Search Results

Author: Mowen, Thomas
Resulting in 12 citations.
1. Bares, Kyle J.
Mowen, Thomas
Brent, John
Youth Arrest as a Turning Point in Delinquency: The Role of Labeling across Time
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research on delinquency has shown that punishment and sanctions have become more punitive over time. While these punishments are meant to serve as a deterrent, research on the topic is mixed with some scholars finding that punishment functions as a deterrent in certain social milieus. Contrary to these findings, other research has found that punishment and sanctions may lead to worse outcomes. While past research has examined the effects of punishment on offending, what is still unknown is the long term affects that punishments--such as arrest--have on youth offending over time. Using the life-course perspective and labeling theory, we examine the relationship between arrest and offending, hypothesizing that arrest serves as a turning point where youth are labeled as delinquent and thus perform more delinquent behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997), we find that youth who are arrested report higher levels of delinquency than youth who are not arrested. Further, we find that arrest increases offending within youth across time even when accounting for baseline levels of delinquency. Finally, we find that arrest presents a cumulative effect on delinquency whereby each arrest is accompanied by a proportional increase in delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Bares, Kyle J., Thomas Mowen and John Brent. "Youth Arrest as a Turning Point in Delinquency: The Role of Labeling across Time." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
2. Brent, John
Mowen, Thomas
School Discipline: Its Impact and Cumulative Effect on Juvenile Delinquency
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Discipline; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Though under examination, schools are often marked by punitive disciplinary practices that have produced a number of negative consequences at the student- and school-level. Further, the criminalization of school discipline has been charged with establishing a school-to-prison pipeline: a process through which youth--especially racial/ethnic minorities--are enmeshed in criminal justice as a result of school discipline. Building on prior research noting elevated levels of misconduct where heightened forms of discipline are adopted, this study examines whether school discipline serves as a negative turning point for youth within their life-course by contributing to increased odds of delinquency. Further, this effort assesses whether discipline received across multiple years has a 'cumulative' effect on delinquency. To accomplish this, we use four waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997) and cross-lagged dynamic panel models. Results show that youth who are disciplined have significantly higher levels of delinquency across time relative to their peers. Further, each subsequent year the youth is punished leads to a significant increase in the odds of delinquency. In line with the life-course perspective, findings demonstrate that school discipline marks a negative turning point that can have a cumulative effect on delinquency over time.
Bibliography Citation
Brent, John and Thomas Mowen. "School Discipline: Its Impact and Cumulative Effect on Juvenile Delinquency." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
3. Hemez, Paul
Mowen, Thomas
Exploring the "School-to-Prison" Pipeline: How School Suspensions Influence Incarceration During Young Adulthood
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Mixed Effects; School Suspension/Expulsion; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The "school-to-prison pipeline" references a process in which youth who experience punitive punishment in school are increasingly enmeshed within the criminal justice system. While this metaphor is commonly accepted, few studies have examined the extent to which exclusionary school discipline significantly alters pathways towards incarceration as youth transition into young adulthood. Applying a life-course perspective and leveraging 15 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study examines how school suspensions influence odds of imprisonment during young adulthood. Mixed-effects longitudinal models demonstrate that receiving a suspension increases the odds of incarceration, even after accounting for key covariates including levels of criminal offending. However, results show that repeated suspensions do not appear to confer additional risk of incarceration. Results carry implications for the ways in which school punishment impacts youths' life-course.
Bibliography Citation
Hemez, Paul and Thomas Mowen. "Exploring the "School-to-Prison" Pipeline: How School Suspensions Influence Incarceration During Young Adulthood." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
4. Mowen, Thomas
Shifting Parenting Styles and the Effect on Juvenile Delinquency
Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The importance of parenting styles on childhood development and early adolescent social and behavioral outcomes has been well documented within academic literature (Schaffer et al., 2009; Brand et al., 2009; Claes et al., 2005; Sirvanli-Ozen, 2005; Darling & Steinberg 1993; Lamborn et al., 1991) and the effects of parenting styles on juvenile delinquency have also been well researched (Hoeve, 2007; Pires & Jenkins, 2007; Claes et al., 2005; Duncan et al., 1998; Kandel, 1996; Simons & Robertson, 1989). While there have been a number of studies which show parenting practices evolve with the age of the child (Dix et al., 1986; Feldman et al., 1989; Smaller & Youniss, 1989), and parenting practices can change due to the effects of circumstances such as discrimination (Brody et al., 2008) and divorce (Simons et al., 1993), the literature on adolescent behavior and parenting styles has overlooked the impact of shifting parenting styles on delinquency. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current research examines 1) the extent and nature of parenting style changes during adolescence, and 2) the influence of such parenting style shifts on juvenile delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas. "Shifting Parenting Styles and the Effect on Juvenile Delinquency." Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011.
5. Mowen, Thomas
Brent, John
School Discipline as a Turning Point: The Cumulative Effect of Suspension on Arrest
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 53,5 (August 2016): 628-653.
Also: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/53/5/628
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: To examine how school discipline may serve as a negative turning point for youth and contribute to increased odds of arrest over time and to assess whether suspensions received across multiple years may present a "cumulative" increase in odds of arrest.

Methods: Using four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we use a longitudinal hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) to explore how school suspensions contribute to odds of arrest across time while controlling for a number of theoretically important dimensions such as race, age, delinquency, and gender among others.

Results: Results show that youth who are suspended are at an increased risk of experiencing an arrest across time relative to youth who are not suspended and that this effect increases across time. Further, with each subsequent year the youth is suspended, there is a significant increase in odds of arrest.

Conclusion: Supporting prior work, we find that youth who receive a suspension are at an increased odds of contact with the criminal justice system, and increases in the number of suspensions received contribute to significant increases in odds of arrest. Findings demonstrate that suspensions present a form of cumulative effect over time.

Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas and John Brent. "School Discipline as a Turning Point: The Cumulative Effect of Suspension on Arrest." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 53,5 (August 2016): 628-653.
6. Mowen, Thomas
Brent, John
Bares, Kyle J.
How Arrest Impacts Delinquency Over Time Between and Within Individuals
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 16,4 (October 2018): 358-377.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1541204017712560
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While some studies find that criminal justice contact may deter future offending, another body of research indicates that contact with the criminal justice system can increase delinquency among youth. Although research has examined the relationship between punishment and offending, from a life-course perspective, we know little about between-individual and within-individual effects of punishment across time. Using a cross-lagged dynamic panel model, results from an analysis of four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 demonstrate that arrest contributes to within-individual increases in delinquency across time even after baseline levels of delinquency are controlled. Between-individual results show that youth who were arrested experience significant increases in offending compared to youth never arrested even after accounting for prior offending. Finally, this study uncovers a "cumulative effect" of arrest in that each subsequent year the youth is arrested relates to increased offending irrespective of prior offending. Overall, findings suggest that arrest contributes to significant increases in delinquency even after baseline levels of offending are directly modeled.
Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas, John Brent and Kyle J. Bares. "How Arrest Impacts Delinquency Over Time Between and Within Individuals." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 16,4 (October 2018): 358-377.
7. Mowen, Thomas
Brent, John
Boman, John H. IV
The Effect of School Discipline on Offending across Time
Justice Quarterly published online (12 July 2019): DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2019.1625428.
Also: 10.1080/07418825.2019.1625428
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s):

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite decreases in offending and victimization in schools across the United States, many schools continue to use exclusionary discipline. Although school punishment has been tied to a variety of negative outcomes, the link between suspension and offending remains unclear. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study examines the extent to which school punishment contributes to within-individual increases in offending across time and/or amplifies offending between-individuals. Results of a series of cross-lagged dynamic fixed-effects panel models reveal that school suspensions contribute to within-individual increases in offending. This relationship remains even when accounting for the effect of baseline levels of offending on future offending. Further, repeated suspensions amplify offending differences between-individuals.
Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas, John Brent and John H. IV Boman. "The Effect of School Discipline on Offending across Time." Justice Quarterly published online (12 July 2019): DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2019.1625428.
8. Mowen, Thomas
Chavez, Jorge M.
Immigration Status, School Suspension, and Offending: A Longitudinal Analysis
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Black Youth; Crime; Ethnic Differences; Hispanic Youth; Immigrants; Racial Differences; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research has shown that Black and Hispanic youth are more likely to be suspended in school than White youth. Prior research has largely overlooked the role of immigration status within this process although immigrant youth are the fastest growing school age population. Moreover, given recent research documenting the significant association between school suspensions and increased offending across time, understanding the saliency of immigration status on school discipline bears considerable importance in two related domains. First, it is possible that immigration status will place Black and Hispanic youth at higher odds of receiving a suspension. Second, disparities in school suspension due to immigration status may result in significant disparities in offending for immigrant Black and Hispanic youth, relative to their non-immigrant counterparts. Using four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the goals of this study are twofold. First, we examine the extent to which immigration status conditions the odds of receiving a school suspension for Hispanic and Black youth relative to White youth. Second, using cross-lagged dynamic panel models, we then examine whether the relationship between school suspension and offending across time varies by race/ethnicity and immigration status.
Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas and Jorge M. Chavez. "Immigration Status, School Suspension, and Offending: A Longitudinal Analysis." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
9. Mowen, Thomas
Schroeder, Ryan D.
Maternal Parenting Style and Delinquency by Race and the Moderating Effect of Structural Disadvantage
Youth and Society 50,2 (March 2018): 139-159.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0044118X15598028
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Neighborhood Effects; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Contemporary research suggests authoritative parenting is the most effective parenting style in deterring juvenile delinquency. Some research has found there are differences in parenting style between racial groups due to structural disadvantage faced by marginalized individuals. Yet, relatively little is known about how racial differences in parenting and the moderating effect of disadvantage relate to juvenile delinquency. The current project explores parenting style differences among Black, Hispanic, and White mothers and the moderating impact of disadvantage on delinquency. Results indicate authoritarian parenting is least effective in deterring delinquency among all racial groups; however, neighborhood disadvantage provides a negative moderating effect between authoritarian parenting and delinquency for Black youth only, whereas uninvolved parenting was related to delinquency for White youth only.
Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas and Ryan D. Schroeder. "Maternal Parenting Style and Delinquency by Race and the Moderating Effect of Structural Disadvantage." Youth and Society 50,2 (March 2018): 139-159.
10. Schroeder, Ryan D.
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
Mowen, Thomas
The Marriage Effect Revisited: Desistance from Crime, or Desistance from Arrest?
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Life Course; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The marriage effect on criminal desistance has received a considerable amount of attention in the criminological literature over the past two decades. The main conclusion reached is that marriage increases the likelihood of criminal desistance. The vast majority of prior studies on the marriage effect, however, have used arrest counts as the outcome measure. In the current study, we contend that a shift in criminal justice contacts is not a reliable indicator of actual behavioral change. Drawing on opportunity theory and the Black’s theory of law, we examine the extent to which marriage redirects offending away from the streets and to opportunistic crimes within the home. In this sense, we investigate the possibility that the marriage effect observed in prior research accounts for desistance from official offending but fails to address the hidden crimes that occur outside the purview of the justice system. Using data from the first seven waves of the National Youth Survey, we document patterns of behavioral change from adolescence to adulthood, focusing on the degree to which offending shifts away from high-arrest-risk crimes and narrows to offenses within the home during periods of marriage. Results and implications for life course theory are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Schroeder, Ryan D., Bianca Elizabeth Bersani and Thomas Mowen. "The Marriage Effect Revisited: Desistance from Crime, or Desistance from Arrest?" Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013.
11. Schroeder, Ryan D.
Higgins, George E.
Mowen, Thomas
Maternal Attachment Trajectories and Criminal Offending By Race
American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,1 (March 2014): 155-171.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12103-012-9192-0
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parental attachment is a key predictor of juvenile offending. Most prior research on the topic, however, assumes that parental attachment is stable throughout youth and adolescence. On the contrary, recent research has established that parenting is a dynamic factor for many youth during adolescence. In the current study, we assess the relationship between trajectories of maternal attachment and offending during adolescence and young adulthood. Following a cohort of 859 youth from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data aged 10 or 11 over a period of 6 years, we find four distinctive trajectories of maternal attachment and two distinctive trajectories of offending. The results suggest that changes that occur in maternal closeness are linked to changes in offending across adolescence. However, when young adult offending is assessed when the youth are 18 or 19 years of age, we find that adolescent maternal attachment trajectories are not significant predictors of offending.
Bibliography Citation
Schroeder, Ryan D., George E. Higgins and Thomas Mowen. "Maternal Attachment Trajectories and Criminal Offending By Race." American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,1 (March 2014): 155-171.
12. Schroeder, Ryan D.
Mowen, Thomas
Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency
Youth and Society 46,2 (March 2014): 228-254.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/46/2/228.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show that parenting style transitions are common across the first and third waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. Furthermore, specific parenting style shifts are associated with changes in juvenile delinquency, most notably the shifts characterized by a decrease in responsiveness or an increase or decrease in demandingness. Last, changes in maternal attachment associated with parenting style changes partially mediate the effect of such transitions on delinquent outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Schroeder, Ryan D. and Thomas Mowen. "Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency." Youth and Society 46,2 (March 2014): 228-254.