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Author: Bryan, Brielle
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Bryan, Brielle
Housing Instability Following Incarceration and Conviction
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Discrimination; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Incarceration/Jail; Mobility, Residential; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and a variety of modeling strategies, including sibling fixed effects and gender interactions with criminal justice history, this paper explores whether felony conviction without incarceration leads to housing instability patterns similar to those experienced by former inmates. Results indicate that, like formerly incarcerated individuals, never incarcerated individuals with felony convictions experience an elevated risk of housing instability and residential mobility, and these effects are amplified for women. As most previous research on the collateral consequences of the criminal justice system has focused on incarceration, this paper makes an important contribution to the literature by highlighting how lesser criminal justice system involvement, not just incarceration, can introduce instability into the lives of the 12 million Americans with felony records who have never served a prison sentence. At the same time, these findings also help to illuminate the mechanisms behind post-incarceration housing instability observed previously by tabling the myriad intermediary effects of incarceration itself and instead highlighting the potential role of housing market discrimination. [Note: Also presented at Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018]
Bibliography Citation
Bryan, Brielle. "Housing Instability Following Incarceration and Conviction." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
2. Bryan, Brielle
Post-Conviction Housing Instability
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research suggests that incarceration leads to increased housing instability, generally finding that prior incarceration is associated with experiencing a higher number of residential moves (Geller and Curtis 2011; Harding, Morenoff, and Herbert 2013; Warner 2015). While previous researchers have justified this line of research by pointing out that both public housing authorities and private landlords can and do discriminate based on prior incarceration history (e.g., Geller and Curtis 2011), the same is true for individuals with criminal records who have not been incarcerated, particularly those with felony convictions. As such, there is good reason to believe that felony conviction, not just incarceration, is likely to lead to greater housing instability and diminished control over housing situations. This paper will explore this possibility by using the NLSY97 to examine how often formerly individuals with prior felony convictions report living in temporary housing (e.g., hotels, shelters) or unstable housing situations in which they are dependent upon others (i.e., neither owning nor renting the unit in which they live) and how their housing experiences compare to those of formerly incarcerated young adults. Additionally, I will examine the duration of unstable and/or limited control housing situations for formerly convicted and incarcerated individuals. Given that most of the previous research on the collateral consequences of the criminal justice system has focused on incarceration, this paper will make an important contribution to the literature by examining whether lesser criminal justice system involvement introduces similar instability into one's life, specifically with regard to housing.
Bibliography Citation
Bryan, Brielle. "Post-Conviction Housing Instability." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
3. Bryan, Brielle
Seeking Support or Avoiding Institutions: Examining Social Safety Net Usage After Incarceration
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Incarceration/Jail; Program Participation/Evaluation; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Unemployment Insurance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research suggests both that formerly incarcerated individuals are likely to face financial precarity after release and that contact with the criminal justice system may lead to avoidance of institutions that keep formal records and lower trust in government. Thus, despite need, formerly incarcerated adults may fail to utilize social safety net resources, particularly those that require in person interactions with government offices. We do not currently have good estimates of the extent to which formerly incarcerated adults actually utilize social safety net resources, however. This paper uses data from the NLSY79 to estimate how much formerly incarcerated individuals draw upon five social safety net programs that require differing levels of in person interaction: unemployment insurance, disability, food stamps/SNAP, AFDC/TANF, and the earned income tax credit. I examine the extent to which formerly incarcerated individuals utilize these programs relative to otherwise similar individuals who have not been incarcerated and how utilization varies by program. Understanding how formerly incarcerated individuals make use of safety net programs and how their utilization varies by program structure will illuminate the extent to which the social safety net is alleviating or perpetuating the inequality generated by America's criminal justice system.
Bibliography Citation
Bryan, Brielle. "Seeking Support or Avoiding Institutions: Examining Social Safety Net Usage After Incarceration." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
4. Bryan, Brielle
Total Income Trajectories Over the Life Course Post-Incarceration
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Economic Well-Being; Incarceration/Jail; Income; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the focus on the reentry period and labor market discrimination that dominates most of the literature on the economic wellbeing of former prisoners, we have failed to make a full accounting of the financial stability of formerly incarcerated Americans as they navigate the remainder of their lives. As a result, we lack information on how often individuals are able to bounce back after incarceration and how many continue to struggle as they age. Nor do we know which types of former prisoners manage to eventually attain stability. I address these questions by examining total income packages (earned income plus transfer income, spouse's earnings, and other sources of income) over the life course of former prisoners using NLSY79 data. I consider how the composition of former prisoners' income packages changes over the life course and the role of race, as well as employment, marriage, and divorce in determining trajectories.
Bibliography Citation
Bryan, Brielle. "Total Income Trajectories Over the Life Course Post-Incarceration." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
5. Killewald, Alexandra
Bryan, Brielle
Does Your Home Make You Wealthy?
Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 2,6 (October 2016): 110-128.
Also: http://www.rsfjournal.org/doi/full/10.7758/RSF.2016.2.6.06
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Home Ownership; Modeling, Marginal Structural; Racial Differences; Wealth

Estimating the lifetime wealth consequences of homeownership is complicated by ongoing events, such as divorce or inheritance, that may shape both homeownership decisions and later-life wealth. We argue that prior research that has not accounted for these dynamic selection processes has overstated the causal effect of homeownership on wealth. Using NLSY79 data and marginal structural models, we find that each additional year of homeownership increases midlife wealth in 2008 by about $6,800, more than 25 percent less than estimates from models that do not account for dynamic selection. Hispanic and African American wealth benefits from each homeownership year are 62 percent and 48 percent as large as those of whites, respectively. Homeownership remains wealth-enhancing in 2012, but shows smaller returns. Our results confirm homeownership's role in wealth accumulation and that variation in both homeownership rates and the wealth benefits of homeownership contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in midlife wealth holdings.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Brielle Bryan. "Does Your Home Make You Wealthy?" Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 2,6 (October 2016): 110-128.
6. Killewald, Alexandra
Bryan, Brielle
Falling Behind: The Black-White Wealth Gap in Life Course and Intergenerational Perspective
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Life Course; Racial Equality/Inequality; Socioeconomic Background; Wages; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The black-white wealth gap in the United States is vast and increases with age. Prior research has typically taken a static approach, predicting current wealth with current individual traits or measures of social origins. This approach is ill-suited to wealth, which reflects the lifetime accumulation of resources and is a cumulative advantage process. Instead, we adopt a life-course perspective, examining the evolution of wealth across individuals' lives. We hypothesize that whites' early advantages, including higher educational attainment, more privileged social origins, and more consistent wage-earning, not only advantage young adult whites compared to their black peers, but place them on a trajectory of compounding advantage throughout their lives. Thus, social origins and early life outcomes may actually become more important determinants of racial disparities in wealth the farther into the past they recede. We evaluate these hypotheses using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and random-growth models.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Brielle Bryan. "Falling Behind: The Black-White Wealth Gap in Life Course and Intergenerational Perspective." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
7. Killewald, Alexandra
Bryan, Brielle
Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood
Social Forces 97,2 (1 December 2018): 705-740.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article-abstract/97/2/705/5053105
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Home Ownership; Life Course; Racial Differences; Wage Gap; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Whites' wealth advantage compared to blacks and Hispanics is vast and increases with age. While prior research on wealth gaps focuses primarily on wealth levels, we adopt a life-course perspective that treats wealth as a cumulative outcome and examine wealth accumulation across individuals' lives. We test to what extent intergenerational disadvantage and disparities in achieved characteristics explain accumulation disparities. We hypothesize that disparities in wealth determinants, like income and education, family and household characteristics, and homeownership and local context, increase through early and middle adulthood, widening wealth accumulation gaps. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we show that whites accumulate wealth more rapidly than blacks and Hispanics throughout early and middle adulthood, with the result that both groups fall further behind whites in amassed wealth with each passing year. Furthermore, the accumulation gap grows substantially in the 30s, so that blacks and Hispanics in this age range lose ground at an increasing annual rate. We find that adjusting for intergenerational disadvantage reduces the Hispanic-white and black-white gaps in wealth accumulated between ages 20 and 50 by over 40 percent and 50 percent, respectively, and even more in young adulthood. Yet, disparities in outcomes like income, marriage, and homeownership rise with age; together, these intragenerational processes explain a greater share of accumulation gaps in middle adulthood than at younger ages. These findings highlight that wealth gaps in the United States are both shaped by intergenerational legacies of disadvantage and created fresh in each generation through unequal distribution of achieved wealth-enhancing traits.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Brielle Bryan. "Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood." Social Forces 97,2 (1 December 2018): 705-740.
8. Tach, Laura
Edin, Kathryn
Bryan, Brielle
The Family-Go-Round: Multi-Partner Fertility and Father Involvement From a Father's Perspective
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Fathers; Fathers, Involvement; Fertility, Multiple Partners

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multi-partner fertility leads to complex relationships that fathers must navigate. They have ongoing relationships with current and past romantic partners who are the mothers of their children; they also have children who may or may not live with them and to whom they may or may not be biologically related. In this paper, we draw on quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth—1997 Cohort and qualitative data from in-depth interviews of over 100 low-income fathers to examine how fathers experience and respond to multi-partner fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Tach, Laura, Kathryn Edin and Brielle Bryan. "The Family-Go-Round: Multi-Partner Fertility and Father Involvement From a Father's Perspective." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
9. Tach, Laura
Edin, Kathryn
Harvey, Hope
Bryan, Brielle
The Family-Go-Round: Family Complexity and Father Involvement from a Father's Perspective
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 654,1 (July 2014): 169-184.
Also: http://ann.sagepub.com/content/654/1/169.full
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Fathers, Involvement; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Non-Custodial

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men who have children with several partners are often assumed to be 'deadbeats' who eschew their responsibilities to their children. Using data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY-97), we show that most men in complex families intensively parent the children of one mother while being less involved, or not involved at all, with children by others. Repeated qualitative interviews with 110 low-income noncustodial fathers reveal that men in complex families often engage with and provide, at least to some degree, for all of the biological and stepchildren who live in one mother's household. These activities often exceed those extended to biological children living elsewhere. Interviews also show that by devoting most or all of their resources to the children of just one mother, men in complex families feel successful as fathers even if they are not intensively involved with their other biological children.
Bibliography Citation
Tach, Laura, Kathryn Edin, Hope Harvey and Brielle Bryan. "The Family-Go-Round: Family Complexity and Father Involvement from a Father's Perspective." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 654,1 (July 2014): 169-184.