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Author: Powell, Kathleen
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Apel, Robert
Powell, Kathleen
Level of Criminal Justice Contact and Early Adult Wage Inequality
RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 5,1 Criminal Justice Contact and Inequality (February 2019), 198-222.
Also: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/rsf.2019.5.1.09
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Wage Gap

This study explores heterogeneity in the relationship between criminal justice contact and early adult wages using unconditional quantile regression models with sibling fixed effects, estimated separately by race-ethnicity. The findings support the contention that the relationship between criminal justice contact and wages is heterogeneous in three respects: level of contact, race, and location in the wage distribution. First, entry-level contacts in the form of arrest are largely uncorrelated with wages, whereas wage gaps are evident following late-stage contacts in the form of jail or prison incarceration. Second, the wage gap from incarceration is observable among black respondents, but not whites or Latinos. Third, the size of the wage gap from incarceration is approximately U-shaped with respect to the black wage distribution.
Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert and Kathleen Powell. "Level of Criminal Justice Contact and Early Adult Wage Inequality." RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 5,1 Criminal Justice Contact and Inequality (February 2019), 198-222.
2. Powell, Kathleen
Apel, Robert
Long-term Filtering Effects of Juvenile Punishment
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course; Punishment, Criminal

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Formal processing of any given case through the American justice system involves a lengthy process and multiple decision points, each of which effectively serve as a 'filter' that keeps increasingly fewer cases active. The literature on punishment is predominated by the study of outcomes related to back-end system stages -- particularly, incarceration. This focus fails to fully capture the effects justice system contact in two ways: by estimating incarceration effects that compound the experience of all prior stages, and omitting cases only experiencing initial stages (such as arrest). Using the NLSY97, this paper proposes to explore the impact of system involvement at multiple key decision stages for a specific population: individuals formally processed before turning 18 years old. The analysis will tease out filtering effects to highlight the unique impact of each increasingly intrusive stage. Further, the focus on an adolescent population being processed during an important developmental period will assess the degree to which differing levels of involvement carries implications into adulthood and over the life course. Findings may nuance understanding of the nature of justice system contact for youth by highlighting accumulation processes or long-term enduring effects.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Kathleen and Robert Apel. "Long-term Filtering Effects of Juvenile Punishment." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.