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Author: Higgins, George E.
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Hayden, Emily
Higgins, George E.
Peer Pressure and Substance Use: A Trajectory Analysis Using Primary Socialization Theory
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Modeling, Semi-parametric Group-based (SPGM); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Primary socialization theory is an advance to the literature. This theoretical premise helps us understand the role of peers in substance use. In short, the theory suggests that family, schools, and personality have a link with substance use through peers. In other words, peers have the most proximal link with substance use. Using longitudinal data from the NLSY79, we performed semi-parametric group based mixture modeling (SPGM) to determine the number and shape of trajectory groups for peers and substance use. Further, SPGM was used to examine the intersection between peers and substance use in a dual trajectory analysis. The results support primary socialization theory.
Bibliography Citation
Hayden, Emily and George E. Higgins. "Peer Pressure and Substance Use: A Trajectory Analysis Using Primary Socialization Theory." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
2. Higgins, George E.
Bush, Michael D.
Marcum, Catherine D.
Ricketts, Melissa L.
Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E.
Ensnared into Crime: A Preliminary Test of Moffitt's Snares Hypothesis in a National Sample of African Americans
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 8,3 (July-September 2010): 181-200.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15377938.2010.502827
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Black Studies; Black Youth; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between alcohol use and individual differences in the desistance process from criminal behavior during young adulthood. This study used Moffitt's (1993) �snares� hypothesis to posit that alcohol use would slow the desistance process of criminal behavior among African Americans. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Youth 1997, we conducted dual semiparametric group-based trajectory analysis of criminal behavior and alcohol use among African Americans from ages 16 through 22 (N = 283) using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Youth 1997. Results indicate that 3 trajectory groups provided the best representation for the patterns of crime over this period of life. In addition, 4 trajectory groups provided the best representation for the patterns of alcohol use. From our dual-trajectory analysis, we found that African Americans that were desisting slower from crime were using alcohol more often, thus supporting Moffitt's snares hypothesis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Higgins, George E., Michael D. Bush, Catherine D. Marcum, Melissa L. Ricketts and EmmaLeigh E. Kirchner. "Ensnared into Crime: A Preliminary Test of Moffitt's Snares Hypothesis in a National Sample of African Americans." Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 8,3 (July-September 2010): 181-200.
3. Higgins, George E.
Jennings, Wesley G.
Marcum, Catherine D.
Ricketts, Melissa L.
Mahoney, Margaret
Developmental Trajectories of Nonsocial Reinforcement and Offending In Adolescence and Young Adulthood: An Exploratory Study of an Understudied Part of Social Learning Theory
Journal of Criminal Justice 39,1 (January-February 2011): 60-66.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235210001947
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Differences; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Illegal Activities

Purpose: Within social learning theory, nonsocial reinforcement has been hypothesized to have a link with offending. The purpose of the present study was to address two questions: (1) Does nonsocial reinforcement change or remain stable over time? And (2) does nonsocial reinforcement have a reciprocal link with offending, as Wood et al. (1997) would expect? Methods: We used a subsample (N=413) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data and semi-parametric group-based modeling (SPGM). Results and Conclusions: The SPGM suggested three distinct groups of nonsocial reinforcement (one trajectory group appeared to have a low but stable rate of nonsocial reinforcement, one trajectory appeared to be higher but stable, another trajectory higher but also stable). A cross-tabulation of the nonsocial reinforcement trajectories and offending trajectories indicated that offending increased as nonsocial reinforcement became greater. Study limitations and implications are also discussed. Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

"The SPGM suggested three distinct groups of nonsocial reinforcement (one trajectory group appeared to have a low but stable rate of nonsocial reinforcement, one trajectory appeared to be higher but stable, another trajectory higher but also stable). A cross-tabulation of the nonsocial reinforcement trajectories and offending trajectories indicated that offending increased as nonsocial reinforcement became greater,"

Bibliography Citation
Higgins, George E., Wesley G. Jennings, Catherine D. Marcum, Melissa L. Ricketts and Margaret Mahoney. "Developmental Trajectories of Nonsocial Reinforcement and Offending In Adolescence and Young Adulthood: An Exploratory Study of an Understudied Part of Social Learning Theory." Journal of Criminal Justice 39,1 (January-February 2011): 60-66.
4. Higgins, George E.
Khey, David N.
Dawson-Edwards, B. Cherie
Marcum, Catherine D.
Examining the Link Between Being a Victim of Bullying and Delinquency Trajectories Among an African American Sample
International Criminal Justice Review 22,2 (June 2012): 110-122.
Also: http://icj.sagepub.com/content/22/2/110.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Black Youth; Bullying/Victimization; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of the present study is to provide an analysis of the link between being a victim of bullying and delinquency trajectories. Using a sample of African Americans (n = 725), the results show that three distinct trajectory groups of delinquency are present in the data (low desisting, desisting, and high changing). Further, the results indicate that being a victim of bullying is relevant in distinguishing between these three delinquency groups net other controls (i.e., being male, marijuana use, gang membership, and poor parental support). These results are discussed in theoretical contexts.
Bibliography Citation
Higgins, George E., David N. Khey, B. Cherie Dawson-Edwards and Catherine D. Marcum. "Examining the Link Between Being a Victim of Bullying and Delinquency Trajectories Among an African American Sample." International Criminal Justice Review 22,2 (June 2012): 110-122.
5. Higgins, George E.
Piquero, Nicole L.
Piquero, Alex R.
General Strain Theory, Peer Rejection, and Delinquency/Crime
Youth and Society 43,4 (December 2011): 1272-1297.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/43/4/1272.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The development of general strain theory (GST) has led to a renewed focus on the influence of negative life experiences on antisocial behavior. Although a number of studies have generated an impressive array of support for the theory, several avenues remain open for research. In this article, we examine how a specific noxious stimuli, peer rejection, relates to delinquency/crime, and the degree of shared relation among peer rejection and delinquency/crime. Using data from a national sample of 413 children and adolescents, analyses indicated two highly stable trajectories of peer rejection and three trajectories of delinquency/crime, that peer rejection and delinquency/crime were not strongly related in general, but a joint analysis of their relationship revealed that high peer rejection was related to high delinquency/crime among males but not among females. Implications and directions for future research are highlighted.
Bibliography Citation
Higgins, George E., Nicole L. Piquero and Alex R. Piquero. "General Strain Theory, Peer Rejection, and Delinquency/Crime." Youth and Society 43,4 (December 2011): 1272-1297.
6. Jennings, Wesley G.
Higgins, George E.
Akers, Ronald L.
Khey, David N.
Dobrow, Jason
Examining the Influence of Delinquent Peer Association on the Stability of Self-Control in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model
Deviant Behavior 34,5 (May 2013): 407-422.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639625.2012.735903
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Differences; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Illegal Activities; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime and Akers' social learning theory (1998) have been given considerable attention in the criminological literature. Despite the empirical support for these theories, it is commonplace to test these theories as competing or conflicting theoretical frameworks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) (N = 629), we examine two related research questions: (1) is self-control relatively stable in late childhood and early adolescence? and (2) does delinquent peer association influence the stability of self-control in late childhood and early adolescence? The results suggest that perhaps a more theoretically integrated approach (social learning and self-control synergistic theory, SSST) is plausible, rather than discussing these two theories as distinct and competing frameworks. Theoretical implications and study limitations are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Jennings, Wesley G., George E. Higgins, Ronald L. Akers, David N. Khey and Jason Dobrow. "Examining the Influence of Delinquent Peer Association on the Stability of Self-Control in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model." Deviant Behavior 34,5 (May 2013): 407-422.
7. Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E.
Higgins, George E.
Self-Control and Racial Disparities in Delinquency: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,3 (September 2014): 436-449.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12103-013-9205-7
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Discipline; Expectations/Intentions; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Structural Equation; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Punishment, Corporal; Racial Differences; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of the present study is to examine the racial disparities of offending within the context of self-control theory. The study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), to examine this effect. All concepts within self-control theory are examined: parental management, low self-control, and delinquency. Results from the study show partial support for Gottfredson and Hirschi�s (1990) self-control theory. The structure of the theory remained stable when controlling for both race, as well as peer pressure. Both theoretical and policy implications are given.
Bibliography Citation
Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E. and George E. Higgins. "Self-Control and Racial Disparities in Delinquency: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach." American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,3 (September 2014): 436-449.
8. Schroeder, Ryan D.
Higgins, George E.
Mowen, Thomas
Maternal Attachment Trajectories and Criminal Offending By Race
American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,1 (March 2014): 155-171.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12103-012-9192-0
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parental attachment is a key predictor of juvenile offending. Most prior research on the topic, however, assumes that parental attachment is stable throughout youth and adolescence. On the contrary, recent research has established that parenting is a dynamic factor for many youth during adolescence. In the current study, we assess the relationship between trajectories of maternal attachment and offending during adolescence and young adulthood. Following a cohort of 859 youth from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data aged 10 or 11 over a period of 6 years, we find four distinctive trajectories of maternal attachment and two distinctive trajectories of offending. The results suggest that changes that occur in maternal closeness are linked to changes in offending across adolescence. However, when young adult offending is assessed when the youth are 18 or 19 years of age, we find that adolescent maternal attachment trajectories are not significant predictors of offending.
Bibliography Citation
Schroeder, Ryan D., George E. Higgins and Thomas Mowen. "Maternal Attachment Trajectories and Criminal Offending By Race." American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,1 (March 2014): 155-171.
9. Smith, Anthony
Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E.
Higgins, George E.
Khey, Dave
Trajectories of Parenting Styles and Delinquency: An Examination Using a Sample of African-Americans
Open Family Studies Journal 4,S1-M5 (2011): 46-53
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Bentham Open
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The development of parenting style typologies has led to a number of studies that have linked them to delinquency. Although a number of studies have shown that parenting style typologies have a link with delinquency, studies have not shown whether there were distinct trajectories of parenting styles and delinquency. These studies have not considered this in a sample of only African-Americans. Using data from the NLSY97 that only contains 725 African- Americans, our results show that three distinct trajectory groups of parenting styles are present for residential mothers and for residential fathers. In addition, we show that three distinct trajectory groups of delinquency are present. Our results show that a joint analysis of the intersection of these trajectories does not clarify the links between parenting styles and delinquency over time. Implications and directions for future research are highlighted.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Anthony, EmmaLeigh E. Kirchner, George E. Higgins and Dave Khey. "Trajectories of Parenting Styles and Delinquency: An Examination Using a Sample of African-Americans." Open Family Studies Journal 4,S1-M5 (2011): 46-53.
10. Tewksbury, Richard
Higgins, George E.
Connor, David Patrick
Number of Sexual Partners and Social Disorganization: A Developmental Trajectory Approach
Deviant Behavior 34,12 (December 2013): 1020-1034.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639625.2013.800426#preview
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Crime; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Studies; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

Utilizing a developmental trajectory approach, this study examines whether or not the perceived presence of social disorganization within communities contributes to the experience of having multiple sexual partners. The sample consists of African-American self-reports (n = 402) originating from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). Analysis centers on responses from individuals who were ages 15 to 17 in 1998, 17 to 19 in 2000, 19 to 21 in 2002, 21 to 23 in 2004, 23 to 25 in 2006, and 25 to 27 in 2008. Following trajectory analysis of their reported number of sexual partners and perceptions of social disorganization, three groups are identified, showing variations in perceptions and number of sexual partners. Overall, results from these groups indicate that perceived social disorganization among African Americans has some impact on their number of sexual partners. Implications and directions for future research concerning social disorganization and public health are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Tewksbury, Richard, George E. Higgins and David Patrick Connor. "Number of Sexual Partners and Social Disorganization: A Developmental Trajectory Approach." Deviant Behavior 34,12 (December 2013): 1020-1034.