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Author: Maclean, Johanna Catherine
Resulting in 12 citations.
1. Antwi, Yaa Akosa
Maclean, Johanna Catherine
State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Insurance, Health; Labor Market Outcomes; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study we re-visit the relationship between health insurance mandates and labor market outcomes. Our contributions are twofold. First, we focus on a sample of workers for whom employers can most easily adjust compensation (wage and non-wage) – new labor market entrants. For example, employers may find it more feasible to offer lower compensation to new hires rather than to reduce compensation for current employees. Second, we explore the dynamics of mandate effects across the lifecycle. Specifically, we model labor market outcomes (an offer of employer-sponsored health insurance, wages, and labor supply) as a function of the number of high cost mandates in place at labor market entrance. We draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and exploit variation in high cost state mandates (Gruber, 1994) between 1973 and 1989. A particular advantage of the NLSY79 is that we are able to examine health insurance offers, not health insurance source. The later outcome, although commonly studied in the mandates literature, confounds offers with endogenous take-up decision. Moreover, we are able to track workers from school-leaving through mid-career. We estimate differences-in-differences models that account for time-invariant and time-varying state-level factors that may be correlated with high cost mandates and our outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Antwi, Yaa Akosa and Johanna Catherine Maclean. "State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016.
2. Antwi, Yaa Akosa
Maclean, Johanna Catherine
State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes: New Evidence on Old Questions
NBER Working Paper No. 23203, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2017.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w23203
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Insurance, Health; Labor Market Outcomes; State-Level Data/Policy

In this study we re-visit the relationship between private health insurance mandates, access to employer-sponsored health insurance, and labor market outcomes. Specifically, we model employer-sponsored health insurance access and labor market outcomes across the lifecycle as a function of the number of high cost mandates in place at labor market entrance. Our analysis draws on a long panel of workers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and exploits variation in five high cost state mandates between 1972 and 1989. Four principal findings emerge from our analysis. First, we find no strong evidence that high cost state health insurance mandates discourage employers from offering insurance to employees. Second, employers adjust both wages and labor demand to offset mandate costs, suggesting that employees place some value on the mandated benefits. Third, the effects are persistent, but not permanent. Fourth, the effects are heterogeneous across worker types. These findings have implications for thinking through the full labor market effects of health insurance expansions.
Bibliography Citation
Antwi, Yaa Akosa and Johanna Catherine Maclean. "State Health Insurance Mandates and Labor Market Outcomes: New Evidence on Old Questions." NBER Working Paper No. 23203, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2017.
3. Ghimire, Keshar Mani
Maclean, Johanna Catherine
Economic Conditions at School-leaving and Self-employment
Economics Letters 137 (December 2015): 154-156.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176515004498
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Geocoded Data; Life Course; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Schooling; Self-Employed Workers; State-Level Data/Policy

In this study we use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to estimate the impact of economic conditions at school-leaving on self-employment across the lifecourse. We find no evidence that the economic conditions at school-leaving affect self-employment.
Bibliography Citation
Ghimire, Keshar Mani and Johanna Catherine Maclean. "Economic Conditions at School-leaving and Self-employment." Economics Letters 137 (December 2015): 154-156.
4. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
Does Leaving School in a Bad Economy Affect Body Weight?: Evidence from Panel Data
Presented: Baltimore MD, AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting, June 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: AcademyHealth
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Economic Changes/Recession; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; School Completion; School Dropouts; Schooling; State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment Rate; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I examine three measures of body weight at age 40: body mass index (BMI), overweight (BMI >= 25), and obesity (BMI >= 30). Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort (NLS79). School -leaving is defined by school completion, and includes both graduates and drop-outs. I proxy economic conditions at school-leaving with the state unemployment rate, and exploit variation generated by volatility in the U.S. business cycle between 1976 and 1992 to identify body weight effects. Because the severe recession of the early 1980s lies within this time period, I effectively compare cohorts that left before, during, and after this recession. To address the potential endogeneity of the time and location of school-leaving, I instrument the school-leaving state unemployment rate. I estimate sex-specific equations given the different labor market participation patterns of men and women.
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine. "Does Leaving School in a Bad Economy Affect Body Weight?: Evidence from Panel Data." Presented: Baltimore MD, AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting, June 2013.
5. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
Does Leaving School in an Economic Downturn Impact Access to Employer-sponsored Health Insurance?
IZA Journal of Labor Policy 3,19 (December 2014): DOI: 10.1186/2193-9004-3-19.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/2193-9004-3-19
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; College Degree; College Dropouts; Dropouts; Economic Changes/Recession; Geocoded Data; Insurance, Health; Labor Force Participation; Unemployment Rate, Regional

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous work documents that leaving school in an economic downturn persistently depresses career outcomes as measured by wages, earnings, and other markers of labor market success. In this study I test whether leaving school in an economic downturn influences access to employer-sponsored health insurance. Using a long panel of workers drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort, I model the likelihood that a worker has access to employer-sponsored health insurance from initial labor market entrance through mid-career. I address the potential endogeneity of time and location of school-leaving with instrumental variables. My results suggest that leaving school in an economic downturn lowers the probability of access to employer-sponsored health insurance and this disparity is statistically distinguishable from zero 18 years after school-leaving.
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine. "Does Leaving School in an Economic Downturn Impact Access to Employer-sponsored Health Insurance?" IZA Journal of Labor Policy 3,19 (December 2014): DOI: 10.1186/2193-9004-3-19.
6. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
Does Leaving School in an Economic Downturn Persistently Affect Body Weight? Evidence from Panel Data
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 55,1 (January 2016): 122-148.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/irel.12128/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Exits; Geocoded Data; Schooling; State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment Rate, Regional; Weight

In this study I test whether leaving school when the state unemployment rate is high persistently affects body weight. Because the time and location of school leaving are potentially endogenous, I predict the economic conditions at school leaving with instruments based on birth date and residence at age 14. My findings show that by age 40 men (women) who left school when the state unemployment rate was high have lower (higher) body weight.
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine. "Does Leaving School in an Economic Downturn Persistently Affect Body Weight? Evidence from Panel Data." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 55,1 (January 2016): 122-148.
7. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
The Health Effects of Leaving School in a Bad Economy
Journal of Health Economics 32,5 (September 2013): 951-964.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629613000970
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; School Completion; School Dropouts

This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women.
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine. "The Health Effects of Leaving School in a Bad Economy." Journal of Health Economics 32,5 (September 2013): 951-964.
8. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
The Lasting Effects of Leaving School in An Economic Downturn On Alcohol Use
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Economic Changes/Recession; Gender Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Schooling; State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study I test whether leaving school in an economic downturn has a lasting impact on alcohol use. Two empirical patterns motivate this research. Workers who leave school in an economic downturn persistently earn lower wages and labor market outcomes are associated with alcohol use. Recent work suggests that leaving school in an economic downturn has a lasting impact on health outcomes (mental and physical functioning, obesity). We know little about health behaviors such as alcohol use, however. Understanding risk factors for alcohol use, particularly excessive use, is important for improving social welfare. Because of market imperfections excessive drinkers do not fully internalize the cost of their actions and instead impose costs on others through motor vehicle accidents, health care utilization, violence, crime, reduced labor market productivity, etc. The costs of alcohol for the U.S. are estimated to be as high as $255 billion per year (Bouchery et al, 2011).

I examine three measures of past 30 day alcohol use in middle age: number of alcoholic drinks, heavy drinking (≥ 60 drinks), and weekly binge drinking. Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. I proxy economic conditions at school-leaving with the state unemployment rate, and exploit variation generated by volatility in the U.S. business cycle between 1976 and 1992 to identify alcohol use effects. Because the severe recession of the early 1980s lies within this time period, I compare cohorts that left before, during, and after this recession. To address the potential endogeneity of the time and location of school-leaving, I instrument the school-leaving state unemployment rate.

Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine. "The Lasting Effects of Leaving School in An Economic Downturn On Alcohol Use." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
9. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
The Lasting Effects of Leaving School in an Economic Downturn on Alcohol Use
Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 120-152.
Also: http://ilr.sagepub.com/content/68/1/120
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Economic Changes/Recession; Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Labor Market Outcomes; Schooling; State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment Rate

The author tests whether leaving school in an economic downturn persistently affects alcohol use. She models alcohol use in middle age as a function of the state unemployment rate at school-leaving in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The results suggest that men, but not women, who leave school in an economic downturn consume more drinks and are more likely to report heavy and binge drinking than otherwise similar men. Findings are robust to addressing the endogeneity of the time and location of school-leaving and contribute to the literature on the lasting consequences of leaving school in an economic downturn.
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine. "The Lasting Effects of Leaving School in an Economic Downturn on Alcohol Use." Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 120-152.
10. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
Covington, Reginald
Sikora Kessler, Asia
Labor Market Conditions at School-Leaving: Long-Run Effects on Marriage and Fertility
Contemporary Economic Policy 34,1 (January 2016): 63-88.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/coep.12113/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Education; Fertility; Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Marriage; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment Rate, Regional

In this study, we assess the long-run impact of labor market conditions at the time of school-leaving on marriage and fertility outcomes. We draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Our sample left school between 1976 and 1989, and we use variation in the state unemployment rate at the time of school-leaving to identify persistent effects. We find that men who left school when the state unemployment rate was high are less likely to be married and have children at age 45, but are more likely to be divorced. Women, however, are more likely to have children
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine, Reginald Covington and Asia Sikora Kessler. "Labor Market Conditions at School-Leaving: Long-Run Effects on Marriage and Fertility." Contemporary Economic Policy 34,1 (January 2016): 63-88.
11. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
Covington, Reginald
Sikora, Asia
Leaving School in an Economic Downturn: Long-Run Effects on Marriage and Fertility
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Divorce; Dropouts; Economic Changes/Recession; Fertility; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study we assess the long-run impact of leaving school in an economic downturn on marriage and fertility outcomes. We draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Our sample left school between 1976 and 1996, and we utilize variation in the state unemployment rate at the time of school-leaving to identify marriage and fertility effects. We find that men who left school in an economic downturn are less likely to be married and have children at age 40 than otherwise similar men while women are more likely to be divorced and to have children. Our results suggest that the marriage and fertility effects we observe operate through both divorce and failure to enter marriage. In an extension, we explore heterogeneity by worker characteristics and document the strongest effects for low skill and minority men.
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine, Reginald Covington and Asia Sikora. "Leaving School in an Economic Downturn: Long-Run Effects on Marriage and Fertility." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
12. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
Hill, Terrence D.
Leaving School in an Economic Downturn and Self-esteem across Early and Middle Adulthood
Labour Economics 37 (December 2015): 1-12.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927537115000925
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Geocoded Data; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Schooling; Self-Esteem; State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment Rate

In this study, we test whether leaving school in an economic downturn impacts self-esteem across early and middle adulthood. Self-esteem is of interest to economists because it is an established determinant of important socioeconomic outcomes such as wages, crime, marriage, health, and civic engagement. Previous research suggests that leaving school in a downturn can depress career trajectories, and social psychological theory predicts that career success is an important determinant of self-esteem. We model responses to a standard measure of self-esteem (the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale) as a function of the state unemployment rate at school-leaving. We address the potential endogeneity of time and location of school-leaving with instrumental variables. Our results suggest that leaving school in an economic downturn can undermine self-esteem over time.
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine and Terrence D. Hill. "Leaving School in an Economic Downturn and Self-esteem across Early and Middle Adulthood." Labour Economics 37 (December 2015): 1-12.