Search Results

Author: Connolly, Eric J.
Resulting in 20 citations.
1. Beaver, Kevin M.
Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said
Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Stability and Change in Levels of Self-Control
Journal of Criminal Justice 41,5 (September-October 2013): 300-308.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723521300069X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Genetics; Kinship; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Siblings

Purpose: There has been an emerging body of research estimating the stability in levels of self-control across different sections of the life course. At the same time, some of this research has attempted to examine the factors that account for both stability and change in levels of self-control. Missing from much of this research is a concerted focus on the genetic and environmental architecture of stability and change in self-control.

Methods: The current study was designed to address this issue by analyzing a sample of kinship pairs drawn from the Child and Young Adult Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (CNLSY).

Results: Analyses of these data revealed that genetic factors accounted for between 74 and 92 percent of the stability in self-control and between 78 and 89 percent of the change in self-control. Shared and nonshared environmental factors explained the rest of the stability and change in levels of self-control.

Conclusions: A combination of genetic and environmental influences is responsible for the stability and change in levels of self-control over time.

Bibliography Citation
Beaver, Kevin M., Eric J. Connolly, Joseph A. Schwartz, Mohammed Said Al-Ghamdi and Ahmed Nezar Kobeisy. "Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Stability and Change in Levels of Self-Control." Journal of Criminal Justice 41,5 (September-October 2013): 300-308.
2. Boutwell, Brian B.
Connolly, Eric J.
Barbaro, Nicole
Shackelford, Todd K.
Petkovsek, Melissa
Beaver, Kevin M.
On the Genetic and Environmental Reasons Why Intelligence Correlates with Criminal Victimization
Intelligence 62 (May 2017): 155-166.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289617300077
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Bullying/Victimization; Family Influences; Intelligence; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings

Researchers have expended considerable effort to understand the causes and correlates of criminal victimization. More recently, scholars have focused on identifying individual-level traits that increase the odds of victimization. Generally absent from this line of research, however, is examining the extent to which previously unmeasured genetic and environmental influences contribute to the covariation between victimization and individual-level risk factors. The current study aims to replicate and extend prior research by examining the contribution of genetic and environmental influences on the association between intelligence and victimization by analyzing twin and sibling data from two nationally representative samples of American youth. Quantitative genetic analyses indicate that common additive genetic factors, as well as non-shared environmental factors, explained the phenotypic association between intelligence and victimization. Finally, our results revealed that after correcting for possible familial confounding, the effect of intelligence on victimization experiences remained statistically significant. The findings of the current study replicate and extend prior research on the phenotypic association between indicators of general intelligence and the experience of victimization.
Bibliography Citation
Boutwell, Brian B., Eric J. Connolly, Nicole Barbaro, Todd K. Shackelford, Melissa Petkovsek and Kevin M. Beaver. "On the Genetic and Environmental Reasons Why Intelligence Correlates with Criminal Victimization." Intelligence 62 (May 2017): 155-166.
3. Comer, Benjamin P.
Connolly, Eric J.
Correlates of School Gun Carrying among Black, Hispanic, and White Male Adolescents: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of Youth
Preventive Medicine published online (8 October 2020): 106277.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743520303017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Anxiety; Crime; Depression (see also CESD); School Quality

The current study examined whether previously identified factors associated with adolescent gun carrying similarly predict adolescent school gun carrying. Logistic regression models are used to predict risk of school gun carrying among a nationally representative sample of adolescent males (n = 4559). Results revealed that a range of individual- and environmental-level factors increase the odds of school gun carrying, including a 13% increased likelihood of carrying a gun to school among individuals with more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Additionally, analyses indicated that several individual- and environmental-level factors differentially increase the likelihood of school gun carrying across race and ethnicity. Policies aimed at reducing gun carrying in schools should address both the known correlates of adolescent school gun carrying broadly and the specific correlates of gun carrying as they vary across particular groups of youth. Future research should attempt to replicate these and other studies findings across diverse samples of adolescents and identify other potential correlates of adolescent school gun carrying not previously addressed.
Bibliography Citation
Comer, Benjamin P. and Eric J. Connolly. "Correlates of School Gun Carrying among Black, Hispanic, and White Male Adolescents: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of Youth." Preventive Medicine published online (8 October 2020): 106277.
4. Connolly, Eric J.
Further Evaluating the Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Antisocial Behavior, and Violent Victimization: A Sibling-Comparison Analysis
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 18,1 (January 2020): 3-23.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1541204019833145
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Bullying/Victimization; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A developing line of research suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk for antisocial behavior and future victimization. However, the mechanisms that underlie this association remain largely speculative. To address this gap in the existing body of research, data on full siblings from a large population-based sample of youth were analyzed to evaluate the direct effect of ACEs on child antisocial behavior, adolescent delinquency, and young adult violent victimization after controlling for familial confounders. Traditional between-family analyses revealed that ACEs were significantly associated with higher levels of childhood antisocial behavior, adolescent delinquent behavior, and risk for violent crime victimization. After controlling for unmeasured common genetic and shared environmental confounds using fixed-effect sibling comparisons, siblings exposed to more ACEs did not demonstrate higher levels of antisocial behavior, delinquent behavior, or risk for future victimization. The implications of these results for future ACEs research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. "Further Evaluating the Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Antisocial Behavior, and Violent Victimization: A Sibling-Comparison Analysis." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 18,1 (January 2020): 3-23.
5. Connolly, Eric J.
Gang Membership and Violent Delinquency: How Strong is the Association After Taking into Account Familial Confounds?
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Influences; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Gang membership has perhaps been found to be one of the strongest predictors of juvenile delinquency and early contact with the criminal justice system. Indeed, a well-developed body of research indicates that gang membership increases the likelihood of engaging in violent delinquency over and above the influence of individual personality traits, school environment, and neighborhood context. While an impressive amount of empirical support has accumulated over time for the association between gang membership and adolescent violence using different statistical techniques and analyzing a wide range of samples, no research to date has examined whether and to what extent gang membership predicts violent delinquency after taking into account co-occurring genetic and environmental processes. The present study uses sibling data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to estimate a series of sibling-comparison models in order to isolate the environmental influence of gang membership on violent delinquency and provide a rigorous test of the well-established link between gang membership and adolescent violence. Results offer new insight into the nexus between gang membership and violent delinquency. Theoretical and methodological implications for future life-course/developmental research on gangs and delinquency are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. "Gang Membership and Violent Delinquency: How Strong is the Association After Taking into Account Familial Confounds?" Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
6. Connolly, Eric J.
Sex Differences in Childhood Bullying Victimization and Trajectories of Substance Use From Adolescence to Adulthood
Journal of Drug Issues 47,1 (January 2017): 25-49.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0022042616678605
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: College of Criminology and Criminal Justice
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Bullying/Victimization; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Drug Use; Gender Differences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent research has found that repeated bullying victimization increases the risk of developing several unhealthy habits later in life including periodic substance use. Comparatively less research, however, has examined whether the association between bullying victimization and developmental growth in substance use is different for males and females. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Results from a series of sex-specific latent growth curve models reveal that bullied males experience faster increases in cigarette and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood compared to non-bullied males, while bullied females experience faster increases in cigarette use compared to non-bullied females. Bullied males also experience slower declines in cigarette and marijuana use from adolescence to middle adulthood, while bullied females experience slower declines in alcohol and cigarette use. Implications of these findings for research on sex differences in bullying victimization and developmental patterns of substance use are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. "Sex Differences in Childhood Bullying Victimization and Trajectories of Substance Use From Adolescence to Adulthood." Journal of Drug Issues 47,1 (January 2017): 25-49.
7. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Assessing the Salience of Gene-Environment Interplay in the Development of Anger, Family Conflict, and Physical Violence: A Biosocial Test of General Strain Theory
Journal of Criminal Justice 43,6 (November-December 2015): 487-497.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723521530009X
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Family Decision-making/Conflict; Genetics; Health, Mental; Kinship; Siblings

Behavioral genetic methods were used to assess gene-environment interplay between anger, family conflict, and violence using a subsample of kinship pairs drawn from the Child and Young Adult Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Assessing the Salience of Gene-Environment Interplay in the Development of Anger, Family Conflict, and Physical Violence: A Biosocial Test of General Strain Theory." Journal of Criminal Justice 43,6 (November-December 2015): 487-497.
8. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Considering the Genetic and Environmental Overlap Between Bullying Victimization, Delinquency, and Symptoms of Depression/Anxiety
Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31,7 (April 2016): 1230-1256.
Also: http://jiv.sagepub.com/content/31/7/1230
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Anxiety; Bullying/Victimization; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Genetics; Health, Mental; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Emerging evidence from longitudinal research suggests that bullied children are more likely to develop antisocial tendencies and mental health problems later in life. Less research, however, has used genetically sensitive research designs to control for genetic confounding and examine whether the well-supported association between bullying victimization and maladaptive development is partially accounted for by common genetic and environmental influences. Using sibling data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the current study used a series of bivariate liability-threshold models to disentangle the genetic and environmental influences on observed covariance between repeated bullying victimization, delinquent involvement, and symptoms of depression/anxiety. Results revealed that common additive genetic and nonshared environmental effects accounted for the covariance in liability between bullying victimization and delinquent involvement as well as bullying victimization and symptoms of depression/anxiety. The results suggest the presence of genotype-environment correlation (rGE) between repeated victimization and maladaptive development.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Considering the Genetic and Environmental Overlap Between Bullying Victimization, Delinquency, and Symptoms of Depression/Anxiety." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31,7 (April 2016): 1230-1256.
9. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Examining the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Self-Control and Delinquency: Results From a Genetically Informative Analysis of Sibling Pairs
Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29,4 (March 2014): 707-735.
Also: http://jiv.sagepub.com/content/29/4/707.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Kinship; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Child and Young Adult Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) has been used extensively within criminology. A significant amount of criminological research, for example, has explored various issues related to the correlates, causes, and consequences associated with levels of self-control and delinquent involvement. The overwhelming majority of these CNLSY studies, however, have not accounted for the potential effects of genetic factors on these two widely studied criminological variables and thus the findings generated from previous empirical work may be inaccurate due to genetic confounding. The current study partially addresses this possibility by analyzing a sample of kinship pairs nested within the CNLSY. Analyses of these data revealed that genetic factors accounted for between 51% and 92% of the variance in levels of self-control and between 30% and 41% of the variance in delinquency. We discuss the implications of these results for interpreting findings from the large body of existing research using the CNLSY.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Examining the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Self-Control and Delinquency: Results From a Genetically Informative Analysis of Sibling Pairs." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29,4 (March 2014): 707-735.
10. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Guns, Gangs, and Genes: Evidence of an Underlying Genetic Influence on Gang Involvement and Carrying a Handgun
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 13,3 (July 2015): 228-242.
Also: http://yvj.sagepub.com/content/13/3/228
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Handguns, carrying or using; Kinship; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Handgun and gang violence represent two important threats to public safety. Although several studies have examined the factors that increase the risk for gang membership and handgun carrying, few studies have explored the biosocial underpinnings to the development of both gang involvement and carrying a handgun. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by using kinship data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to estimate the genetic and environmental effects on gang membership, handgun carrying, and the covariance between the two. Results revealed that genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for much of the association between gang membership and handgun carrying. Implications of these findings for future gang research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Guns, Gangs, and Genes: Evidence of an Underlying Genetic Influence on Gang Involvement and Carrying a Handgun." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 13,3 (July 2015): 228-242.
11. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14
Child Development 86,6 (November/December 2015): 1738-1758.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.12409/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Birthweight; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Genetics; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Kinship; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers, Health; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pre/post Natal Behavior; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; School Quality; Siblings

Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test from ages 5 to 14. While models controlling for within-family covariates showed that prenatal caloric intake was associated with lower reading and mathematical achievement at age 5, models controlling for between-family covariates (such as maternal IQ) and unobserved familial confounders revealed only a statistically significant association between siblings differentially exposed to prenatal caloric intake and mathematical achievement at age 5.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14." Child Development 86,6 (November/December 2015): 1738-1758.
12. Connolly, Eric J.
Cooke, Eric M.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Brown, Wyatt
Do Developmental Changes in Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking Uniquely Predict Violent Victimization? A Test of the Dual Systems Model
Journal of Criminal Justice 66 (January-February 2020): 101639.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235219303265
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Children, Temperament; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Risk-Taking; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Methods: The current study analyzed longitudinal data from a population-based sample of youth to assess bidirectional associations among impulsivity, sensation seeking, and violent criminal victimization from ages 16 to 23. Latent growth curve models were estimated to examine developmental trajectories of impulsivity and sensation seeking. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were used to assess the direction of effects between variables over time.

Results: Evidence for the dual systems model of self-control was found with impulsivity and sensation seeking developing at different rates from adolescence into young adulthood. Changes in impulsivity were positively associated with changes in violent criminal victimization from adolescence through young adulthood. However, changes in sensation seeking were not associated with changes in victimization.

Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Eric M. Cooke, Kevin M. Beaver and Wyatt Brown. "Do Developmental Changes in Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking Uniquely Predict Violent Victimization? A Test of the Dual Systems Model." Journal of Criminal Justice 66 (January-February 2020): 101639.
13. Connolly, Eric J.
Jackson, Dylan B.
Adolescent Gang Membership and Adverse Behavioral, Mental Health, and Physical Health Outcomes in Young Adulthood: A Within-Family Analysis
Criminal Justice and Behavior 46,11 (November 2019): 1566-1586.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0093854819871076
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Anxiety; Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Dropouts; Health, Mental; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research suggests that adolescent gang membership increases the likelihood of adverse behavioral and mental health outcomes during adolescence. Less research, however, has examined whether gang membership is associated with adverse outcomes in young adulthood, and whether these associations remain after controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors that cluster within families. Data from a sample of full sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 are analyzed to test these hypotheses. Multivariate logistic regression models show that gang membership is associated with higher odds of arrest, alcohol abuse, severe anxious and depressive symptomatology, high school drop-out status, poor general health, and not seeking medical attention when needed in young adulthood. After controlling for familial confounding, siblings with a history of adolescent gang membership are more likely to report an arrest, never graduating high school, and severe anxious and depressive symptomatology. Implications of these results for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Dylan B. Jackson. "Adolescent Gang Membership and Adverse Behavioral, Mental Health, and Physical Health Outcomes in Young Adulthood: A Within-Family Analysis." Criminal Justice and Behavior 46,11 (November 2019): 1566-1586.
14. Connolly, Eric J.
Jackson, Dylan B.
Semenza, Daniel C.
Quality Over Quantity? Using Sibling Comparisons to Examine Relations between Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration, and Delinquency
Social Science and Medicine published online (21 May 2021): 114053.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953621003853
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Siblings; Sleep

Objective: The current study examines the relationship between self-reported restless sleep, sleep duration, and delinquency from ages 16-19 in a population-based sample of U.S. youth.

Methods: Data from full siblings from the Children and Young Adult sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (CNLSY) are analyzed. Negative binomial regression models and sibling comparisons are estimated to assess between- and within-family effects of sleep on delinquency during ages 16-17. Sibling comparison cross-lagged models are then fitted to the data to examine whether sibling differences in sleep are related to sibling differences in changes in delinquency from ages 16-19.

Results: Siblings with higher levels of self-reported restless sleep were more likely to report higher levels of delinquency at ages 16-17, net of observable covariates and unobservable familial confounders. Sibling differences in restless sleep at ages 16-17 were also associated with increases in delinquency at ages 18-19 after controlling for familial confounding and temporal stability in both sleep and delinquent behavior.

Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Dylan B. Jackson and Daniel C. Semenza. "Quality Over Quantity? Using Sibling Comparisons to Examine Relations between Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration, and Delinquency." Social Science and Medicine published online (21 May 2021): 114053.
15. Connolly, Eric J.
Kavish, Nicholas
The Causal Relationship between Childhood Adversity and Developmental Trajectories of Delinquency: A Consideration of Genetic and Environmental Confounds
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 48,2 (February 2019): 199-211.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-018-0960-0
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An extensive line of research has found that children exposed to multiple forms of early life adversity are more likely to engage in high levels of delinquent behavior during adolescence. Several studies examining this association have used a range of multivariate statistical techniques capable of controlling for observable covariates. Fewer studies have used family-based research designs to additionally control for unobservable confounds, such as genetic and shared environmental influences, that may be associated with exposure to childhood adversity and delinquency. The current study analyzes self-report data on 2534 full-siblings (50% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to conduct a sibling-comparison analysis to provide a rigorous test of the causal hypothesis that exposure to childhood adversity causes differences in developmental patterns of delinquent behavior. Results from multivariate latent growth curve models revealed that childhood adversity was associated with higher starting levels of delinquency during adolescence and slower rates of decline from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Results from multivariate sibling-comparison models, however, revealed that siblings exposed to higher levels of childhood adversity reported higher starting levels of delinquent behavior, but not slower declines over time, suggesting that childhood adversity may not be directly associated with long-term patterns of delinquent behavior after genetic and shared environmental factors are taken into account. Implications of these results for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Nicholas Kavish. "The Causal Relationship between Childhood Adversity and Developmental Trajectories of Delinquency: A Consideration of Genetic and Environmental Confounds." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 48,2 (February 2019): 199-211.
16. Connolly, Eric J.
Kavish, Nicholas
Cooke, Eric M.
Testing the Causal Hypothesis that Repeated Bullying Victimization Leads to Lower Levels of Educational Attainment: A Sibling-comparison Analysis
Journal of School Violence 18,2 (2019): 272-284.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15388220.2018.1477603?journalCode=wjsv20
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Educational Attainment; Siblings

Existing research suggests that repeated bullying victimization is associated with lower levels of educational attainment. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether a true causal association exists since previously reported associations may be confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors that affect both repeated bullying victimization and overall educational attainment. The present study aimed to address this issue by analyzing a sample of sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine between-family associations (where observable confounds are controlled for) and within-family associations (where observable and unobserved genetic and shared environmental confounds are controlled for). The results revealed that bullying victimization significantly reduced the odds of high school and college graduation when estimating between-family effects, but were rendered nonsignificant once within-family effects were controlled for. Implications of these results for future research on bullying victimization and educational attainment are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Nicholas Kavish and Eric M. Cooke. "Testing the Causal Hypothesis that Repeated Bullying Victimization Leads to Lower Levels of Educational Attainment: A Sibling-comparison Analysis." Journal of School Violence 18,2 (2019): 272-284.
17. Connolly, Eric J.
Lewis, Richard H.
Boisvert, Danielle
The Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Delinquency Across Urban and Rural Contexts: Using a Genetically Informed Design to Identify Environmental Risk
Criminal Justice Review 42,3 (September 2017): 237-253.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0734016817724200
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Rural/Urban Differences; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An extensive line of research has demonstrated that low socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for adolescent delinquent behavior. The possibility that low SES affects adolescent's risk for engaging in delinquent behavior has garnered a significant amount of empirical and public attention, given its implications for delinquency prevention. However, few studies have examined the association between low SES and delinquent behavior across urban and rural contexts in the United States. Moreover, much is unknown about the strength of the association between low SES and delinquency across urban and rural context after controlling for common genetic liabilities that often cluster within different levels of SES. The present study aimed to address these existing gaps in the literature by conducting a genetically informed analysis of sibling pairs from a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth. The results revealed that shared environmental factors accounted for 17% of the population variation in adolescent delinquent behavior among adolescents growing up in urban contexts, and 3% of this family-wide environmental effect was accounted for by SES. No evidence of a family-wide environmental effect on population variation in delinquent behavior was found among adolescents from rural contexts. Findings from the present study suggest that the association between low SES and delinquency in urban contexts in the United States may be a true environmental effect and highlight the utility of using genetically informed research designs to better understand the extent to which social contexts influence adolescent delinquent behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Richard H. Lewis and Danielle Boisvert. "The Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Delinquency Across Urban and Rural Contexts: Using a Genetically Informed Design to Identify Environmental Risk." Criminal Justice Review 42,3 (September 2017): 237-253.
18. Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Jackson, Dylan B.
Beaver, Kevin M.
How Far Does the Apple Fall from the Tree? Maternal Delinquency and Sex-specific Patterns of Offspring Delinquent Behavior
Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 50-61.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235217305159
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Parental Influences

Purpose: Examine whether parental offending is directly associated with male and female offspring patterns of delinquent behavior during adolescence and indirectly associated with risk for criminal conviction in young adulthood.

Methods: Latent growth curve models and growth mixture models are estimated using intergenerational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the effects of maternal offending on rates of growth and distinct trajectories of delinquent behavior in male and female children.

Results: The results revealed that maternal offending was associated with higher starting levels and slower rates of decline in delinquent behavior in male and female children. Growth mixture modeling, however, revealed that a four-class solution explained patterns of delinquency in male offspring, while a three-class solution explained patterns of delinquency in female offspring. Multivariate analyses indicated that maternal offending was more strongly associated with male offending classes than female offending classes, with males in the high and slowly declining class and moderate and increasing class demonstrating the highest risk for criminal conviction in young adulthood.

Conclusions: Maternal offending is more strongly associated with serious patterns of delinquent behavior and risk for future criminal conviction in male offspring than in female offspring.

Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Joseph A. Schwartz, Dylan B. Jackson and Kevin M. Beaver. "How Far Does the Apple Fall from the Tree? Maternal Delinquency and Sex-specific Patterns of Offspring Delinquent Behavior." Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 50-61.
19. Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Nedelec, Joseph L.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Barnes, J. C.
Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44,7 (July 2015): 1413-1427.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-015-0299-8/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Kinship; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37% of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63% of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Joseph A. Schwartz, Joseph L. Nedelec, Kevin M. Beaver and J. C. Barnes. "Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44,7 (July 2015): 1413-1427.
20. Kavish, Nicholas
Connolly, Eric J.
Boutwell, Brian B.
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Association between Violent Victimization and Major Depressive Disorder
Personality and Individual Differences 140 (1 April 2019): 103-110.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886918302885
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Crime; Depression (see also CESD); Genetics; Siblings

Research suggests victims of violent crime are more likely to suffer from major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to non-victims. Less research has utilized longitudinal data to evaluate the directionality of this relationship or examined the genetic and environmental contributions to this association across the life course. The current study evaluated 473 full-sibling pairs and 209 half-sibling pairs (N = 1364) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (Mage = 20.14, SD = 3.94). Cross-lagged models were used to examine the directionality of effects between violent victimization and MDD over time. Biometric liability models were used to examine genetic and environmental influences on single and chronic violent victimization and MDD. Violent victimization was associated with increases in MDD during late adolescence, but MDD was more associated with increased risk for violent victimization across young adulthood. Biometric analysis indicated that 20% and 30% of the association between MDD and single and chronic victimization, respectively, was accounted for by common genetic influences. Results from the current study suggest individuals who exhibit symptoms of MDD may be at higher risk for chronic victimization rather than developing MDD as a result of victimization.
Bibliography Citation
Kavish, Nicholas, Eric J. Connolly and Brian B. Boutwell. "Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Association between Violent Victimization and Major Depressive Disorder." Personality and Individual Differences 140 (1 April 2019): 103-110.