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Author: Widdowson, Alex O.
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Forrest, Walter
Hay, Carter
Widdowson, Alex O.
Rocque, Michael
Development of Impulsivity and Risk‐seeking: Implications for the Dimensionality and Stability of Self‐control
Criminology 57,3 (August 2019): 512-543.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12214
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Risk-Taking; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Gottfredson and Hirschi's self‐control theory, introduced in 1990, they contend that self‐control is a unidimensional construct that develops early in childhood and remains stable throughout the life span. According to findings reported in recent research, however, these arguments are now being challenged, with scholars pointing to ways in which self‐control may be multidimensional in nature and may change beyond the period of alleged stabilization. In this study, we draw on Steinberg's dual systems model, introduced in 2008, to consider this issue further. We examine that model's two key elements of low self‐control--risk‐seeking and impulsivity--to determine whether they are empirically distinguishable from one another and have differing developmental trajectories from childhood to early adulthood. We also consider the consequences of changes in risk‐seeking and impulsivity for within‐individual changes in crime. We examine these issues with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) for individuals from 10 to 30 years old. The results of our analyses show support for a multidimensional and dynamic conception of self‐control—from age 10 to age 30, risk‐seeking and impulsivity are empirically distinct and develop in divergent ways that are consistent with the dual systems model. Changes in risk‐seeking and impulsivity also affect changes in crime, but their effects vary with age and changes in the other element. We discuss these findings and their implications for self‐control and the development of life‐course criminology.
Bibliography Citation
Forrest, Walter, Carter Hay, Alex O. Widdowson and Michael Rocque. "Development of Impulsivity and Risk‐seeking: Implications for the Dimensionality and Stability of Self‐control." Criminology 57,3 (August 2019): 512-543.
2. Siennick, Sonja E.
Widdowson, Alex O.
Juvenile Arrest and Later Economic Attainment: Strength and Mechanisms of the Relationship
Journal of Quantitative Criminology published online (25 November 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s10940-020-09482-6.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-020-09482-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Arrests; Assets; Debt/Borrowing; Net Worth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We tested the impact of juvenile arrest on asset accumulation, debt accumulation, and net worth from ages 20-30. We also examined whether indicators of family formation, school and work attainment, and subsequent justice system contacts explained any effects.

Methods: We used longitudinal data on 7916 respondents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort. Our treatment variable was a dichotomous indicator of whether respondents were arrested as juveniles. Our focal outcomes were combined measures of the values of 10 types of assets, 6 types of debt, and net worth (assets minus debt) at ages 20, 25, and 30. We used propensity score methods to create matched groups of respondents who were and were not arrested as juveniles, and we compared these groups on the outcomes using multilevel growth curve analyses.

Results: Arrested juveniles went on to have lower assets, debts, and net worth during young adulthood compared to non-arrested juveniles. These differences were most pronounced at age 30. The differences were largely explained by educational attainment, weeks worked, and income.

Bibliography Citation
Siennick, Sonja E. and Alex O. Widdowson. "Juvenile Arrest and Later Economic Attainment: Strength and Mechanisms of the Relationship." Journal of Quantitative Criminology published online (25 November 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s10940-020-09482-6.
3. Widdowson, Alex O.
Cutting Ties with Prior Places: Considering the Role that Residential Mobility Plays in Desistance from Crime and Substance Use During the Transition to Adulthood
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Substance Use; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the role that residential mobility plays in desistance from crime and substance use. Getting out of town and moving away is an intuitive way to separate offenders from criminogenic environments, which in turn should reduce their offending. Yet, there is surprisingly little empirical work that evaluates the potential crime reducing effects of a residential move, especially a residential move made during the transition to adulthood. Using annual data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I address this void by examining the effect of residential mobility (defined as a move between two U.S. counties) on desistance from crime and substance use during the transition to adulthood. The results from a series of random-effects models revealed that respondents experience immediate within-individual reductions in offending after moving, but with delinquency and substance use, the reductions were smaller and shorter lived; whereas, the reductions for arrest were larger and more sustained. Implications for theory and research on desistance are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O. "Cutting Ties with Prior Places: Considering the Role that Residential Mobility Plays in Desistance from Crime and Substance Use During the Transition to Adulthood." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
4. Widdowson, Alex O.
Does Leaving the Neighborhood Mean Leaving the Gang?: Considering the Role that Long Distance Residential Mobility Plays in Desistance from Gangs and Criminal Offending
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Neighborhood Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study considers the role that a long distance move plays in desistance from gangs and criminal offending. Getting out of town and moving away from past problems is an intuitive way to separate offenders from criminogenic environments. Indeed, qualitative accounts of ex-gang members have implicated neighborhood change as an important step in the desistance process. Yet, there is surprisingly little quantitative work that has evaluated the potential crime-reducing effects of a residential move, especially among gang members. Using waves 1-9 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study address this void by examining the effect of residential mobility (defined as a move between U.S. counties) on desistance from gang membership, drug sales, and violent offending. Implications for theory and research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O. "Does Leaving the Neighborhood Mean Leaving the Gang?: Considering the Role that Long Distance Residential Mobility Plays in Desistance from Gangs and Criminal Offending." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2019.
5. Widdowson, Alex O.
Residential Mobility and Desistance from Crime and Substance Use during the Transition to Adulthood
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Geocoded Data; Life Course; Mobility, Residential; Substance Use; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this dissertation is to advance life-course scholarship by addressing two important gaps in the existing body of research on residential mobility and desistance. First, this dissertation is the first study to examine the relationship between residential mobility (defined as a between-county move) and desistance from crime and substance use during the transition to adulthood. This gap is noteworthy given that residential mobility is an age-graded life event that is central to the transition to adulthood. In the U.S., rates of residential mobility are highest in the young adult years compared to any other developmental period, and scholars suggest that such moves constitute key role transitions and have important implications for locational attainment.

Second, this dissertation is also one of the first studies to examine whether the relationship between residential mobility and desistance from crime depends on the context of the move. Although the average effect of moving may be protective, the effect likely depends on a number of factors. Two factors may be especially salient to residential moves during the transition to adulthood: (1) whether the move occurs in the presence of other adult social roles and (2) whether the move results in improvements in community context. There are reasons to expect residential mobility to have stronger or weaker effects depending on these features.

This dissertation uses public and restricted geocode data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). These data contain a wealth of information about the transition to young adulthood, including respondents' residential mobility, crime and substance use, adult social roles, and community context. In addition, restricted geocode data allows me to construct residential mobility patterns of respondents from 1997-2013 and determine the county-level characteristics of every residential location respondents reported living at during the survey.

Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O. Residential Mobility and Desistance from Crime and Substance Use during the Transition to Adulthood. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 2018.
6. Widdowson, Alex O.
Residential Mobility and Desistance from Crime During Young Adulthood
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior theory and research suggests that residential mobility is a potential "turning point" in the life course that can facilitate desistance from crime by allowing young people to escape disadvantaged neighborhoods and criminogenic peer groups. Using monthly data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study investigates the impact of residential change on desistance from criminal behavior during the transition to young adulthood. In doing so, attention is paid to 1) the distance of the move and 2) whether the move results in improvements in community context. Random- and fixed-effects models are employed to examine within-individual change. Implications for theory and research on desistance are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O. "Residential Mobility and Desistance from Crime During Young Adulthood." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
7. Widdowson, Alex O.
Fisher, Benjamin W.
Mass Incarceration and Subsequent Preventive Health Care: Mechanisms and Racial/Ethnic Disparities
American Journal of Public Health published online (22 January 2020): DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305448.
Also: https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305448
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Arrests; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. To examine the associations and mechanisms between 2 indicators of mass incarceration and preventive health care use and whether these associations are moderated by race/ethnicity.

Methods. We used 1997 to 2015-2016 data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 7740) to examine the associations between arrest and incarceration at ages 18 to 27 years and cholesterol, blood sugar, and blood pressure screenings at age 29 years. Explanatory mechanisms included blocked access (health care coverage and medical checkup) and economic (education, employment, and income) factors. We used logistic regression to model main effects.

Results. Arrest was associated with lower odds of getting blood cholesterol, blood sugar, and blood pressure tests; incarceration was associated with lower odds of getting cholesterol and blood sugar tests; blocked access and economic factors mediated 42% to 125% of these associations. These associations were mostly consistent across race/ethnicity.

Conclusions. Mass incarceration contributes to decreases in preventive health care use, which are explained in part by blocked access and economic factors.

Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O. and Benjamin W. Fisher. "Mass Incarceration and Subsequent Preventive Health Care: Mechanisms and Racial/Ethnic Disparities." American Journal of Public Health published online (22 January 2020): DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305448.
8. Widdowson, Alex O.
Garduno, L. Sergio
Fisher, Benjamin W.
The School-to-Gang Pipeline: Examining the Impact of School Suspension on Joining a Gang for the First Time
Crime and Delinquency published online (17 December 2020): DOI: 10.1177/0011128720981835.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0011128720981835
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study draws on labeling and routine activity theory to examine whether being suspended from school is associated with subsequent gang membership onset. With data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we estimated discrete time models that predict gang membership onset from ages 12 to 19. The results revealed that being suspended from school at one wave was associated with an increased hazard on gang membership onset at the next wave. The results also revealed that although being suspended from school during one wave increased the hazard of gang membership onset, youth who are suspended during multiple waves tended to have an even higher hazard of gang membership onset.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O., L. Sergio Garduno and Benjamin W. Fisher. "The School-to-Gang Pipeline: Examining the Impact of School Suspension on Joining a Gang for the First Time." Crime and Delinquency published online (17 December 2020): DOI: 10.1177/0011128720981835.
9. Widdowson, Alex O.
Hay, Carter
Siennick, Sonja E.
Romantic Partners and Young Adult Offending: Considering the Role of Partner's Socioeconomic Characteristics
Criminology published online (09 January 2021): DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12265.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12265
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Arrests; Cohabitation; Marital Status; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we examined whether and to what extent the effects on offending of marriage and different types of cohabitating partnerships depend on the romantic partner's socioeconomic status (SES). Such research addresses a key gap in knowledge regarding potential heterogeneity of effects on behavior of romantic partnerships. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examined the within‐individual effects of three romantic partner's socioeconomic characteristics--education, employment, and income--on offending from ages 18 to 34. Results revealed that marriage was related to reductions in arrest only for those whose spouse was employed (full or part time) and had income. In contrast to marriage, partner SES was not related to arrest among those who cohabited with a partner they never married. Additionally, partner SES was often associated with reductions in arrest among those who cohabited with a partner they later married, but the reductions were statistically indistinguishable across levels of partner SES. Lastly, these effects were experienced similarly for low‐ and high‐SES individuals alike, and no gender differences were detected in these effects. Our findings suggest that important life events such as marriage and cohabitation can be behavior‐altering transitions, but the effects of these events are variable.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O., Carter Hay and Sonja E. Siennick. "Romantic Partners and Young Adult Offending: Considering the Role of Partner's Socioeconomic Characteristics." Criminology published online (09 January 2021): DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12265.
10. Widdowson, Alex O.
Hay, Carter
Siennick, Sonja E.
Romantic Partnerships and Criminal Desistance: Considering the Role of Partner's Socioeconomic Characteristics
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Crime; Marriage; Modeling, Random Effects; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past two decades, research examining the influence of romantic partners on criminal desistance has steadily increased, with most studies reporting crime-reducing effects of marriage, and to a lesser extent, cohabitation. Despite the advancement of this literature, far less research has considered the role that romantic partner's personal characteristics play in the desistance process. The few studies that have investigated this issue have focused on partner's antisocial behavior and negative emotionality. However, there are other partner characteristics that are likely important to adult offending. The current study extends this line of inquiry by investigating whether and to what degree the effects of marriage and cohabitation on criminal desistance depend on romantic partner's socioeconomic characteristics. Drawing on the life-course perspective, we suggest that entering into a romantic partnership with a financially stable partner provides individuals with tangible benefits (e.g., housing and material goods) that makes engaging in crime costlier, whereas partners who have fewer economic resources may fail to dissuade offending. We consider this issue with data from the NLSY97. Random-effects models are employed to examine within-individual effects of partner's education, employment status, and income on criminal arrest during young adulthood. Gender differences are examined.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O., Carter Hay and Sonja E. Siennick. "Romantic Partnerships and Criminal Desistance: Considering the Role of Partner's Socioeconomic Characteristics." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
11. Widdowson, Alex O.
Jacobsen, Wade C.
Siennick, Sonja E.
Warren, Patricia Y.
Together Despite the Odds: Explaining Racial and Ethnic Heterogeneity in Union Dissolution after Incarceration
Criminology 58,1 (February 2020): 129-155.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12232
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Ethnic Differences; Incarceration/Jail; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The U.S. incarceration rate rose dramatically over the past 45 years, increasing the number of marriages and cohabiting unions disrupted by a jail or prison stay. But as some have pointed out, not all unions dissolve as a result of incarceration, and there seems to be racial-ethnic variation in this tendency, with Blacks displaying higher rates of dissolution than Whites and Hispanics. Yet it is unclear what explains racial–ethnic differences in union dissolution among the incarcerated. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we examine why racial-ethnic differences in union dissolution exist among a sample of individuals who had a marital or a cohabiting union interrupted by an incarceration spell. In doing so, we draw on social exchange theory and structural and cultural theories to suggest that racial-ethnic disparities in union dissolution are explained by differential exposure to protective relationship characteristics. The results of Cox hazard models reveal that Blacks have significantly higher hazards of union dissolution than do Whites and Hispanics. These results also indicate that being married, having a child together, having full‐time employment, a longer union duration, and a shorter incarceration spell may protect against dissolution and that these factors account, in part, for the greater risk of dissolution among Blacks relative to Whites and Hispanics.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O., Wade C. Jacobsen, Sonja E. Siennick and Patricia Y. Warren. "Together Despite the Odds: Explaining Racial and Ethnic Heterogeneity in Union Dissolution after Incarceration." Criminology 58,1 (February 2020): 129-155.
12. Widdowson, Alex O.
Siennick, Sonja E.
The Effects of Residential Mobility on Criminal Persistence and Desistance during the Transition to Adulthood
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency published online (17 August 2020): DOI: 10.1177/0022427820948578.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022427820948578
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: Prior research has documented that residential mobility has the potential to trigger both criminal persistence and desistance, with frequent moving often predicting persistence and long-distance moving predicting desistance. However, less work has considered this possibility during the transition to adulthood. To address this shortcoming, we assessed the effects of different residential moves on offending during this period in the life course.

Methods: Using 15 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort, a sample of youth followed from ages 12 to 32, we used mixed-effects models to examine whether frequent moving, between-county moves (a proxy for long-distance), and moving distance are associated with within-individual change in self-reported offending and arrest.

Results: Findings indicated that frequent moving was not associated with persistent offending. In addition, individuals who made between-county moves showed significant within-individual reductions in self-reported offending and arrest, with those reductions emerging immediately after the move and persisting over time. Finally, individuals who moved further in distance were more likely to experience reductions in self-reported offending, although any moving distance reduced arrest.

Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O. and Sonja E. Siennick. "The Effects of Residential Mobility on Criminal Persistence and Desistance during the Transition to Adulthood." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency published online (17 August 2020): DOI: 10.1177/0022427820948578.
13. Widdowson, Alex O.
Siennick, Sonja E.
Hay, Carter
The Implications of Arrest for College Enrollment: An Analysis of Long-Term Effects and Mediating Mechanisms
Criminology 54,4 (November 2016): 621-652.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12114/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; College Enrollment; High School Completion/Graduates; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study draws on labeling theory and education research on the steps to college enrollment to examine 1) whether and for how long arrest reduces the likelihood that high-school graduates will enroll in postsecondary education and 2) whether any observed relationships are mediated by key steps in the college enrollment process. With 17 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) and propensity score matching, we derived matched samples of arrested and nonarrested but equivalent youth (N = 1,761) and conducted logistic regression and survival analyses among the matched samples to examine the short- and long-term postsecondary consequences of arrest. The results revealed that arrest reduced the odds of 4-year college enrollment directly after high school, as well as that high-school grade point average and advanced coursework accounted for 58 percent of this relationship. The results also revealed that arrest had an enduring impact on 4-year college attendance that extended into and beyond emerging adulthood. Two-year college prospects were largely unaffected by arrest. These findings imply that being arrested during high school represents a negative turning point in youths' educational trajectory that is, in part, a result of having a less competitive college application. Implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Widdowson, Alex O., Sonja E. Siennick and Carter Hay. "The Implications of Arrest for College Enrollment: An Analysis of Long-Term Effects and Mediating Mechanisms." Criminology 54,4 (November 2016): 621-652.