Search Results

Author: Wright, John Paul
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Moses, Natasha Tanise
Wright, John Paul
Estimating Criminal and Criminogenic Outcomes Across Racial Differences Using Propensity Score Matching
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Family Background; Incarceration/Jail; Propensity Scores; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research using risk scores to predict criminal and criminogenic outcomes typically compares individuals within the same risk group (for example: low-risk, medium-risk or high-risk). This paper adopts a different approach by matching individuals based on numerical scores, rather than risk group. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 Data, a racially diverse sample of youth was ranked for criminogenic risk based on an index. The index contains empirical criminogenic risk factors such as family socio-economic status, anti-social behavior and substance abuse. Propensity score matching is used to match low-risk, medium-risk and high-risk Black, White and Hispanic youth who are more similar to each other. Each group will be assessed to determine whether risk group predicts a variety of criminal outcomes (including arrest, conviction and length of time incarcerated) during adulthood. We conclude with explanations of findings, limitations and suggestions for future research.
Bibliography Citation
Moses, Natasha Tanise and John Paul Wright. "Estimating Criminal and Criminogenic Outcomes Across Racial Differences Using Propensity Score Matching." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
2. Vander Ven, Thomas Michael
Cullen, Francis T.
Carrozza, Mark A.
Wright, John Paul
Home Alone: The Impact of Maternal Employment on Delinquency
Social Problems 48,2 (May 2001): 236-257.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2001.48.2.236
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Behavioral Development; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Employment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Mothers

Recently, conservative commentators and parenting experts have been outspoken about the potential negative effects of maternal employment. Specifically, there appears to be a pervasive belief that delinquency is one unfortunate consequence of maternal work. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we examine whether the occupational status of mothers has criminogenic effects on their children. After tracing the effects of work hours and occupational conditions through risk factors to delinquency, we find that the characteristics of maternal work have relatively little or no influence on delinquency, but do have a slight (and complex) indirect effect through the delinquency pathway 'supervision'. This general pattern holds regardless of whether early maternal employment (i.e., work occurring when children were in the pre-school years) or current maternal employment is considered. Our findings contradict the view that maternal employment causes child behavioral problems.
Bibliography Citation
Vander Ven, Thomas Michael, Francis T. Cullen, Mark A. Carrozza and John Paul Wright. "Home Alone: The Impact of Maternal Employment on Delinquency." Social Problems 48,2 (May 2001): 236-257.
3. Vaske, Jamie
Ward, Jeffrey T.
Boisvert, Danielle
Wright, John Paul
The Stability of Risk-seeking from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood
Journal of Criminal Justice 40,4 (July-August 2012): 313-322.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235212000827
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Risk-Taking; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Transition, Adulthood

Purpose: The current study examines the stability of the risk-seeking component of self-control using a second-order latent class growth model.

Methods: Longitudinal data from 962 respondents from the NLSY79-Child and Young Adult sample are used to examine the stability of the risk-seeking component of self-control from ages 14 to 23.

Results: Data reveal three trajectories of risk-seeking (low, moderate, and high) that maintain strong relative stability from adolescence through early adulthood. Further, two trajectories of risk-seeking (moderate and high) maintain absolute stability, whereas the low risk-seeking group exhibits statistically significant decreases in risk-seeking over time.

Conclusions: The SOLCGA may provide a stricter test of the stability hypothesis since it accounts for measurement error in the construct prior to estimating the developmental trajectories. The results from the SOLCGA support Gottfredson and Hirschi's hypotheses that self-control will remain stable from adolescence into emerging adulthood.

Bibliography Citation
Vaske, Jamie, Jeffrey T. Ward, Danielle Boisvert and John Paul Wright. "The Stability of Risk-seeking from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood." Journal of Criminal Justice 40,4 (July-August 2012): 313-322.
4. Wright, John Paul
Cullen, Francis T.
Parental Efficacy And Delinquent Behavior: Do Control And Support Matter?
Criminology 39,3 (August 2001): 677-705 .
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00937.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Control; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recently, the concept of "collective efficacy" has been advanced to understand how communities exert control and provide support to reduce crime. In a similar way, we use the concept of "parental efficacy" to highlight the crime reducing effects associated with parents who support and control their youth. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we examine the inter-relationship between parental controls and supports and their joint influence on youthful misbehavior. The results show that (1) support and control are intertwined, and (2) that parental efficacy exerts substantive effects on adolescent delinquency for the sample as a whole and across varying age groups.

Using data from the 1992 wave of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this study examined the interrelationship between parental controls and supports and their joint influence on youthful misbehavior.
Bibliography Citation
Wright, John Paul and Francis T. Cullen. "Parental Efficacy And Delinquent Behavior: Do Control And Support Matter?" Criminology 39,3 (August 2001): 677-705 .
5. Wright, John Paul
Cullen, Francis T.
Williams, Nicolas
The Embeddedness of Adolescent Employment and Participation in Delinquency: A Life Course Perspective
Western Criminology Review 4,1(2002): 1-19.
Also: http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/wright.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Western Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Employment, Youth; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Adolescent penetration into the labor market is a relatively new, and much understudied, phenomena. To date, limited empirical evidence suggests that the extensive employment of adolescents increases their offending. We bring together insights garnered from life-course criminology, which emphasizes the timing of transitional role changes; and economic sociology, which draws attention to the "social embeddedness" of development and decision-making. The objective is to test whether a youth's embeddedness within the labor market has deleterious consequences for the youth's behavior. Our results show that work embeddedness is positively related to delinquency, and that this effect is not accounted for by prior levels of delinquent involvement. These findings were replicated by use of a community sample. In total our findings suggest that being embedded in a work role as a teenager has general deleterious consequences for behavior. Copyright: 2002, The Western Criminology Review.

Sample: Data for this project come from two sources: First, we use the 1988, 1990, and 1992 waves of the children of the (NLSY). Assessment of the development of children born to mothers in the NLSY began in 1986 and has continued at two-year intervals through 1992. The second sample was drawn from eight high schools located in northeast Tennessee (N=436). Although a convenience sample, the data set contains detailed information about the involvement of youths in work and delinquency, as well as measures of work related attitudes and coworker delinquency. Following the lead of Sampson and Groves (1989), we use this sample to validate the measure of work embeddedness derived from the NLSY-Children and to replicate the findings generated from national data.

Bibliography Citation
Wright, John Paul, Francis T. Cullen and Nicolas Williams. "The Embeddedness of Adolescent Employment and Participation in Delinquency: A Life Course Perspective." Western Criminology Review 4,1(2002): 1-19.