. We will also examine how risk and protective factors during adolescences and young adulthood influence the patterns of movement as youth transition to adulthood and either persist, desist, or completely abstain from participation in criminal activity. Findings will be discussed in terms of positive youth development.
Bibliography Citation
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine. "Engagement in Criminal Activity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Protective Factors." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
24. Hashimi, Sadaf
Apel, Robert
Wakefield, Sara
Familial Transmission of Gang Involvement
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Household Structure; Siblings; Social Contacts/Social Network

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The role of delinquent peer friendship networks in contouring gang membership has driven much of contemporary criminological research. Yet, during adolescence, siblings are also salient influences on one another, acting as potential social partners, mentors, and/or "gatekeepers" to delinquent networks. The current study uses nine waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the diffusion of gang membership among similar-aged siblings. We exploit the household-based nature of the survey, whereby all eligible household members sharing a primary residence completed a questionnaire. The study utilizes siblings' self-report gang involvement as a determinant of focal youths' self-report gang involvement. The analysis conceives of the family as a social network, and explores the way that household structure and respondent characteristics impact the process of gang diffusion.
Bibliography Citation
Hashimi, Sadaf, Robert Apel and Sara Wakefield. "Familial Transmission of Gang Involvement." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
25. Hay, Carter
Forrest, Walter
The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis
Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Society of Criminology Meetings, November 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) self-control theory has inspired extensive new research, with most studies supporting its central prediction that low self-control significantly affects crime and deviance. The theory includes other predictions, however, that have received much less scrutiny. Included among these is the stability thesis—the argument that self-control is developed early in childhood as a result of parental socialization, and that individual differences emerging then persist over time. The purpose of this study is to provide a rigorous test of the stability thesis. First, we examine the extent of stability and change in self-control for a national sample of U.S. children age 7 to 15. We go beyond earlier studies by using a group-based modeling approach (Nagin, 2005) to consider that self-control may not develop in a uniform pattern for all individuals in the sample. Second, we consider whether parenting continues to affect self-control during adolescence—a period after the point at which self-control differences should be fixed. The analysis reveals evidence that both supports and contradicts the theory. Supporting the theory is the roughly 60 percent of respondents who have high levels of self-control from as early as age 7, and exhibit almost perfect stability (in both an absolute and relative sense) through age 15. Contradicting the theory, however, is a smaller portion of respondents (roughly 20 percent) who experienced substantial absolute and relative change in self-control even after the age of 10. Moreover, parental socialization continued to affect self-control during adolescence, even after accounting for both prior self-control and exposure to parental socialization.
Bibliography Citation
Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. "The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis." Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Society of Criminology Meetings, November 2005.
26. Hayden, Emily
Higgins, George E.
Peer Pressure and Substance Use: A Trajectory Analysis Using Primary Socialization Theory
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Modeling, Semi-parametric Group-based (SPGM); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Substance Use

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Primary socialization theory is an advance to the literature. This theoretical premise helps us understand the role of peers in substance use. In short, the theory suggests that family, schools, and personality have a link with substance use through peers. In other words, peers have the most proximal link with substance use. Using longitudinal data from the NLSY79, we performed semi-parametric group based mixture modeling (SPGM) to determine the number and shape of trajectory groups for peers and substance use. Further, SPGM was used to examine the intersection between peers and substance use in a dual trajectory analysis. The results support primary socialization theory.
Bibliography Citation
Hayden, Emily and George E. Higgins. "Peer Pressure and Substance Use: A Trajectory Analysis Using Primary Socialization Theory." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
27. Herting, Jerald R.
Baydar, Nazli
Role of Early Childhood Behavior Problems and Initiating Gateway Substance Use
Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Society of Criminology Conference, November 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The paper will use data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Study of Young Women to examine longitudinal patterns in initiating substance use and the role early childhood problems (e.g., ADHD, conduct disorder) pay in this process. Patterns of initiating can be observed from approximately age 10 to 18 with assessments of early childhood behaviors prior to age 10. problems can be juxtaposed against maternal behavior, school behaviors, peer association and other social indicators for individual and family. Latent growth models are used to model the patterns and associations among variables.
Bibliography Citation
Herting, Jerald R. and Nazli Baydar. "Role of Early Childhood Behavior Problems and Initiating Gateway Substance Use." Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Society of Criminology Conference, November 2000.
28. Inkpen, Christopher
Downward Assimilation for Immigrants and their Children: Arrest, Incarceration, High School Dropout, and Early Childbirth
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Ethnic Differences; High School Dropouts; Immigrants; Incarceration/Jail; Pregnancy, Adolescent

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Demographic projections estimate that by 2065 nearly one third of the American population will be comprised of immigrants and their children. Assessing how these groups are assimilating into mainstream society is integral to understanding patterns of ethno-racial stratification. This study examines assimilation by focusing on the disruptive "turning point" events of arrest, incarceration, high school dropout, and adolescent pregnancy. This investigation tests assimilation theories using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a nationally representative panel study that follows children from adolescence through adulthood. In particular, I compare outcomes for first and second-generation Mexicans and other Hispanics to those of non-Hispanic white and black respondents whose parents were born in the United States. This study employs survival analyses and generalized linear models to capture the elements of timing and sequence in experiencing these disruptive events as well as the probability of experiencing different types of events. In addition to testing for ethno-generational differences, I control for individual and family characteristics as well as the timing of certain life course events. Results indicate that members of the first and second generation are less likely to experience arrest or incarceration than their higher-generation counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Inkpen, Christopher. "Downward Assimilation for Immigrants and their Children: Arrest, Incarceration, High School Dropout, and Early Childbirth." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
29. Johnson, Kecia
Moving Beyond Black and White: Examining the Incarceration-Earnings Relationship among Latinos
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Earnings; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Incarceration/Jail; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the past decade, the growing proportion of the Latino population entering prison has increased dramatically. As a result of mass imprisonment policies, there is a need to investigate the economic consequences of incarceration for Latinos. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, this paper examines the economic costs of incarceration by comparing the earnings trajectories of Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican ex-offenders with their non-offender counterparts. The findings suggest that incarceration depresses the earnings of all Latino men. However, there is variation in the wage difference between the ex-offenders and non-offenders within each of the ethnic groups. This paper concludes that racialized criminal justice policies challenge the economic stability of Mexican, Cuban and Puerto Rican men regardless of incarceration status.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Kecia. "Moving Beyond Black and White: Examining the Incarceration-Earnings Relationship among Latinos." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012.
30. Kamada, Takuma
Racial Variation in Economic Returns to Gang Participation
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Illegal Activities; Income; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite extensive research on racial income inequality in the labor market, less is known about racial income inequality in illegal markets. I tackle this gap by examining (1) the distribution of illegal income by race, (2) racial variation in economic returns to an illegitimate institution--gangs, and (3) the mechanism of these economic returns. Using the NLSY97 data, I find that gang participation increases illegal income for whites but not blacks or Hispanics. Building on the notion of criminal embeddedness, I provide the following explanation and supporting evidence: Because the distinction between legal and illegal economic activities is sharper for whites than for minorities, they have more to lose in the legitimate market by joining a gang. Gang participation substitutes legal economic activities with illegal ones, increasing criminal commitment, and hence an increase in illegal income. Because illegal income is on average lower for whites than for racial minorities, the results suggest that gang participation serves as a ladder of social mobility in illegal markets for whites.
Bibliography Citation
Kamada, Takuma. "Racial Variation in Economic Returns to Gang Participation." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
31. Kamerdze, Amy
Exploring the Relationship Between Educational Attainment and Crime
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; High School Diploma

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Lower levels of education have been associated with several negative life outcomes, such as higher unemployment and public assistance rates, as well as increased levels of substance abuse, delinquency and crime. While prior studies have focused on the relationship between dropping out of high school and delinquency, there has been little research that has explored the association between delinquency and additional levels of educational attainment. This study seeks to further investigate this relationship. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I will examine the relationship between crime and educational attainment for the Forgotten Half, those individuals whose highest level of education is a high school diploma. Implications for theory and policy will be discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Kamerdze, Amy. "Exploring the Relationship Between Educational Attainment and Crime." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012.
32. Kang, Timothy
Contemporary Unions and the Age-Crime Curve: Variation across Gender and Race
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Cohabitation; Crime; Gender Differences; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Unions

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Scholars have argued that marriage can encourage delinquent adolescents to desist from crime and contribute to explaining the declining slope of the "age-crime curve." Yet, cohabitation has become a prominent feature of the transition to adulthood among contemporary young Americans. Family scholars have documented, moreover, that the process of union formation is significantly gendered, and thus may influence criminal behaviour differently for men and women. There also exist significant racial and ethnic differences in rates of crime and the process of union formation. However, little research has examined whether cohabitation can explain the declining slope of the age crime curve across gender or race/ethnicity. Using prospective data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997) and growth curve modelling techniques, this study examines whether cohabitation is associated with declines in self-reported criminal offending during the transition to adulthood and whether the deterring influences of cohabitation contribute to explaining the age-crime curve. Further, I examine these patterns across gender and race to assess the relative importance of unions for different groups of contemporary young Americans. The implications of the findings for life-course criminology will be discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Kang, Timothy. "Contemporary Unions and the Age-Crime Curve: Variation across Gender and Race." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
33. Kang, Timothy
The Changing Transition to Adulthood for Contemporary Delinquent Adolescents
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transition to adulthood has changed dramatically during the past half-century in the United States. Since the post-WWII era, young adults take more time to achieve traditional markers of social and economic independence. Completing education and achieving career employment usually takes longer, which also delays leaving the parental home for contemporary young adults. Marriage and childbearing are less common, less connected, and often delayed. There are also new features of the contemporary transition to adulthood, such as the rise in cohabitation and increases in higher education. Yet, the ways that relatively disadvantaged youth, particularly delinquent adolescents, transition to adulthood is less well understood. This has important implications for understanding the ways social bonds and informal controls formed during the transition to adulthood influence the desistance process for contemporary young adults. In this paper, I use multichannel sequence analysis on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to describe the timing and sequencing of the transition to adulthood for delinquent adolescents and examine whether these patterns can help understand trajectories of offending. I will also contrast their experience to that of the general population and quantify how the transition to adulthood has changed over time for delinquent adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Kang, Timothy. "The Changing Transition to Adulthood for Contemporary Delinquent Adolescents." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
34. Kling, Ryan
Revisiting the Effect of Criminal Justice Involvement on Employment using the NLSY
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Attrition; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Employment; Sample Selection; Sampling Weights/Weighting; Statistical Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The negative relationship between criminality and involvement with the criminal justice system and employment and wages has been long-studied in particular in the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. While many of the extant studies using the NLSY are observational, at least one uses quasi-experimental methods as an attempt to estimate a causal relationship of criminality and employment and/or wages. However, though prior research has recognized that there is attrition bias in the NLSY, methods used to deal with it have unnecessarily removed large numbers of observations. Alternative methods to attempt to correct for this attrition bias are necessary, especially as the NLSY cohorts mature. Furthermore, even in the quasi-experimental designs, little attention has been paid to the sample design or the sampling weights. Using the NLSY79 and 97, this paper will present estimates of the causal relationship of criminality and criminal justice system involvement using quasi-experimental econometric techniques, using the complex sampling design and sampling weights and exploring statistical adjustments to correct for attrition bias.
Bibliography Citation
Kling, Ryan. "Revisiting the Effect of Criminal Justice Involvement on Employment using the NLSY." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
35. Liu, Han
He, Dan
Employment Trajectories after Incarceration: Patterns and Racial Disparity
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite a large literature documenting the impact of imprisonment on labor market opportunities, less understanding exists of the actual employment trajectories of former prisoners. We use sequence analysis to chart the entire employment trajectories for 640 U.S. male former inmates in the first five years following imprisonment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we find that although more than half (59.84%) former inmates got into stable employment after they are released, the rest of them (40.16%) experienced long time unemployment or unstable employment. Besides, the results also reveal a racial disparity in post-release employment trajectory. Compared to Whites, African-Americans are less likely to get into stable employment trajectories. Further analysis shows that this racial disparity cannot be fully explained by the length of incarceration, previous incarceration experiences, and other social demographic variables. This paper sheds lights on former prisoners' transitions back into society. By analyzing the dynamics of employment trajectories, the paper integrates the life course perspective into research on the impact of imprisonment on labor market outcomes. The racial disparity revealed by the data also implies that the unequal impact of criminal records may lead to divergent life trajectories for different racial/ethnic groups.
Bibliography Citation
Liu, Han and Dan He. "Employment Trajectories after Incarceration: Patterns and Racial Disparity." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2019.
36. Maroto, Michelle Lee
Sykes, Bryan L.
The Varying Effects of Incarceration, Conviction, and Arrest on Wealth Outcomes Among Young Adults
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Assets; Criminal Justice System; Debt/Borrowing; Home Ownership; Incarceration/Jail; Net Worth; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do interactions with the criminal justice system influence wealth accumulation among young adults? Previous research using NLSY79 data indicates that incarceration leads to declines in rates of homeownership and net worth among baby boomers, but questions remain as to how other interactions with the criminal justice system affect wealth outcomes. Using data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we expand on previous work and study how arrests, convictions, and incarceration periods influence a variety of wealth outcomes among younger adults. In particular, we investigate how wealth accumulation between the ages of 25 and 30 varies across individuals with a previous incarceration, conviction, or arrest. We emphasize a broad conception of wealth and include six outcome variables as measures of wealth accumulation: home ownership, total net worth, any financial assets, logged total financial assets, any debt, and logged total debt. Although most interactions with the criminal justice system were negatively associated with future wealth in our preliminary analyses, incarceration presented some of the strongest effects. Our findings lend further support showing that incarceration, along with other interactions with the criminal justice system, can act as absorbing statuses, potentially leading to the accumulation of disadvantage. [Also presented at Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017]
Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee and Bryan L. Sykes. "The Varying Effects of Incarceration, Conviction, and Arrest on Wealth Outcomes Among Young Adults." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
37. Moore, Briana
Under Pressure: A Preliminary Test of Stress Proliferation in Predicting Victimization
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Divorce; Stress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study proposes that the stress process model, and the mechanism of stress proliferation in particular, provide a good framework for explaining victimization and for integrating victimization into the broader constellation of stressors and strains. This paper provides a preliminary test of stress proliferation by examining the relationship between victimization and stressors not typically associated with victimization in the extant literature, such as divorce and deaths in the family. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this paper utilized correlations and logistic regression to establish if there is any relationship between stressors and victimization. The results indicate that there is modest support for the stress proliferation process as a predictor of victimization. The study found a strong, positive relationship between divorce and victimization, such that those participants who reported a divorce between 2002 and 2005 had significantly greater likelihood of experiencing a victimization between 2006 and 2007. These results indicate that stress proliferation and the stress process model may provide a good framework for future victimization research that seeks to put victimization within the context of other negative events occurring throughout the life-course.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Briana. "Under Pressure: A Preliminary Test of Stress Proliferation in Predicting Victimization." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
38. Moses, Natasha Tanise
Wright, John Paul
Estimating Criminal and Criminogenic Outcomes Across Racial Differences Using Propensity Score Matching
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Family Background; Incarceration/Jail; Propensity Scores; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research using risk scores to predict criminal and criminogenic outcomes typically compares individuals within the same risk group (for example: low-risk, medium-risk or high-risk). This paper adopts a different approach by matching individuals based on numerical scores, rather than risk group. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 Data, a racially diverse sample of youth was ranked for criminogenic risk based on an index. The index contains empirical criminogenic risk factors such as family socio-economic status, anti-social behavior and substance abuse. Propensity score matching is used to match low-risk, medium-risk and high-risk Black, White and Hispanic youth who are more similar to each other. Each group will be assessed to determine whether risk group predicts a variety of criminal outcomes (including arrest, conviction and length of time incarcerated) during adulthood. We conclude with explanations of findings, limitations and suggestions for future research.
Bibliography Citation
Moses, Natasha Tanise and John Paul Wright. "Estimating Criminal and Criminogenic Outcomes Across Racial Differences Using Propensity Score Matching." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
39. Mowen, Thomas
Chavez, Jorge M.
Immigration Status, School Suspension, and Offending: A Longitudinal Analysis
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Black Youth; Crime; Ethnic Differences; Hispanic Youth; Immigrants; Racial Differences; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research has shown that Black and Hispanic youth are more likely to be suspended in school than White youth. Prior research has largely overlooked the role of immigration status within this process although immigrant youth are the fastest growing school age population. Moreover, given recent research documenting the significant association between school suspensions and increased offending across time, understanding the saliency of immigration status on school discipline bears considerable importance in two related domains. First, it is possible that immigration status will place Black and Hispanic youth at higher odds of receiving a suspension. Second, disparities in school suspension due to immigration status may result in significant disparities in offending for immigrant Black and Hispanic youth, relative to their non-immigrant counterparts. Using four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the goals of this study are twofold. First, we examine the extent to which immigration status conditions the odds of receiving a school suspension for Hispanic and Black youth relative to White youth. Second, using cross-lagged dynamic panel models, we then examine whether the relationship between school suspension and offending across time varies by race/ethnicity and immigration status.
Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas and Jorge M. Chavez. "Immigration Status, School Suspension, and Offending: A Longitudinal Analysis." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
40. Mulvey, Philip
Larson, Matthew
Coming of Age in the Military Post-9/11: An Examination of Early Life Outcomes for a New Generation of Military Veterans
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Divorce; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Military Service; Substance Use; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Military service has long been an important instrument of life course transition. To date, scholars have yielded mixed empirical support for whether military service is associated with positive or negative life outcomes. Considering one principal tenet of life course theory, that an individual’s location in time and place is important, the current study examines the implications of military service for a cohort of veterans coming of age in the post 9/11 wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we assess the impact of military involvement on individuals’ likelihood of offending, divorce, substance use, and negative health relative to the general public. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Mulvey, Philip and Matthew Larson. "Coming of Age in the Military Post-9/11: An Examination of Early Life Outcomes for a New Generation of Military Veterans." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012.
41. Nickell, Tammy
Cho, Yeok-il
The Etiology of Intelligence on Juvenile Delinquency using a Multivariate Analysis Approach
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; I.Q.; Intelligence; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Discoveries arising from empirical research consistently indicate an association between intelligence and delinquency. In addition to the empirical discoveries, scholars continue to deliberate the exact processes by which IQ should have an effect on delinquent behavior. Furthermore, results from the literature have shown that juveniles of comparatively lower intelligence are more likely to participate in various forms of delinquency than those of higher intelligence. As such, the present study will investigate the effect of IQ as well as those of parental bond/attachment, strain, and trait on the delinquency. Secondary data drawn from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79 (NLSY79) will be explored. This study will employ a cross-sectional method using a wave of the survey in 2012. A multiple regression analysis will be used to predict if the main independent variable, IQ, is more important than the control variables such as age, gender, race, SES, parental attachment, and anxiety in affecting juvenile delinquency. This study is important because it further extends our knowledge of the biological theory. There is a continued need for research that will enable us to identify better factors predictive of delinquency to develop more effective prevention strategies.
Bibliography Citation
Nickell, Tammy and Yeok-il Cho. "The Etiology of Intelligence on Juvenile Delinquency using a Multivariate Analysis Approach." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
42. Nofziger, Stacey
How Well Can a Childhood Measure of Self-Control Predict Deviance Across Time?
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, November 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birth Order; Crime; Discipline; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Injuries; Mothers, Behavior; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Punishment, Corporal; Risk-Taking; Scale Construction; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Since the publication of Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime (1990), self-control theory has been rigorously investigated. A recent meta-analysis (Pratt and Cullen 2000) found that in spite of the multiple ways researchers have measured the core concept, different types of samples, and both cross-sectional and longitudinal research strategies, this theory does significantly predict a wide range of juvenile and adult behaviors. One important argument in this theory is that the characteristic of self-control develops early in life and remains relatively stable throughout the life course. This study examines whether this premise is supported by using a measure of self-control from early childhood to predict several forms of criminal and analogous behaviors across time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth � Child and Young Adult Sample (NLSY-CYA) this study measures the self-control of children when they are 5 or 6 years old. This measure of self-control is then used to predict juvenile delinquency at various ages, including drug and alcohol use and early or unsafe sexual behaviors, as well as deviant activities at older ages.
Bibliography Citation
Nofziger, Stacey. "How Well Can a Childhood Measure of Self-Control Predict Deviance Across Time?" Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, November 2006.
43. Nofziger, Stacey
The "Cause" of Low Self-Control: Testing the Relationship Between Mothers' and Children's Self-Control
Presented: Toronto, ON, Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, November 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birth Order; Crime; Discipline; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Injuries; Mothers, Behavior; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Punishment, Corporal; Risk-Taking; Scale Construction; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One of the most extensively debated and empirically tested theories in criminology is Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime (1990). However, one basic assertion of the theory has not been tested. Gottfredson and Hirschi specifically state that "the major 'cause' of low self-control thus appears to be ineffective child-rearing" (1990: 97). If parents fail to instill self-control within their children, delinquency is likely to result. Producing self-control in children requires a great deal of consistent effort. It is expected that parents who lack self-control will not be particularly adept at instilling self-control in their children (Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990: 101). Surprisingly, the crucial role of parental self-control in the development of juvenile self-control, and ultimately juvenile delinquency, has not been examined. This project will use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Child and Young Adult data to begin to fill this void. These data include information from the females who were part of the original NLSY79 cohort as well as from their children. A measure of the mothers' self-control is developed using items such as their aspirations, their involvement in criminal activities, early and unsafe sexual activity, and alcohol and substance use. The children's self-control is measured by items such as being in an accident or having an injury in the last year, the children's scores from interviewer assessments on temperament, social development, and behavior problems scales, self-reported behavior problems at school, educational expectations, and a series of items assessing risk taking behaviors and attitudes.
Bibliography Citation
Nofziger, Stacey. "The "Cause" of Low Self-Control: Testing the Relationship Between Mothers' and Children's Self-Control." Presented: Toronto, ON, Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, November 2005.
44. Nofziger, Stacey
Newton, Katherine
Parenting and Self-Control across Three Generations
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Children, Behavioral Development; Grandchildren; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parenting Skills/Styles; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

According to self-control theory, the primary means of developing self-control is through good parenting practices. While some recent work has pointed to potential biological patterns in self-control, most studies find that different monitoring and discipline practices are crucial components for instilling self-control in children. This study examines how self-control is connected to parenting over three generations. Using data from the NLSY79 and the NLSY-CYA, this study examines how self-control of the women in the original cohort influences their parenting styles, which in turn impacts the self-control and later parenting practices of their children, leading finally to differing levels of self-control in their grandchildren.
Bibliography Citation
Nofziger, Stacey and Katherine Newton. "Parenting and Self-Control across Three Generations." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
45. Parker, Brandy R.
Fry, Sarah V.
Does Incarceration Influence Future Illegal Earnings? Examining Within-Person Changes in Incarceration Status and Illegal Earnings
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Earnings; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course

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The life course perspective emphasizes "turning points" or events and transitions in the lives of individuals that substantially alter life trajectories. Much research exists to support the assertions that formerly incarcerated offenders are blocked from success in legal markets, which suggests that incarceration may serve as a turning point. However, despite the large body of research examining the effect of incarceration on legal earnings and a growing consensus that incarceration has either null or criminogenic effects at the individual level, there are relatively few studies that have examined the potential impact of incarceration on illegal earnings. Using the first 7 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine both binary and continuous measures of illegal earnings utilizing a within-person analysis of boys who reported delinquent behavior in adolescence to examine whether a change in incarceration status leads to a negative, null, or positive change in illegal earnings. Preliminary results suggest that the effect of incarceration on illegal earnings may be small and positive, or that the effect may be due to selection. Implications of the findings will be discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Parker, Brandy R. and Sarah V. Fry. "Does Incarceration Influence Future Illegal Earnings? Examining Within-Person Changes in Incarceration Status and Illegal Earnings." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
46. Powell, Kathleen
Apel, Robert
Long-term Filtering Effects of Juvenile Punishment
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course; Punishment, Criminal

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Formal processing of any given case through the American justice system involves a lengthy process and multiple decision points, each of which effectively serve as a 'filter' that keeps increasingly fewer cases active. The literature on punishment is predominated by the study of outcomes related to back-end system stages -- particularly, incarceration. This focus fails to fully capture the effects justice system contact in two ways: by estimating incarceration effects that compound the experience of all prior stages, and omitting cases only experiencing initial stages (such as arrest). Using the NLSY97, this paper proposes to explore the impact of system involvement at multiple key decision stages for a specific population: individuals formally processed before turning 18 years old. The analysis will tease out filtering effects to highlight the unique impact of each increasingly intrusive stage. Further, the focus on an adolescent population being processed during an important developmental period will assess the degree to which differing levels of involvement carries implications into adulthood and over the life course. Findings may nuance understanding of the nature of justice system contact for youth by highlighting accumulation processes or long-term enduring effects.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Kathleen and Robert Apel. "Long-term Filtering Effects of Juvenile Punishment." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
47. Pyrooz, David Cyrus
Age-Graded Patterns of Gang Membership within a Nationally-Representative Longitudinal Sample of Youth
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course; Modeling, Trajectory analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Longitudinal knowledge of gang membership is underdeveloped. Extant research is limited to a handful of sub-city samples, and less emphasis has been placed on providing detailed information about the age-graded longitudinal contours of gang membership. This study conceptualizes gang membership in a life-course criminological framework and examines patterns of onset, continuity, and change in gang membership from adolescence to early adulthood. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Cohort of 1997, consisting of a nationally-representative sample of 8,984 youth between ages 12 and 16, was used to examine these patterns. Group-based trajectory modeling was employed to identify distinct developmental pathways of gang membership over a 14-year period and arrest patterns are compared to highlight differences across groups.
Bibliography Citation
Pyrooz, David Cyrus. "Age-Graded Patterns of Gang Membership within a Nationally-Representative Longitudinal Sample of Youth." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
48. Ramakers, Anke
Apel, Robert
The Role of Familiar versus New Work Environments in the Likelihood of Rearrest During and After Transitioning into Adulthood
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Employment; Job Search; Re-employment; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While many studies focused on the weak labor market attachment of offenders, little attention is paid to the fact that many of them accumulated work experience before they came into contact with the criminal justice system. This motivates an examination of whether those who were employed at the time of arrest are able to hold down this job, especially because previous work showed that not the guidance to any job, but to stable employment helps to lower rearrest risks. Longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (1997 – 2012) were analyzed to examine to what extent criminal justice contact puts employees in search for a new job, and how old versus new jobs (e.g., familiar versus new work environments) affect future arrests. To connect to prior work in which the moderating role of age in work-effects was emphasized, attention is paid to whether younger or older offenders benefit differently from holding down their jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Ramakers, Anke and Robert Apel. "The Role of Familiar versus New Work Environments in the Likelihood of Rearrest During and After Transitioning into Adulthood." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
49. Remster, Brianna
Hodges, Melissa J.
Labor Market Double Jeopardy: The Gendered Effect of Incarceration on Wages
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Human Capital; Incarceration/Jail; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research finds that incarceration is associated with reduced wages for men, yet it is unknown whether this extends to formerly incarcerated women, despite evidence that women experience the consequences of incarceration differently than men. Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), this study investigates (1) the relative size of the incarceration wage penalty by gender and (2) whether the explanatory mechanisms for the penalty differ for women compared to men. Findings indicate that the net penalty for formerly incarcerated women is roughly double the size of the penalty for formerly incarcerated men. Moreover, there are gender differences in the mechanisms shaping the wage penalty. Although human capital explains the bulk of the penalty for both men and women, women's penalty is in part higher because of their role as primary caregivers. Further, the stigma of incarceration appears more consequential for women's wages than men's. These findings illustrate the need for more research that applies a gendered lens to the consequences of incarceration.
Bibliography Citation
Remster, Brianna and Melissa J. Hodges. "Labor Market Double Jeopardy: The Gendered Effect of Incarceration on Wages." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
50. Robin, Angela Evelina
Cops in the Making: Substance Use Patterns and Traits of Youth Who Enter the Criminal Justice Field
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Criminal Justice System; Drug Use; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Officials employed in the criminal justice system have a duty to serve, protect, and uphold the law. The current research seeks to examine the individual traits and behaviors of criminal justice employees during their youth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this research surveys the alcohol and illicit drug use of people who went on to work in the criminal justice system. We are able to observe patterns in behavior and substance use that may be common among persons before and after entering the field. If such patterns are observed this can be used to promote healthy coping skills for this stressful occupation with a working population of people who have a history of substance use and abuse.
Bibliography Citation
Robin, Angela Evelina. "Cops in the Making: Substance Use Patterns and Traits of Youth Who Enter the Criminal Justice Field." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
51. Robinson, Rhissa Briones
Impact of a Religious/Spiritual Turning Point on Desistance: A Lifecourse Assessment of Racial/Ethnic Differences
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Deviance; Ethnic Differences; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Racial Differences; Religious Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study evaluates the generalizability of Sampson and Laub's age-graded theory through examination of the NLSY97 data, a representative sample of adolescents followed into adulthood. In addition, this study seeks to examine an alternate structural turning point, specifically religiosity/spirituality. Building on studies that explore the role of religiosity on change processes across race/ethnicity (Chu & Sung, 2009; Stansfield, 2017), the current investigation addresses questions relating to the nature of the religion-desistance relationship across demographics.

Multilevel mixed effects models are utilized to estimate over time the separate impact of religious behavior and beliefs on deviance, to assess a religious turning point effect across racial/ethnic subgroups, and to evaluate the influence of religiosity on change from deviance characterized as violations of secular and ascetic standards. Analyses of religiosity/spirituality on these differing forms of deviance across race/ethnicity are also conducted.

Findings reveal modest evidence for a religious/spiritual turning point effect in enacting change. Findings highlight the nuanced religion-desistance relationship, as the prosocial impact of a religious turning point differs across race/ethnicity, and depends upon processes relating to attendance to church services or spiritual beliefs, and may be conditional on the type of deviance outcome examined--whether in violation of secular or ascetic deviance.

Bibliography Citation
Robinson, Rhissa Briones. "Impact of a Religious/Spiritual Turning Point on Desistance: A Lifecourse Assessment of Racial/Ethnic Differences." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
52. Schroeder, Ryan D.
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
Mowen, Thomas
The Marriage Effect Revisited: Desistance from Crime, or Desistance from Arrest?
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Life Course; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The marriage effect on criminal desistance has received a considerable amount of attention in the criminological literature over the past two decades. The main conclusion reached is that marriage increases the likelihood of criminal desistance. The vast majority of prior studies on the marriage effect, however, have used arrest counts as the outcome measure. In the current study, we contend that a shift in criminal justice contacts is not a reliable indicator of actual behavioral change. Drawing on opportunity theory and the Black’s theory of law, we examine the extent to which marriage redirects offending away from the streets and to opportunistic crimes within the home. In this sense, we investigate the possibility that the marriage effect observed in prior research accounts for desistance from official offending but fails to address the hidden crimes that occur outside the purview of the justice system. Using data from the first seven waves of the National Youth Survey, we document patterns of behavioral change from adolescence to adulthood, focusing on the degree to which offending shifts away from high-arrest-risk crimes and narrows to offenses within the home during periods of marriage. Results and implications for life course theory are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Schroeder, Ryan D., Bianca Elizabeth Bersani and Thomas Mowen. "The Marriage Effect Revisited: Desistance from Crime, or Desistance from Arrest?" Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013.
53. Shierholz, Heidi S.
Moore, Quinn
The Externalities of Imprisonment: Does Maternal Incarceration Affect Child Outcomes?
Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As a result of deliberate policy decisions, the incarceration rate for state and federal prisoners has grown by 340% since 1980. Incarceration rates have risen even faster for women -- 560% percent over the same time period. These dramatic increases raise conspicuous questions about the effects -- beyond the intended effects of punishment, incapacitation, and deterrence -- of imprisonment on prisoners, their families and their communities. Specifically, little is known about the effects of parental incarceration on children's outcomes, though the available evidence suggests that the effects are large and detrimental. Developing a more complete understanding of the independent effect of parental incarceration on child outcomes is crucial to informing policy decisions surrounding the use of imprisonment.

In this paper, we examine the effects of maternal imprisonment on children's educational outcomes using data from the Children of the NLSY. These data include a rich set of variables related to both the mother and the child, including maternal criminal history and a set of standardized child cognitive assessments. We employ both child and sibling fixed-effects specifications to address the presence of unobservable characteristics that may be correlated with both maternal imprisonment and child outcomes. These fixed-effects estimates attempt to identify the independent effect of maternal imprisonment on child outcomes -- independent, that is, from the effects of the nonrandom selection into the population of kids whose moms are in prison. Preliminary results show that both reading scores and behavioral problems worsen significantly for every year of maternal imprisonment.

Bibliography Citation
Shierholz, Heidi S. and Quinn Moore. "The Externalities of Imprisonment: Does Maternal Incarceration Affect Child Outcomes?" Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2005.
54. Shollenberger, Tracey L.
School Discipline and Delinquency: Suspension, Arrest, and Incarceration in the NLSY97
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Outcomes; Incarceration/Jail; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Academics and youth advocates alike have described a “school-to-prison pipeline” through which youth who experience difficulty in school are more likely than their peers to experience arrest and incarceration. While the negative association between educational achievement and juvenile/criminal justice sanctions is nothing new, recent shifts in educational policy and practice have heightened the need for criminologists to focus explicitly on schooling as a process with features that can influence delinquency and crime. In particular, the expanded use of exclusionary school discipline in recent decades warrants further investigation. In this paper, I focus on out-of-school suspension, which has become the taken-for-granted approach to addressing serious student misbehavior in many U.S. schools. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine careers of suspension among nationally representative samples of white, black, and Hispanic youth, following their educational and criminal justice outcomes through age 28. After examining disparities in prevalence and intensity of punishment across racial and ethnic groups, I compare punishment to self-reported behavior, examining how careers of delinquency unfold over time for suspended and non-suspended youth. Among other issues, I investigate whether suspension represents a “snare” (Moffitt 1993) that interferes with educational attainment and the desistance process.
Bibliography Citation
Shollenberger, Tracey L. "School Discipline and Delinquency: Suspension, Arrest, and Incarceration in the NLSY97." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
55. Simpson, Sally S.
Gibbs, Carole
Making Sense of Intersections: Does Quantitative Analysis Enlighten or Obfuscate?
Presented: Nashville, TN, American Society of Criminology, 56th Annual Meeting, November 17-20, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

See also , Citation # 5419: "Making Sense of Intersections" Simpson & Gibbs.
Bibliography Citation
Simpson, Sally S. and Carole Gibbs. "Making Sense of Intersections: Does Quantitative Analysis Enlighten or Obfuscate?." Presented: Nashville, TN, American Society of Criminology, 56th Annual Meeting, November 17-20, 2004.
56. Stevens Andersen, Tia
Juvenile Arrest and Court Outcomes using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97)
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The literature of the last three decades shows the impact of race and ethnicity on police behavior and juvenile justice processing. One method of examining DMC with the justice system that has been neglected in research is the analysis of longitudinal individual-level data. This presentation will focus on the author's efforts to examine youth contact with the justice system using the NLSY97, a large, longitudinal, nationally-representative sample of individuals born between 1980 and 1984 who resided in the United States when data collection began in 1997. Although designed to examine school-to-labor force transitions among respondents, the NLSY97 collects extensive information on respondents' personal characteristics, migration patterns, delinquent and criminal behaviors, and contact with the justice system. The author will discuss advantages and challenges of working with the NLSY97 justice system contact data, as well as the results of recent research framed within racial/ethnic threat perspective that emphasizes the importance of community structural conditions that may partially explain disparities in youth arrest, intake, adjudication, and placement in a correctional institution.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens Andersen, Tia. "Juvenile Arrest and Court Outcomes using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97)." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
57. Stevens, Tia
Effects of County and State Contextual Factors on Youth Disproportionate Contact with the Justice System
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Geocoded Data; Modeling, Multilevel; Racial Differences; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study identifies the county- and state-level political, economic, and social factors associated with severity of justice system response to youth. It also identifies which contextual factors moderate relationships between individual-level characteristics and severity of the justice system response. The data analyzed was created by joining the public-use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) with county- and state-specific data via the restricted use county-level NLSY97 geocode data. To take advantage of the longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 data, a combination of multilevel modeling techniques and generalized linear modeling was employed to examine the effects of individual characteristics and contextual conditions on youths’ hazard of arrest and probabilities of charge, a court appearance, conviction, and placement, controlling for self-reported delinquent behavior. This project has the potential to show whether economic, political, and social contexts have a disproportionate impact on the arrest, conviction, and placement of minority youth, especially young women of color. Knowing this may explain the high levels of disproportionate minority penetration into the juvenile justice system as well as girls’ increased proportion of juvenile justice system caseloads.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia. "Effects of County and State Contextual Factors on Youth Disproportionate Contact with the Justice System." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2013.
58. Stevens, Tia
Morash, Merry
The Roles of School-Level and Neighborhood-Level Characteristics in Explaining Delinquency and Involvement with the Criminal Justice System: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Analysis
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses the public-use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data, the confidential NLSY97 School Survey, the confidential NLSY97 Geocode data, and the public-use U.S. Census data to examine the effects of school and neighborhood context on delinquency, net of the effects of early delinquency, demographic characteristics, and individual risk and protective factors. We analyze the data using cross-classified multilevel models, because, although youth are nested within schools, schools are not perfectly nested within communities. A key early contribution of criminological theory and related research is that at the neighborhood level, ecological conditions are highly related to illegal activity, including delinquency. However, there is limited research examining the effects of school context after controlling for neighborhood contextual variables and individual risk/protective factors. It is important to identify school contextual influences that are negatively and positively related to delinquency. In an era of shrinking financial support for schools and an increasingly punitive juvenile justice system that in many jurisdictions has shifted away from rehabilitation, knowing whether certain features of schools have direct effects on delinquency or affect the connection of other variables to delinquency can inform decisions about investments in schools that might prevent or reduce delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia and Merry Morash. "The Roles of School-Level and Neighborhood-Level Characteristics in Explaining Delinquency and Involvement with the Criminal Justice System: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Analysis." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
59. Thomas, Christopher
Kazemian, Lila
Residential Relocation and the Reentry Outcomes of Formerly Incarcerated Individuals
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Geocoded Data; Incarceration/Jail; Mobility, Residential

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study explores the effects of different types of residential relocation on the reentry outcomes, including recidivism, of formerly incarcerated individuals. Although many parolees return to their communities of origin, some move to new communities for a variety of push and pull factors. It is essential to better understand the impact of different relocation decisions on formerly incarcerated populations in order to develop policies that may promote better social reintegration outcomes after release from prison. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and controlling for relevant neighborhood and individual indicators, this study investigates whether residential relocation in itself may help to improve criminal career outcomes and minimize the influence of other risk factors (by altering social networks, changing employment and routine activities, or by creating new opportunities for change). We also assess whether the reasons underlying the decision to relocate are associated with reentry outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Thomas, Christopher and Lila Kazemian. "Residential Relocation and the Reentry Outcomes of Formerly Incarcerated Individuals." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
60. Thompson, Melissa
Woo, Hyeyoung
Gendering Depression, Drugs, and Crime Among Young Adults
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Depression (see also CESD); Drug Use; Gender Differences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous literature suggests that there are ‘gendered responses’ to psychological distress: Females tend to experience higher levels of depressive symptoms while males tend to exhibit disruptive behaviors (e.g., substance use). While the link substance use and criminal offending has been established, the question of whether or not the gendered responses have different influences on committing a crime has not been well understood. This study identifies the gendered effects of depression and substance abuse on self-reported criminal behavior focusing on young adults. Using data from multiple rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (N=8,984), we performed a lagged logistic regression model to estimate probability of committing crimes in their early twenties associated with depression and substance use during their teens. Our preliminary results indicate that earlier experience of depression and substance use are associated with committing crime later. However, they also revealed gendered effects of depression. While the effects of depression on crime are stronger for females, no gender difference in the link between substance use and crime was found. In order to better understand the gendered effects, we also perform multivariate logit models with various mediators/moderators progressively adjusted.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Melissa and Hyeyoung Woo. "Gendering Depression, Drugs, and Crime Among Young Adults." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012.
61. Thomson, Bob
Buffering the Stigma: Race, Incarceration, Religion, and Health
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Incarceration/Jail; Racial Differences; Religion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between religion and health is a double-edged sword. Religious involvement can benefit physical and mental health when it provides social and/or psychological resources for coping with negative life events. But it can have the opposite effect under certain conditions, such as feeling abandoned by God or belonging to a tradition that discourages medical care. Here, I consider whether race moderates the effect of religion for post-incarceration health outcomes, since health and incarceration are themselves stratified by race. Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I regressed count measures of both physical and mental health at midlife on three-way interactions between race and ethnicity, attendance, and prior incarceration. Results confirmed that prior incarceration consistently diminished both physical and mental health, and that church attendance was generally protective of mental health. When modeling interaction effects, church attendance was modestly protective of health among African Americans who had been incarcerated, protective--but non-significantly--for Hispanic ex-cons, and a substantial risk factor for white former convicts. Black ex-cons apparently find supportive church environments while white ex-cons are likely stigmatized in their religious communities, especially those that express dispositional--rather than situational--attribution of moral transgressions.
Bibliography Citation
Thomson, Bob. "Buffering the Stigma: Race, Incarceration, Religion, and Health." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
62. Tusinski, Karin E.
Factors Associated with Bullying Behaviors in a Longitudinal Sample of Children
Presented: St. Louis MO, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Bullying/Victimization; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers have been less concerned in prior work with ‘why’ bullying occurs than they have with detecting the ‘deficits’ that the individuals involved, either as bullies and/or victims, present. More recently, research has begun to concentrate on the inherent characteristics of those involved in bullying, exploring for instance the role of self-esteem, assertiveness, and empathy, but the main focus in previous research has been on describing the prevalence of bullying and documenting the ‘perceptions’ that participants had of those involved in bullying. The present research examines in a multivariate and longitudinal context the role various factors in shaping the likelihood of being bullied, including relationship with peers, social rejection, and prior bully victimization experiences. The data used for this presentation come from the 1994 and 1996 waves of the NLSY and NLSY-C.
Bibliography Citation
Tusinski, Karin E. "Factors Associated with Bullying Behaviors in a Longitudinal Sample of Children." Presented: St. Louis MO, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2008.
63. VanEseltine, Matthew
The Good Marriage Effect among Recent Cohorts
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The idea of the "good marriage effect" has become well-known in criminology: marriages, particularly those of high quality, lead to desistance from crime. The emphasis on quality comes largely from the work of Laub, Sampson, and colleagues using the recovered and revitalized Glueck data, where men's desistance was encouraged not merely by being married but by having a high level of marital attachment. This might not tell us the full story, however, as the Glueck data are limited to the family experiences of white men from Boston in the mid-to-late 20th century. Little other work on the marriage-crime relationship has operationalized and measured marital quality. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we can begin to answer several open questions about marriages and crime. How is criminal activity among recent cohorts influenced by relationships and relationship quality? How might these relationships vary by gender, race, and class? Mixed results suggest that a "good marriage" may still have a role in some desistance experiences, but also that the effect is limited in its reach.
Bibliography Citation
VanEseltine, Matthew. "The Good Marriage Effect among Recent Cohorts." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
64. Warner, Cody
Houle, Jason N.
A Prison of Debt? Incarceration and Consumer Debt in Young Adulthood
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Credit/Credit Constraint; Criminal Justice System; Debt/Borrowing; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The American criminal justice system has expanded considerably since the 1970s, and research finds that formerly incarcerated individuals are disadvantaged in the labor market, experiencing unemployment and reduced wages. Recent research further demonstrates that incarceration is damaging to wealth accumulation, including homeownership. We extend this research to consider if incarceration is associated with unsecured debt owed to credit card companies or other business. While some research examines the growth and proliferation of legal debt associated with a criminal conviction, no studies have explicitly examined if or how incarceration impacts access to credit or overall debt burdens. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLYS97), we have two key findings. First, young adults with a history of incarceration are nearly 40% less likely to report unsecured debt than their never-incarcerated counterparts. That said, and second, among those with debt, formerly incarcerated young adults report over $11,000 more unsecured debt, or average, than their peers. Thus, incarceration appears to limit access to credit, but increases debt burdens among those who borrow. Our findings provide further evidence on the diverse and deleterious economic outcomes associated with incarceration, and contribute to growing knowledge of the indebtedness of American families.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, Cody and Jason N. Houle. "A Prison of Debt? Incarceration and Consumer Debt in Young Adulthood." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
65. Warner, Cody
Remster, Brianna
Incarceration and the Transition to Residential Independence
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course; Residence

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Incarceration is typically conceptualized as a distinct turning point in the life course. Research shows that a spell of incarceration disrupts important life course transitions, such as entry into stable employment and family formation. Although recent research has also started to explore the residential consequences of incarceration, little is known about the impact that incarceration has on the transition to residential independence. This is a notable oversight, as the transition to an independent household is a key marker of adulthood. Because incarceration diminishes marriage and employment prospects and slows wage growth, we suggest that incarceration could also work to inhibit residential independence. This research draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which contains almost 30 years of correctional and housing histories to explore the effect of a prison spell on the likelihood of residing in an independent household. Our findings suggest that incarceration hinders attainment of independent housing, net of age and other core determinants of living independently. Furthermore, an interaction between age and correctional contact suggests that this relationship may depend on the timing of confinement. Findings are discussed in the context of a growing body of work on the collateral consequences of incarceration.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, Cody and Brianna Remster. "Incarceration and the Transition to Residential Independence." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012.
66. Wei, Qing
Family Transition and Juvenile Delinquency
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Influences; Family Structure

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study explores short term effects of family transitions on juvenile deviant behavior, and utilizes three types of theories to explain why family transition matters. They are socialization theory, economic strain theory and emotional strain theory. The data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY 97). By utilizing the multilevel Rasch modeling, this study combines the longitudinal study of within person change with the cross-sectional study of between-person difference and presents the audience with a broader view on the relationship between family structure and juvenile delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Wei, Qing. "Family Transition and Juvenile Delinquency." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2010.
67. Widdowson, Alex O.
Cutting Ties with Prior Places: Considering the Role that Residential Mobility Plays in Desistance from Crime and Substance Use During the Transition to Adulthood
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Substance Use; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the role that residential mobility plays in desistance from crime and substance use. Getting out of town and moving away is an intuitive way to separate offenders from criminogenic environments, which in turn should reduce their offending. Yet, there is surprisingly little empirical work that evaluates the potential crime reducing effects of a residential move, especially a residential move made during the transition to adulthood. Using annual data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I address this void by examining the effect of residential mobility (defined as a move between two U.S. counties) on desistance from crime and substance use during the transition to adulthood. The results from a series of random-effects models revealed that respondents experience immediate within-individual reductions in offending after moving, but with delinquency and substance use, the reductions were smaller and shorter lived; whereas, the reductions for arrest were larger and more sustained. Implications for theory and research on desistance are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O. "Cutting Ties with Prior Places: Considering the Role that Residential Mobility Plays in Desistance from Crime and Substance Use During the Transition to Adulthood." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
68. Widdowson, Alex O.
Residential Mobility and Desistance from Crime During Young Adulthood
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior theory and research suggests that residential mobility is a potential "turning point" in the life course that can facilitate desistance from crime by allowing young people to escape disadvantaged neighborhoods and criminogenic peer groups. Using monthly data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study investigates the impact of residential change on desistance from criminal behavior during the transition to young adulthood. In doing so, attention is paid to 1) the distance of the move and 2) whether the move results in improvements in community context. Random- and fixed-effects models are employed to examine within-individual change. Implications for theory and research on desistance are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O. "Residential Mobility and Desistance from Crime During Young Adulthood." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
69. Widdowson, Alex O.
Hay, Carter
Siennick, Sonja E.
Romantic Partnerships and Criminal Desistance: Considering the Role of Partner's Socioeconomic Characteristics
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Crime; Marriage; Modeling, Random Effects; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past two decades, research examining the influence of romantic partners on criminal desistance has steadily increased, with most studies reporting crime-reducing effects of marriage, and to a lesser extent, cohabitation. Despite the advancement of this literature, far less research has considered the role that romantic partner's personal characteristics play in the desistance process. The few studies that have investigated this issue have focused on partner's antisocial behavior and negative emotionality. However, there are other partner characteristics that are likely important to adult offending. The current study extends this line of inquiry by investigating whether and to what degree the effects of marriage and cohabitation on criminal desistance depend on romantic partner's socioeconomic characteristics. Drawing on the life-course perspective, we suggest that entering into a romantic partnership with a financially stable partner provides individuals with tangible benefits (e.g., housing and material goods) that makes engaging in crime costlier, whereas partners who have fewer economic resources may fail to dissuade offending. We consider this issue with data from the NLSY97. Random-effects models are employed to examine within-individual effects of partner's education, employment status, and income on criminal arrest during young adulthood. Gender differences are examined.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O., Carter Hay and Sonja E. Siennick. "Romantic Partnerships and Criminal Desistance: Considering the Role of Partner's Socioeconomic Characteristics." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
70. Wikoff, Nora
Validation of the Delinquency Index: Youth Report Against the Rasch Measurement Model
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Differences; Racial Differences; Scale Construction; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers have justified their embrace of self-report delinquency scales on theoretical and methodical grounds. Not only do summative scales appear to measure behaviors across the delinquency spectrum, their continuous distributions free researchers to use a wider array of statistical techniques. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the validity of self-report delinquency scales to confirm that scales accurately measure delinquent behavior across subgroups, such as age and racial and ethnic status. Using data from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I use the Rasch measurement model to examine measurement properties of the Delinquency Index-Youth Report. This model tests whether the index provides consistent measurement across subgroups that include age, gender, and racial and ethnic status. Few researchers have applied the Rasch model to self-report delinquency scales, and none have applied the Rasch model to self-report delinquency measures used in the NLSY97 crime module. The results show that differential item functioning exists across age groups and racial and ethnic groups. Questions were harder for Whites to endorse than for African Americans and Hispanics, leading to misleading racial differences in delinquency. This paper discusses the implications of using these items to measure delinquent behavior among American youth.
Bibliography Citation
Wikoff, Nora. "Validation of the Delinquency Index: Youth Report Against the Rasch Measurement Model." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
71. Wittrock, Stacy M.
Poverty and Crime: The Role of Public Assistance Receipt
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, November 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Children, Poverty; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The research literature clearly demonstrates that children living in poverty are at a higher risk for engaging in delinquent behavior (e.g. Peterson and Krivo 2005; Pratt and Cullen 2005). The family context plays an important role in child outcomes. Some scholars have argued that poverty affects delinquency by affecting family processes. Research has shown that poverty increases family stress (Larzelere and Patterson 1990). Family stress, in turn, affects parent-child interactions (Hanson 1997; Patterson et al. 1989; Sampson and Laub 1993). Public assistance programs were designed to buffer some the negative effects of poverty; however, there has been little research examining how public assistance receipt affects the relationship between poverty and delinquency. Specifically, research has not examined whether or not public assistance receipt ameliorates some of the negative effects of poverty on youths' delinquent behavior. Using the National Longitudinal Surveys' NLSY79 Mother, Child, and Young Adult data, biennially from 1986-2004, this paper will examine whether and how public assistance receipt plays a part in helping impoverished youth avoid delinquency. More specifically, I will examine whether the receipt of public assistance benefits reduces stress in families, thereby reducing delinquency. The results of this research help to disentangle the effects of socio-economic status and family interaction on delinquency, which has implications for both criminological theory and public policy.
Bibliography Citation
Wittrock, Stacy M. "Poverty and Crime: The Role of Public Assistance Receipt." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, November 2007.
72. Wolsey, Rachel
Marijuana in the Basement: Examining the Effect of Social Class-Conditioned Parenting on Adolescent Substance Use
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Drug Use; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Socioeconomic Background; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper is an examination of how substance use in adolescence and young adulthood is shaped by parenting practices, where concerted cultivation (Lareau 2003) increases entitlement among more advantaged youth, which subsequently affects their risk of substance use. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) are used to examine the following research questions: 1) Does concerted cultivation relate to lower or higher rates of substance use among adolescents, 2) Does concerted cultivation relate to greater entitlement in children, 3) Is the effect of concerted cultivation on substance use class-specific, and 4) Does entitlement interact with parenting to predict substance use? Findings reveal that youth from more advantaged backgrounds report less substance use than their less advantaged counterparts. Parenting practice is a significant driver of this pattern, which fits with previous research arguing that concerted cultivation relates to parents' social class background. Further, the findings indicate that a sense of entitlement affects substance use independently of parenting practice. Overall, the findings are suggestive of class distinctions in adolescent substance use and implicate parenting as a mechanism.
Bibliography Citation
Wolsey, Rachel. "Marijuana in the Basement: Examining the Effect of Social Class-Conditioned Parenting on Adolescent Substance Use." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.