Search Results

Source: APPAM - Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management
Resulting in 64 citations.
1. Addo, Fenaba
Houle, Jason N.
Cross-Cohort Changes in Entry into First Marriage: Does Debt Matter, and Has This Association Changed over Time
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Family Formation; Marital Status; Marriage; Net Worth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For this study we use data from two cohorts, the Baby Boomer generation of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1979 Cohort, and the "Millennials" represented by the NLSY 1997 cohort to explore cohort changes in economic attributes predicting early union formation. We are particularly interested in examining how much more difficult debt and the increasing significance of net worth makes it to enter into a marriage directly relative to cohabiting first. We use event history methods, comparing men and women, to predict transitions into first union, cohabitation versus marriage. Our analysis highlights the growing influence of negative financial assets on family formation decisions in early and young adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba and Jason N. Houle. "Cross-Cohort Changes in Entry into First Marriage: Does Debt Matter, and Has This Association Changed over Time." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
2. Antwi, Yaa Akosa
Maclean, Johanna Catherine
State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Insurance, Health; Labor Market Outcomes; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study we re-visit the relationship between health insurance mandates and labor market outcomes. Our contributions are twofold. First, we focus on a sample of workers for whom employers can most easily adjust compensation (wage and non-wage) – new labor market entrants. For example, employers may find it more feasible to offer lower compensation to new hires rather than to reduce compensation for current employees. Second, we explore the dynamics of mandate effects across the lifecycle. Specifically, we model labor market outcomes (an offer of employer-sponsored health insurance, wages, and labor supply) as a function of the number of high cost mandates in place at labor market entrance. We draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and exploit variation in high cost state mandates (Gruber, 1994) between 1973 and 1989. A particular advantage of the NLSY79 is that we are able to examine health insurance offers, not health insurance source. The later outcome, although commonly studied in the mandates literature, confounds offers with endogenous take-up decision. Moreover, we are able to track workers from school-leaving through mid-career. We estimate differences-in-differences models that account for time-invariant and time-varying state-level factors that may be correlated with high cost mandates and our outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Antwi, Yaa Akosa and Johanna Catherine Maclean. "State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
3. Bacak, Valerio
Spencer, Kailey
Incarceration and Educational Attainment: A Propensity Score Analysis
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Incarceration/Jail; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Incarceration in the United States has reached unprecedented proportions. While a number of studies have found evidence for independent effects of incarceration on indicators of well-being, such as mental health, some of these also precede criminal behavior and subsequent incarceration. Education is one such attribute that can be both a predictor and an outcome of incarceration. Yet vast majority of research has focused on education as a precursor to incarceration, with very little attention paid to the possibility of reverse effects. We know, for instance, that young men who have dropped out of high school are at a dramatically high risk of becoming incarcerated but we know comparatively little about the role that incarceration plays in decreasing or increasing educational attainment. In this paper, we examine the effects of incarceration on attaining high school qualifications among current and former inmates. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a panel study that follows a nationally representative cohort of nearly 9000 participants. There are 14 waves of data currently available. Most important for our purposes, the data include detailed measures of contact with the criminal justice system and educational experiences, as well as a variety of correlates of both. Having rich measures and longitudinal data is critical for studying the effects of incarceration because of the formidable methodological challenges with respect to selection bias. Building on the advantages of panel data, we use propensity score analysis to create a rigorous study design by matching participants who have been incarcerated to those who were incarcerated later in life. We expect that having been incarcerated will decrease the odds of completing high school, but remain open for the possibility that incarceration may have a positive effect on educational persistence and attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Bacak, Valerio and Kailey Spencer. "Incarceration and Educational Attainment: A Propensity Score Analysis." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
4. Backes, Ben
Antonovics, Kate
Affirmative Action Bans and High School Student Effort: Evidence From California
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Human Capital; National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); State-Level Data/Policy; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper builds on previous studies by pulling together evidence from the College Board (CB), National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). We examine the effects of California's ban of affirmative action – known as Prop 209, which went into effect in 1998 – by focusing on human capital investment prior to college entry, and we highlight the weaknesses of previous research that has attempted to do this. Our main innovations relative to previous literature are the inclusion of additional data, a focus on the performance of all Californians relative to the rest of the country, and adjusting standard errors to be appropriate for our data sources and study design.

Using more comprehensive data and methodological improvements, we find that, in contrast to previous studies, there is little evidence that under-represented minorities in California performed worse on any of our standardized test measures or self-reported high school grade point average after Prop 209 relative to the rest of the country. In addition, the performance of all Californians relative to the rest of the country appears to have remained stable after its affirmative action ban. Finally, we note that our post-policy change period only goes until three years after the implementation of the ban, and the cumulative long-run effects on human capital investment could be larger.

Bibliography Citation
Backes, Ben and Kate Antonovics. "Affirmative Action Bans and High School Student Effort: Evidence From California." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
5. Barr, Andrew
Gibbs, Chloe
The Longer Long-Term Impact of Head Start: Intergenerational Transmission of Program Effects
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Educational Attainment; Head Start; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Preschool Children; Program Participation/Evaluation; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We exploit two sources of exogenous variation to identify the intergenerational impact of Head Start participation. First, we leverage sibling comparisons to isolate the effects of an individual's Head Start attendance on their own children as compared to their non-participating sibling's children. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) for information on the first generation's Head Start status, and we match that data to the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults (CNLSY) data which follows the biological children of the NLSY79 survey respondents to look at outcomes for the second generation.

In addition, we combine detailed information on the location of birth of individuals in the NLSY79, born from 1957 to 1964, with data on the rollout of the Head Start program during the 1960s from the National Archives and Records Administration, to estimate the effect of the availability of a Head Start program on these intergenerational outcomes. The plausibly random nature of the Head Start rollout, as well as variation in exposure by birth cohort, creates a natural experiment to compare similar individuals in the first generation with differing likelihood of participation based on availability.

Our preliminary results suggest that Head Start participation in the first generation translates into improved longer-term outcomes for the second generation, in the form of increased educational attainment and decreased engagement in risky behaviors. These results, if they sustain multiple robustness checks, would indicate that we understate the cost-effectiveness of Head Start and other preschool interventions when we estimate impacts on the participants alone.

Bibliography Citation
Barr, Andrew and Chloe Gibbs. "The Longer Long-Term Impact of Head Start: Intergenerational Transmission of Program Effects." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
6. Bartik, Timothy
Gormley, William
Belford, Jonathan
Anderson, Sara
A Benefit-Cost Analysis of Tulsa's Pre-K Program
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Children, Preschool; Crime; Earnings; Educational Outcomes; Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; School Quality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The long-term effects of state-funded pre-K programs have not been well studied, due to the absence of good longitudinal data on fully scaled-up programs. In this paper, we use data from several sources to estimate the long-term benefits and short-term costs of Tulsa's high-quality universal pre-K program, which originated in 1998. First, we estimate the effects of pre-K participation on grade retention up to 9th grade, using propensity score weighting and data from 2,061 students who attended TPS kindergarten in the fall of 2006 and who currently attend public school in the Tulsa metropolitan area. Next, we estimate the effects of grade retention on adult earnings and crime, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Finally, we generate overall estimates of the benefits and costs of participation in Tulsa’s pre-K program.
Bibliography Citation
Bartik, Timothy, William Gormley, Jonathan Belford and Sara Anderson. "A Benefit-Cost Analysis of Tulsa's Pre-K Program." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
7. Basu, Sanjukta
Innes-Gawn, Siobhan
Penn, Mary
The Highs and Lows of Medical Marijuana Legalization
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Crime; Drug Use; Geocoded Data; Legislation; State-Level Data/Policy; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate whether medical marijuana legalization affects substance use and criminal behavior among young adults. We use the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in a difference-in-difference approach to isolate the causal effect of medical marijuana legalization on individual criminal behaviors and consumption of substances, such as alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs. [Also presented at Atlanta GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2019]
Bibliography Citation
Basu, Sanjukta, Siobhan Innes-Gawn and Mary Penn. "The Highs and Lows of Medical Marijuana Legalization." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2018.
8. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Children Living Out of Home: Effects of Family and Environmental Characteristics
Presented: Dallas, TX, 24th Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, November 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childhood Residence; Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Family Structure; Fertility; Modeling, Probit; Parents, Single; Poverty; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large and growing number of children in the U.S. spend some part of their childhood living in households or institutions that do not include their birth parents. These living arrangements may result from parental choice (i.e., voluntary placement of children outside of the home) or from involuntary child removal via government intervention due to parental maltreatment (i.e., abuse or neglect), and may be associated with a wide variety of issues, including: family crises, physical and mental health problems, substance abuse problems, criminal justice involvement, and child abuse and neglect. It is also possible that some children live apart from their birth parents because their parents do not have the resources to care for them at home. Current evidence suggests that the same types of families who are most likely to be involved in the welfare system - poor, single-parent, unemployed, and minority families - are also most likely to have children living out-of-home. Additionally, there is some evidence that welfare benefit levels affect the likelihood that children remain living with their parents. Yet, little economic research has addressed the ways in which family structures and economic resources have impacted whether children grow up in households that do not include at least one biological parent. In order to address this gap, this paper offers a theoretical framework for estimating the effects of income and poverty, family structure, and income support policies on the probabilities that children are living in out-of-home settings. This framework is grounded in economic theory of parental investments in children and intra-family distribution of resources. Its empirical implications are tested using data from the NLSY. The sample consists of 28,143 observations of families with children 18 years old or younger between 1986 and 1998. Probit models are used to estimate the probability that children from both single- and two-parent families are living in child welf are service settings, with relatives, and in any out-of-home care arrangement. Results suggest that lower-income families, as well as single-parent and mother-partner families, are more likely to have a child living out-of-home in a given year. Higher AFDC/TANF benefits are associated with decreases in the probability that a family has a child living in a child welfare service setting, but increases in the probability that a family has a child living with relatives. Additionally, higher foster care payments are associated with increases in children living out-of-home. Public policy implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Children Living Out of Home: Effects of Family and Environmental Characteristics." Presented: Dallas, TX, 24th Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, November 2002.
9. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Parental Debt and Child Wellbeing
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Debt/Borrowing; Family Resources; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses an instrumental variables strategy to estimate associations between particular types and amounts of parental debt with child cognitive skills and social-emotional development. The data are drawn from the 1986 through 2011 waves of the mother and child files of the 1979 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which have been linked to a unique dataset of state-by-year consumer financial protection policies. The policy data include information on homestead exemption levels, usury caps/criminal usury laws, payday lending laws, debt collection practices, average housing prices, mortgage interest rates, home foreclosure rates, and college prices, each of which is likely to influence debt accumulation. These data are used to predict household level home mortgage debt, educational debt, and unsecured debt. The predicted debt amounts in each category--which represent exogenous variation in debt due to state and year level differences in consumer financial protection policie--are then used to estimate unbiased effects of debt on child cognitive skills and social--motional development. Cognitive skills are measured by the Peabody Individual Achievement Test. Social-emotional development is measured by the internalizing and externalizing behaviors subscales of the Behavioral Problems Index.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Parental Debt and Child Wellbeing." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
10. Bryan, Brielle
Housing Instability Following Incarceration and Conviction
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Discrimination; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Incarceration/Jail; Mobility, Residential; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and a variety of modeling strategies, including sibling fixed effects and gender interactions with criminal justice history, this paper explores whether felony conviction without incarceration leads to housing instability patterns similar to those experienced by former inmates. Results indicate that, like formerly incarcerated individuals, never incarcerated individuals with felony convictions experience an elevated risk of housing instability and residential mobility, and these effects are amplified for women. As most previous research on the collateral consequences of the criminal justice system has focused on incarceration, this paper makes an important contribution to the literature by highlighting how lesser criminal justice system involvement, not just incarceration, can introduce instability into the lives of the 12 million Americans with felony records who have never served a prison sentence. At the same time, these findings also help to illuminate the mechanisms behind post-incarceration housing instability observed previously by tabling the myriad intermediary effects of incarceration itself and instead highlighting the potential role of housing market discrimination. [Note: Also presented at Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018]
Bibliography Citation
Bryan, Brielle. "Housing Instability Following Incarceration and Conviction." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
11. Choi, Jaehee
Who 'opts-out' and Who 'opts Back in'? Women's Labor Force Attachment before and after the First Birth
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper contributes to the exiting literature by documenting the behaviors of labor market attachment of new mothers from a nationally representative cohort. In particular, it focuses explicitly on women's exits and returns around the timing of their first childbirth using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and examines whether there are systematic differences in these behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Choi, Jaehee. "Who 'opts-out' and Who 'opts Back in'? Women's Labor Force Attachment before and after the First Birth." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
12. Chor, Elise
The Role of Parents' Early Experiences in Children's Academic Achievement and Well-Being
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Children, Preschool; Children, Well-Being; Head Start; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study assesses the intergenerational impacts of parents' Head Start and other preschool participation. The study uses two nationally representative datasets that allow for: (1) replication and extension of Chor's previous findings; (2) consideration of additional and longer-term child outcomes including school quality, educational attainment, and adolescent psychological and physical health; and (3) application of a strong multigenerational causal framework not possible with HSIS data. The study first leverages the multigenerational data of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate marginal structural models using the joint probability of parent-child participation as inverse probability weights. Next, the study draws on rich longitudinal National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data to apply a combination of propensity score matching and fixed effects modeling.
Bibliography Citation
Chor, Elise. "The Role of Parents' Early Experiences in Children's Academic Achievement and Well-Being." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
13. Cohen, Alison K.
The School Setting and Health Across the Lifespan: High School Student Composition and Health Outcomes in Adulthood
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School; Life Course; Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I investigate the demographic composition of the high school student body and health outcomes at age 40 in a recent, nationally representative American cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K. "The School Setting and Health Across the Lifespan: High School Student Composition and Health Outcomes in Adulthood." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
14. Creswell, Paul D.
Witt, Whitney
Health Limitations and Additional Predictors of Personal Bankruptcy: A Longitudinal Analysis
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=6,259), we computed Cox proportional hazards models to explore which covariates increased time-to-bankruptcy over a 20-year period (1984-2004). The variables considered were theoretically derived from the existing literature on bankruptcy. Analyses assessed both time-variant and static covariates.

During the period under analysis, 13% of the sample reported declaring bankruptcy. Experiencing a health limitation or an unemployment spell were each independently associated with shorter times-to-bankruptcy (HR: 1.30; CI: 1.07-1.57 and HR: 1.33; CI: 1.07-1.65, respectively). Being female, longer residency in the U.S., and having parents with lower levels of education were additional risk factors. Compared to remaining unmarried, experiencing marriage or divorce also increased the hazard of bankruptcy (HR: 1.79; CI: 1.45-2.21 and HR: 2.26; 1.80-2.84, respectively).

Bibliography Citation
Creswell, Paul D. and Whitney Witt. "Health Limitations and Additional Predictors of Personal Bankruptcy: A Longitudinal Analysis." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
15. Curtis, Marah A.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Houle, Jason N.
Housing Tenure, Stability and Children's Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children; Children, Well-Being; Home Ownership; Mobility, Residential; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A small body of research finds that the children of owners, compared to renters, are less likely to experience negative outcomes such as school dropout or teen parenthood. This line of research, however, has not yet identified what it is about homeownership that seems to be good for children. Since the costs of moving are much lower for renters than owners, renters move more frequently. Stability, then, is likely particularly important for child outcomes regardless of tenure, but may also account for differences in child well-being between owners and renters. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM), we estimate the effects of stable housing tenure (owning or renting) and exits from either arrangement on changes in children’s achievement (math and reading tests) and problem behavior (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). We consider whether the effects of stable tenure and exits vary by children’s ages and assess whether these effects are transitory or persist over time. We expect that the age of the child is particularly consequential given the marked changes occurring in child development and parental oversight between the ages of 5 and 17. Younger children spend more supervised time in the home, suggesting that the stability of that arrangement rather than the tenure status might be most important, however, older children with more extensive peer networks and active use of public goods may be impacted by tenure if that status is associated with higher quality schools and other public goods.
Bibliography Citation
Curtis, Marah A., Lawrence Marc Berger and Jason N. Houle. "Housing Tenure, Stability and Children's Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
16. Datta, Atreyee Rupa
Travel Time to Child Care Settings--Evidence from the NLSY97
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Child Care

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper looks at data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort, which has collected data on travel time to regular child care arrangements every three years for the children of a nationally representative sample of adults born 1980 to 1984. Using these data, we will report travel times by parent characteristics, type of care, and characteristics of the location of residence. In addition, we will compare out of pocket costs for care with the imputed costs of travel time based on parents' hourly rates of compensation. These data will help illuminate families' access to different types of child care and the contribution of travel costs to total costs paid by parents for their children's care, thus making an ongoing contribution to the discussion of differential access to early care and education.
Bibliography Citation
Datta, Atreyee Rupa. "Travel Time to Child Care Settings--Evidence from the NLSY97." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
17. Deleone, Felicia Yang
Cohort and Generation Differences in Predictors of Early Fertility and Sex Among U.S. Immigrants: Evidence from the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Surveys Of Youth
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM), Fall Research Conference, November 8-10, 2007.
Also: http://www.appam.org/conferences/fall/search_results.asp
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Intercourse; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Gender Differences; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines predictors of early fertility and sex among first and second generation adolescent immigrants in the United States using data from the 1997 and 1979 National Longitudinal Studies of Youth (NLSY97, NLSY79). Using discrete time logistic survival models, the influence of demographic, socioeconomic, and policy factors on immigrant adolescent fertility (as measured by early births) and risk behavior (as measured by age at first sex) is estimated. Particular attention is given to the role of immigrant-specific factors such as citizenship and immigration status, length of residence in the United States, language background, and, notably, public policy/contextual variables explicit to immigrants. For example, the analysis includes such variables as the poverty and unemployment rates in the geographic region in which a respondent resides as well as the percent immigrant and proportion of families using public assistance in the area. Other variables, such as child support enforcement policies and the welfare generosity of states to immigrants after the 1996 Welfare Reform Act, are considered as well. The analysis focuses on both the role of these factors in predicting sexual behavior and fertility among immigrants as well as the interaction between immigrant-specific characteristics and the demographic, socioeconomic, and policy factors commonly expected to influence adolescents in general. Differences in outcomes between male and female immigrants and across generations of immigrant adolescents are explored as well. By using two similar data sets collected two decades apart, differences both within and across cohorts of immigrant adolescents are explored. This research extends the literatures on immigrant adaptation and early fertility and is important as very little work has directly examined the effect of public policy and contextual factors on sex and childbearing among adolescent immigrants to the United States. Further, the research that exists has rarely considered cohort effects and has largely relied on single datasets. As immigrants and early and non-marital childbearing continue to be topics of great interest in the policymaking community, a study of this nature is particularly timely and relevant, not in the least because early fertility rates among some immigrant groups are especially high. The growing size and prominence of the immigrant population in the United States also contributes to the salience of this research.
Bibliography Citation
Deleone, Felicia Yang. "Cohort and Generation Differences in Predictors of Early Fertility and Sex Among U.S. Immigrants: Evidence from the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Surveys Of Youth." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM), Fall Research Conference, November 8-10, 2007.
18. Dunlop, Erin
America's College Dropout Epidemic: Understanding the College Dropout Population
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Graduates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The goal of this paper is to educate policymakers on the types of students who drop out, and to identify correlates to college failure. Are college dropouts observationally more similar to college completers or students who never enter college? The answer to this question can inform administrators working to increase college completion rates. Do we predict success for four-year college dropouts had they attended two-year schools? Is there high school information such as prior achievement and course taking, that strongly predicts a failure to complete college? Our analysis begins using the NLSY97, a longitudinal study of 9,000 youths who were 12-16 years old when the study began in 1997. The richly detailed survey allows us to control for a detailed set of student characteristics and prior academic achievement in our analysis. This paper also examines the NLSY79, a similar longitudinal data set that surveyed youth who entered college approximately 20 years before the NLSY97 students. Using this second data set allows for comparisons of both the types of students who fail to complete college, as well as the predictors of college failure, over time. While this is only a descriptive analysis, until more is understood about the types of students who drop out of college, there will likely be little progress in reducing the college failure rate in the U.S.
Bibliography Citation
Dunlop, Erin. "America's College Dropout Epidemic: Understanding the College Dropout Population." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
19. Gonzalez, Kathryn E.
Within-Family Differences in Head Start Participation and Parent Investment Behavior
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Child Care; Head Start; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parental Investments; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data for the present study come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, and include 4,297 children and families where there were differences across siblings in the type of childcare used (Head Start, other center-based preschool, or home-based care), and where children were aged 3-4 between 1986 and 2002. The outcomes of interest include observer-collected and parent-reported measures of cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided by the child's family from the Home Observation Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory for ages 5 to 14.

This study builds on the literature using family fixed effects to estimate the causal impact of Head Start participation (e.g. Garces, Thomas and Currie, 2002). I use family fixed effects to compare levels of parental investment in education (cognitive stimulation and emotional support) throughout childhood (ages 5 to 14) for children who attended Head Start relative to their siblings who did not attend preschool. To account for differences in parental investment over the course of childhood, I compared levels of parental investment when siblings were the same age.

Bibliography Citation
Gonzalez, Kathryn E. "Within-Family Differences in Head Start Participation and Parent Investment Behavior." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
20. Graf, Marlon
Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo
Midgette, Greg
Vardavas, Raffaele
Paddock, Susan
Assessing the Effects of Alcohol Policies on Consumption: Why the Measurement of Consumption Is Important
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Legislation; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we reconsider the effect of a particular policy (alcohol taxation) and assess the extent to which alcohol taxation differentially influences various margins of use and patterns of consumption. We first conduct a comprehensive literature review and demonstrate that there are very few studies that comprehensively considered this question. Those limited studies that have, do so find that even in the case of alcohol taxation there are differential impacts depending on which margin of use is considered: number of days drinking in the past 30 days, average number of drinks per drinking day, and total ethanol consumed. The studies show considerable variation in both the magnitude and directionality of effects for alcohol taxes on consumption, depending on the particular measure of alcohol use studied, but the studies do not directly speak to the extent to which low dose consumption is additionally reduced when taxes go up. We next turn to our own analysis of the 1997-2012 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort) and consider the impact of recent changes in the tax on beer on consumption of young adults across a variety of margins of use. Our findings suggest that total alcohol consumed among adolescents and young adults is negatively related to changes in price, but the change in consumption is driven in large part by days of drinking rather than some combination of quantity per occasion and number of occasions. This may suggest drinkers would prefer to drink to some level of intoxication each time they drink rather than drink more frequently at lower levels.
Bibliography Citation
Graf, Marlon, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Greg Midgette, Raffaele Vardavas and Susan Paddock. "Assessing the Effects of Alcohol Policies on Consumption: Why the Measurement of Consumption Is Important." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
21. Grinstein-Weiss, Michal
Shanks, Trina Williams
Beverly, Sondra
Family Assets and Child Outcomes: Current Evidence and Future Directions
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Assets; Children, Well-Being; Educational Attainment; Home Ownership; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the United States, there are great racial and income disparities in wealth holdings. Asset poverty, the inability to meet basic needs if family income is lost, particularly affects households with children. If a loss of income were to occur, more than half of U.S. families with children lack the liquid assets to support the family at the poverty level for 3 months. Although support exists for asset-building policies, current policies disproportionally favor high-income households. For example, tax deductions are offered for home mortgage interest, but these deductions do not benefit renters or low-income households with limited tax liability. A recent report indicates that the bottom 60 percent of taxpayers received only 4 percent of federal spending on asset-building programs in one budget cycle.

In response to this disparity, the asset-building field has designed and tested several programs designed to help low- and moderate-income families save and build assets. This paper systematically reviews empirical evidence on the relationship between assets and child outcomes. It then examines policy demonstrations that promote asset-building among low-income families. Specifically, we examine evidence from (1) such national data sets as the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth; and (2) quasi-experimental and randomized controlled trials, such as the Community Advantage Program, the Saving for Education, Entrepreneurship, and Downpayment (SEED) program, and SEED for Oklahoma Kids.

Bibliography Citation
Grinstein-Weiss, Michal, Trina Williams Shanks and Sondra Beverly. "Family Assets and Child Outcomes: Current Evidence and Future Directions." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
22. Groves, Lincoln
Lopoo, Leonard M.
Federal Financial Aid, Educational Attainment, and Family Formation: Re-Examining the Social Security Student Benefit Program
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Formation; Financial Assistance; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Program Participation/Evaluation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the NLSY79 and a difference-in-differences model, our preliminary results show that the SSSB [Social Security Student Benefit] program had no overall effect on the educational attainment of recipients. However, these initial results do not consider the distributional effects of the program. Additional analyses show that the elimination of the program for individuals aged 18 to 22 created large reductions in the likelihood of Associate's degree receipt. In contrast, the benefits had small and statistically insignificant effects on earning a Bachelor's degree. We test the robustness of our result using similar cohorts from the PSID, and our results are consistent with those found in the NLSY79.
Bibliography Citation
Groves, Lincoln and Leonard M. Lopoo. "Federal Financial Aid, Educational Attainment, and Family Formation: Re-Examining the Social Security Student Benefit Program." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
23. Hart, Cassandra
Panel Paper: Passing the Baton: Does a Parent's 'Head Start' Affect Their Children's Outcomes?
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Cognitive Development; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Discipline; Geocoded Data; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Progress; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Siblings; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I pool analyses from several nationally representative datasets, including the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) (NLSY-79, linked to the NLSY-79 Children and Young Adults dataset). Both provide data on G1 parents' Head Start participation, as well as county of residence in parents' youth (at birth or in early childhood years); both datasets include G1 sibling pairs; both datasets include measures of parenting outcomes for a sizable subset of parents; and both datasets include measures on early childhood outcomes for G2 children. Parenting outcomes include measures of cognitive and emotional stimulation in the home environment as well as parenting attitude scales (e.g., scales of parental self-efficacy and parental warmth in the PSID; scales of parental disciplinary attitudes in the NLSY). Child outcomes include measures like birthweight, early cognitive and behavioral assessments, grade progression, and academic self-concept.
Bibliography Citation
Hart, Cassandra. "Panel Paper: Passing the Baton: Does a Parent's 'Head Start' Affect Their Children's Outcomes?." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
24. Heiland, Frank
Price, Joseph P.
Maternal Employment and Mother-Child Interaction
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): American Time Use Survey (ATUS); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parent-Child Interaction; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLSY79, PSID-CDS, and ATUS, we estimate the effect of work hours on the total amount of quality time the mother spends with her children. Preliminary results suggest that full-time work is associated with about 40-50 minutes less quality mother-child time each day and specifically less time spent reading together. Differences in quality mother-child interactions for part-time vs. non-working mothers are less pronounced and are not robust to controls for basic demographic characteristics in some cases. Lastly, the results suggest that college educated mothers provide substantially more quality interaction than mothers with less education but this gap is significantly reduced among women who work full-time.
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank and Joseph P. Price. "Maternal Employment and Mother-Child Interaction." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
25. Hitt, Collin
When You Say Nothing at All: The Surprising Predictive Power of Student Effort on Surveys
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Nonresponse; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The completion of a survey is a task. We calculate student effort on surveys within several prominent longitudinal datasets frequently used in social science research, such as the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 and National Educational Longitudinal Survey 1988. Specifically, we calculate the frequency with which respondents provide incomplete, invalid or inconsistent answers. We then test whether survey-effort in adolescence is predictive of later life outcomes. Remarkably, the information captured in our measures of survey effort is a consistent predictor of educational attainment. We also examine outcomes such as income, crime, health and marriage. The pattern of relationships between survey effort and later outcomes is consistent with what one would expect of conscientiousness. Thus we suggest survey effort as a proxy measure of student skills, for use in program evaluations and public policy research.
Bibliography Citation
Hitt, Collin. "When You Say Nothing at All: The Surprising Predictive Power of Student Effort on Surveys." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
26. Hodges, Melissa J.
The Price of Privilege? Investigating Gendered Child Wage Gaps within Couples By Educational Attainment and Professional/Managerial Status
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Occupational Status; Parenthood; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This project uses dyadic multi-level models on the 1980-2012 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to investigate the distribution of child wage effects within married, opposite-sex couples by educational attainment and professional/managerial status. Using couples as the unit of analysis better aligns examination of parental penalties and premiums with existing theories explaining the reproduction of gender inequality within and across households. Results indicate that wage effects associated with family composition not only shape the gender wage gap within households, but also contributes to wage inequality among families based on the differential distribution of child wage effects within families across class. Furthermore, the gender wage gaps associated with children within married couples are amplified among the most privileged families, suggesting that the gender wage inequality found within highly educated, professional/managerial couples can be potentially described as a "price of privilege" paid by couples with more economic resources. Findings suggest that to better address the stalled decline in the gender pay gap as well as wider U.S. wage inequality, it is necessary for researchers and policy makers to consider how within-couple wage gaps associated with children vary across households by social class.
Bibliography Citation
Hodges, Melissa J. "The Price of Privilege? Investigating Gendered Child Wage Gaps within Couples By Educational Attainment and Professional/Managerial Status." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
27. Houle, Jason N.
Children with Disability and Trajectories of Parents' Consumer Debt Across the Life Course
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Assets; Child Health, Limiting Condition(s); Debt/Borrowing; Disability; Family Resources; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I use nationally representative, longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979-cohort (NLSY-79) and the Children of the NLSY-79 (CNLSY-79) and hierarchical growth curve models to examine the effects of having a child with a disability on trajectories of consumer debt across the adult life course. I hypothesize that having a child with disability increases risk for accumulating consumer debt, and that parents with a child with a disability will have a greater risk for being chronically overindebted across the life course.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. "Children with Disability and Trajectories of Parents' Consumer Debt Across the Life Course." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
28. Houle, Jason N.
Addo, Fenaba
Racial Disparities in Student Loan Debt and the Reproduction of Inequality
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): College Cost; Debt/Borrowing; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Student Loans; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we aim to make three contributions to the growing literature on race and student loan debt. First, we ask whether racial disparities in debt change as young adults move through young adulthood. If black young adults are struggling with repayment, and also facing lower wages and higher rates of unemployment, racial disparities in student loan debt may increase as young people age. Second, we ask if parental wealth, postsecondary institutional characteristics, and young adult social and economic characteristics help explain why racial gaps in student loan debt persist, increase, or diminish across young adulthood. As part of this question, we will also ask whether the gap is largest, or increases faster, for students who left college without a degree (versus college graduates), 4 year versus 2 year grads, and for profit versus non-profit attendees. Third, we ask to what extent racial disparities in student loan debt contribute to black-white disparities in wealth among the current generation of young adults. As noted above, scholars have recently posited that student loan debt may be a new mechanism by which racial economic inequalities are perpetuated across generations, but to date there has been no clear test of this hypothesis.

To address these questions, we use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. We draw additional data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Delta Cost Project Database, which provides longitudinal information on characteristics of postsecondary institutions attended by NLSY97 respondents. We measure changes in student loan debt and wealth holdings at two points in time, using the age 25 and age 30 debts and assets modules. We will use regression models to examine changes in self-reported debt across these time points by race. We will also use decomposition techniques to quantify the extent to which student loan debt contributes to black-white differences in wealth.

Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Fenaba Addo. "Racial Disparities in Student Loan Debt and the Reproduction of Inequality." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
29. Houle, Jason N.
Berger, Lawrence Marc
Student Loan Debt and Home Buying: Are Student Loans Replacing Home Mortgages Among Young Adults?
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): College Cost; College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Assistance; Home Ownership; Propensity Scores; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The rise in student loan debt over the past decade has raised questions about its potential impact on the economic well-being of young adults. Educational loans are a unique resource for those pursuing postsecondary education. On the one hand, debt is a borrowed resource that young adults can use to bridge the gap between their own and their family’s resources and the rising costs of college. On the other hand, debt comes with inherent risks, and some scholars have argued that high payment burdens may limit students’ opportunities and choices after college. Moreover, unlike other types of debt, student loan debt cannot be erased by filing bankruptcy, and there are often heavy financial penalties for missing loan payments. But despite rising concern about debt, little is known about the impact of student loan debt on longer term wealth acquisition and inequalities therein. We begin to address this question by examining the association of student loan debt burden and first time home buying. We also ask whether racial and socioeconomic disparities in student loan debt may be associated with inequality in home ownership among young adults.

To address these questions we use data from 4800 young adults who engaged in any postsecondary education in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY-97). Student loan debt is observed in the age 25 debts and assets module, and home ownership is observed at each survey wave. We first describe differences in student loan debt burden (e.g. student loan debt to income ratio; expected student loan payment to income ratios) and the probability of home ownership at age 25. We then examine the association of student loan debt at age 25 with the probability of home ownership over the next ten years, adjusting for a wide range of sociodemographic characteristics, and other forms of debt (e.g. credit card debt, other consumer debt). We use propensity score weighting to further adjust for selection into debt. We also take advantage of exogenous variation in institutional and state higher education costs (e.g. sticker price; net price) and financial aid generosity to instrument the effect of student loan debt on home ownership. Finally, among those who own homes at baseline when student loan debt is measured, we examine whether student loan debt is associated with the probability of home ownership exit in the next ten years. In all of these analyses we examine heterogeneity in the association of student loan debt and home ownership by race, socioeconomic status, and degree attainment (e.g. 2 year degree, 4 year degree, no degree).

Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Lawrence Marc Berger. "Student Loan Debt and Home Buying: Are Student Loans Replacing Home Mortgages Among Young Adults?." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
30. Houser, Linda
Vartanian, Thomas P.
Norton, Jenifer
Socially Insuring Family Leave: The Relationship Between Public Policy, Paid Family Leave, and Economic Well-Being
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Geocoded Data; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; State-Level Data/Policy; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Temporary Disability Insurance (TDI) policies in five states enable women to take short medical leaves in connection with childbirth, and Paid Family Leave (PFL) policies in two states enable men and women to take leave to care for a new child. While we would expect these policies to positively impact new parents’ reports of taking paid leave in connection with the birth of a child, our goal is to estimate the magnitude of such an increase and its impacts on family economic security.

We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 to 2009 Panel, a nationally representative sample of individuals no older than age 30 in 2009. All results were drawn from logistic and linear regression analyses, as well as difference in difference models. Our analyses controlled for a variety of individual- and state-level factors. Depending upon the analysis and sample in question, sample sizes ranged from 258 to 1,355.

Bibliography Citation
Houser, Linda, Thomas P. Vartanian and Jenifer Norton. "Socially Insuring Family Leave: The Relationship Between Public Policy, Paid Family Leave, and Economic Well-Being." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
31. Huang, Chien-Chung
Effects of Child Support Enforcement on Pregnancy Intention
Presented: Atlanta, GA, APPAM Annual Research Conference, October 2004.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Child Support; Fathers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Most previous studies on teenage fertility behaviors (e.g. pregnancy intention, contraceptive use, pregnancy, and births) have focused only on young women's beliefs, knowledge and behaviors and varying state welfare environments. Much of these studies fail to fully recognize the role of men in these relationships or to assess how government policies might affect men's behavior. Particularly lacking is any exploration of how government's inability to establish paternity and collect child support may contribute to men's failure to take responsibility for fertility and sexual activity. If young men realize that fathering a child incurs a financial obligation that lasts for up to eighteen years, they may be more likely to take responsibility in sexual behaviors (e.g. using contraception or reducing sexual activity). In turn, unintended pregnancies and teenage births may be reduced. That is, child support enforcement could be an important factor in preventing unintended pregnancy. However, this fundamentally empirical question has been left unanswered. This is the purpose of this project: to examine the effects of child support enforcement on intention of pregnancy? The data are based on the 1983 to 2000 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). As the first study to examine specifically the effects of child support enforcement on youth pregnancy intention, the findings from this study fill an important gap in our knowledge about the impact of child support enforcement, particularly on young men's behavior. The findings will prove useful in shaping a public policy response that incorporates the realities of youth fertility and sexual activity.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Chien-Chung. "Effects of Child Support Enforcement on Pregnancy Intention." Presented: Atlanta, GA, APPAM Annual Research Conference, October 2004.
32. Huang, Ying
Zhang, Weihui
The Earning of Immigrant Young Adults: Analysis Within and Across Cohorts
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Immigrants; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we use two nationally representative cohorts--the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)--to examine the effects of generation and duration of residence on their earnings in the first few years upon their entrance of labor market. We exploit the cohort design of these two data sources to investigate the role of compositional changes (at micro-level) and structural changes (at the macro-level) play in affecting the economic achievement of immigrant youth and young adults, the second generation immigrants, and their native peers. Our approach to immigrants' economic attainment is guided by contemporary discussions of policies on immigration and immigrants in the United States. Our goal is to provide a greater understanding of how immigrant and second-generation youths progress through the initial stages of the labor market experience.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Ying and Weihui Zhang. "The Earning of Immigrant Young Adults: Analysis Within and Across Cohorts." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
33. Hyman, Joshua
Education Policy and Mental Health
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Anxiety; Geocoded Data; Health, Mental; Legislation; School Performance; Testing Requirements; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To examine the effect of statewide testing on children's mental health, I create a dataset documenting which states required statewide testing in which grades from 1985 to 2012. I use mental health measures for 9,260 children in public elementary and secondary school during this period from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (CNLSY79). I conduct a difference-in-differences style analysis, exploiting plausibly exogenous variation in student exposure to state-mandated testing across states, grades, and student cohorts. I find that cumulative exposure to testing, defined as the fraction of grades through the present in which a child was exposed to testing, increases anxiety and reduces children's satisfaction with school. However, I find no detectable effects of cumulative testing exposure on broader measures of overall mental health among children or adolescents, such as measures of behavioral issues, self-esteem or depression. The results confirm anecdotal evidence that testing has increased anxiety among children, but at the same time alleviates concerns that these increases led to meaningful deteriorations in children's mental health.
Bibliography Citation
Hyman, Joshua. "Education Policy and Mental Health." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
34. Kennedy, Kendall J.
Hidden Schooling: Repeated Grades and the Returns to Education and Experience
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Common Core of Data (CCD); Educational Returns; Geocoded Data; Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Modeling, Instrumental Variables

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study estimates the prevalence of ninth grade repeating and examines how recent growth in ninth grade repeating and how grade repeating in general introduce bias in estimation of the returns to education and experience. Using the National Center for Education Statistics' Common Core of Data, I construct estimates of ninth grade repeating rates for each state from 1965-2012. Since the late 1980s, about 10 percent of all public high school students repeated the ninth grade at least once. I then show that 10 percent of the growth in ninth grade repeating can be attributed to changes in Compulsory Schooling Laws (CSLs) over the past 50 years. The rise in ninth grade repeating has important implications for estimation of the returns to education and experience. Using the NLSY79 Children, I estimate the returns to education using CSLs and quarter of birth as instrumental variables, then correct for potential endogeneity with ninth grade repeating. Compulsory schooling instruments create bias of up to 38 percent when failing to account for endogenous ninth grade repeating. I then examine how grade repeating in any grade affects estimation of wage, hours, and employment differentials.
Bibliography Citation
Kennedy, Kendall J. "Hidden Schooling: Repeated Grades and the Returns to Education and Experience." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
35. Kreisman, Daniel M.
Stange, Kevin
Does Vocational Course-Taking Ease School-to-Work Transitions? A Dynamic Choice Model
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; High School Curriculum; Labor Market Outcomes; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Vocational courses that prepare students for work are the second-most common type of course taken in American high schools, behind only English. This paper examines the determinants and consequences of vocational course taking during high school using detailed transcript, post-secondary and labor market outcome data from the NLSY97. We develop a dynamic choice model through which students sort into vocational and/or academic coursework. The model simultaneously captures high school curriculum choice, academic performance, postsecondary attainment and earnings to i) delineate the channels through which students sort into vocational coursework, and ii) determine how high school curriculum may impact later life outcomes. Initial reduced-form estimates suggest that students sort into vocational curricula in response to new information about their academic ability and that this coursework is particularly useful in the labor market for students who do not eventually go on to college.
Bibliography Citation
Kreisman, Daniel M. and Kevin Stange. "Does Vocational Course-Taking Ease School-to-Work Transitions? A Dynamic Choice Model." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
36. Light, Audrey L.
McGarry, Kathleen
Determinants of Household Wealth at Age 50: Evidence from the NLSY79
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Net Worth; Retirement; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

n this paper, we focus on the question of how baby boomers accumulate resources for retirement. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we are able to follow a sample of several thousand baby boomers born in 1958-64 from age 20 to 50. We model each sample member's household net worth at age 50 as a function of detailed arrays of variables measuring educational investments, health, employment, family formation, household composition, and environmental factors over the preceding 30 years. This strategy allows us to identify factors ranging from divorce to job loss to "boomerang" children that affect resource availability as baby boomers approach retirement age.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. and Kathleen McGarry. "Determinants of Household Wealth at Age 50: Evidence from the NLSY79." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
37. Lopoo, Leonard M.
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Self-Care
Presented: Atlanta, GA, APPAM Annual Research Conference, October 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Child Care; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Mounting evidence shows that self-care produces deleterious consequences for adolescents in the U.S. Since descriptive evidence suggests that maternal employment is the primary explanation for adolescent self-care, maternal employment, it is frequently argued, is harming children. Heretofore, very little empirical research has actually investigated the impact of maternal employment on adolescent self-care, however, calling into question this assertion. This paper aims to fill this gap. The author uses the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988 supplemented by the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 to estimate the relationship between maternal employment and adolescent self-care. Unlike prior research, the author employs a variety of fixed effects models to account for omitted variables that may be related to maternal employment and adolescent self-care. Findings suggest that the adolescents of mothers who work full-time spend an additional 43 minutes per week in self-care compared to the adolescents of mothers who work part-time. Further, a standard deviation increase in the number of weeks a mother works during the year increases the probability that her child will be unsupervised by 27 percent. These effects are not constant across socio-economic groups: affluent families have strong effects, while the relationship is more tenuous among low-income families. This finding has important implications for pro-work social welfare policies in the U.S.
Bibliography Citation
Lopoo, Leonard M. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Self-Care." Presented: Atlanta, GA, APPAM Annual Research Conference, October 2004.
38. Lovenheim, Michael F.
Willen, Alexander
The Long-Run Effects of Teacher Collective Bargaining
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; Cognitive Ability; Collective Bargaining; Noncognitive Skills; Teachers/Faculty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper presents the first analysis of the effect of teacher collective bargaining on long-run labor market and educational attainment outcomes. Our analysis exploits the different timing across states in the passage of duty-to-bargain laws in a difference-in-difference framework to identify how exposure to teacher collective bargaining affects the long-run outcomes of students. Using American Community Survey (ACS) data linked to each respondent's state of birth, we examine labor market outcomes and educational attainment for 35-49 year olds. Our estimates suggest that teacher collective bargaining worsens the future labor market outcomes of students: living in a state that has a duty-to-bargain law for all 12 grade-school years reduces earnings by $800 (or 2%) per year and decreases hours worked by 0.50 hours per week. The earnings estimate indicates that teacher collective bargaining reduces earnings by $199.6 billion in the US annually. We also find evidence of lower employment rates, which is driven by lower labor force participation, as well as reductions in the skill levels of the occupations into which workers sort. The effects are driven by men and nonwhites, who experience larger relative declines in long-run outcomes. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we demonstrate that collective bargaining leads to sizable reductions in measured cognitive and non-cognitive skills among young adults. Taken together, our results suggest laws that support collective bargaining for teachers have adverse long-term labor market consequences for students. Note: Also presented at American Economic Association Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, January 2018.
Bibliography Citation
Lovenheim, Michael F. and Alexander Willen. "The Long-Run Effects of Teacher Collective Bargaining." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
39. Lubotsky, Darren
Kaestner, Robert
Effects of Age at School Entry on Child Cognitive and Behavioral Development
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Age at School Entry; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use exogenous variation in the skills that children have at the beginning of kindergarten to measure the extent to which "skills beget skills". Children who are relatively older when they begin kindergarten score higher on measures of cognitive and non-cognitive achievement at the beginning of kindergarten. Their scores on cognitive assessments grow faster during kindergarten and first grade, consistent with complementarities between existing stocks of skills and the acquisition of additional skills. However, after first grade the scores of younger entrants catch up. We show that this catch up is due to the influence of schools. After controlling for this influence, we observe a net increase in the skill gap between older and younger school entrants between kindergarten and eighth grade, although growth in the skill gap is not consistent over time.
Bibliography Citation
Lubotsky, Darren and Robert Kaestner. "Effects of Age at School Entry on Child Cognitive and Behavioral Development." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
40. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
The Lasting Effects of Leaving School in An Economic Downturn On Alcohol Use
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Economic Changes/Recession; Gender Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Schooling; State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study I test whether leaving school in an economic downturn has a lasting impact on alcohol use. Two empirical patterns motivate this research. Workers who leave school in an economic downturn persistently earn lower wages and labor market outcomes are associated with alcohol use. Recent work suggests that leaving school in an economic downturn has a lasting impact on health outcomes (mental and physical functioning, obesity). We know little about health behaviors such as alcohol use, however. Understanding risk factors for alcohol use, particularly excessive use, is important for improving social welfare. Because of market imperfections excessive drinkers do not fully internalize the cost of their actions and instead impose costs on others through motor vehicle accidents, health care utilization, violence, crime, reduced labor market productivity, etc. The costs of alcohol for the U.S. are estimated to be as high as $255 billion per year (Bouchery et al, 2011).

I examine three measures of past 30 day alcohol use in middle age: number of alcoholic drinks, heavy drinking (≥ 60 drinks), and weekly binge drinking. Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. I proxy economic conditions at school-leaving with the state unemployment rate, and exploit variation generated by volatility in the U.S. business cycle between 1976 and 1992 to identify alcohol use effects. Because the severe recession of the early 1980s lies within this time period, I compare cohorts that left before, during, and after this recession. To address the potential endogeneity of the time and location of school-leaving, I instrument the school-leaving state unemployment rate.

Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine. "The Lasting Effects of Leaving School in An Economic Downturn On Alcohol Use." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
41. Markowitz, Anna J.
Associations Between School Connection and Non-Cognitive Skills: Moderation By Family Income
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Depression (see also CESD); Family Income; Noncognitive Skills; School Quality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While a broad literature suggests that school connection positively influences SE skills, much of the extant research relies on cross-sectional samples of unrelated youth, resulting in several threats to causal inference, including reverse causality and omitted variable bias. This project, therefore, examines the relationship between school connection and SE outcomes in a longitudinal, national dataset using various estimation strategies to address causal threats. Specifically, it uses a lagged dependent variable (DV) model, a sibling fixed effects model, and a first difference model to explore whether the association between school connection and delinquency, depressive symptoms, and self-worth is robust to rigorous specifications, and whether these associations vary by family income.
Bibliography Citation
Markowitz, Anna J. "Associations Between School Connection and Non-Cognitive Skills: Moderation By Family Income." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
42. Maxfield, Michelle
The Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit On Child Development
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Insurance; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been a significant source of government aid to poor families since its start in 1975, with total aid reaching over $50 billion in 2008. Despite its size and pro-child goals, relatively little is known on how the EITC affects children directly. Until recently, studies have focused only on indirect measures of child well-being such as poverty, parental labor supply, marriage, fertility, and consumption. A few recent studies focus on the effects of the EITC on child and infant health, but other outcomes have not yet been explored. Without knowing the direct impact of the EITC on children, it is difficult to accurately assess the performance of the program. Taking advantage of tax changes in the 1990s which resulted in a large differential expansion in the EITC by number of children, I assess how an expansion in the EITC affects children’s cognitive, noncognitive, and health outcomes as well as the mechanisms behind these effects. Preliminary results using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth suggest that home resources change significantly for children with single mothers – most notably an increase in maternal labor force participation, reduction in welfare receipt, a substitution away from maternal care to child care by distant relatives or non-relatives in a home setting, and a substitution of child insurance from Medicaid to private insurance. I find early evidence that the credit improves math scores for all children and decreases behavioral issues for children with married mothers. Timing and duration of effects are explored as well as differential effects by age of the child.
Bibliography Citation
Maxfield, Michelle. "The Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit On Child Development." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
43. Monaghan, David B.
The Effect of Maternal Educational Upgrading on Children's Well-Being and Academic Achievement
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, I will draw on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY-79 and NLSY-79 Children and Young Adults) to determine the impacts of maternal educational upgrading on children's cognitive scores, academic progress, and other outcomes. I will make use of fixed-effects and marginal structural models in order to investigate these time-varying effects. Finally, I will investigate whether any positive impacts appear to be the direct result of educational attainment itself or, rather, to be an indirect of educational upgrading acting through improved household incomes or maternal marital status.
Bibliography Citation
Monaghan, David B. "The Effect of Maternal Educational Upgrading on Children's Well-Being and Academic Achievement." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
44. Moore, Quinn
Shierholz, Heidi S.
Externalities of Imprisonment: Does Maternal Incarceration Affect Child Outcomes?
Presented: Toronto, ON, 2006 Meetings of The Canadian Law and Economics Association, September 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Incarceration; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As a result of deliberate policy decisions over the last three decades to increase the probability and lengths of prison sentences, the incarceration rate for state and federal prisoners has grown by 340% since 1980. Incarceration rates have risen even faster for women -- 560% percent over the same time period. These dramatic increases raise some conspicuous policy questions about the effects -- beyond the intended effects of punishment, incapacitation, and deterrence -- of imprisonment on prisoners, their families and their communities. The economic literature on the externalities of imprisonment has focused primarily on the effects of involvement in the criminal justice system on later employment and earnings. Much less is known about the effects of parental incarceration on children's outcomes, though the little available evidence suggests that the effect is large and detrimental. Developing a more complete understanding of the independent effect of parental incarceration on child outcomes is crucial to informing policy decisions, particularly in light of the recent dramatic increase in the use of imprisonment.

In this paper, we examine the effects of maternal imprisonment on children's educational outcomes using data from the Children of the NLSY. These data include a rich set of variables related to both the mother and the child, including maternal criminal history and a set of standardized child cognitive assessments. We employ both child and sibling fixed effects specifications to address the presence of unobservable characteristics that may be correlated with both maternal imprisonment and child outcomes. These fixed effects estimates attempt to identify the independent effect of maternal imprisonment on child outcomes -- independent, that is, from the effects of the nonrandom selection into the population of kids whose moms are in prison. Preliminary results show that both reading scores and behavioral problems worsen significantly for every year of maternal imprisonment. Math scores also worsen though the effect is not significant.

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Quinn and Heidi S. Shierholz. "Externalities of Imprisonment: Does Maternal Incarceration Affect Child Outcomes?" Presented: Toronto, ON, 2006 Meetings of The Canadian Law and Economics Association, September 2006.
45. Moulton, Jeremy Grant
Graddy-Reed, Alexandra
Lanahan, Lauren
Growing Up and Getting Less: The Effect of the Earned Income Tax Credit On Labor Force Participation Using An Individual Level Fixed Effects Model
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Earned Income Tax Credit program (EITC) has grown to become the largest cash transfer poverty reduction program in the United States. Past research has focused on a difference-in-differences approach to study the effect of the program on the labor supply of eligible workers, especially that of single mothers. But such an approach is known to be subject to selection bias. To circumvent these potential design issues we instead employ a within comparison research design to assess the effect of the program on labor supply. Using the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine the effect of the EITC program on labor supply for households with children who “age out” of EITC qualifying child eligibility. Estimates using the full sample of women with two children indicate a 2.1 percentage point increase in female labor force participation when one child qualifies and a 2.7 percentage point increase when both qualify in comparison to when none of their children qualify. Stratifying the results by education and marital status, we find evidence of an even greater effect for unmarried mothers with less than a high school education: 14.3 and 23.2 percentage point increases in female labor force participation for one qualifying child and two qualifying children, respectively. We also employ an instrumental variable approach using number of qualifying children as an instrument for EITC amount that reflects a 0.011 percentage point increase in female labor supply for each dollar of EITC received, however, these results are not statistically significant. This paper applies a new method to evaluating the effectiveness of the EITC program and shows that the program can increase female labor force participation.
Bibliography Citation
Moulton, Jeremy Grant, Alexandra Graddy-Reed and Lauren Lanahan. "Growing Up and Getting Less: The Effect of the Earned Income Tax Credit On Labor Force Participation Using An Individual Level Fixed Effects Model." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
46. Petre, Melinda
Bond, Timothy N.
Power in Numbers? A Dynamic Model of Wages and Gender Sorting in the Face of Time-Varying Prejudice
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender Differences; Occupational Choice; Occupational Segregation; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does having more women in an occupation matter for women selecting into occupations over the course of their careers? Do women in male dominated occupations earn more than women in female dominated occupations? We develop and test a dynamic model of gender sorting into occupations in the face of time-varying prejudice using data from the NLSY, DOT and CPS. Specifically, we investigate how the within occupation wage gap changes as the within occupation gender composition changes over time. Preliminary analysis suggests that women who enter highly segregated occupations earn more than women who enter those same occupations when they are less segregated and changes in the wage gap lead changes in gender segregation.
Bibliography Citation
Petre, Melinda and Timothy N. Bond. "Power in Numbers? A Dynamic Model of Wages and Gender Sorting in the Face of Time-Varying Prejudice." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
47. Pierret, Charles R.
Datta, Atreyee Rupa
50 Years of American Indebtedness and Policies That Have Shaped It
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, NLSY97, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Assistance; Legislation; Life Course; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using all six surveys in the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) program, this paper documents patterns of household debt since the late 1960s across several generations born throughout the 20th century. The paper indicates the extent to which demographic disparities in debt (for example, across age, educational attainment and race/ethnicity) have varied over time or across the life course. In tandem, the paper identifies key policy or market changes that have affected household indebtedness over the same 50 year period. Relevant areas include federal income tax treatment of mortgage debt, regulation of housing finance more generally, the rise of unsecured credit through credit cards, available methods of college finance, divorce laws, and federal and state tax incentives for retirement savings.
Bibliography Citation
Pierret, Charles R. and Atreyee Rupa Datta. "50 Years of American Indebtedness and Policies That Have Shaped It." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
48. Pina, Gabriel
Pirog, Maureen
The Impact of Foreclosure Prevention Policies on Preventive Care and Health Behaviors
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); Foreclosure; Geocoded Data; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Ownership; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A relative large body of literature shows how mortgage delinquency and foreclosure can negatively impact the well-being of individuals. Foreclosure and mortgage delinquency can have adverse effects on health, mental health, and risky health behaviors. During the financial crisis, several new public and private mortgage assistance programs were implemented in an attempt to prevent the large increase in foreclosures across the nation. Recent research finds that these programs are associated with lower rate of foreclosures and delinquencies, but no research has examined the impact of these policies on health outcomes. This study attempts to fill this gap by studying the impact the Hardest Hit Fund, a 2010 program that provided $7.6 billion of funding to 18 states that were most severely affected by the foreclosure crisis. Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we estimate a difference-in-differences model that compares states that did and did not receive HHF funds for a subset of potentially eligible low income homeowners. We examine the impact of the program on preventive care (e.g., routine checkup), risky health behaviors (e.g., smoking, heavy drinking), and self-assessed health. Preliminary results show that the program increased the use of certain forms of preventive care and improved self-assessed health, but there is no evidence of an impact on risky health behaviors, neither on any mental health outcome.
Bibliography Citation
Pina, Gabriel and Maureen Pirog. "The Impact of Foreclosure Prevention Policies on Preventive Care and Health Behaviors." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
49. Pina, Gabriel
Pirog, Maureen
The Impact of Homeless Prevention on Residential Instability: Evidence from the Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Geocoded Data; Homelessness; Household Composition; Program Participation/Evaluation; Residence

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Homelessness and residential instability impose a high cost on families' wellbeing and health. Federal and local governments have implemented new strategies for preventing homelessness through financial assistance and other related services, but few methodologically rigorous evaluations of homeless prevention programs have been conducted. This paper explores the impact of the largest homeless prevention program in U.S. history, the Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-housing Program (HPRP). The research question is: did HPRP prevent young adults and students from becoming homeless or doubling up with other families? I exploit the fact that this program was not implemented at the same time across U.S. counties. This study conducts two separate analyses to examine the impact of HPRP on families' residential instability. The first is to estimate the impact of HPRP on the proportion of K-12 students experiencing homelessness at the county level, by matching HPRP funding availability with this information. The second is to estimate the impact of HPRP on the probability of young adults' families doubling up (moving to live with another family), with the unit of observation being the individual families (from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth). Preliminary results show that in counties where the funds were exhausted earlier, young adults' families were more likely to double up relatively to places where the funds were still available until the end of the program. However, there is no discernible impact on students' homelessness, suggesting that HPRP was more effective in preventing undesired moves than entry to shelters.
Bibliography Citation
Pina, Gabriel and Maureen Pirog. "The Impact of Homeless Prevention on Residential Instability: Evidence from the Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
50. Rehkopf, David
Using Machine Learning to Examine Heterogeneity of the Effects of Changes in the Earned Income Tax Credit on Child Health and Development
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Child Development; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Heterogeneity; Legislation; Modeling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Traditionally, examination of the heterogeneity of treatment effects has proceeded by priors from the literature, and due to power issues generally has examined only a few potential factors leading to heterogeneous effects. At the same time, there have been considerable advances in machine learning algorithms that scan over a large number of covariates to establish models of covariates that best explain a specified outcome, penalizing for greater degrees of freedom that come from multiple comparisons. My analysis uses this approach to examine potential heterogeneity of treatment effects of the largest anti-poverty policy in the United States, the Earned Income Tax Credit. I examine the spatial and temporal changes in the generosity of the policy over time (1986 to 2012) as an exogenous exposure with effects on child development outcomes using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Rather than examining heterogeneity of treatment effects only by basic demographic factors, I using an ensemble machine learning approach (using multiple machine learning algorithms including random forest, Elastic-Net, Least Angle Regression, Support Vector Machine, Bayesian GLM) to examine whether treatment effects differ by several dozen potential demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioral factors.
Bibliography Citation
Rehkopf, David. "Using Machine Learning to Examine Heterogeneity of the Effects of Changes in the Earned Income Tax Credit on Child Health and Development." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
51. Remler, Dahlia
Marcotte, Dave
Cortez, Carmen
Heterogeneity and Risk in the Return to Higher Education: Change over Time
Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Returns; Heterogeneity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current policy debate largely focuses on mean earnings differences between educational groups. We enrich this debate by emphasizing the full distribution of earnings, particularly at the top and bottom. Our broad research questions are: How variable are returns to higher education? Can risk be substantially reduced through type of degree or institution? Is risk larger for students of some backgrounds? Have these returns, risks and their determinants changed between the 1980s-90s and the 2000s?

(Without exogenous variation, we cannot estimate unbiased causal returns to education. However, the NLSY's rich controls remove much of the omitted variables bias. More importantly, our analysis directly addresses the current form of much policy debate, focused on crude comparisons of means, rather than true causal effects.)

We use the NLSY79 and NLSY97 surveys and focus on earnings.

Bibliography Citation
Remler, Dahlia, Dave Marcotte and Carmen Cortez. "Heterogeneity and Risk in the Return to Higher Education: Change over Time." Presented: Albuquerque NM, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2014.
52. Rothstein, Donna S.
An Analysis of Long-Term Unemployment
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We don’t know what proportion of individuals enter into a long-term unemployment spell over their labor market career, not just at a fixed point in time, how long it takes to find a job after a long-term unemployment spell, or how the spell affects wages over time. This paper provides a starting point for answering these questions. It uses the employment history of men in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) to estimate the hazards for entry into and exit from long-term spells of unemployment. It then estimates the wage costs over time associated with having had a long-term unemployment spell. The analysis focuses on respondents’ employment histories from their mid 20s, after initial labor market churning occurs, until their mid to late 40s and early 50s.

In my sample of NLSY79 men, over 25 percent experience at least one long-term spell of unemployment from their mid 20s through 2009. On average, the first spell lasts over a year. Hazard estimates show that being black, having lower educational attainment, and having lower cognitive test scores are associated with increased odds of entering into a first long-term spell of unemployment in any given month. Black men also have decreased odds of ending their first long-term spell in any given month through reemployment. Having a higher cognitive test score and having worked full-time at a job prior to the long-term spell are associated with increased odds of reemployment. The wage costs of a long-term spell are quite persistent, with large wage losses found 5 or more years after the 27th week of the long-term unemployment spell.

Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "An Analysis of Long-Term Unemployment." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
53. Rutledge, Matthew S.
Sanzenbacher, Geoffrey
Zulkarnain, Alice
How Secure Is the Retirement of Contingent Workers?
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Employment, Intermittent; Health and Retirement Study (HRS); Retirement; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Work, Atypical; Work, Contingent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent research suggests the share of workers in contingent work -- broadly defined as contract, temporary, or on-call work -- is on the rise. But no research has focused on the association between contingent work and retirement security, because no single U.S. data source combines information on contingent work and detailed retirement security information for the full population of workers. To get around this issue, this paper analyzes three data sources that together provide an assessment of the extent to which contingent workers are able to prepare for retirement: 1) the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which follows one group of workers from early career into their late 40s and early 50s; 2) a more age-representative sample from the Survey of Income and Program Participation; and 3) Health and Retirement Study respondents at ages 50-61.
Bibliography Citation
Rutledge, Matthew S., Geoffrey Sanzenbacher and Alice Zulkarnain. "How Secure Is the Retirement of Contingent Workers?" Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
54. Ryan, Rebecca M.
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Duncan, Greg J.
Reardon, Sean F.
Markowitz, Anna J.
Preschool-Age Skills Gaps and the Changing Technology of Parenting
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Children, Preschool; Children, Well-Being; Home Environment; Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Influences; Parental Investments; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We aim to identify the home-environment drivers of increasing gaps in cognitive and non-cognitive skills between poor and more affluent children. These gap increases could arise in multiple ways. The most obvious is that the gap between the quality of home environments available to poor and more affluent children could be growing. This might happen if rapid increases in the incomes of affluent families have led them to spend more on children's early education, lessons, books, computers, etc. in ways that have enriched the home environments of affluent children more rapidly than the home environments of poor children.

We draw on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (1988/1990 n= ~ 2,700 children ages 3-5), the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Supplement (1997; n = ~ 800) and National Household Education Surveys covering the period 1991-2007 n = ~ 30,000). In this paper we document over-time class-based gaps in children's home environments in the three different data sets. The measure of the home environment is multifaceted, including measures of parents' time inputs, emotional support, and provision of a physical environment conducive to children's learning and emotional well-being.

Bibliography Citation
Ryan, Rebecca M., Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, Greg J. Duncan, Sean F. Reardon and Anna J. Markowitz. "Preschool-Age Skills Gaps and the Changing Technology of Parenting." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
55. Sabol, Terri J.
Does Increased Investment in Parents' Human Capital Relate to Changes in Investment in Early Education Quality?
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Children, Preschool; Children, Well-Being; Geocoded Data; Head Start; Human Capital; Parental Influences; Training

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Administrative data for this study come from Head Start Program Information Reports (PIR), which are mandatory, agency-level, annual surveys. We include all agencies from 2002-2014, which results in approximately 2,700 Head Start grantees/agencies with a total of around 37,000 program-by-year observations. We will also link the PIR data to the National Longitudinal Survey 1979 using FIPS county code to attain parent and child outcomes. A similar approach was employed by Currie & Neidell (2007) and resulted in a sample of approximately 880 children who attended Head Start that matched to the PIR data.

We first characterize trends in parent services versus child services in Head Start over the past decade by conducting mean-level difference tests at the national level in each year. For parents, we focus primarily on programming that directly targets their skill development, including adult education, job training, English as a Second Language training, and parenting education. For children we focus on ECE quality, including staff-child ratios, staff qualifications, and teacher salaries

Bibliography Citation
Sabol, Terri J. "Does Increased Investment in Parents' Human Capital Relate to Changes in Investment in Early Education Quality?." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
56. Schnorr, Geoffrey C.
My Brother's (Bar)keeper? Sibling Spillovers in Alcohol Consumption at the Minimum Legal Drinking Age
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Preliminary results based on a sample of roughly 2,000 sibling pairs from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth suggest that the [minimal legal drinking age] MLDA-induced increase in alcohol consumption among older siblings has either no effect or small positive effects on the alcohol consumption of the younger siblings. Sensitivity analyses considering the effect on the older sibling when the younger sibling turns 21 and the effect within various subgroups of sibling pairs (e.g. same gender pairs) produce similar results. These estimates rely on self-reports of past month consumption and are somewhat heterogeneous. However, my preferred specifications are able to rule out meaningfully large peer effects in drinking days between siblings. If unobserved factors related to the alcohol consumption of both siblings are not changing discontinuously when one sibling turns 21, then these results are causally interpretable.
Bibliography Citation
Schnorr, Geoffrey C. "My Brother's (Bar)keeper? Sibling Spillovers in Alcohol Consumption at the Minimum Legal Drinking Age." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
57. Shierholz, Heidi S.
Moore, Quinn
Externalities of Imprisonment: Does Maternal Incarceration Affect Child Outcomes?
Presented: Washington, DC, Twenty-Seventh Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, "Understanding and Informing Policy Design", November 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As a result of deliberate policy decisions over the last three decades to increase the probability and lengths of prison sentences, the incarceration rate for state and federal prisoners has grown by 340% since 1980. Incarceration rates have risen even faster for women -- 560% percent over the same time period. These dramatic increases raise some conspicuous policy questions about the effects -- beyond the intended effects of punishment, incapacitation, and deterrence -- of imprisonment on prisoners, their families and their communities. The economic literature on the externalities of imprisonment has focused primarily on the effects of involvement in the criminal justice system on later employment and earnings. Much less is known about the effects of parental incarceration on children's outcomes, though the little available evidence suggests that the effect is large and detrimental. Developing a more complete understanding of the independent effect of parental incarceration on child outcomes is crucial to informing policy decisions, particularly in light of the recent dramatic increase in the use of imprisonment.

In this paper, we examine the effects of maternal imprisonment on children's educational outcomes using data from the Children of the NLSY. These data include a rich set of variables related to both the mother and the child, including maternal criminal history and a set of standardized child cognitive assessments. We employ both child and sibling fixed effects specifications to address the presence of unobservable characteristics that may be correlated with both maternal imprisonment and child outcomes. These fixed effects estimates attempt to identify the independent effect of maternal imprisonment on child outcomes -- independent, that is, from the effects of the nonrandom selection into the population of kids whose moms are in prison. Preliminary results show that both reading scores and behavioral problems worsen significantly for every year of maternal imprisonment. Math scores also worsen though the effect is not significant.

Bibliography Citation
Shierholz, Heidi S. and Quinn Moore. "Externalities of Imprisonment: Does Maternal Incarceration Affect Child Outcomes?" Presented: Washington, DC, Twenty-Seventh Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, "Understanding and Informing Policy Design", November 2005.
58. Tach, Laura
Edin, Kathryn
Bryan, Brielle
The Family-Go-Round: Multi-Partner Fertility and Father Involvement From a Father's Perspective
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Fathers; Fathers, Involvement; Fertility, Multiple Partners

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multi-partner fertility leads to complex relationships that fathers must navigate. They have ongoing relationships with current and past romantic partners who are the mothers of their children; they also have children who may or may not live with them and to whom they may or may not be biologically related. In this paper, we draw on quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth—1997 Cohort and qualitative data from in-depth interviews of over 100 low-income fathers to examine how fathers experience and respond to multi-partner fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Tach, Laura, Kathryn Edin and Brielle Bryan. "The Family-Go-Round: Multi-Partner Fertility and Father Involvement From a Father's Perspective." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
59. Taylor, Catherine J.
Dunifon, Rachel
Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?
Presented: Dallas, TX, 24th Annual APPAM Research Conference, November 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Fathers, Absence; Health Factors; Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Poverty; Welfare; Work Experience; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers the effect on maternal work behavior of children's health and behavior problems. While a great deal of research has examined the influence of maternal employment on children, less research examines the influence of children's characteristics on maternal employment. However, it is likely that the presence of a child with a health or behavior problem may hinder women's work. We examine two measures of maternal employment: weekly hours worked and current employment status, and relate the presence of children's health or behavior problems at a point in time to changes in these outcomes over the subsequent two year period.

Results indicate that, for the sample as a whole, the presence of a child with a problem is not associated with changes in maternal employment status or work hours. However, for subgroups of the population, significant associations do exist. For single mothers, a child's behavior problem is associated with an increase in the likelihood of moving from employment to unemployment. For poor women, both health and behavior problems of children are negatively associated with changes in women's work

Bibliography Citation
Taylor, Catherine J. and Rachel Dunifon. "Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?" Presented: Dallas, TX, 24th Annual APPAM Research Conference, November 2002.
60. Vyas, Pallavi
Impact of Economic Opportunities on Teen Birth Rates and Crime
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Birth Rate; Geocoded Data; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper I study whether growth in womens' wages has led to a lowering of teen birth rates. Starting in the early 1990s, there has been employment and wage growth in both the low education and high education sectors, especially of women. I find that during this time teen birth rates decline in response to higher wages of women. The treatment group consists of women that lived in counties that experienced increases in womens' wages. The comparison group consists of counties that did not experience growth in womens' wages to the same extent due to the different composition of industries that grew at this time. I use an instrumental variable analysis to instrument for wage increases in the relevant counties. The instrumental variable analysis is then extended to analyze the NLSY79 and NLSY79 Young adults data. I estimate the probability that a young woman has a child given that she lives in a county that experiences higher growth of womens' wages. This research attempts to unravel the cause of at least some portion of the unexplained decline in teen birth rates that has continued to occur in the 1990s and 2000s in the US.
Bibliography Citation
Vyas, Pallavi. "Impact of Economic Opportunities on Teen Birth Rates and Crime." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
61. Waldfogel, Jane
Han, Wen-Jui
Parental Work Schedules, Home Life and Adolescents' Socio-Emotional Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, November 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Depression (see also CESD); Deviance; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Shift Workers; Substance Use; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Abstract: While we enjoy the convenience of the 24-7 economy, shopping whenever we like, we often overlook the fact that a non-trivial proportion of the workforce (e.g., cashiers, waiters and waitresses, etc.) work at non-standard hours (hours that are not between 6 am and 6 pm) to provide this convenience for us. Yet, given that children's daily life experience revolves around parental work schedules, such work schedules may be associated with children's well-being. Currently, little theory or research is available about whether parental work schedules are associated with child outcomes, and whether the association is positive or negative. Only a few studies have considered the effects of non-standard work schedules on child outcomes. Two recent studies found that mothers' working nonstandard hours may have some adverse influence on their children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes (Han, 2005; Heymann, 2000). However, Han's study was limited to children under age 3, while Heymann's study was primarily qualitative. And both studies focused mainly on mothers' work schedules. The proposed paper will be the first to explore the extent to which mothers' and fathers' work schedules may be associated with adolescents' daily life experiences and how such experiences may be related to socio-emotional outcomes. The paper will focus on children age 13 and 14, using a contemporary national data set – the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS). We focus on 13 and 14 year olds because they are old enough to provide information themselves about their home life, time with parents, and so on. Some children this age also begin to engage in risky behaviors, such as delinquency and substance use. Taking advantage of the rich information in the NLSY-CS, this study will examine the associations between parental work schedules (e.g., working evenings, nights, or rotating shifts for both mothers and fathers) and measures of adolescents' perceptions about their daily life (i.e., time spent with parent(s), closeness with the parent(s), parental expectations and monitoring, and parental demands on the child) and home environment. We will examine the extent to which the associations between parental work schedules and adolescents' socio-emotional outcomes (i.e., depression, substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquent behavior), if there are any, may be accounted for by associations between parental work schedules and children's daily life experiences and home environment.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane and Wen-Jui Han. "Parental Work Schedules, Home Life and Adolescents' Socio-Emotional Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Annual Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Research Conference, November 2005.
62. Yi, Youngmin
Leaving the Nest: Departure from the Parental Home in the Transition to Adulthood
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Incarceration/Jail; Residence; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study uses single and multiple decrement cohort life table methods to present overall and age-specific cumulative risks of first departure from the parental home. In addition to providing overall estimates of the risk of this life event over the transition to adulthood, this paper examines variation in the timing and drivers of these departures across socioeconomic and demographic groups, specifically focusing on differences in the salience of incarceration and post-secondary education as reasons for leaving the parental home for the first time. The analyses use the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which captures information about young adults in their late teens and through the 20s, providing the ideal context for studying this event.

Also presented at Population Association of America Annual Meeting, Washington DC, March 31-April 2, 2016

Bibliography Citation
Yi, Youngmin. "Leaving the Nest: Departure from the Parental Home in the Transition to Adulthood." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
63. Yilmazer, Tansel
Lim, HanNa
Reconsidering the Crowded Nest: Wealth Accumulation of Young Adults before and after Leaving Parental Home
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Assets; Debt/Borrowing; Educational Attainment; Residence; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study presents an explanatory analysis of parent-child coresidence and the wealth accumulation of young adults using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). We conduct our empirical analysis in three steps. First, we investigate the assets and debt holdings of young adults who never left parental home (failure-to-launch), those who started living independently and those who moved out of the parental home but returned (boomerang). Compared to boomerang children, young adults who never left parental home have higher net worth because of lower mortgage and non-housing debt. Young adults who live independently between the ages of 20 and 25 also have higher net worth than boomerang children because they are more likely to own their primary residence and accumulate home equity. We did not find any significant difference in educational loans between those who never left parental home and boomerang children. Second, we investigate change in assets and debt between the ages of 20 and 25 by the coresidence status. Young adults who never left parental home experience an increase in financial assets from age 20 to 25 compared to boomerang children while college graduates who left home between ages 23 to 25 have higher non-housing debt. Finally, we examine the factors that influence the coresidence status of young adults. Educational attainment, marital status and race are more strongly correlated with coresidential decisions than young adults' earnings and working status.
Bibliography Citation
Yilmazer, Tansel and HanNa Lim. "Reconsidering the Crowded Nest: Wealth Accumulation of Young Adults before and after Leaving Parental Home." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
64. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Dunifon, Rachel
Morrissey, Taryn
Kalil, Ariel
Maternal Employment and Children's Body Mass Index: Examining Developmental Timing and Explanatory Mechanisms
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Care; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Sleep; Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD); Television Viewing; Weight; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates whether mothers’ employment patterns across a child’s lifetime are associated with their children’s body mass index (BMI) and overweight at adolescence. We also examine potential mechanisms that may explain these relationships, and whether relationships vary by maternal education. We use two comprehensive, longitudinal datasets: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Children of the NLSY (N = 4,087) and the NICHD’s Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). Using multiple imputation, we conduct multivariate regression analyses predicting children’s BMI z-scores (a standardized measure of BMI by age and gender), overweight (BMI>=85th percentile for height and weight by age and gender), and obesity (BMI>=95th percentile) at adolescence from their mothers’ work hours at different developmental periods: prenatal, the first year of life, the second year, preschool (ages 3-5), middle childhood (ages 6-10), and adolescence (ages 11-13/14 or 15). A wealth of child and family characteristics are controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M., Rachel Dunifon, Taryn Morrissey and Ariel Kalil. "Maternal Employment and Children's Body Mass Index: Examining Developmental Timing and Explanatory Mechanisms." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.