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Author: Crowley, Joan E.
Resulting in 26 citations.
1. Baker, Paula C.
Carpenter, Susan A.
Crowley, Joan E.
D'Amico, Ronald
Choongsoo, Kim
Morgan, William R.
Wielgosz, John B.
Pathways to the Future, Volume IV: A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1982
Revised, April 1984. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA); Educational Attainment; Employment; High School Dropouts; Job Search; Job Training; Racial Differences; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training, Post-School; Wages, Reservation

The fourth wave of data from the NLSY is analyzed. The nature and consequences of high school employment,the effectiveness of job search and job finding methods among young people, the relationship of race to employment and educational attainment, the long-term effects of participation in government-sponsored employment and training programs, and the determinants and consequences of dropping out of high school in an overeducated society are investigated. A longitudinal study of reservation wages, duration of job search and subsequent wages is presented, based on an empirical econometric analysis.

D'Amico & Baker - Chapter One: The Nature and Consequences of High School Employment. Kim - Chapter Two: A Longitudinal Study of Reservation Wages, Duration of Job Search, and Subsequent Wages: An Empirical Econometric Analysis. Wielgosz & Carpenter - Chapter Three: The Effectiveness of Job Search and Job Finding Methods of Young Americans. Crowley - Chapter Four: Long Term Outcomes of Government-Subsidized Employment and Training Programs. Crowley - Chapter Five: Long Term Outcomes of Goverment-Subsidized Employment and Training Programs. Morgan - Chaper Six: The High School Dropout in an Overeducatedc Society.

Bibliography Citation
Baker, Paula C., Susan A. Carpenter, Joan E. Crowley, Ronald D'Amico, Kim Choongsoo, William R. Morgan and John B. Wielgosz. Pathways to the Future, Volume IV: A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1982. Revised, April 1984. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984.
2. Baker, Paula C.
Crowley, Joan E.
D'Amico, Ronald
Falaris, Evangelos M.
Morgan, William R.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Willke, Richard
Pathways to the Future, Volume V: A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1983
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior; Business Cycles; College Enrollment; Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA); Educational Attainment; Educational Costs; Job Training; Training, Post-School; Transition, School to Work

This report describes the work experience of the nationally-representative sample of 12,000 Americans who were age 14-21 when first interviewed in 1979 and who have been surveyed annually since then. Willke -- Chapter One evaluates outcomes for post-school participants in government employment and training programs with special attention given to selectivity bias. D'Amico & Baker -- Chapter Two describes early labor market differentiation among terminal high school graduates. Morgan -- Chapter Three analyzes business cycle effects on college enrollment behavior. Crowley -- Chapter Four provides a descriptive analysis of welfare patterns among young mothers. Falaris & Peters -- Chapter Five discusses the effect of demographic factors on schooling and entry wages.
Bibliography Citation
Baker, Paula C., Joan E. Crowley, Ronald D'Amico, Evangelos M. Falaris, William R. Morgan, H. Elizabeth Peters and Richard Willke. "Pathways to the Future, Volume V: A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1983." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1985.
3. Borus, Michael E.
Carpenter, Susan A.
Crowley, Joan E.
Daymont, Thomas N.
Kim, Choongsoo
Pollard, Tom K.
Rumberger, Russell W.
Santos, Richard
Pathways to the Future, Volume II: A Final Report on the National Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1980
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; Marital Status; Teenagers; Unemployment; Vocational Education; Wages, Reservation

This is the final report on the 1980 data from the NLSY derived from interviews with 12,141 young people, age 15- 23. Topics examined include: SANTOS -- Chapter 1, the variables affecting the employment prospects of unemployed youth; POLLARD -- Chapter 2, the changes in employment patterns of black and white young men in the decade of the 1970s; KIM -- Chapter 3, the changing patterns in wage and reservation wage differentials for black and white young men during the 1970s; BORUS & CARPENTER -- Chapter 4, the variables affecting the decision to drop out of school without finishing the 12th grade, the decision to return to school after having dropped out, and the decision to go directly to college after completing the 12th grade; RUMBERGER & DAYMONT -- Chapter 5, the effects of high school curriculum on labor market success; and CROWLEY -- Chapter 6, the relationship between delinquency and employment status.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Susan A. Carpenter, Joan E. Crowley, Thomas N. Daymont, Choongsoo Kim, Tom K. Pollard, Russell W. Rumberger and Richard Santos. Pathways to the Future, Volume II: A Final Report on the National Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1980. Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
4. Borus, Michael E.
Crowley, Joan E.
D'Amico, Ronald
Hills, Stephen M.
Morgan, William R.
Pathways to the Future, Volume III: A Final Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1981
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Employment; Job Patterns; Job Training; Private Schools

This report is based on data from the 1979, 1980 and 1981 interviews of the NLSY. Four analytical chapters comprise the volume: HILLS & CROWLEY -- Chapter 1, characteristics that increase job satisfaction among youth are discussed and compared with those of slightly older men and women. CROWLEY -- Chapter 2, the relationship between crime and employment is examined, using a model that combines economic and sociological approaches. D'AMICO -- Chapter 3, examines the effects of two determinants of educational aspirations and delinquent behavior: high school students' participation in their school's informal social system and their expression of positive feelings toward their schools. MORGAN -- Chapter 4, compares the quality of education in public versus private schools.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Joan E. Crowley, Ronald D'Amico, Stephen M. Hills and William R. Morgan. "Pathways to the Future, Volume III: A Final Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1981." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983.
5. Borus, Michael E.
Crowley, Joan E.
D'Amico, Ronald
Pollard, Tom K.
Santos, Richard
Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans: Preliminary Report on the 1981 Survey
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Patterns; Job Training

This is a preliminary report based on the 1981 interview of the NLSY, a nationally representative sample of 11,340 young men and women, ages 16 to 24. Topics examined include: BORUS -- Chapter 1, an overview of the characteristics of the civilian youth population; SANTOS -- Chapter 2, employment status of youth by sex, race, age and health status; POLLARD -- Chapter 3, the differences between males and females in growth in earnings between the first job and the job held in 1981; CROWLEY -- Chapter 4, changes in government employment and training programs from FY 1979 to FY 1980; and D'AMICO -- Chapter 5, the ways in which adolescents spend their time.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Joan E. Crowley, Ronald D'Amico, Tom K. Pollard and Richard Santos. Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans: Preliminary Report on the 1981 Survey. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
6. Borus, Michael E.
Crowley, Joan E.
Kim, Choongsoo
Pollard, Tom K.
Rumberger, Russell W.
Santos, Richard
Shapiro, David
Pathways to the Future: A Report on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1979
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): College Education; Discrimination, Age; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School; Job Aspirations; Job Search; Schooling; Teenagers; Vocational Education; Work Attitudes; Youth Services

The report is the first on a nationally representative sample of young people who were ages 14 to 21 on December 31, 1978. It is a descriptive presentation of the status of youth in the spring of 1979--their position and problems in the labor market; their reactions to school and the factors influencing their schooling decisions; their training, both the government sponsored and other vocational training which they receive; their health status; and their attitudes, both towards their present situations and the future. Eleven additional chapters define topics on labor force participation and employment status of the youth for the week in which they were interviewed in 1979; examine the employment conditions for those youth who were employed at the time of the survey; present the work experience of the youth for the preceding year, 1978, and analyze the determinants of weeks worked and unemployed during the year; discuss job search motives and techniques of youth and their willingness to accept specific jobs at various wages; study the attitudes of young people toward high school, its programs, and their reasons for not completing school or for attending college; examines participants in government sponsored training programs, the types of services received, and their attitudes toward these programs; deal with the post-high school training provided outside of regular schools, government programs, and the military; study the health status of young people at the time they were interviewed; detail the extend of age, race, sex discrimination felt by young people as well as their perception of the difficulties they have in the labor market; examine the educational, occupational, and fertility aspirations of the young people and their desire for further training; and present a summary of the major findings.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Joan E. Crowley, Choongsoo Kim, Tom K. Pollard, Russell W. Rumberger, Richard Santos and David Shapiro. Pathways to the Future: A Report on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1979. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981.
7. Borus, Michael E.
Crowley, Joan E.
Pollard, Tom K.
Santos, Richard
Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans: Preliminary Report on the 1980 Survey
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; High School; Job Training; Teenagers; Unemployment; Work Attitudes; Youth Services

This cross-tabular report contains preliminary studies of the second wave of data from the NLSY. BORUS -- Chapter 1 is an introduction and overview of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the youth who were 15-23 years old. SANTOS -- Chapter 2 discusses the employment and unemployment status of the youth population at the time of the interview. Information is presented on the labor force participation and unemployment rates of segments of the population, the job search activities of the unemployed, and the nature of the employment of those who are working. POLLARD -- Chapter 3 examines the employment history of the young people during the preceding year including the number of weeks worked and job turnover. Participation in government employment and training programs is the subject of CROWLEY -- Chapter 4 presents the characteristics of participants in these programs, the types of services they receive, and their reaction to the programs. BORUS -- Chapter 5 considers the education and schooling of the youth; particular attention is paid to the decisions to drop out of high school, to return to high school, to graduate from high school, and to go on to college. CROWLEY -- Chapter Six analyzes delinquent behavior by this age group and their contacts with law enforcement agencies. The analysis describes those who engage in various types of delinquent behavior and the frequency of such behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Joan E. Crowley, Tom K. Pollard and Richard Santos. Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans: Preliminary Report on the 1980 Survey. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981.
8. Borus, Michael E.
Crowley, Joan E.
Rumberger, Russell W.
Santos, Richard
Research on Youth Employment and Employability Development: Findings of the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Americans, 1979
Youth Knowledge Development Report 2,7. Washington DC: US GPO, 1980.
Also: Pathways to the Future - Preliminary Report: Youth and the Labor Market - 1979
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Dropouts; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Employment; Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Search; Vocational Education; Work Attitudes

This report presents preliminary cross-tabular analyses of the 1979 NLSY data. A nationally representative sample of 12,693 youth age 14-22 were interviewed for the first time in that year. Topics covered include: descriptions of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the youth, their employment status, their work experience during the preceding year, participation in government employment and training programs, job search behavior, perceptions of barriers to employment, health status, attitudes and expectations, and schooling experience.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Joan E. Crowley, Russell W. Rumberger and Richard Santos. Research on Youth Employment and Employability Development: Findings of the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Americans, 1979. Youth Knowledge Development Report 2,7. Washington DC: US GPO, 1980..
9. Borus, Michael E.
Crowley, Joan E.
Rumberger, Russell W.
Santos, Richard
Shapiro, David
Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans. Preliminary Report: Youth and the Labor Market - 1979
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Discrimination; Discrimination, Job; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Employment, Youth; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Search; Job Training; Job Turnover; Unemployment, Youth

This is the first report on a nationally representative sample of the 32.9 million civilian young people who were ages 14-21 on January 1, 1979. This first survey shows that young Americans are very much interested in work; more than half of these young persons were either working or looking for work. Many young persons carry both school and work responsibilities. Race and sex discrimination in the labor market continued to cause problems for youth. Minorities had equal aspirations for education, were more willing to work, and were seeking employment as conscientiously as white youth. The difference appeared to be that employers discounted their contribution as employees because of their race or ethnic background. Many young persons drop out of school and begin immediately to have employment problems. About 2.6 million young men and women had participated in government training programs between the first day of 1978 and their interview date in 1979. In this report further details are provided about the employment and unemployment status of these young persons, their reactions to school, their assessment of Federal Government training programs, their vocational training, their attitudes toward work and their aspirations and expectations for the future.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Joan E. Crowley, Russell W. Rumberger, Richard Santos and David Shapiro. Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans. Preliminary Report: Youth and the Labor Market - 1979. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980.
10. Crowley, Joan E.
Delinquency and Employment: Substitutions or Spurious Associations
Presented: Washington, DC, American Society of Criminology, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Employment; Self-Reporting; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The hypothesis that unemployment leads to crime is implicit in much of the policy work on employment. Data from the 1980 NLSY linking self-reports of crime and various indices of employment show that there is little direct effect, either of crime on employment or of employment on crime. Among high school youth, school experience seems much more important than labor force experience in the etiology of crime. Early transition out of childhood may be associated with both employment outcomes and with illegal behaviors. Relationships between crime and work may be mediated by education and other background factors.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Delinquency and Employment: Substitutions or Spurious Associations." Presented: Washington, DC, American Society of Criminology, 1981.
11. Crowley, Joan E.
Demographics of Alcohol Use Among Respondents of the 1982 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth Panel
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Racial Differences

This report provides simple cross-tabular results from the administration of a short series of alcohol use questions on the 1982 NLSY. The primary focus is on the variations in reported alcohol consumption by race, sex, and age. Several clear patterns emerge even from the simple cross-tabular analysis presented here. Young men are more likely to drink than are young women, and young men are much more likely to drink heavily. White males consume the most alcohol virtually any way it is measured. Hispanics report a pattern of drinking similar to that of whites, although at a slightly lower level. Black males, on the other hand, tend to report lower levels of drinking, both in terms of number of drinking occasions and in quantity of liquor consumed. While black males drink substantially more than do any of the ethnic categories among females, their pattern of responses is more similar to the female pattern than to the pattern for white or Hispanic males. That is, black males tend not to report drinking great quantities of alcohol at one session, and are less likely than other men to frequent bars.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Demographics of Alcohol Use Among Respondents of the 1982 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth Panel." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1983.
12. Crowley, Joan E.
Demographics of Alcohol Use Among Young Americans: Results from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Family Background and Culture; Religious Influences

This research reports on the drinking patterns of the general population as they are leaving adolescence and entering adulthood. Drinking patterns in 1982 were described in a previous report. This report focuses on three issues: an assessment of the consistency of responses between 1982 and 1983, a description of the demographics of drinking patterns using indices developed from the 1983 data, and a description of the occupational patterns of drinking among young people. The trends in the data suggest that drinking to the point of drunkenness may peak at about age 19 or 20. Youth with more education, whose parents have at least some college, who are not poor, who are white and who come from mainstream churches tend to drink twice a week or more, but generally in moderation. Youth with the characteristics associated with lower levels of income and status have much higher proportions of non-drinkers and overall drink less frequently than other youth, but those who drink tend to drink larger quantities per drinking day. Occupation and industry are seen to have little effect on drinking.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Demographics of Alcohol Use Among Young Americans: Results from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1985.
13. Crowley, Joan E.
Effects of Retirement on Men's Well-Being and Health
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Retirees; Retirement; Well-Being

The NLS Mature Men cohort provided the opportunity to look at the effects of retirement on well-being longitudinally in a sample of men aged 54 to 69 in 1976. Volunteer retirees were found to consider themselves better off than did other retirees or comparable men still working.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Effects of Retirement on Men's Well-Being and Health." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984.
14. Crowley, Joan E.
Longitudinal and Cross-Cohort Employment Patterns of Women
Presented: Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Fertility; Job Aspirations; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Segregation; Sex Roles

This paper reviews the research done on labor force participation, wages, and occupational segregation which utilized the Mature Women, Young Women, and NLSY data. Each successive cohort of women shows higher levels of commitment to the labor force. Even among the mature women, a very high proportion worked either continuously or sporadically. Young women are showing stronger commitments to the labor market, higher levels of education, and lower levels of fertility (actual and expected), meaning that there should be fewer conflicts between home and work and greater expected returns to employment. Attitudes toward work are becoming more favorable, both across cohorts and across time within cohorts. Women continue to be concentrated in relatively few occupations, and the aspirations of respondents in the youth cohort indicate that a great deal of difference between men and women persists, although the gap is not as wide as it was for the youth from the 1960s cohorts. Most trends are in the direction of increased employment, wages, and decreased occupational segregation.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Longitudinal and Cross-Cohort Employment Patterns of Women." Presented: Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1982.
15. Crowley, Joan E.
Longitudinal Effects of Retirement on Men's Well-Being and Health
Journal of Business and Psychology 1,2 (Winter 1986): 95-113
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Retirees; Retirement; Transfers, Skill; Well-Being

This paper explored both the psychological and physical quality of life of retired men, using data from the NLS of Older Men. Five categories of retirees were established: voluntary early age, voluntary normal age, health, mandatory, and discouraged. The analysis is based on 1,200 men (aged 54-69 yrs) who were in the labor force at the 1976 interview, had not retired before that time, and who were interviewed in 1981. About half the respondents retired in the 5 years between interviews. Using several measures of well-being, voluntary retirees were found to consider themselves better off than did other retirees or comparable respondents still working. The effect of retirement on well-being seems highly related to other circumstances (especially financial security and health) surrounding the individual, rather than to the event of retirement, per se. [(c)APA]
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Longitudinal Effects of Retirement on Men's Well-Being and Health." Journal of Business and Psychology 1,2 (Winter 1986): 95-113.
16. Crowley, Joan E.
Longitudinal Modeling of the Relationship between Crime and Employment among Young White Americans
Presented: Denver, CO, American Society of Criminology, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Behavioral Problems; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Employment; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Modeling; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Both economic and sociological theories of crime focus on illegal activities as rational alternatives to conventional employment under certain conditions. Two alternate models of the link between crime and employment were developed, one hypothesizing that factors such as education and employment history affect crime through determining the individual's expected wage, and the other model hypothesizing that these factors are indicators of commitment to conventional roles. Path analyses were calculated, using data from the NLSY. Neither model was entirely supported. Among white females, there were no significant relationships between any predictors and criminal behavior, or between criminal behavior and employment. Among white males, violent crime was associated with time out of the labor force. Criminal activities may reflect life styles, rather than rational calculations of costs and benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Longitudinal Modeling of the Relationship between Crime and Employment among Young White Americans." Presented: Denver, CO, American Society of Criminology, 1983.
17. Crowley, Joan E.
Longitudinal Patterns of Welfare Use Among Young Mothers
Presented: [S.L.], Tenth Annual Conference on Feminist Psychology of the Association for Women in Psychology, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Women in Psychology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; First Birth; Minority Groups; Mothers; Racial Differences; Transfers, Public; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLSY, this paper examines welfare patterns of young women who had become mothers by 1983. It was found that welfare receipt of all types is highly concentrated among those young women who have borne a child. Almost half of the young mothers receive welfare at some point. As expected, the population of welfare mothers are likely to be less educated, to come from broken homes, to be from a minority group, and to have several children at an early age, relative to their non-welfare recipient counterparts. However, it is also clear that a number of women who receive welfare do not fit into these low privilege categories. Even among a population expected to have an overrepresentation of long-term recipients, most women are on welfare for a relatively short period. Pattern for welfare in general are not substantially different from patterns for AFDC specifically, despite differences in target groups and despite the fact that the AFDC group is roughly half the size of the inclusive welfare group. Although characteristics such as age at first birth, race, and education predict welfare receipt fairly well, they are less closely associated with the length of time that a young mother spends on welfare. The large degree of overlap on critical dimensions between welfare and non-welfare mothers points to the need for a greater understanding of the specific circumstances and combinations of circumstances which lead young women to become dependent on various government transfer programs, as well as the processes which lead young women to be able to leave the programs. In particular, the fact that a large proportion of welfare mothers are employed following the birth of their first child suggests that the keys to reducing welfare dependency will be found in the solution to the larger problem of how to increase the low earning power of young women.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Longitudinal Patterns of Welfare Use Among Young Mothers." Presented: [S.L.], Tenth Annual Conference on Feminist Psychology of the Association for Women in Psychology, 1985.
18. Crowley, Joan E.
Status Variations in Alcohol Use Among Young Adults: Results from the 1984 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Previous reports in this series have focused on descriptions of alcohol use patterns among NLSY. This report extends the descriptive material to the 1984 data, and extends those results with multivariate analyses of alcohol use patterns as they are related to indicators of socioeconomic status. In 1984, the questions on alcohol use were supplemented for the first time with questions on problems resulting from alcohol use. A major portion of this report details the patterns of reported problems within the young adult population. The author concludes that alcohol use is not well accounted for by broad socioeconomic categories. Alcohol related problems are not simply a function of alcohol consumption since patterns in relationships between status variables and drinking patterns were not affected by the inclusion of drinking behavior in the models.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Status Variations in Alcohol Use Among Young Adults: Results from the 1984 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1985.
19. Crowley, Joan E.
Three Generations: The NLS of Labor Market Experience of Women
Presented: Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Mothers; Sex Roles

This paper reviews research on demographic and labor force related changes identified in the NLS. Women are planning on greater labor force participation, higher levels of education, and lower levels of fertility. Working produces more favorable attitudes toward work among women, which in turn is associated with greater labor force participation, both among the women themselves and among their daughters. Even among the mature women, the majority reported spending substantial proportions of their time in the labor force during the decade studied. Black women are more likely to be forced out of the labor force due to ill health, while white women appear to be able to adapt to ill health by reducing hours or weeks worked. Among the young women, those who expect to work tend to have fewer children, but having children does not appear to affect subsequent employment, indicating that expectations about fertility and labor force participation are substantially formed prior to entry into the labor market. Marital disruption has a smaller effect on employment than is commonly supposed. There are still substantial differences between men and women in their occupational aspirations, but the differences are diminishing generally. Young women appear to be aspiring to higher prestige jobs in the late 70s than they did in the late 60s. Overall, the trends uncovered in research on women done using the NLS data sets show continued economic progress for women. There is some evidence of a counter-trend, however, in the increase over time in early childbearing, especially among minority women.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Three Generations: The NLS of Labor Market Experience of Women." Presented: Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1982.
20. Crowley, Joan E.
Welfare and Early Motherhood
Presented: Seattle, WA, Association of Women in Psychology, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Women in Psychology
Keyword(s): Childbearing; First Birth; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Sex Roles; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Anecdotal evidence has led to concern that early childbirth leads to welfare dependency among young women, particularly minority women. This paper uses data on women from the 1982 NLSY to look at the links between childbirth, poverty and welfare, comparing women who had had a first birth before their 18th birthday with women who had had children at an older age and with non-mothers. Early childbirth was associated with poverty, low educational attainment and aspirations, low self-esteem, and traditional views of women's roles. Multivariate analysis showed that family composition, particularly marriage and independence from parents was associated with staying off welfare following childbirth. Controlling for background factors, race is not a significant predictor of welfare receipt.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Welfare and Early Motherhood." Presented: Seattle, WA, Association of Women in Psychology, 1983.
21. Crowley, Joan E.
Welfare Patterns amoung Young Mothers
In: Pathways to the Future, Volume V: A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1983, P.Baker, ed., Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Mothers; Welfare

Chapter Four provides a descriptive analysis of welfare patterns among young mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. "Welfare Patterns amoung Young Mothers." In: Pathways to the Future, Volume V: A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1983, P.Baker, ed., Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1985.
22. Crowley, Joan E.
Shapiro, David
Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the United States: Part 1. Education and Fertility
Youth and Society 13,4 (June 1982): 391-422.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/13/4/391
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Children; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Fertility; Occupational Aspirations; Racial Differences; Sex Roles; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Training, Occupational; Vocational Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the first wave of the NLSY are presented and young people's plans for education and for parenthood are examined. All analyses look at variation by race and sex. Half of the youth aspire to complete college, and almost all expect to complete at least high school. Two thirds express a desire for occupational training in addition to regular schooling. Analysis of expected fertility shows a strong preference for a two child family. A multivariate model was developed, using both socialization and human capital perspectives in the specification. Family background is highly significant in explaining plans for both education and fertility. Sex role traditionality was a highly significant predictor of the outcome variables for both men and women. With background factors controlled, black youth aspire to higher levels of education than do whites. Among young women, the expected inverse relationship between expected fertility and expected education was very weak, suggesting that these women do not expect their families to prevent their attainment of their educational goals.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. and David Shapiro. "Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the United States: Part 1. Education and Fertility." Youth and Society 13,4 (June 1982): 391-422.
23. Crowley, Joan E.
Shapiro, David
Occupational Aspirations And Sex Segregation: Trends And Predictions
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Psychological Association, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Family Background and Culture; Occupational Aspirations; Sex Roles

This paper uses two approaches to understanding occupational aspirations and their impact on sex segregation in the labor force: comparisons of occupational aspirations from two cohorts measured over a decade apart, and multivariate analysis of occupational aspirations from the younger of the two cohorts. The data rely primarily on the 1979 interview of the NLSY, with comparisons drawn from the 1967 NLS of Young Men and the 1968 NLS of Young Women. Youth in the 1979 cohort showed a strong preference for careers in professional and managerial occupations. Compared with the earlier cohorts, young women shifted out of lower-skilled to higher-skilled occupations, although still showing the traditional concentration in clerical positions. Over the decade, young men were more likely to aspire to skilled trades in 1979 than in 1967. Women in 1979 were only half as likely as women in 1968 to say that they expected to be housewives not in the paid labor force at age 35. The multivariate analysis showed that sex-role traditionality was associated with lower aspirations both for men and women, even with social background controlled. The result for men was not expected, since none of the sex-role measures directly assessed men's roles. Sex role traditionality may serve to limit the range of occupations considered appropriate, both by men and by women.
Bibliography Citation
Crowley, Joan E. and David Shapiro. "Occupational Aspirations And Sex Segregation: Trends And Predictions." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Psychological Association, 1981.
24. Parnes, Herbert S.
Crowley, Joan E.
Haurin, R. Jean
Less, Lawrence L.
Retirement Among American Men
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Earnings; Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; Retirement

Published as: Retirement Among American Men, Lexington MA: Lexington Books, 1985. This is also the six volume of a series.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Joan E. Crowley, R. Jean Haurin and Lawrence L. Less. Retirement Among American Men. Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984.
25. Parnes, Herbert S.
Crowley, Joan E.
Haurin, R. Jean
Less, Lawrence L.
Mott, Frank L.
Morgan, William R.
Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Among American Men
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Earnings; Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; Mortality; Retirees; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fifteen years of data from a nationally representative sample of men age 45-59 in 1966 show that by 1981 most had retired. One third of all retirements and almost half of those by black men were caused by poor health; fewer than five percent of retirees were forced from their jobs by mandatory plans; about 10 percent of retirees were forced from their jobs by mandatory plans; about 10 percent left the labor market in discouragement due to labor market adversity. Most retirements, however, are voluntary, and most take place before age 65. Trends in mortality differentials show that general improvements in health and medical care have benefited all groups, especially the chronically ill. The data highlight a trend toward early retirement in the 1960s and 1970s and show that only 30 percent of retirements actually took place at the age men expected when asked at age 59. Economic well being, leisure activities and social interactions, psychological and physical well being are examined. The experience of the minority who continue to work beyond the normal retirement age is also analyzed.

Introduction and overview / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Factors affecting mortality in the years surrounding retirement / Frank L. Mott and R. Jean Haurin -- The volume and pattern of retirements, 1966-1981 / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Retirement expectation and the timing of retirement / Gilbert Nestel -- Economic well-being in retirement / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Leisure activities and social networks / William R. Morgan, Herbert S. Parnes, and Lawrence J. Less -- Longitudinal effects of retirement on men's psychological and physical well-being / Joan E. Crowley -- Shunning retirement : the experience of full-time workers / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less.

Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Joan E. Crowley, R. Jean Haurin, Lawrence L. Less, Frank L. Mott, William R. Morgan and Gilbert Nestel. Retirement Among American Men. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985.
26. Shapiro, David
Crowley, Joan E.
Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the United States. Part 2. Employment Activity
Youth and Society 14,1 (September 1982): 33-58.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/13/4/449
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Duncan Index; Family Influences; Hispanics; Occupational Aspirations; Religious Influences; Role Models; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers; White Collar Jobs

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The occupational aspirations of respondents on the first wave of the NLSY are described. Respondents were asked what they would like to be doing at age 35. Almost 90 percent of the youth had specific occupational goals. For both men and women, over one-third of the respondents aspire to professional or technical employment. The existing segregation of the labor market is reflected in the aspirations of youth, with females predominating among those aspiring to clerical positions and males predominating among those aspiring to skilled trades. About one-quarter of the young women expect to be housewives, although this aspiration was almost twice as prevalent among whites and Hispanics than among blacks. Looking only at those youth with specific occupational aspirations, it is clear that the proportion of youth expecting to be in professional occupations is much larger than the proportion of such jobs in the general labor market. In a multivariate analysis, family background and sex role attitudes were important predictors of the prestige of the desired occupation for both young men and young women. When the aspirations of women in the youth cohort were compared with the aspirations of women of the same age a decade earlier (using the NLS of Young Women), clear shifts away from housework to paid employment, and from lower skill to higher skill occupations were shown. For young women, a multivariate analysis of aspirations for sex- role atypical jobs showed that family background and maternal role modeling were significantly related to such aspirations.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Joan E. Crowley. "Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the United States. Part 2. Employment Activity." Youth and Society 14,1 (September 1982): 33-58.